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Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Abdul Kalam (15 October 1931 – 27 July 2015) was an Indian scientist who served as the 11th President of India from 2002 to 2007. He was born and raised in Rameswaram, Tamil Nadu and studied physics and aerospace engineering. He spent the next four decades as a scientist and science administrator, mainly at the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) and was intimately involved in India's civilian space programme and military missile development efforts. He thus came to be known as the Missile Man of India for his work on the development of ballistic missile and launch vehicle technology. He also played a pivotal organisational, technical, and political role in India's Pokhran-II nuclear tests in 1998, the first since the original nuclear test by India in 1974. Kalam was elected as the 11th President of India in 2002 with the support of both the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party and the then-opposition Indian National Congress. Widely referred to as the "People's President," he returned to his civilian life of education, writing and public service after a single term. He was a recipient of several prestigious awards, including the Bharat Ratna, India's highest civilian honour. While delivering a lecture at the Indian Institute of Management Shillong, Kalam collapsed and died from an apparent cardiac arrest on 27 July 2015, aged 83. Thousands including national-level dignitaries attended the funeral ceremony held in his hometown of Rameshwaram, where he was buried with full state honours.
Adam's Bridge (Sinhala: adamgay palama), also known as Rama's Bridge or Rama Setu (Sanskrit), is a chain of limestone shoals, between Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, off the south-eastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and Mannar Island, off the north-western coast of Sri Lanka.
Adoor Gopalakrishnan is an Indian film director, script writer, and producer.
Aegle marmelos L., commonly known as bael (or bili or bhel), also Bengal quince, golden apple, Japanese bitter orange, stone apple or wood apple, is a species of tree native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
Agasthyarkoodam is a -tall peak within Neyyar Wildlife Sanctuary, Kerala in the Western Ghats of South India.
The Airports Authority of India or AAI under the Ministry of Civil Aviation is responsible for creating, upgrading, maintaining and managing civil aviation infrastructure in India.
Alam Ara (translation: The Ornament of the World) was a 1931 Indian film directed by Ardeshir Irani.
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (AIADMK) (lit. All India Anna Dravidian Progress Federation) is an Indian political party in the state of Tamil Nadu and in the Union Territory of Puducherry.
Amaravathi is a village in Guntur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Amaravati is the capital city of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
The Anamala or Anaimalai Hills, also known as the Elephant Mountains, are the range of mountains that form the southern portion of the Western Ghats and span the border of Kerala and Tamil Nadu in Southern India.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.
The Andaman wood pigeon (Columba palumboides) is a species of bird in the family Columbidae.
Andhra Pradesh is one of the 29 states of India.
Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation (or APSRTC) is the state-owned road transport corporation in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Andhra State (IAST) was a state in India created 1953, from the Telugu-speaking northern districts of Madras State.
Taḷḷapāka Annamācārya (or Annamayya) (Telugu: తాళ్ళపాక అన్నమాచార్య; 22 May 1408 – 4 April 1503) was a 15th-century Hindu saint and is the earliest known Indian musician to compose songs called sankirtanas in praise of the god Venkateswara, a form of Vishnu.
The Anti-Hindi imposition agitations of Tamil Nadu were a series of agitations that happened in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu (formerly Madras State and part of Madras Presidency) during both pre- and post-Independence periods.
Appam is a type of pancake, originating from the Indian subcontinent, made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arakkonam is a municipality town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, with a population of about 78,395 as per the census 2011. This town is located in the Vellore District about (via rail) from the state capital of Chennai. Arakkonam is one of the hottest towns in India, where the temperature can exceed 43 °C (110 °F) for several peak days in the summer. As of 2011, the town had a population of 78,395. It is considered a part of the Chennai Metropolitan Region.
Areca is a genus of about 50 species of palms in the family Arecaceae, found in humid tropical forests from China and India, across Southeast Asia to Melanesia.
A region is arid when it is characterized by a severe lack of available water, to the extent of hindering or preventing the growth and development of plant and animal life.
Arikamedu is an archaeological site in Southern India, in Kakkayanthope, Ariyankuppam Commune, Puducherry.
Arunachala (IAST:, "red mountain") refers to the holy hill at Tiruvannamalai in Tamil Nadu.
Ashtamudi Lake (Ashtamudi Kayal), in the Kollam District of the Indian state of Kerala, is the most visited backwater and lake in the state.
The Asian koel (Eudynamys scolopaceus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes.
Asian Survey (subtitled A Bimonthly Review of Contemporary Asian Affairs) is a bimonthly academic journal of Asian studies published by the University of California Press (Berkeley, California, USA) on behalf of the Institute of East Asian Studies at the University of California, Berkeley.
Chennai is nicknamed the "Detroit of India" (or the "Detroit of Asia") due to the presence of major automobile manufacturing units and allied industries around the city.
Ayyavazhi (அய்யாவழி, അയ്യാവഴി Ayyāvaḻi, "Path of the Master") is an universalizing henotheistic belief that originated in South India.
Azadirachta indica, commonly known as neem, nimtree or Indian lilac, is a tree in the mahogany family Meliaceae.
Bongu Narsing Rao (born 1946) is an Indian film director, screenwriter, littérateur, composer, producer, actor and painter known for his works in Telugu, parallel cinema, and Telugu theater.
A backwater is a part of a river in which there is little or no current.
Badami, formerly known as Vatapi, is a town and headquarters of a taluk by the same name, in the Bagalkot district of Karnataka, India.
Ballari (pronounced) is a district in Karnataka state, India.
Balanathan Benjamin Mahendran (20 May 1939 13 February 2014), commonly known as Balu Mahendra, was an Indian cinematographer, director, screenwriter and film editor who worked predominantly in Tamil cinema.
Banana leaves have a wide range of applications because they are large, flexible, waterproof and decorative.
Banavasi is an ancient temple town in Uttara Kannada in the South Indian state of Karnataka.
Bangalore, officially known as Bengaluru, is the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Bangalore City railway station (Station code: SBC), officially known as Krantivira Sangolli Rayanna railway station, is the main railway station serving the city of Bengaluru, Karnataka, India.
Banwarilal Purohit (born April 16, 1940) is an Indian politician from Nagpur region of Maharastra,born in nawalgarh,Jhunjhunu District of Rajasthan.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Batik (Javanese: ꦧꦠꦶꦏ꧀) is a technique of wax-resist dyeing applied to whole cloth, or cloth made using this technique originated from Indonesia.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belgaum is a district in the state of Karnataka, India.
Belur, (is a Town Municipal Council and taluka in Hassan district in the state of Karnataka, India. The town is renowned for its Chennakeshava Temple, one of the finest examples of Hoysala workmanship.
The Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) is the most numerous tiger subspecies in Asia, and was estimated at fewer than 2,500 individuals by 2011.
Bhadra Wildlife Sanctuary is a protected area and a tiger reserve as part of Project Tiger, located northwest of Chikkamagaluru town in Karnataka state, India.
Bharatanatyam (Tamil: "பரதநாட்டியம்"), is a major genre of Indian classical dance that originated in Tamil Nadu.
The Bharatiya Janata Party (translation: Indian People's Party; BJP) is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress.
Bhavani is a major river in Kongu Nadu region of Tamil Nadu, India.
Bhubaneswar, also spelt as Bhubaneshwar or Bhuvanēśvar, is the capital of the Indian state of Odisha.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bidar also called as Karnatakada Kirita is a hill top city in the north-eastern part of Karnataka state in south India.
Bijapur district, officially known as Vijayapura district, is a district in the state of Karnataka in India.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning, known as a peppercorn.
The blackbuck (Antilope cervicapra), also known as the Indian antelope, is an antelope found in India, Nepal and Pakistan.
Bombay State was a large Indian state created at the time of India's Independence, with other regions being added to it in the succeeding years. Bombay Presidency (roughly equating to the present-day Indian state of Maharashtra, excluding South Maharashtra and Vidarbha) was merged with the princely states of the Baroda, Western India and Gujarat (the present-day Indian state of Gujarat) and Deccan States (which included parts of the present-day Indian states of Maharashtra and Karnataka. On November 1, 1956, Bombay State was re-organized under the States Reorganisation Act on linguistic lines, absorbing various territories including the Saurashtra and Kutch States, which ceased to exist. On May 1, 1960, Bombay State was dissolved and split on linguistic lines into the two states of Gujarat, with Gujarati speaking population and Maharashtra, with Marathi speaking population.
Borassus flabellifer, commonly known as doub palm, palmyra palm, tala palm, toddy palm, wine palm, or ice apple is native to the Indian subcontinent and Southeast Asia, including Nepal, India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, Laos, Burma, Thailand, Vietnam, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines.
Brahmagiri, is a mountain range in the Western Ghats of south India.
Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry and jackfruit family (Moraceae) originating in the South Pacific and eventually spreading to the rest of Oceania. British and French navigators introduced a few Polynesian seedless varieties to Caribbean islands during the late 18th century, and today it is grown in some 90 countries throughout South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean, Central America and Africa. Its name is derived from the texture of the moderately ripe fruit when cooked, similar to freshly baked bread and having a potato-like flavor. According to DNA fingerprinting studies, breadfruit has its origins in the region of Oceania from New Guinea through the Indo-Malayan Archipelago to western Micronesia. The trees have been widely planted in tropical regions elsewhere, including lowland Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. In addition to the fruit serving as a staple food in many cultures, the trees' light, sturdy timber has been used for outriggers, ships and houses in the tropics.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
The brown noddy or common noddy (Anous stolidus) is a seabird in the family Laridae.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Business Line or The Hindu Business Line is an Indian business newspaper published by Kasturi & Sons, the publishers of the newspaper The Hindu located in Chennai, India.
Business Standard is the third largest Indian English-language daily newspaper published by Business Standard Ltd (BSL) in two languages, English and Hindi.
The butterflyfish are a group of conspicuous tropical marine fish of the family Chaetodontidae; the bannerfish and coralfish are also included in this group.
Conjeevaram Natarajan Annadurai (15 September 1909 – 3 February 1969), popularly called Anna ("Elder brother") or Arignar Anna ("Anna, the scholar"), was an Indian politician who served as 1st Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu from 1967 and 5th, last Chief Minister of Madras until 1969 in the state of Tamil Nadu in South India.
Chakravarti Rajagopalachari (10 December 1878 – 25 December 1972) informally called Rajaji or C.R., was an Indian politician, independence activist, lawyer, writer and statesman.
Calicut International Airport, also known as Karipur Airport, is an international airport serving the cities of Kozhikode and Malappuram in Kerala, India.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
The Cardamom Hills or Yela Mala are mountain range of southern India and part of the southern Western Ghats located in southeast Kerala and southwest Tamil Nadu in South India.
Carnatic music, Karnāṭaka saṃgīta or Karnāṭaka saṅgītam is a system of music commonly associated with southern India, including the modern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, as well as Sri Lanka.
Cassia fistula, known as the golden rain tree, canafistula and by other names, is a flowering plant in the family Fabaceae.
The Cato Institute is an American libertarian think tank headquartered in Washington, D.C. It was founded as the Charles Koch Foundation in 1974 by Ed Crane, Murray Rothbard, and Charles Koch, chairman of the board and chief executive officer of the conglomerate Koch Industries.
The Central Board of Film Certification (CBFC) (often referred to as the Censor Board) is a statutory censorship and classification body under the Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Zoo Authority of India (CZA) is the body of the government of India responsible for oversight of zoos.
The Chalukya dynasty was an Indian royal dynasty that ruled large parts of southern and central India between the 6th and the 12th centuries.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Chennai Central, erstwhile Madras Central, is the main railway terminus in the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.It is one of the most important hubs in the South.
Chennai International Airport is an international airport serving the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India and its metropolitan area.
The Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System, a state-owned subsidiary of Indian Railways, is a metropolitan elevated railway line operated by Southern Railways.
The Chennai Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
Chennai Port, formerly known as Madras Port, is the third largest container port of India, behind the Nhava Sheva and Mundra port.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
Chettinad cuisine is the cuisine of a community called the Nattukotai Chettiars, or Nagarathars as they call themselves, from the Chettinad region of Tamil Nadu state in South India.
A chief minister is the elected head of government of a sub-national entity, for instance a administrative subdivision or federal constituent entity.
In the Republic of India, a Chief Minister is the elected head of government of each of Twenty nine states and seven union territories (Delhi and Pondicherry).
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Chili powder (also powdered chili, chile powder or chilli powder) is the dried, pulverized fruit of one or more varieties of chili pepper, sometimes with the addition of other spices (also sometimes known as chili powder blend).
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Cinema of South India is used to refer collectively to the five different film industries of South India: Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Telugu and Tulu film industries, as a single entity.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
Cloves are the aromatic flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtaceae, Syzygium aromaticum.
A coalition government is a cabinet of a parliamentary government in which many or multiple political parties cooperate, reducing the dominance of any one party within that "coalition".
Cochin International Airport is an international airport serving the city of Kochi, in the state of Kerala, India.
Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews, are the oldest group of Jews in India, with possible roots claimed to date to the time of King Solomon.
Cochin Port is a major port on the Arabian Sea - Laccadive Sea – Indian Ocean sea-route in the city of Kochi and is one of the largest ports in India.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
Coffee production in India is dominated in the hill tracts of South Indian states, with Karnataka accounting for 71%, followed by Kerala with 21% and Tamil Nadu (5% of overall production with 8,200 tonnes).
Coimbatore (Tamil: கோயம்புத்தூர்), also known as Kovai, is a major city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Coimbatore District is a district in the Kongu Nadu region of the state of Tamil Nadu.
Coimbatore International Airport is the primary airport serving the city of Coimbatore in Tamil Nadu.
Coimbatore Junction, also known as Coimbatore Main is the primary railway station serving Coimbatore city.
Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
The common emerald dove, Asian emerald dove, or grey-capped emerald dove (Chalcophaps indica) is a pigeon which is a widespread resident breeding bird in the tropical and sub-tropical parts of the Indian Subcontinent and east through Myanmar, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, the Sakishima Islands of Japan and Indonesia.
The Communist Party of India (Marxist) (abbreviated CPI(M)) is a communist party in India.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Coriander (Coriandrum sativum), also known as cilantro or Chinese parsley, is an annual herb in the family Apiaceae.
The Coromandel Coast is the southeastern coast region of the Indian subcontinent, bounded by the Utkal Plains to the north, the Bay of Bengal to the east, the Kaveri delta to the south, and the Eastern Ghats to the west, extending over an area of about 22,800 square kilometres.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Couroupita guianensis, known by a variety of common names including cannonball tree, is a deciduous tree in the family Lecythidaceae, which also includes the Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa) and Paradise nut Lecythis zabucajo.
The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.
Cumin (Cuminum cyminum) is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae, native to a territory including Middle East and stretching east to India.
Curry (sometimes, plural curries) is an umbrella term referring to a number of dishes originating in the cuisine of the Indian subcontinent.
The curry tree (Murraya koenigii) is a tropical to sub-tropical tree in the family Rutaceae (the rue family, which includes rue, citrus, and satinwood), which is native to India and Sri Lanka.
The de Havilland DH.80A Puss Moth is a British three-seater high-wing monoplane aeroplane designed and built by the de Havilland Aircraft Company between 1929 and 1933.
Deccan Chronicle is an Indian English-language daily newspaper.
The Deccan PlateauPage 46, is a large plateau in western and southern India.
The Deccan Sultanates were five dynasties that ruled late medieval Indian kingdoms, namely, Bijapur, Golkonda, Ahmadnagar, Bidar, and Berar in south-western India.
The Deccan thorn scrub forests are a xeric shrubland ecoregion of India and southernmost Sri Lanka.
Deccan Traps are a large igneous province located on the Deccan Plateau of west-central India (17°–24°N, 73°–74°E) and are one of the largest volcanic features on Earth.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
The Delhi Sultanate (Persian:دهلی سلطان, Urdu) was a Muslim sultanate based mostly in Delhi that stretched over large parts of the Indian subcontinent for 320 years (1206–1526).
In 2011, the Syrian population was estimated at roughly 23 million permanent inhabitants, including people with refugee status from Palestine and Iraq and are an overall indigenous Levantine people.
Dharwad District is an administrative district of the state of Karnataka in southern India.
The Vesti, also known as panche, Dhoti, dhuti, mardani, chaadra, dhotar, and panchey, is a traditional men's garment worn in the Indian subcontinent.
A district is a type of administrative division that, in some countries, is managed by local government.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
Dosa is a type of pancake from the Indian subcontinent, made from a fermented batter.
Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK), (Dravidian Progress Federation) is a state political party in the states of Tamil Nadu, Puducherry, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh in India.
Dravida Nadu is the name of a hypothetical "sovereign state" demanded by Justice Party led by E. V. Ramasamy and the Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) led by C. N. Annadurai for the speakers of the Dravidian languages in South Asia.
Dravidar Kazhagam or Dravida Kazhagam (திராவிடர் கழகம்.) is one of the first Dravidian parties in India.
Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
Dravidian parties (திராவிடக்கட்சிகள்) include an array of regional political parties in the state of Tamil Nadu, India, which trace their origins and ideologies either directly or indirectly to the Dravidian movement of Periyar E. V. Ramasamy.
The drum is a member of the percussion group of musical instruments.
The dugong (Dugong dugon) is a medium-sized marine mammal.
Elamkulam Manakkal Sankaran Namboodiripad (13 June 1909 – 19 March 1998), popularly EMS, was an Indian communist politician and theorist, who served as the first Chief Minister of Kerala state in 1957–59 and then again in 1967–69.
Ekkadu Srinivasan Lakshmi Narasimhan (born 1946) is the Governor of the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana (additional charge).
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Visakhapatnam Junction is one of the busiest railway station of East Coast Railway Zone with highest no of platforms in the zone The East Coast Railway (abbreviated ECoR and पूतरे) is one of the sevent.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Ghats are a discontinuous range of mountains along India's eastern coast.
The Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy is one of its three major formations.
The term Eastern world refers very broadly to the various cultures or social structures and philosophical systems, depending on the context, most often including at least part of Asia or geographically the countries and cultures east of Europe, specifically in historical (pre-modern) contexts, and in modern times in the context of Orientalism.
The economic liberalisation in India refers to the economic liberalisation, initiated in 1991, of the country's economic policies, with the goal of making the economy more market and service-oriented and expanding the role of private and foreign investment.
Elettaria cardamomum, commonly known as green or true cardamom, is a herbaceous, perennial plant in the ginger family, native to southern India.
Eleusine coracana, or finger millet, is an annual herbaceous plant widely grown as a cereal crop in the arid and semiarid areas in Africa and Asia.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
Ennore Port, officially renamed Kamarajar Port Limited, is located on the Coromandel Coast about 24 km north of Chennai Port, Chennai, it is the 12th major port of India, and the first port in India which is a public company.
Ernakulam Junction railway station (also known as Ernakulam South, code: ERS) is the biggest railway station in the city of Kochi in Kerala, India.
Erode Junction railway station (Station Code: ED) is the main railway junction serving the city of Erode, Tamil Nadu.
A finial or hip-knob is an element marking the top or end of some object, often formed to be a decorative feature.
A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is the period used by governments for accounting and budget purposes, which vary between countries.
Flavor (American English) or flavour (British English; see spelling differences) is the sensory impression of food or other substance, and is determined primarily by the chemical senses of taste and smell.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A foreign direct investment (FDI) is an investment in the form of a controlling ownership in a business in one country by an entity based in another country.
Fort St George (or historically, White Town) is the first English (later British) fortress in India, founded in 1644 at the coastal city of Madras, the modern city of Chennai.
The Fourth Anglo–Mysore War was a conflict in South India between the Kingdom of Mysore against the British East India Company and the Hyderabad Deccan in 1798–99.
The French East India Company (Compagnie française pour le commerce des Indes orientales) was a commercial enterprise, founded in 1664 to compete with the English (later British) and Dutch East India companies in the East Indies. Planned by Jean-Baptiste Colbert, it was chartered by King Louis XIV for the purpose of trading in the Eastern Hemisphere. It resulted from the fusion of three earlier companies, the 1660 Compagnie de Chine, the Compagnie d'Orient and Compagnie de Madagascar. The first Director General for the Company was François de la Faye, who was adjoined by two Directors belonging to the two most successful trading organizations at that time: François Caron, who had spent 30 years working for the Dutch East India Company, including more than 20 years in Japan, and Marcara Avanchintz, a trader from Isfahan, Persia.
French India, formally the Établissements français dans l'Inde ("French establishments in India"), was a French colony comprising geographically separate enclaves on the Indian subcontinent.
Govindan Aravindan (21 January 1935 – 15 March 1991), popularly known as G. Aravindan, was a film director, screenwriter, musician, cartoonist and painter from Kerala, India.
Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.
Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a flowering plant whose rhizome, ginger root or simply ginger, is widely used as a spice or a folk medicine.
Gloriosa superba is a species of flowering plant in the family Colchicaceae.
The Godavari is India's second longest river after the Ganga.
The Golden Quadrilateral is a highway network connecting many of the major industrial, agricultural and cultural centres of India.
A Gopuram or gopura (गोपुरम्) is a monumental gatehouse tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of a Hindu temple, in the Dravidian architecture of the Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, and Telangana states of Southern India.
The Government of India (IAST), often abbreviated as GoI, is the union government created by the constitution of India as the legislative, executive and judicial authority of the union of 29 states and seven union territories of a constitutionally democratic republic.
The governors and lieutenant-governors/administrators of the states and union territories of India have similar powers and functions at the state level as that of the President of India at Union level.
The gray slender loris (Loris lydekkerianus) is a species of primate in the family Loridae.
The great hornbill (Buceros bicornis) also known as the great Indian hornbill or great pied hornbill, is one of the larger members of the hornbill family.
The Great Indian Peninsula Railway was a predecessor of the Central Railway, whose headquarters was at the Boree Bunder in Mumbai (later, the Victoria Terminus and presently the Chhatrapati Shivaji Terminus).
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
The grizzled giant squirrel (Ratufa macroura) is a large tree squirrel in the genus Ratufa found in the highlands of the Central and Uva provinces of Sri Lanka, and in patches of riparian forest along the Kaveri River and in the hill forests of Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and Kerala states of southern India.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gulbarga, officially known as Kalaburagi, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka, India.
The Gulf of Mannar is a large shallow bay forming part of the Laccadive Sea in the Indian Ocean.
Guntakal is a city in Anantapur district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Guntur railway station (station code:GNT) is an Indian railway station in Guntur of Andhra Pradesh.
Guntur Railway Division is one of the six divisions of the South Central Railway zone of Indian Railways.
Haradanahalli Doddegowda Deve Gowda (born 18 May 1933) is an Indian politician who served as the 11th Prime Minister of India from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997.
A high-pressure area, high or anticyclone is a region where the atmospheric pressure at the surface of the planet is greater than its surrounding environment.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu temple architecture has many varieties of style, though the basic nature of the Hindu temple remains the same, with the essential feature an inner sanctum, the garbha griha or womb-chamber, where the primary Murti or the image of a deity is housed in a simple bare cell.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
The history of the southern part of India covers a span of over four thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires.
The Hoysala Empire was a Kannadiga power originating from the Indian subcontinent, that ruled most of the what is now Karnataka, India between the 10th and the 14th centuries.
Hubballi (Other name: Hubli) is the second largest city in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Hubli Junction railway station (Station code: UBL) is a railway junction station under Hubli railway division of South Western Railway zone (SWR) of Indian Railways situated in Hubli, Karnataka, India.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
In anthropology and demography, the human sex ratio is the ratio of males to females in a population.
Hyderabad is the capital of the Indian state of Telangana and de jure capital of Andhra Pradesh.
The Hyderabad Metro is a rapid transit system, serving the city of Hyderabad, Telangana, India.
Hyderabad State was an Indian princely state located in the south-central region of India with its capital at the city of Hyderabad.
Hyderabad State was a state in Independent India, formed after the accession of the princely state of Hyderabad into the Indian Union on 24 November 1949.
Hyderabadi biryani is a form of biryani, from Hyderabad, India.
Hyderabadi cuisine (native: Hyderabadi Ghizaayat), also known as Deccani cuisine, is the native cooking style of the Hyderabadi Muslims, and began to develop after the foundation of the Bahmani Sultanate, and more drastically with the Qutb Shahi dynasty around the city of Hyderabad, promoting the native cuisine along with their own.
Idli or idly are a type of savoury rice cake, originating from the Indian subcontinent, popular as breakfast foods throughout India and northern Sri Lanka.
India Today is an Indian English-language fortnightly news magazine and news television channel.
The Indian Air Force (IAF; IAST: Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.
The Indian elephant (Elephas maximus indicus) is one of three recognized subspecies of the Asian elephant and native to mainland Asia.
Indian English is any of the forms of English characteristic of India.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian leopard (Panthera pardus fusca) is a leopard subspecies widely distributed on the Indian subcontinent.
The Indian National Congress (INC, often called Congress Party) is a broadly based political party in India.
The Indian Navy (IN; IAST: Bhāratīya Nau Senā) is the naval branch of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian palm squirrel or three-striped palm squirrel (Funambulus palmarum) is a species of rodent in the family Sciuridae found naturally in India (south of the Vindhyas) and Sri Lanka.
Indian Railways (IR) is India's national railway system operated by the Ministry of Railways.
The Indian roller (Coracias benghalensis), is a member of the roller family of birds.
Indian Standard Time (IST) is the time observed throughout India, with a time offset of UTC+05:30.
This is a list of the States of India ranked in order of percentage of families owning a house as per the Census of India 2011.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (née Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician, stateswoman and a central figure of the Indian National Congress.
The Indo-Aryan or Indic languages are the dominant language family of the Indian subcontinent.
INS Baaz is an Indian naval air station under the joint-services Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) of the Indian Armed Forces.
INS Dega, is a naval air station of the Indian Navy.
INS Garuda, is an Indian naval air station located in Kochi, in the state of Kerala.
INS Parundu is an Indian naval air station located near Uchipuli in the Ramanathapuram district of the state of Tamil Nadu.
INS Rajali, also informally known as Arakkonam Naval Air Station, is an Indian naval air station located near Arakkonam in Tamil Nadu in southern India.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
International trade is the exchange of capital, goods, and services across international borders or territories.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is the second largest religion in India, with 14.2% of the country's population or roughly 172 million people identifying as adherents of Islam (2011 census) as an ethnoreligious group.
ISO 3166-2:IN is the entry for India in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Jehangir Ratanji Dadabhoy Tata (29 July 1904 – 29 November 1993) was a French-born Indian aviator, entrepreneur, chairman of Tata Group and the shareholder of Tata Sons.
The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, fenne, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae) native to southwest India.
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient Indian religion.
