218 relations: Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Air Vietnam, Aircraft carrier, Algerian War, American Forces Network, Amnesty International, Annam (French protectorate), Anti-communism, Army of the Republic of Vietnam, Arrest and assassination of Ngo Dinh Diem, Asian Development Bank, Évolué, Baiyue, Battle of Ap Bac, Battle of Dong Xoai, Battle of the Paracel Islands, Battle of Xuân Lộc, Bảo Đại, Bình Xuyên, Bell UH-1 Iroquois, Bicameralism, Brunei, Buddhism, Buddhist crisis, Buddhist temple, Cambodia, Cao Văn Viên, Caodaism, Capitalism, Case–Church Amendment, Central Highlands, Vietnam, Central Intelligence Agency, Chams, China, Civil resistance, Civilian Irregular Defense Group program, Cold War, Colonel, Colony, Communist Party of Vietnam, Confucianism, Constitutional monarchy, Counter-insurgency, Coup d'état, Da Lat, Da Nang, Dương Văn Minh, Declaration of independence, Degar, Deposition (politics), ..., Diplomatic History (journal), Diplomatic recognition, Easter Offensive, Empire of Japan, Eurasian (mixed ancestry), Failed state, Fall of Saigon, First Indochina War, Flag of South Vietnam, France, French Cochinchina, French colonial empire, French Indochina, French Indochina in World War II, French language, French people, Gerald Ford, Gia Long, Guerrilla warfare, Gulf of Thailand, Gulf of Tonkin incident, Hanoi, Hòa Hảo, Head of state, Ho Chi Minh, Ho Chi Minh City, Ho Chi Minh trail, Hoa people, House of Representatives, Huế, Huế Phật Đản shootings, Huỳnh Tấn Phát, Independence Palace, Indochina, Indonesia, Inflation, International Control Commission, International Development Association, International Monetary Fund, International Olympic Committee, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, International Telecommunication Union, International Telecommunications Satellite Organization, Interpol, John F. Kennedy, Khmer Krom, Khmer Republic, Kingdom of Laos, Laos, Lộc Ninh, Lê Minh Đảo, Lê Văn Hoạch, Leaders of South Vietnam, Library of Congress, List of monarchs of Vietnam, Lyndon B. Johnson, Malaysia, Market economy, Mekong Delta, Military dictatorship, Military occupation, Minh Mạng, Nanyue, National Assembly, National Assembly (France), National Intelligence Estimate, Ngô Đình Nhu, Ngô Quang Trưởng, Ngo Dinh Diem, Nguyễn Cao Kỳ, Nguyễn Huệ, Nguyễn Khánh, Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, Nguyễn Văn Xuân, Nguyen Van Thinh, North Korea, North Vietnam, Operation Frequent Wind, Operation Linebacker, Operation Passage to Freedom, Paracel Islands, Paris Peace Accords, Pentagon Papers, People's Army of Vietnam, People's Liberation Army, Phan Huy Quát, Phan Khắc Sửu, Philippines, Piasecki H-21, Planned economy, Plantation, Plurality (voting), Presidential system, Provisional Central Government of Vietnam, Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, Quỳnh Lưu uprising, Republic, Republic of Vietnam Marine Division, Republic of Vietnam Military Forces, Republic of Vietnam Navy, Reunification Day, Richard Nixon, Senate, September 1964 South Vietnamese coup attempt, Singapore, South China Sea, South Vietnam Air Force, South Vietnamese đồng, Southeast Asia, Soviet Union, Spratly Islands, State of Vietnam, State of Vietnam referendum, 1955, Strategic Hamlet Program, Stratovision, Taiwan, Taoism, Tết, Tet Offensive, Thailand, Thích Trí Quang, The Christian Science Monitor, The Ed Sullivan Show, The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson, Tiếng Gọi Công Dân, Tonkin, Trần Văn Hương, Trần Văn Trà, Unconditional surrender, UNESCO, Unitary state, United Nations, United States, United States Air Force, United States Armed Forces, United States Army, United States Congress, United States Marine Corps, United States Navy, United States Senate, Universal Postal Union, University Press of America, Võ Nguyên Giáp, Vũng Tàu Charter, Việt Minh, Vichy France, Viet Cong, Vietnam, Vietnam Television (1966–75), Vietnam War, Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone, Vietnamese language, Vietnamese people, Vietnamization, Vinh, Warsaw Pact, Watergate scandal, Western Australia, World Bank, World Series, World War II, Xuân Lộc District, 17th parallel north, 18th Division (South Vietnam), 1954 Geneva Conference, 1964 South Vietnamese coup, 1973 oil crisis, 1975 Spring Offensive. Expand index (168 more) » « Shrink index
The Agence de coopération culturelle et technique (ACCT, French for Agency of cultural and technical cooperation) was founded in 1970 and was the precursor to what is now the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie.