Janata Dal was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party factions, the Lok Dal, Indian National Congress (Jagjivan), and the Jan Morcha united on 11 October 1988 on the birth anniversary of Jayaprakash Narayan under the leadership of V. P. Singh.
Jatani or Jatni or Khurda Road is a town and a major sub-urban area of Bhubaneswar, the state capital of Odisha.
Jawaharlal Nehru (14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was the first Prime Minister of India and a central figure in Indian politics before and after independence.
Jayaram Jayalalithaa (born Komalavalli, 24 February 1948 –5 December 2016) was an Indian film actress and politician who served six terms as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for over fourteen years between 1991 and 2016.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jinnah International Airport (جناح بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا; جناح بين الاقوامي هوائي اڏي) is Pakistan's busiest international and domestic airport, and handled 6,860,095 passengers in 2016-2017.
John Abraham (11 August 1937 – 31 May 1987) was a Malayali Indian filmmaker, short story writer and screenwriter.
Mumbai-Juhu Airport is located in Juhu, an upmarket residential suburb of Mumbai, India.
The Justice Party, officially the South Indian Liberal Federation, was a political party in the Madras Presidency of British India.
Kailasam Balachander (9 July 1930 – 23 December 2014) was an Indian filmmaker and playwright who worked mainly in the Tamil film industry.
Kumaraswami Kamaraj (15 July 1903, The Hindu, 8 July 2009 –2 October 1975, hinduonnet.com. 15–28 September 2001), was a leader of the Indian National Congress (INC), widely acknowledged as the "Kingmaker" in Indian politics during the 1960s.
Kocheril Raman Narayanan (4 February 1921 – 9 November 2005) was the tenth President of India.
The Kadambas (Kannada: ಕದಂಬರು) (345–525 CE) were an ancient royal family of Karnataka, India, that ruled northern Karnataka and the Konkan from Banavasi in present-day Uttara Kannada district.
The Kakatiya dynasty was a South Indian dynasty whose capital was Orugallu, now known as Warangal.
Kalidas is a 1931 Indian Tamil-language biographical film directed by H. M. Reddy and produced by Ardeshir Irani.
Kalvakuntla Chandrashekar Rao (born 17 February 1954) better known and abbreviated as K.C.R., is an Indian politician who is 1st and the current Chief Minister of Telangana, after the Telangana state got separated from Andhra Pradesh.
Kanaka Dasa (ಕನಕದಾಸ) (1509 – 1609) was a poet, philosopher, musician and composer from modern Karnataka.He was born in kuruba community (shepherd).
Kanchipuram also known as Kānchi is a city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu in Tondaimandalam region, from Chennaithe capital of Tamil Nadu.
Kannada (ಕನ್ನಡ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Kannada people in India, mainly in the state of Karnataka, and by significant linguistic minorities in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Kerala, Goa and abroad.
Kannada cinema, also known as Chandanavana, Link referring rechristening of sandalwod as chandanavana at world kannada summit is the Indian film industry based in the state of Karnataka where motion pictures are produced in the Kannada language.
tags --> Kannada literature (ಕನ್ನಡ ಸಾಹಿತ್ಯ) is the corpus of written forms of the Kannada language, a member of the Dravidian family spoken mainly in the Indian state of Karnataka and written in the Kannada script.
Kanyakumari is a City in Kanyakumari district in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Kanyakumari district is the southernmost district in Tamil Nadu state and mainland India.
Karaikal (kāraikkāl) is a major port city of east coast of India and a municipality in Karaikal district in the Union Territory of Puducherry, India.
Karnataka also known Kannada Nadu is a state in the south western region of India.
The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation is a state-owned road transportation company in the state of Karnataka in India.
Karur is a city in India in state of Tamil Nadu.
Karwar is a city in Karnataka being the headquarters of Uttara Kannada district in the Southern western coast of India.
Kasaragod is a taluk which along with Hosdurg taluk, Manjeshwaram Taluk and Vellerikundu taluk constitute the Kasaragod district, Kerala, India.
Kathakali (കഥകളി) is one of the major forms of classical Indian dance.
Katpadi Junction is a Important and Busiest railway station in Southern India, at Vellore city suituated in Tamil Nadu.
Kavaratti is the capital of the Union Territory of Lakshadweep in India.
Kaveri (anglicized as Cauvery), also referred as Ponni, is an Indian river flowing through the states of Karnataka and Tamil Nadu.
Kayamkulam is a town in Alappuzha district of Kerala, Indian state.
The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
Keechaka Vadham (italic) is an Indian silent film produced, directed, filmed and edited by R. Nataraja Mudaliar.
Kempegowda International Airport is an international airport serving Bangalore, the capital of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Kerala is a state in South India on the Malabar Coast.
The Kerala backwaters are a chain of brackish lagoons and lakes lying parallel to the Arabian Sea coast (known as the Malabar Coast) of Kerala state in southern India.
Kerala Natanam (കേരള നടനം) (Kerala Dance) is a new style of dance that is now recognised as a distinct art form evolved from Kathakali, a form of Indian dance-drama.
The Kerala State Road Transport Corporation (KSRTC) Nicknamed Aanavandi is the state-run bus company in Kerala, India.
Kingdom of Cochin (also known as Perumpadappu Swaroopam, Mada-rajyam, or Kuru Swaroopam; Kocci or Perumpaṭappu) was a late medieval Hindu kingdom and later princely state on the Malabar Coast, South India.
The Kingdom of Mysore was a kingdom in southern India, traditionally believed to have been founded in 1399 in the vicinity of the modern city of Mysore.
Kiran Bedi (born 9 June 1949) is a retired Indian Police Service officer, social activist, former tennis player and politician who is the current Lieutenant Governor of Puducherry.
Kochi, also known as Cochin, is a major port city on the south-west coast of India bordering the Laccadive Sea.
Kochi Metro is a metro system serving the city of Kochi in Kerala, India.
Kodagu is an administrative district in Karnataka, India.
Koil or Koyil or Kovil, (meaning: residence of GodThe modern Tamil word for Hindu temple is kōvil (கோவில்) meaning " the residence of God". In ancient Tamil Nadu, the king (கோ, Kō) was considered to be a ‘representative of God on earth' and lived in a kōvil, which also means "king’s house". Old words for king like Kō (கோ "King"), Iṟai (இறை "Emperor") and Āṇṭavan (ஆண்டவன் "Conqueror") are now primarily used to refer to God.) is the Tamil term for a distinct style of Hindu temple with Dravidian architecture.
Kolar The Golden city of India, is a city in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Kollam Junction railway station (station code: QLN) is a junction station situated in the city of Kollam in Kerala, India.
Kollegala is one of the major taluks in the Chamrajnagar District of Karnataka State in the south of India.
Konkan, also known as the Konkan Coast or Kokan, is a rugged section of the western coastline of India.
The Konkan Railway (abbreviated KR and कोरे) is operated by Konkan Railway Corporation Limited, headquartered at CBD Belapur in Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra.
Konkani is an Indo-Aryan language belonging to the Indo-European family of languages and is spoken along the South western coast of India.
Koodiyattam (കൂടിയാട്ടം), also transliterated as Kutiyattam, is a traditional performing artform in the state of Kerala, India.
Kozhikode, or Calicut, is a city in Kerala, India on the Malabar Coast.
Kozhikode Railway Station also known as Calicut Railway Station is the largest railway station in the city of Kozhikode, India.
Krishna (Kṛṣṇa) is a major deity in Hinduism.
The Krishna River is the fourth-biggest river in terms of water inflows and river basin area in India, after the Ganga, Godavari and Brahmaputra.
Kshetrayya (or Kshetrajna or Varadayya) (–1680) was a prolific Telugu poet and composer of Carnatic music.
Kuchipudi is one of the eight major Indian classical dances.
Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary (also known as Vembanad Bird Sanctuary) is situated at Kumarakom in Kottayam taluk of Kottayam district in the Indian state of Kerala, on the banks of Vembanad Lake.
Kumari Kandam (குமரிக்கண்டம்) refers to a mythical lost continent with an ancient Tamil civilization, located south of present-day India, in the Indian Ocean.
The Kupgal petroglyphs are works of rock art found at Kupgal in Bellary district of Karnataka, India.
The Laccadive Islands or Cannanore Islands are one of the three island subgroups in the Union Territory of Lakshadweep, India.
Lagerstroemia, commonly known as crape myrtle or crepe myrtle, is a genus of around 50 species of deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs native to the Indian subcontinent, southeast Asia, northern Australia, and parts of Oceania, cultivated in warmer climates around the world.
Lakshadweep (Lakshadīb), formerly known as the Laccadive, Minicoy, and Aminidivi Islands, is a group of islands in the Laccadive Sea, off the southwestern coast of India.
Lal Bahadur Shastri (2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was the 2nd Prime Minister of India and a senior leader of the Indian National Congress political party.
A language family is a group of languages related through descent from a common ancestral language or parental language, called the proto-language of that family.
Languages spoken in India belong to several language families, the major ones being the Indo-Aryan languages spoken by 76.5% of Indians and the Dravidian languages spoken by 20.5% of Indians.