Active from 1951 to 1975, Air Viet Nam (Air VN) (Hãng Hàng không Việt Nam) was South Vietnam's first commercial air carrier, headquartered in District 1, Saigon.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
The American Forces Network (AFN) is the broadcast service operated by the United States Armed Forces' American Forces Radio and Television Service (AFRTS, commonly pronounced "A-farts") for its entertainment and command internal information networks worldwide.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Annam (An Nam or Trung Kỳ, alternate spelling: Anam) was a French protectorate encompassing the central region of Vietnam.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
The Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), also known as the South Vietnamese army (SVA), were the ground forces of the South Vietnamese military from its inception in 1955 until the Fall of Saigon in 1975.
The arrest and assassination of Ngô Đình Diệm, the president of South Vietnam, marked the culmination of a successful CIA-backed coup d'état led by General Dương Văn Minh in November 1963.
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
Évolué ("evolved" or "developed") is a French label used during the colonial era to refer to a native African or Asian who had "evolved" by becoming Europeanised through education or assimilation and had accepted European values and patterns of behavior.
The Baiyue, Hundred Yue or Yue were various indigenous peoples of mostly non-Chinese ethnicity who inhabited the region stretching along the coastal area from Shandong to the Yangtze basin, and as far to west as the present-day Sichuan province between the first millennium BC and the first millennium AD.
The Battle of Ấp Bắc was a major battle fought on 2 January 1963 during the Vietnam War.
The Battle of Đồng Xoài (Trận Đồng Xoài) was a major battle fought during the National Liberation Front Summer Offensive of 1965 as part of the Vietnam War.
The Battle of the Paracel Islands was a military engagement between the naval forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and South Vietnam in the Paracel Islands on January 19, 1974.
The Battle of Xuan Loc (Trận Xuân Lộc) was the last major battle of the Vietnam War in which the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) committed almost all their remaining mobile forces, especially the ARVN 18th Infantry Division, under General Lê Minh Đảo to the defence of Xuân Lộc, hoping to stall the advance of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN).
Bảo Đại (lit. "keeper of greatness", 22 October 1913 – 30 July 1997), born Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Thụy, was the 13th and final emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty, the last ruling family of Vietnam.
Binh Xuyen Force (Bộ đội Bình Xuyên), often linked to its infamous leader, General Lê Văn Viễn (a.k.a. "Bảy Viễn") was an independent military force within the Vietnamese National Army whose leaders once had lived outside the law and had sided with the Việt Minh.
The Bell UH-1 Iroquois (nicknamed "Huey") is a utility military helicopter powered by a single turboshaft engine, with two-blade main and tail rotors.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
The Buddhist crisis was a period of political and religious tension in South Vietnam between May and November 1963, characterized by a series of repressive acts by the South Vietnamese government and a campaign of civil resistance, led mainly by Buddhist monks.