The Constitution of India designates the official language of the Government of India as Hindi written in the Devanagari script, as well as English.
Left Democratic Front (LDF) is a coalition of political parties in the state of Kerala, in India.
Legislative assembly is the name given in some countries to either a legislature, or to one of its branch.
A legislative council is the name given to the legislature, or one of the legislative chambers of a nation, colony, or subnational division such as a province or state; or, in the United States, a council within a legislature which supervises nonpartisan legislative support staff.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
A lieutenant governor, lieutenant-governor, or vice governor is a high officer of state, whose precise role and rank vary by jurisdiction.
The lion-tailed macaque (Macaca silenus), or the wanderoo, is an Old World monkey endemic to the Western Ghats of South India.
A district (zilā) is an administrative division of an Indian state or territory.
This is a list of States and Union Territories of India ranked by access to safe drinking water.
These are lists of Indian states and union territories by their nominal gross state domestic product (GSDP).
This is a list of Indian states by Life expectancy at birth.
India is a country in South Asia.
This is a list of the States of India ranked in order of percentage of households having a television set.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Literacy in India is a key for socio-economic progress, and the Indian literacy rate has grown to 74% (2011 Census figure) with recent reports of 80% literacy.
The Lok Sabha (House of the People) is the lower house of India's bicameral Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha.
The lungi is a type of sarong, originating from the Indian subcontinent, and a traditional garment worn around the waist in Sri Lanka, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Somalia, Nepal, Cambodia, Djibouti, Myanmar and Thailand, Saudi Arabia and Yemen.
Marudur Gopalan Ramachandran (17 January 1917 – 24 December 1987), popularly known as M.G.R., was an Indian actor, filmmaker and politician who served as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu for ten years between 1977 and 1987.
Muthuvel Karunanidhi (born as Daksinamoorthy on 3 June 1924) is an Indian politician and the 3rd Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu.
Madgaon Junction railway station (Station code: MAO) is a railway junction and major station on the Indian Railways network, specifically on the South Western Railway line to Vasco da Gama and the Konkan Railway, in Madgaon, Goa, India.
The Madisar or Koshavam is a way in which the sari is worn mostly by the womenfolk in ancient India after her marriage.
The Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway was a railway company that operated in southern India.
The Madras Presidency, or the Presidency of Fort St.
The First legislative assembly election for the Madras Presidency was held in February 1937, as part of the nationwide provincial elections in British India.
The Madras Railway (full name Madras Railway Company) played a pioneering role in developing railways in southern India and was merged in 1908 with Southern Mahratta Railway to form Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway.
Madras State was a state in the Republic of India.
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Madurai Airport is a customs airport serving Madurai and its surrounding districts in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Madurai Junction railway station is a railway station in South India and the primary railway station serving the city of Madurai, Tamil Nadu.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Mahé, natively known as Mayyazhi, is a small town at the mouth of the Mahé River and is surrounded on all sides by the State of Kerala.
The Malabar Coast is a long, narrow coastline on the southwestern shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent.
The Malabar Coast moist forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southwestern India.
Malabar District was an administrative district of Madras Presidency in British India and independent India's Madras State.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
Malayalam cinema is the Indian film industry based in the southern state of Kerala, dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Malayalam.
Malayalam literature (മലയാള സാഹിത്യം) comprises those literary texts written in Malayalam, a South-Dravidian language spoken in the Indian state of Kerala.
Malenadu is a region in the state of Karnataka in India.
Malkheda, also known as Malkhed,Village code.
Mangalore, officially known as Mangaluru, is the chief port city of the Indian state of Karnataka.
Mangaluru Central (Station code: MAQ) is the main railway terminus in the city of Mangaluru.
Mangalore International Airport, is an international airport serving the coastal city of Mangaluru (Mangalore), India.
Mangoes are juicy stone fruit (drupe) from numerous species of tropical trees belonging to the flowering plant genus Mangifera, cultivated mostly for their edible fruit.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Gopala Ratnam Subramaniam (born 2 June 1956), commonly known by his screen name Mani Ratnam, is an Indian film director, screenwriter, and producer who predominantly works in Tamil cinema.
Manimekalai (மணிமேகலை), by the poet Chithalai Chathanar, is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition.
Mappila, also known as a Mappila Muslim, formerly romanized as Moplah and historically as Jonaka Mappila, in general, is a member of the Muslim community of the same nameMiller, E. Roland.
Margamkali is an Indian group dance originating from Kerala, practiced by the Saint Thomas Christians who trace their origins to the evangelistic activity of Thomas the Apostle in the 1st century.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Member of parliament in India refers to persons who serve in the parliament of that country.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) were the eight international development goals for the year 2015 that had been established following the Millennium Summit of the United Nations in 2000, following the adoption of the United Nations Millennium Declaration.
The Ministry of Law and Justice in the Government of India is a cabinet ministry which deals with the management of the legal affairs, legislative activities and administration of justice in India through its three departments namely the Legislative Department and the Department of Legal Affairs and Department of Justice respectively.
The Ministry of Road Transport and Highways (IAST), is a ministry of the Government of India, is the apex body for formulation and administration of the rules, regulations and laws relating to road transport, and transport research, in order to increase the mobility and efficiency of the road transport system in India.
Mohiniyattam, also spelled Mohiniattam (മോഹിനിയാട്ടം), is one of two classical dances of India that developed and remain popular in the state of Kerala.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
Mustard seeds are the small round seeds of various mustard plants.
Muthuswami HARSH (muddusvami dikshita in Telugu and Kannada) (March 24, 1775 – October 21, 1835) was a South Indian poet and composer and is one of the musical trinity of Carnatic music.
Muziris (Muchiri, Muyirikode, Makotai, Mahodayapuram) was an ancient seaport and urban center on the Malabar Coast (modern-day Indian state of Kerala) that dates from at least the 1st century BC, if not before it.
Mysore, officially Mysuru, is the third most populous city in the state of Karnataka, India.
Mysore railway station is a station on Mysore-Bangalore railway line serving the city of Mysore, Karnataka, India.
Mysore State was a separate state within the Union of India from 1948 until 1956 with Mysore as its capital.
Mysore State Railway (MSR) was a railway which operated in Mysore state, India.
Mysore Vasudevacharya (28 May 1865 – 17 May 1961) was an Indian musician and composer of Carnatic music compositions who belonged to the direct line of Thyagaraja's disciples.
Nara Chandrababu Naidu (born 20 April 1950) is an Indian politician who has been Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh since 2014.
Nandamuri Taraka Rama Rao (28 May 1923 – 18 January 1996), popularly known as NTR, was an Indian actor, producer, director, editor and politician who served as Chief Minister of Andhra Pradesh for seven years over three terms.
The nadhaswaram, nagaswaram, or nathaswaram is a double reed wind instrument from Tamilnadu.
Nagapattinam (nākappaṭṭinam, previously spelt Nagapatnam or Negapatam) is a town in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Nagapattinam District.
Namma Metro, also known as Bangalore Metro is a metro system serving the city of Bangalore, India.
Nanded is a city in Maharashtra state, India.
The Narmada, also called the Rewa and previously also known as Nerbudda,even Shankari, is a river in central India and the sixth longest river in the Indian subcontinent.
NAS Shibpur is an Indian naval air station under the joint-services Andaman and Nicobar Command (ANC) of the Indian Armed Forces.
The national highways network of India is a network of trunk roads that is managed and maintained by CPWD, Central Public Works Department, an agency of the Government of India.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
Navi Mumbai (IPA: /nəvɪ mʊmˈbaɪ/) is a planned city off the west coast of the Indian state of Maharashtra in Konkan division.
Nayaka dynasties emerged during the declining period of the Vijayanagara Empire.
New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian television media company founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy, a journalist.
Neelam Sanjiva Reddy (19 May 1913 – 1 June 1996) was the sixth President of India, serving from 1977 to 1982.
Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary is a bird sanctuary in Nellore district, Andhra Pradesh, India, near the village of Nelapattu.
Nellore railway station (station code:NLR) is a railway station of the city of Nellore in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The net domestic product (NDP) equals the gross domestic product (GDP) minus depreciation on a country's capital goods.
New Mangaluru Port is a deep-water, all-weather port at Panambur, Mangaluru in Karnataka state in India, which is the deepest inner harbour on the west coast.
Nilambur is a municipality and a taluk in the Malappuram district of the Indian state of Kerala.
The Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve is an International Biosphere Reserve in the Western Ghats and Nilgiri Hills ranges of South India.
The Nilgiri langur (Trachypithecus johnii) is a lutung (a type of Old World monkey) found in the Nilgiri Hills of the Western Ghats in South India.
The Nilgiri Mountain Railway (NMR) is a railway in Tamil Nadu, India, built by the British in 1908.
The Nilgiri Mountains (Tamil: நீலகிரி;Neelagiri, literally blue hills) form part of the Western Ghats in western Tamil Nadu of Southern India.