A Buddhist temple is the place of worship for Buddhists, the followers of Buddhism.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cao Văn Viên (December 21, 1921 – January 22, 2008) was one of only two, South Vietnamese 4 star Army Generals in the history of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
Caodaism (Chữ nôm: 道高臺) is a monotheistic religion officially established in the city of Tây Ninh in southern Vietnam in 1926.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
The Case–Church Amendment was legislation approved by the U.S. Congress in June 1973 that prohibited further U.S. military activity in Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia unless the president secured Congressional approval in advance.
Tây Nguyên, translated as Western Highlands and sometimes also called Central Highlands, is one of the regions of Vietnam.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Civil resistance is political action that relies on the use of nonviolent resistance by civil groups to challenge a particular power, force, policy or regime.
Civilian Irregular Defense Group program (CIDG, pronounced "sid-gee") was a program developed by the U.S. government in the Vietnam War to develop South Vietnamese irregular military units from minority populations.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
In history, a colony is a territory under the immediate complete political control of a state, distinct from the home territory of the sovereign.
The Communist Party of Vietnam (CPV) is the founding and ruling communist party of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
A counter-insurgency or counterinsurgency (COIN) can be defined as "comprehensive civilian and military efforts taken to simultaneously defeat and contain insurgency and address its root causes".
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Đà Lạt, or Dalat (pop. 406,105, of which 350,509 are urban inhabitants), is the capital of Lâm Đồng Province in Vietnam.
Da Nang (Đà Nẵng) is the fourth largest city in Vietnam after Ho Chi Minh City (Saigon), Hanoi and Haiphong in terms of urbanization and economy.
Dương Văn Minh (16 February 1916 – 6 August 2001), popularly known as Big Minh, was a South Vietnamese politician and a senior general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and a politician during the presidency of Ngô Đình Diệm.
A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state.
The Degar, also known as Montagnard, are the indigenous peoples of the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
Deposition by political means concerns the removal of a politician or monarch.
Diplomatic History is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering the foreign relations history of the United States.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
The Easter Offensive, officially known as The 1972 Spring - Summer Offensive (Chiến dịch Xuân Hè 1972) by North Vietnam and NLF, or Red fiery summer (Mùa hè đỏ lửa) as romanticized in South Vietnamese literature, was a military campaign conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN, the regular army of North Vietnam) against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN, the regular army of South Vietnam) and the United States military between 30 March and 22 October 1972, during the Vietnam War.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
A Eurasian is a person of mixed Asian and European ancestry.
A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly (see also fragile state and state collapse).
The Fall of Saigon, or the Liberation of Saigon, was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (also known as the Việt Cộng) on 30 April 1975.
The First Indochina War (generally known as the Indochina War in France, and as the Anti-French Resistance War in Vietnam) began in French Indochina on 19 December 1946, and lasted until 20 July 1954.
The flag of South Vietnam served as the South Vietnamese national flag during that country's existence between 1948 and 1975.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
French Cochinchina, sometimes spelled Cochin-China (Cochinchine Française, Nam Kỳ, Hán tự: 南圻), was a colony of French Indochina, encompassing the Cochinchina region of southern Vietnam.
The French colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies, protectorates and mandate territories that came under French rule from the 16th century onward.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
In 1940, France was swiftly defeated by Nazi Germany, and colonial administration of French Indochina (modern-day Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia) passed to the pro-German Vichy French government.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
The French (Français) are a Latin European ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France.
Gerald Rudolph Ford Jr. (born Leslie Lynch King Jr; July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006) was an American politician who served as the 38th President of the United States from August 1974 to January 1977.
Gia Long (8 February 1762 – 3 February 1820), born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh), was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn Dynasty, the last of the Vietnamese dynasties. A nephew of the last Nguyễn lord who ruled over southern Vietnam, Nguyễn Ánh was forced into hiding in 1777 as a fifteen-year-old when his family was slain in the Tây Sơn revolt. After several changes of fortune in which his loyalists regained and again lost Saigon, he befriended the French Catholic priest Pigneau de Behaine. Pigneau championed his cause to the French government—and managed to recruit volunteers when this fell through—to help Nguyễn Ánh regain the throne. From 1789, Nguyễn Ánh was once again in the ascendancy and began his northward march to defeat the Tây Sơn, reaching the border with China by 1802, which had previously been under the control of the Trịnh lords. Following their defeat, he succeeded in reuniting Vietnam after centuries of internecine feudal warfare, with a greater land mass than ever before, stretching from China down to the Gulf of Siam. Gia Long's rule was noted for its Confucian orthodoxy. He overcame the Tây Sơn rebellion and reinstated the classical Confucian education and civil service system. He moved the capital from Hanoi south to Huế as the country's populace had also shifted south over the preceding centuries, and built up fortresses and a palace in his new capital. Using French expertise, he modernized Vietnam's defensive capabilities. In deference to the assistance of his French friends, he tolerated the activities of Roman Catholic missionaries, something that became increasingly restricted under his successors. Under his rule, Vietnam strengthened its military dominance in Indochina, expelling Siamese forces from Cambodia and turning it into a vassal state.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
The Gulf of Thailand, formerly the Gulf of Siam, is a shallow inlet in the western part of the South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas, a marginal body of water in the western Pacific Ocean.
The Gulf of Tonkin incident (Sự kiện Vịnh Bắc Bộ), also known as the USS Maddox incident, was an international confrontation that led to the United States engaging more directly in the Vietnam War.
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Đạo Hòa Hảo (Chữ Nôm), also Hoahaoism, is a lay-Buddhist organization, founded in 1939 by Huỳnh Phú Sổ (Popularly called Phật thầy, "Buddha Master" in Vietnamese), a native of the Mekong River Delta region of southern Vietnam.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
The Hồ Chí Minh trail (also known in Vietnam as the "Trường Sơn trail") was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) through the kingdoms of Laos and Cambodia.
The Hoa (Hua 華 in Mandarin Chinese, literally "Chinese") are a minority group living in Vietnam consisting of persons considered ethnic Chinese ("Overseas Chinese").
House of Representatives is the name of legislative bodies in many countries and sub-national entitles.
Huế (is a city in central Vietnam that was the seat of Nguyễn Dynasty emperors from 1802 to 1945, and capital of the protectorate of Annam. A major attraction is its vast, 19th-century citadel, surrounded by a moat and thick stone walls. It encompasses the Imperial City, with palaces and shrines; the Forbidden Purple City, once the emperor's home; and a replica of the Royal Theater. The city was also the battleground for the Battle of Huế, which was one of the longest and bloodiest battles of the Vietnam War.
The Huế Phật Đản shootings were the deaths of nine unarmed Buddhist civilians on 8 May 1963 in the city of Huế, South Vietnam at the hands of the army and security forces of the Roman Catholic government of Ngô Đình Diệm.
Huỳnh Tấn Phát (15 February 1913, near Mỹ Tho, French Indochina – 30 September 1989, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam) was a South Vietnamese communist politician and revolutionary. He was a member of the First National Assembly (Democratic Republic of Vietnam), chairman of the Revolutionary Government of South Vietnam, and, after unification, Deputy Prime Minister of Vietnam. Huỳnh Tấn Phát joined the Communist Party of Vietnam in March 1945, and began revolutionary activities in Saigon, whereupon he was appointed Deputy Director of Information and Press Committee for the South. When the French re-occupied Saigon after World War II, they had him arrested and sentenced to two years in prison. Upon his release he resumed his revolutionary activities and in 1949 was appointed commissioner UBKCHC south, and the District Commissioner UBKCHC for Saigon - Cholon. Huỳnh Tấn Phát became chairman of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (PRG) on its formation in 1969. Upon the surrender of the South Vietnamese government on 30 April 1975, the PRG became the nominal government of South Vietnam. He held this post until 2 July 1976, when the country was reunified with the North, making him the only communist South Vietnamese prime minister. From 1976 to 1982 he was a vice premier in Vietnam, and in 1982 he became a Vice President of the Council of State. For his devotion to the revolution he was awarded the Order of Ho Chi Minh.