The Nilgiri tahr (Nilgiritragus hylocrius) known locally as the Nilgiri ibex or simply ibex, is an ungulate that is endemic to the Nilgiri Hills and the southern portion of the Western Ghats in the states of Tamil Nadu and Kerala in Southern India.
The Niyamasabha Mandiram, located in Thiruvananthapuram, is the seat of the Kerala State Legislative Assembly or the Niyamasabha.
In the Indian Ocean north of the equator, tropical cyclones can form throughout the year on either side of India.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
Oppana (ഒപ്പന) is a popular form of social entertainment among the Mappila (Kerala Muslims) community of Kerala, South India, prevalent throughout Kerala, especially in Malappuram.
Ottan Thullal (or Ottamthullal, Malayalam:ഓട്ടന് തുള്ളല്) is a dance and poetic performance form of Kerala, India.
Outlook is a weekly general interest English news magazine published in India.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Bharathiraja (born 17 July 1941) is an Indian film director who works mainly in the Tamil film industry.
Palanisamy Sathasivam (born 27 April 1949) is the current Governor of Kerala, in office since 2014.
Sir Pitti Theagaraya Chetty KCSI (April 27, 1852 - April 28, 1925) was an Indian lawyer, industrialist and a prominent political leader from the erstwhile Madras province.
Pamulaparti Venkata Narasimha Rao (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was an Indian lawyer and politician who served as the 9th Prime Minister of India (1991–1996).
Kuzhi paniyaram (Tamil:குழி பணியாரம்) or Paddu/GuLiyappa/Yeriyappa (Kannada:ಪಡ್ಡು/ಗುಳಿಯಪ್ಪ/ಎರಿಯಪ್ಪ) or Gunta Ponganalu (Telugu:గుంట పొంగణాలు) or is an Indian dish made by steaming batter using a mould.
A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice.
Palakkad District is one of the 14 districts of the Indian state of Kerala.
Palakkad Junction (formerly known as Olavakkod Junction, STN CODE:PGT) is a railway station in Kerala state, India situated in the city of Palakkad.
Palakkad railway division (formerly Olavakkod railway division) is one of the six administrative divisions of the Southern Railway zone of Indian Railways, headquartered at Palakkad in Kerala.
The Palk Strait (பாக்கு சலசந்தி / பாக்கு நீரிணை, Sinhala: පෝක් සමුද්ර සන්ධිය Pok Samudra Sandhiya) is a strait between the Tamil Nadu state of India and the Mannar district of the Northern Province of the island nation of Sri Lanka.
The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India.
The Panchayat raj is a South Asian political system found mainly in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Trinidad and Tobago, and Nepal.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, which also includes the erstwhile Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary, is a protected area in Chittur taluk in Palakkad district of Kerala state, South India.
Paravur Kayal is a lake in Paravur, Kollam district, Kerala, India.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) is the most widely grown type of millet.
A peninsula (paeninsula from paene "almost” and insula "island") is a piece of land surrounded by water on the majority of its border, while being connected to a mainland from which it extends.
The Penna (also known as Pennar, Penner, Penneru or North Pinākinī) is a river of southern India.
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year.
A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river (channel) that has continuous flow in parts of its stream bed all year round during years of normal rainfall.
Erode Venkatappa Ramasamy (17 September 1879 – 24 December 1973), was commonly known as Periyar also referred to as Thanthai Periyar, was an Indian social activist, and politician who started the Self-Respect Movement and Dravidar Kazhagam.
Periyar National Park and Wildlife Sanctuary (PNP) is a protected area near Thekkady in the districts of Idukki, Kottayam and Pathanamthitta in Kerala, India.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pichavaram is a village near Chidambaram in Cuddalore District, Tamil Nadu, India.
Pickling is the process of preserving or expanding the lifespan of food by either anaerobic fermentation in brine or immersion in vinegar.
Pinarayi Vijayan (born 24 May 1945) is an Indian politician who is the current Chief Minister of Kerala, in office since 25 May 2016.
In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
Polygar (also spelled as Palegara, Palaiyakkarar, Poligar, Palegaadu, Palegar, or Polegar) was the feudal title for a class of territorial administrative and military governors appointed by the Nayaka rulers of South India (notably Vijayanagara Empire, Madurai Nayakas and the Kakatiya dynasty) during 16th – 18th centuries.
Pondicherry (or; French: Pondichéry) is the capital city and the largest city of the Indian union territory of Puducherry.
Poṟiyal (Tamil:பொரியல்) is the Tamil word for a fried, or sometimes sauteed, vegetable dish.
Port Blair is the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a union territory of India situated in the Bay of Bengal.
Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for their eggs, their meat or their feathers.
Poverty is a significant issue in India, despite having one of the fastest-growing economies in the world, clocked at a growth rate of 7.6% in 2015, and a sizable consumer economy.
The Prakrits (प्राकृत; pāuda; pāua) are any of several Middle Indo-Aryan languages formerly spoken in India.
Prehistoric religions are the religious beliefs and practices of prehistoric people such as Paleolithic religion, Mesolithic religion, Neolithic religion and Bronze Age religion.
The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the subcontinent.
The President of the Republic of India is the head of state of India and the commander-in-chief of the Indian Armed Forces.
The Prime Minister of India is the leader of the executive of the Government of India.
A princely state, also called native state (legally, under the British) or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the British Raj.
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is run by private individuals or groups, usually as a means of enterprise for profit, and is not controlled by the State.
Project Elephant was launched in 1992 by the Government of India Ministry of Environment and Forests to provide financial and technical support of wildlife management efforts by states for their free ranging populations of wild Asian Elephants.
Project Tiger is a tiger conservation programme launched in 1973 by the Government of India during Prime Minister Indira Gandhi's tenure.
Prosopis cineraria or Ghaf is a species of flowering tree in the pea family, Fabaceae.
Pterocarpus dalbergioides, the Andaman padauk, Andaman redwood or East Indian mahogany, is a species of legume in the Fabaceae family.
Puducherry (literally New Town in Tamil), formerly known as Pondicherry, is a union territory of India.
Puducherry district, formerly Pondicherry district is one of the four districts of the union territory of Puducherry in southern India.
The Puducherry Road Transport Corporation (PRTC) is the government transport corporation in the union territory of Puducherry that provides services in all the four regions of Puducherry, namely Pondicherry, Karaikal, Mahé and Yanam.
Pulicat Lake is the second largest brackish water lake or lagoon in India, after Chilika Lake.
Purandara Dāsa (ಪುರಂದರ ದಾಸ) (1484–1564) was a Haridasa (a devotee - servant of Lord Hari (Vishnu)), great devotee of Lord Krishna (an incarnation of Lord Vishnu) and a saint.
Rangaswamy Nataraja Mudaliar (1885–1972), popularly known as the father of Tamil cinema, was a pioneer in the production of silent films.
Ramaswamy Venkataraman (4 December 191027 January 2009) was an Indian lawyer, Indian independence activist and politician who served as a Union Minister and as the eighth President of India.
Radiocarbon dating (also referred to as carbon dating or carbon-14 dating) is a method for determining the age of an object containing organic material by using the properties of radiocarbon, a radioactive isotope of carbon.
Raichur is a city municipality in the district of Raichur in the South Indian state of Karnataka.
The Railway Board is the apex body of the Indian Railways.
A rain shadow is a dry area on the leeward side of a mountainous area (away from the wind).
Rajiv Gandhi International Airport is an international airport that serves Hyderabad, the capital of the Indian state of Telangana.
The Rajya Sabha or Council of States is the upper house of the Parliament of India.
Ramadasu is a 1964 Telugu biographical devotional film, based on the life of Kancharla Gopanna, produced and directed by Chittor V. Nagaiah on V. N. Films banner.
Ranganathittu Bird Sanctuary, also known as Pakshi Kashi of Karnataka, is a bird sanctuary in the Mandya District of the state of Karnataka in India.
Rasam, chaaru, saaru or kabir is a South Indian soup, traditionally prepared using tamarind juice as a base, with the addition of tomato, chili pepper, pepper, cumin and other spices as seasonings.
Rashtrakuta (IAST) was a royal dynasty ruling large parts of the Indian subcontinent between the sixth and 10th centuries.
Ratnagiri is a port city on the Arabian Sea coast in Ratnagiri District in the southwestern part of Maharashtra, India.
Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".
A reed is a thin strip of material which vibrates to produce a sound on a musical instrument.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Rose water (گلاب; golāb) is a flavoured water made by steeping rose petals in water.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
Royapuram is a locality in the northern part of Chennai City, Tamil Nadu, India, most known for the Royapuram Railway Station, the first railway station of south India opened in 1856, and is today the oldest surviving railway station of the Indian subcontinent The St. Peter's Church, Royapuram is one of the most prominent and oldest churches and landmark in the region.
Salem Junction railway station (station code: SA) is a junction railway station situated in the city of Salem in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Salem is a city in Salem district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.
Sambalpur is located in the western part of Odisha, and is one of the largest and oldest cities in the state.