Independence Palace (Dinh Độc Lập), also known as Reunification Palace (Dinh Thống Nhất), built on the site of the former Norodom Palace, is a landmark in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
The International Control Commission (ICC) was an international force established in 1954.
The International Development Association (IDA) is an international financial institution which offers concessional loans and grants to the world's poorest developing countries.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Olympic Committee (IOC; French: Comité International Olympique, CIO) is a Swiss private non-governmental organisation based in Lausanne, Switzerland, which is the authority responsible for the modern Olympic Games.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 17 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; Union Internationale des Télécommunications (UIT)), originally the International Telegraph Union (Union Télégraphique Internationale), is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that is responsible for issues that concern information and communication technologies.
The International Telecommunications Satellite Organization (ITSO) is an intergovernmental organization charged with overseeing the public service obligations of Intelsat.
The International Criminal Police Organization (Organisation internationale de police criminelle; ICPO-INTERPOL), more commonly known as Interpol, is an international organization that facilitates international police cooperation.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
The Khmer Krom (ខ្មែរក្រោម, Khơ Me Crộm) are ethnically Khmer people living in the south western part of Vietnam, where they are recognized as one of Vietnam's fifty-three ethnic minorities.
The Khmer Republic (Khmer: សាធារណរដ្ឋខ្មែរ, République khmère) was the pro–United States military-led republican government of Cambodia that was formally declared on 9 October 1970.
The Kingdom of Laos was a constitutional monarchy that ruled Laos beginning with its independence on 9 November 1953.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Lộc Ninh is a town in southern Vietnam, one of at least four with the same name.
Lê Minh Đảo (born c. 1933) is a former South Vietnamese major general who led the 18th Division of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), nicknamed "The Super Men", at Xuân Lộc, the last major battle of the Vietnam War.
Lê Văn Hoạch (1898-1978) was president of the government of Cochinchina from 1946 to 1947.
This is a list of leaders of South Vietnam, since the establishment of the Autonomous Republic of Cochinchina in 1946 until the fall of the Republic of Vietnam in 1975, and the reunification of Vietnam in 1976.
The Library of Congress (LOC) is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress and is the de facto national library of the United States.
This article lists the monarchs of Vietnam.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
The Mekong Delta (Đồng bằng Sông Cửu Long, "Nine Dragon river delta" or simply Đồng Bằng Sông Mê Kông, "Mekong river delta"), also known as the Western Region (Miền Tây) or the South-western region (Tây Nam Bộ) is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
Minh Mạng (25 May 1791 – 20 January 1841; born Nguyễn Phúc Đảm (chữ Hán: 阮福膽), also known as Nguyễn Phúc Kiểu) was the second emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841.
Nanyue or, or Nam Viet (Nam Việt) was an ancient kingdom that covered parts of northern Vietnam and the modern Chinese provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, and Yunnan.
National Assembly politically is either a legislature, or the lower house of a bicameral legislature in some countries.
The National Assembly (Assemblée nationale) is the lower house of the bicameral Parliament of France under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat).
National Intelligence Estimates (NIEs) are United States federal government documents that are the authoritative assessment of the Director of National Intelligence (DNI) on intelligence related to a particular national security issue.
Ngô Đình Nhu (7 October 1910 – 2 November 1963) was a Vietnamese archivist and politician.
Ngô Quang Trưởng (13 December 1929 — 22 January 2007) was an officer in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN).
Ngô Đình Diệm (3 January 1901 – 2 November 1963) was a South Vietnamese politician.
Nguyễn Cao Kỳ (8 September 1930 – 23 July 2011) served as the chief of the Republic of Vietnam Air Force in the 1960s, before leading the nation as the prime minister of South Vietnam in a military junta from 1965 to 1967.
Nguyễn Huệ (阮惠), also known as Emperor Quang Trung (光中) (born in Bình Định in 1753, died in Phú Xuân on 16 September 1792), was the second emperor of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1788 until 1792.
Nguyễn Khánh (November 8, 1927 – January 11, 2013) was a South Vietnamese military officer and Army of the Republic of Vietnam general who served in various capacities as head of state and prime minister of South Vietnam while at the head of a military junta from January 1964 until February 1965.
Nguyễn Văn Thiệu (5 April 1923 – 29 September 2001) was the president of South Vietnam from 1965 to 1975.
Nguyễn Văn Xuân (3 April 1892 in Annam – 14 January 1989 in France) was president of the government of Cochinchina from 1945 to 1947, then president of the Provisional Central Government of Vietnam from 1947 to 1949, during the First Indochina War.
Nguyễn Văn Thinh (1888 – 10 November 1946, Saigon) was the first President of Cochinchina.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
North Vietnam, officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) (Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa), was a country in Southeast Asia from 1945 to 1976, although it did not achieve widespread recognition until 1954.
Operation Frequent Wind was the final phase in the evacuation of American civilians and "at-risk" Vietnamese from Saigon, South Vietnam prior to the takeover of the city by the North Vietnamese Army (PAVN) in the Fall of Saigon.
Operation Linebacker was the codename of a U.S. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 air interdiction campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 9 May to 23 October 1972, during the Vietnam War.
Operation Passage to Freedom was a term used by the United States Navy to describe its assistance in transporting in 1954–55 310,000 Vietnamese civilians, soldiers and non-Vietnamese members of the French Army from communist North Vietnam (the Democratic Republic of Vietnam) to South Vietnam (the State of Vietnam, later to become the Republic of Vietnam).
The Paracel Islands, also known as Xisha in Chinese and Hoàng Sa in Vietnamese, is a group of islands, reefs, banks and other maritime features in the South China Sea.
The Paris Peace Accords, officially titled the Agreement on Ending the War and Restoring Peace in Vietnam, was a peace treaty signed on January 27, 1973, to establish peace in Vietnam and end the Vietnam War.
The Pentagon Papers, officially titled Report of the Office of the Secretary of Defense Vietnam Task Force, is a United States Department of Defense history of the United States' political and military involvement in Vietnam from 1945 to 1967.
The People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN; Quân Đội Nhân Dân Việt Nam), also known as the Vietnamese People's Army (VPA), is the military force of the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
Phan Huy Quát (Hà Tĩnh Province, 12 June 1908 – 27 April 1979) served as acting Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam and also as Prime Minister of the Republic of Vietnam.
Phan Khắc Sửu (1893 or 9 January 1905 – 24 May 1970) was Head of State of South Vietnam from 1964–65.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
The Piasecki H-21 Workhorse/Shawnee is an American helicopter, the fourth of a line of tandem rotor helicopters designed and built by Piasecki Helicopter (later Boeing Vertol).
A planned economy is a type of economic system where investment and the allocation of capital goods take place according to economy-wide economic and production plans.
A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.
A plurality vote (in North America) or relative majority (in the United Kingdom) describes the circumstance when a candidate or proposition polls more votes than any other, but does not receive a majority.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Provisional Central Government of Vietnam was an entity proclaimed in Vietnam during the First Indochina War.
The Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam, or PRG, was formed on June 8, 1969, as an underground government opposed to the government of the Republic of Vietnam under President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu.
The Quỳnh Lưu uprising (Khởi-nghĩa Quỳnh-lưu 1956) was a rebellion against the North Vietnamese communist government in the rural Quỳnh Lưu District in Nghệ An Province, from November 2–14, 1956.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Vietnam Marine Division (RVNMD, Sư Đoàn Thủy Quân Lục Chiến) was part of the armed forces of South Vietnam.