Sambar, also spelled sambhar or sambaar, and pronounced saambaar, is a lentil-based vegetable stew or chowder cooked with a tamarind broth originating from the present-day Tamil Nadu, India.
Samikannu Vincent(18 April 1883 – 22 April 1942) was a cinema exhibitor turned theater owner.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
Sangam period is the period of history of ancient Tamil Nadu and Kerala (known as Tamilakam) spanning from c. 3rd century BC to c. 3rd century AD.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Santalum album, or Indian sandalwood, is a small tropical tree, and is the most commonly known source of sandalwood.
A sari, saree, or shariThe name of the garment in various regional languages include:শাড়ি, साड़ी, ଶାଢୀ, ಸೀರೆ,, साडी, कापड, चीरे,, സാരി, साडी, सारी, ਸਾਰੀ, புடவை, చీర, ساڑى is a female garment from the Indian subcontinent that consists of a drape varying from five to nine yards (4.5 metres to 8 metres) in length and two to four feet (60 cm to 1.20 m) in breadth that is typically wrapped around the waist, with one end draped over the shoulder, baring the midriff.
The Satavahanas (IAST), also referred to as the Andhras in the Puranas, were an ancient Indian dynasty based in the Deccan region.
Sathyamangalam (also known as Sathy) is a town and municipality in Erode district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Satpura Range is a range of hills in central India.
The Scheduled Castes (SCs) and Scheduled Tribes (STs) are officially designated groups of historically disadvantaged people in India.
Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.
Secunderabad (also spelled sometimes as Sikandar-a-bad) is the twin city of Hyderabad located in the Indian state of Telangana.
Secunderabad railway station (station code:SC), is a major intercity railway station and a commuter rail hub in the Hyderabad Urban Area.
The Self-Respect Movement is a movement with the aim of achieving a society where backward castes have equal human rights, and encouraging backward castes to have self-respect in the context of a caste-based society that considered them to be a lower end of the hierarchy.
A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
Senna auriculata is a legume tree in the subfamily Caesalpinioideae.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
Shaji Neelakantan Karun (born 1 January 1952) is a National Award-winning Indian film director and cinematographer.
Silappadikaram (republished as The Tale of an Anklet) is one of The Five Great Epics of Tamil Literature according to later Tamil literary tradition.
Silent Valley National Park (Malayalam: സൈലന്റ് വാലീ നാഷണല് പാര്ക്ക്), is a national park with a core zone of (making it the second largest national park in Kerala).
Silicon Valley (abbreviated as SV) is a region in the southern San Francisco Bay Area of Northern California, referring to the Santa Clara Valley, which serves as the global center for high technology, venture capital, innovation, and social media.
Silk is a natural protein fiber, some forms of which can be woven into textiles.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), also known as the labiated bear, is an insectivorous bear species native to the Indian subcontinent.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is shaped by social processes.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian Stone Age covers the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods in South Asia.
South Canara was a district of the Madras Presidency of British India, located at.
The South Central Railway (abbreviated SCR and दमरे) is one of the 16 zones of Indian Railways.
The South Deccan Plateau dry deciduous forests is a dry broadleaf forest ecoregion of southern India.
South Indian Railway Company was a railway company which operated in South India from 1874 to 1951.
The South Western Ghats moist deciduous forests is a tropical moist broadleaf forest ecoregion of southern India.
The South Western Ghats montane rain forests are an ecoregion of southern India, covering the southern portion of the Western Ghats range in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, at elevations over 1000 meters.
The South Western Railway (abbreviated SWR and दपरे) is one of the 17 railway zones in India.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern Air Command (SAC) of the Indian Air Force (IAF) is headquartered in Thiruvananthapuram, which is in the southern side of India.
Southern Mahratta Railway (SMR) was a railway company in British India founded in 1882.
The Southern Naval Command is one of the three main formations of the Indian Navy.
The Southern Railway (abbreviated SR), headquartered at Chennai, is one of the 17 zones of Indian Railways.
A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Thiruvilliputhur is a town and a municipality in Virudhunagar district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
State highways in India are numbered highways that are laid and maintained by the state governments.
India is a federal union comprising 29 states and 7 union territories, for a total of 36 entities.
The States Reorganisation Act, 1956 was a major reform of the boundaries of India's states and territories, organising them along linguistic lines.
Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the older, previous one in a given area.
Sugarcane, or sugar cane, are several species of tall perennial true grasses of the genus Saccharum, tribe Andropogoneae, native to the warm temperate to tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia, Polynesia and Melanesia, and used for sugar production.
The Swaraj Party, Swarajaya Party or Swarajya Party or Swarajist Party, established as the Congress-Khilafat Swarajaya Party, was a political party formed in India in January 1923 after the Gaya annual conference in December 1922 of the National Congress, that sought greater self-government and political freedom for the Indian people from the British Raj.
(സ്വാതി തിരുനാള് രാമവർമ്മ) (16 April 1813 – 26 December 1846) was the Maharaja of the Kingdom of Travancore, British India.
Syama Sastri (also commonly transliterated as Shyama Shastri) (1762–1827) was a musician and composer of the Carnatic music tradition.
Tamil cinema is Indian motion pictures produced in the Tamil language.
Tamil cinema has played a vital role in Dravidian politics in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil literature (தமிழ் இலக்கியம்) refers to the literature in the Tamil language.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
Tamil Nadu State Transport Corporation Limited (TNSTC) (Tamil:தமிழ்நாடு அரசு போக்குவரத்து கழகம்) is a public transport bus operator in Tamil Nadu, India.
The Tamil Sangams or Cankams were assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that, according to traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past.
Tea is an aromatic beverage commonly prepared by pouring hot or boiling water over cured leaves of the Camellia sinensis, an evergreen shrub (bush) native to Asia.
A tehsil (also known as a mandal, taluk, taluq or taluka) is an administrative division of some countries of South Asia.
Telangana is a state in the south of India.
Telangana State Road Transport Corporation (TSRTC) is a state-owned company that runs transport services within the Indian state of Telangana.
Telugu cinema, also known by its sobriquet Tollywood, is the segment of Indian cinema dedicated to the production of motion pictures in the Telugu language, based in Film Nagar, a neighborhood of Hyderabad, Telangana.
Telugu cuisine is a cuisine of South India native to the Telugu people from the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
Telugu Desam Party (translation: Party of the Telugu Land), abbreviated as TDP, is a regional political party active in the Southern States of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Telugu literature or Telugu Pandityam (తెలుగు పాండిత్యము) is the body of works written in the Telugu language.
Thai Pongal (தைப்பொங்கல்)is a harvest festival dedicated to the Sun God.
The Thamirabarani River (Porunai) (Tamil: தாமிரபரணி (பொருநை)) is a perennial river that originates from the Agastyarkoodam peak of Pothigai hills of the Western Ghats, above Papanasam in the Ambasamudram taluk.
Thanjavur, formerly Tanjore,Pletcher 2010, p. 195 is a city in the south Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The thavil (Tamil:தவில்) or tavil is a barrel shaped percussion instrument from Tamilnadu.
The Economic Times is an English-language, Indian daily newspaper published by the Bennett, Coleman & Co. Ltd..
Financial Express is an Indian English-language business newspaper.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Indian Express is an English-language Indian daily newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Telegraph is an Indian English daily newspaper founded and continuously published in Kolkata since 7 July 1982.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The Tribune is an Indian English-language daily newspaper published from Chandigarh, New Delhi, Jalandhar, Dehradun and Bathinda.
Theyyam (Teyyam,Theyam, Theyyattam) is a popular ritual form of worship of North Malabar in Kerala, India, predominant in the Kolathunadu area (consisting of present-day Kasargod, Kannur Districts, Mananthavady Taluk of Wayanad and Vatakara and Koyilandy Taluks of Kozhikode of Kerala) and also in South Canara and Kodagu of Karnataka as a living cult with several thousand-year-old traditions, rituals and customs.
Thiruvananthapuram, also known as Trivandrum, is the capital and the largest city of the Indian state of Kerala.
Thiruvananthapuram Central is the main railway station in the city of Thiruvananthapuram (formerly Trivandrum) in the Indian state of Kerala.
Thiruvananthapuram railway division (TVC) is one of the six administrative divisions of the Southern Railway Zone of the Indian Railways.
Thomas the Apostle (תומאס הקדוש; ⲑⲱⲙⲁⲥ; ܬܐܘܡܐ ܫܠܝܚܐ Thoma Shliha; also called Didymus which means "the twin") was one of the Twelve Apostles of Jesus, according to the New Testament.
Thoothukudi, also known by its British name Tuticorin, is a port city and a municipal corporation and an industrial city in Thoothukudi district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Thrissur railway station (Code: TCR) is a railway station in Kerala, India.
There are 50 tiger reserves in India which are governed by Project Tiger which is administrated by the National Tiger Conservation Authority (NTCA).
Tipu Sultan (born Sultan Fateh Ali Sahab Tipu, 20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799), also known as the Tipu Sahib, was a ruler of the Kingdom of Mysore.
Tiruchirappalli (formerly Trichinopoly in English), also called Trichy, is a major tier II city in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the administrative headquarters of Tiruchirappalli District.
Tiruchirappalli International Airport is an international airport serving Tiruchirappalli in the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
Tiruchirappalli Junction railway station(TPJ) is a junction station in Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu.
Tiruchirappalli railway division is one of the seven railway divisions of Southern Railway Zone (SR) of India.
Tirunelveli Junction railway station (station code TEN) serves the city of Tirunelveli in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and is owned by the Madurai Railway division.
Tirupati railway station (station code:TPTY) railway station, located in the India state of Andhra Pradesh, serves Tirupati and the regular flow of large number of pilgrims visiting Tirumala Venkateswara Temple in Chittoor district.
The Tholkāppiyam (தொல்காப்பியம், literally Paleo-literature) is a work on the grammar of the Tamil language and the earliest extant work of Tamil literature and linguistics.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Tourism in India is economically important and is growing rapidly.
Training Command is the Indian Air Force's command responsible for flying and ground training.
The Kingdom of Travancore was an Indian kingdom from 1729 until 1949.
Trivandrum International Airport is an international airport which primarily serve the cities of Trivandrum, Nagercoil, Kanyakumari, Pathanamthitta and Kollam.
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.
A tropical monsoon climate (occasionally known as a tropical wet climate or a tropical monsoon and trade-wind littoral climate) is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification category "Am".
Tropical savanna climate or tropical wet and dry climate is a type of climate that corresponds to the Köppen climate classification categories "Aw" and "As".
Tulu (Tulu: ತುಳು ಭಾಷೆ Tulu bāse) is a Dravidian language spoken by around 2.5 million native speakers mainly in the south west part of the Indian state of Karnataka and in the Kasaragod district of Kerala which is collectively known as Tulu Nadu.
The Tungabhadra River is a river in India that starts and flows through the state of Karnataka during most of its course, before flowing along the border between Karnataka, Telangana and Andhra Pradesh and ultimately joining the Krishna River in Kurnool District of Andhra Pradesh. In the epic Ramayana, the Tungabhadra River was known by the name of Pampa.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) is a rhizomatous herbaceous perennial flowering plant of the ginger family, Zingiberaceae.
V.O.Chidambaranar Port, formerly Tuticorin Port, is one of the 12 major ports in India.
Kakarla Tyagabrahmam (4 May 1767 – 6 January 1847) or Saint Tyagaraja, also known as Tyāgayya in Telugu, was one of the greatest composers of Carnatic music, a form of Indian classical music.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
A union territory is a type of administrative division in the Republic of India.
The United Democratic Front (UDF) is an alliance of political parties in Kerala state, India, created by the prominent Indian National Congress (INC) party leader Shri.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
UTC+05:30 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +05:30.
Uttapam is a dosa-like dish from South India made by cooking ingredients in a batter.
Uttara Kannada (also known as North Canara) is a district in the Indian state of Karnataka.
Velu Narayanasamy (born 30 May 1947) is an Indian National Congress politician, who is the current and 10th Chief Minister of the Union Territory of Puducherry since June 2016.
Varahagiri Venkata Giri (10 August 1894 – 24 June 1980), commonly known as V. V. Giri, was the fourth president of India from 24 August 1969 to 24 August 1974.
The Vaigai is a river in Theni, Andipatti and Madurai, Tamil Nadu state of southern India.
Vaishnavism (Vaishnava dharma) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism along with Shaivism, Shaktism, and Smartism.
Vajubhai Rudabhai Vala is an Indian politician and the current Governor of the state of Karnataka in India since September 2014.
Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary is a protected area located in the Kancheepuram District and Madurantakam taluk of the state of Tamil Nadu, India.
The Vellore mutiny on 10 July 1806 was the first instance of a large-scale and violent mutiny by Indian sepoys against the East India Company, predating the Indian Rebellion of 1857 by half a century.
Vembanad (Vembanad Kayal or Vembanad Kol) is the longest lake in India, and the largest lake in the state of Kerala.
Venkateswara Temple is a landmark Vaishnavite temple situated in the hill town of Tirumala at Tirupati in Chittoor district of Andhra Pradesh, India.
Vesara is one of a number of terms for a distinct stylistic tradition of Indian Hindu temple architecture primarily used in the Deccan and Central India, between the Vindhyas and the river Krishna (VK Agnihotri, Indian History, p. B-34).
The Vidhan Sabha the Legislative Assembly is the lower house (in states with bicameral) or the sole house (in unicameral states) of the state legislature in the different states of India.
The Vidhana Soudha located in Bengaluru, is the seat of the state legislature of Karnataka.
The Vijayanagara Empire (also called Karnata Empire, and the Kingdom of Bisnegar by the Portuguese) was based in the Deccan Plateau region in South India.
Vijayawada is a city in the Andhra Pradesh Capital Region, on the banks of River Krishna in Krishna district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Vijayawada Airport is a public international airportserving Andhra Pradesh Capital Region.
Vijayawada railway station (station code:BZA) is an Indian railway station in Vijayawada of Andhra Pradesh.
Vijayawada railway division (formerly: Bezawada railway division) is one of the six railway divisions under South Central Railway zone of the Indian Railways.
Vilasini Natyam or Chinna Melam is an Indian classical dance form originating in Andhra Pradesh.
The Vindhya Range(also known as Vindhyachal)() is a complex, discontinuous chain of mountain ridges, hill ranges, highlands and plateau escarpments in west-central India.
Visakhapatnam (also known as Vizag and Waltair is the largest city and the financial capital of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. The city is the administrative headquarters of Visakhapatnam district and the Eastern Naval Command of the Indian Navy. Its geographical location is amidst the Eastern Ghats and the coast of the Bay of Bengal. It is the most populous city in the state with a population of 2,035,922 as of 2011, making it the 14th largest city in the country. It is also the 9th most populous metropolitan area in India with a population of 5,340,000. With an output of $43.5 billion, Visakhapatnam is the ninth-largest contributor to India's overall gross domestic product as of 2016. Visakhapatnam's history stretches back to the 6th century BCE, when it was considered a part of the Kalinga Kingdom, and later ruled by the Vengi, the Pallava and Eastern Ganga dynasties. Archaeological records suggest that the present city was built around the 11th and 12th centuries with control over the city fluctuating between the Chola Dynasty and the Gajapati Kingdom, until its conquest by the Vijayanagara Empire in the 15th century. Conquered by the Mughals in the 16th century, European powers eventually set up trading interests in the city, and by the end of the 18th century it had come under French rule. Control passed to the British in 1804 and it remained under British colonial rule until India's independence in 1947. The city is home to the oldest shipyard and the only natural harbour on the east coast of India. Visakhapatnam Port is the fifth-busiest cargo port in India, and the city is home to the headquarters of the Indian Navy's Eastern Command. Visakhapatnam is a major tourist destination and is particularly known for its beaches. It is referred to by many nicknames such asThe City of Destiny and The Jewel of the East Coast. It has been selected as one of the Indian cities to be developed as a smart city under the Smart Cities Mission. As per the Swachhta Sarvekshan rankings of 2017, it is the third cleanest city in India.
Visakhapatnam Airport is an international airport located in Visakhapatnam, India.
Visakhapatnam Port is one of 13 major ports in India and the only major port of Andhra Pradesh.
Visakhapatnam railway station (station code:VSKP) is a major railway station located in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Vizianagaram is a city and district headquarters of Vizianagaram district in the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh.
Waltair (or Visakhapatnam) railway division is one of the three divisions of East Coast Railway Zone (ECoR) of the Indian Railways.
Warangal is a city and district headquarters of Warangal Urban District and Warangal Rural District's in the Indian state of Telangana.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wayanad is a district in the north-east of Kerala state, India with headquarters at the town of Kalpetta.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
Western Ganga was an important ruling dynasty of ancient Karnataka in India which lasted from about 350 to 1000 CE.
Western Ghats also known as Sahyadri (Benevolent Mountains) is a mountain range that runs parallel to the western coast of the Indian peninsula, located entirely in India.
A wet grinder can refer to either a tool for abrasive cutting of hard materials, or a food preparation appliance used especially in Indian cuisine for grinding food grains to produce a paste or batter.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
The Wildlife Institute of India (WII) is an autonomous institution under the Ministry of Environment Forest and Climate change, Government of India.
A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
Yakshagana (Kannada: "ಯಕ್ಷಗಾನ", Tulu: "ಆಟ") is a traditional theatre form that combines dance, music, dialogue, costume, make-up, and stage techniques with a unique style and form.
Yanam (French: Yanaon) is a town in the Indian union territory of Puducherry, located in Yanam district, which forms a 30 km² enclave in the district of East Godavari in Andhra Pradesh.
Yanaon or Yanam was a French colony between 1731 and 1954.
The 15th Indian Census was conducted in two phases, house listing and population enumeration.
Coastal South India, Dravida, Flora and fauna of South India, India, South, Madras India, Peninsular India, South Indian, South india, South indian, South indians, South of India, SouthIndia, Southern India, Southern Indian, Southindia, Transport in South India.