The Republic of Vietnam Military Forces or RVNMF (– QLVNCH), were the official armed defense forces of the Republic of Vietnam (RVN), popularly known as South Vietnam, a state that existed from 1955 to 1975 in the southern half of what is now the Socialist Republic of Vietnam.
The Republic of Vietnam Navy (VNN;; HQVNCH) was the naval branch of the South Vietnamese military, the official armed forces of the former Republic of Vietnam (or South Vietnam) from 1955 to 1975.
Reunification Day (Ngày Thống nhất), Victory Day (Ngày Chiến thắng) or Liberation Day (Ngày Giải phóng or Ngày Giải phóng miền Nam) or the official name of Day of liberating the South for national reunification (Giải phóng miền Nam, thống nhất đất nước) is a public holiday in Vietnam that marks the event when Việt Cộng and North Vietnamese troops captured Saigon (now Ho Chi Minh City) on April 30, 1975.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament.
Before dawn on September 13, 1964, the ruling military junta of South Vietnam, led by General Nguyễn Khánh, was threatened by a coup attempt headed by Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức, who sent dissident units into the capital Saigon.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
The South Vietnam Air Force (Vietnamese: Không lực Việt Nam Cộng hòa – KLVNCH), officially the Republic of Vietnam Air Force (sometimes Vietnam Air Force – VNAF) was the aerial branch of the Republic of Vietnam Military Forces, the official military of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) from 1955 to 1975.
The đồng was the currency of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) from 1953 to 2 May 1978.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Spratly Islands (南沙群岛 (Nánshā Qúndǎo), Kepulauan Spratly, Kapuluan ng Kalayaan, Quần đảo Trường Sa) are a disputed group of islands, islets and cays and more than 100 reefs, sometimes grouped in submerged old atolls, in the South China Sea.
The State of Vietnam referendum of 1955 determined the future form of government of the State of Vietnam, the nation that was to become the Republic of Vietnam (widely known as South Vietnam).
The Strategic Hamlet Program (SHP; Ấp Chiến lược) was a plan by the governments of South Vietnam and the United States during the Vietnam War to combat the communist insurgency by pacifying the countryside and reducing the influence of the communists among the rural population.
Stratovision was an airborne television transmission relay system from aircraft flying at high altitudes.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Taoism, also known as Daoism, is a religious or philosophical tradition of Chinese origin which emphasizes living in harmony with the Tao (also romanized as ''Dao'').
Tết, or Vietnamese New Year, is the most important celebration in Vietnamese culture.
The Tet Offensive (Sự kiện Tết Mậu Thân 1968), or officially called The General Offensive and Uprising of Tet Mau Than 1968 (Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Tết Mậu Thân 1968) by North Vietnam and the NLF (National Liberation Front), was one of the largest military campaigns of the Vietnam War, launched on January 30, 1968, by forces of the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam, the United States Armed Forces, and their allies.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thích Trí Quang (born 1924) is a Vietnamese Mahayana Buddhist monk best known for his role in leading South Vietnam's Buddhist population during the Buddhist crisis in 1963.
The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is a nonprofit news organization that publishes daily articles in electronic format as well as a weekly print edition.
The Ed Sullivan Show was an American television variety show that ran on CBS from June 20, 1948, to June 6, 1971, and was hosted by New York entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan.
The Tonight Show Starring Johnny Carson is an American talk show hosted by Johnny Carson under the Tonight Show franchise from October 1, 1962 through May 22, 1992.
"Thanh Niên Hành Khúc" (March of the Youths), later known as "Call to the Citizens" (Tiếng Gọi Công Dân), and before that "March of the Students" (Sinh Viên Hành Khúc), was the national anthem of South Vietnam from 1948 to 1975.
Tonkin (historically Đàng Ngoài), also spelled Tongkin, Tonquin or Tongking, is in the Red River Delta Region of northern Vietnam.
Trần Văn Hương (1 December 1903 – 27 January 1982) was a South Vietnamese politician.
Nguyễn Chấn, known as Trần Văn Trà (1918 – April 20, 1996) was a Vietnamese general.
An unconditional surrender is a surrender in which no guarantees are given to the surrendering party.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Senate is the upper chamber of the United States Congress, which along with the United States House of Representatives—the lower chamber—comprise the legislature of the United States.
The Universal Postal Union (UPU, Union postale universelle), established by the Treaty of Bern of 1874, is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) that coordinates postal policies among member nations, in addition to the worldwide postal system.
University Press of America is an academic publisher based in the United States.
Võ Nguyên Giáp (25 August 1911 – 4 October 2013) was a Vietnamese general in the Vietnam People's Army and a politician.
The Vũng Tàu Charter (Hiến chương Vũng Tàu) was a provisional new constitution for South Vietnam which was introduced on the 16 August 1964 by General Nguyễn Khánh.
Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
The National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (Mặt trận Dân tộc Giải phóng miền Nam Việt Nam) also known as the Việt Cộng was a mass political organization in South Vietnam and Cambodia with its own army – the People's Liberation Armed Forces of South Vietnam (PLAF) – that fought against the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War, eventually emerging on the winning side.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vietnam Television (Đài Truyền hình Việt Nam, abbreviated THVN), also known as Saigon Television (Đài Truyền hình Sài Gòn) or Channel 9 (Đài số 9), was one of two national television broadcasters in South Vietnam from February 7, 1966, until just before the Fall of Saigon on April 29, 1975.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
The Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone was a demilitarized zone established as a dividing line between North and South Vietnam as a result of the First Indochina War.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
Vietnamization was a policy of the Richard Nixon administration to end U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War through a program to "expand, equip, and train South Vietnamese forces and assign to them an ever-increasing combat role, at the same time steadily reducing the number of U.S. combat troops." Brought on by the Viet Cong's Tet Offensive, the policy referred to U.S. combat troops specifically in the ground combat role, but did not reject combat by the U.S. Air Force, as well as the support to South Vietnam, consistent with the policies of U.S. foreign military assistance organizations.
Vinh is the biggest city and economic and cultural center of central Vietnam.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Watergate scandal was a major political scandal that occurred in the United States during the early 1970s, following a break-in by five men at the Democratic National Committee (DNC) headquarters at the Watergate office complex in Washington, D.C. on June 17, 1972, and President Richard Nixon's administration's subsequent attempt to cover up its involvement.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Series is the annual championship series of Major League Baseball (MLB) in North America, contested since 1903 between the American League (AL) champion team and the National League (NL) champion team.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xuân Lộc is a district of Đồng Nai Province, Vietnam, in the South East region of the country.
The 17th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 17 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 18th Division was an infantry division in the III Corps of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN).
The Geneva Conference was a conference among several nations that took place in Geneva, Switzerland from April 26 – July 20, 1954.
Before dawn on January 30, 1964, General Nguyễn Khánh ousted the military junta led by General Dương Văn Minh from the leadership of South Vietnam without firing a shot.
The 1973 oil crisis began in October 1973 when the members of the Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries proclaimed an oil embargo.
The 1975 Spring Offensive (Chiến dịch Mùa Xuân 1975) or officially known as The General Offensive and Uprising of the Spring 1975 (Tổng Tiến công và Nổi dậy Mùa Xuân 1975) was the final North Vietnamese campaign in the Vietnam War that led to the capitulation of South Vietnam.
Cochinchinese Democratic Party, Free Vietnam (1955-1975), Government of South Vietnam, Republic Of Vietnam, Republic of South Viet Nam, Republic of Viet Nam, Republic of Vietnam, Republic of Vietnam (RVN), Repulic of Vietnam, S Vietnam, S. Vietnam, South Viet Nam, South Vietnamese, South vietnam, VNCH, Viet Nam, South, Vietnam Republic, Vietnam, Rep of South, Vietnam, South, Việt Nam Cộng Hòa, Việt Nam Cộng hòa.