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Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
An abugida (from Ge'ez: አቡጊዳ ’abugida), or alphasyllabary, is a segmental writing system in which consonant–vowel sequences are written as a unit: each unit is based on a consonant letter, and vowel notation is secondary.
Acehnese language (Achinese) is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by Acehnese people natively in Aceh, Sumatra, Indonesia.
Afroasiatic (Afro-Asiatic), also known as Afrasian and traditionally as Hamito-Semitic (Chamito-Semitic) or Semito-Hamitic, is a large language family of about 300 languages and dialects.
Ahmedabad, also known as Amdavad is the largest city and former capital of the Indian state of Gujarat.
An air quality index (AQI) is a number used by government agencies to communicate to the public how polluted the air currently is or how polluted it is forecast to become.
Aklanon (Akeanon), also known as Aklan, is a regional Visayan language spoken in the province of Aklan on the island of Panay in the Philippines.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
The Alpide belt or Alpine-Himalayan orogenic beltK.M. Storetvedt, K. M., The Tethys Sea and the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt; mega-elements in a new global tectonic system, Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors, Volume 62, Issues 1–2, 1990, Pages 141–184 is a seismic belt and orogenic belt that includes an array of mountain ranges extending along the southern margin of Eurasia, stretching from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic.
Ambonese Malay or simply Ambonese is a Malay-based creole language spoken on Ambon Island in the Maluku Islands of Indonesia.
The Andaman and Nicobar Islands, one of the seven union territories of India, are a group of islands at the juncture of the Bay of Bengal and Andaman Sea.
The angklung is a musical instrument from Indonesia made of a varying number of bamboo tubes attached to a bamboo frame.
Angkor (អង្គរ, "Capital City")Headly, Robert K.; Chhor, Kylin; Lim, Lam Kheng; Kheang, Lim Hak; Chun, Chen.
Angkor Wat (អង្គរវត្ត, "Capital Temple") is a temple complex in Cambodia and the largest religious monument in the world, on a site measuring.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anoa, also known as midget buffalo and sapiutan, are a subgenus of Bubalus comprising two species native to Indonesia: the mountain anoa (Bubalus quarlesi) and the lowland anoa (Bubalus depressicornis).
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
Arakanese (also known as Rakhine; ရခိုင်ဘာသာ, MLCTS: ra.hkuing bhasa) is a language closely related to Burmese, of which it is often considered a dialect.
The Aru Islands Regency (also Aroe Islands, Kabupaten Kepulauan Aru) are a group of about ninety-five low-lying islands in the Maluku province of eastern Indonesia.
The ASEAN Agreement on Transboundary Haze Pollution is a legally binding environmental agreement signed in 2002 by the member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations to reduce haze pollution in Southeast Asia.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The Asia-America Gateway (AAG) is a long submarine communications cable system, connecting South-East Asia with the mainland of the United States, across the Pacific Ocean via Guam and Hawaii.
The Asian elephant, or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia, from India and Nepal in the west to Borneo in the south.
The Aslian languages are a family of Austroasiatic languages spoken on the Malay Peninsula.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten Southeast Asian countries that promotes intergovernmental cooperation and facilitates economic, political, security, military, educational, and sociocultural integration amongst its members, other Asian countries, and globally.
Australasia, a region of Oceania, comprises Australia, New Zealand, neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean and, sometimes, the island of New Guinea (which is usually considered to be part of Melanesia).
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The continent of Australia, sometimes known in technical contexts by the names Sahul, Australinea or Meganesia to distinguish it from the country of Australia, consists of the land masses which sit on Australia's continental shelf.
Australoid (also Australasian, Australo-Melanesian, Veddoid,Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Paolo Menozzi, Alberto Piazza, The History and Geography of Human Genes (1994),. R. P. Pathak, Education in the Emerging India (2007),.) is a broad racial classification introduced by Thomas Huxley in 1870 to refer to certain peoples indigenous to South and Southeast Asia and Oceania.
The Austroasiatic languages, formerly known as Mon–Khmer, are a large language family of Mainland Southeast Asia, also scattered throughout India, Bangladesh, Nepal and the southern border of China, with around 117 million speakers.
The Austronesian languages are a language family that is widely dispersed throughout Maritime Southeast Asia, Madagascar and the islands of the Pacific Ocean, with a few members in continental Asia.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
Đại Việt (literally Great Viet) is the name of Vietnam for the periods from 1054 to 1400 and 1428 to 1804.
The babirusas, also called deer-pigs (babirusa) are a genus, Babyrousa, in the swine family found in Wallacea, or specifically the Indonesian islands of Sulawesi, Togian, Sula and Buru.
Bahonsuai is an Austronesian language of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Bajaw is the language of the Bajaw 'Sea Gypsies' of Maritime Southeast Asia.
Bali (Balinese:, Indonesian: Pulau Bali, Provinsi Bali) is an island and province of Indonesia with the biggest Hindu population.
Balinese, or simply Bali, is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by 3.3 million people on the Indonesian island of Bali as well as northern Nusa Penida, western Lombok and eastern Java.
The Balinese (Indonesian: Suku Bali) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Bali.
The Balinese script, natively known as Aksara Bali and Hanacaraka, is an alphabet used in the island of Bali, Indonesia, commonly for writing the Austronesian Balinese language, Old Javanese, and the liturgical language Sanskrit.
The Bamar (also historically the Burmese and Burmans) are the dominant ethnic group in Myanmar.
The "Bamboo network" is a term used to conceptualize connections between businesses operated by the Overseas Chinese community in Southeast Asia.
The Banaue Rice Terraces (Hagdan-hagdang Palayan ng Banawe) are terraces that were carved into the mountains of Ifugao in the Philippines by ancestors of the indigenous people.
Bandar Seri Begawan (Jawi: بندر سري بڬاوان) (formerly known as Brunei Town) is the capital city of the Sultanate of Brunei.
Bandung (Sundanese:, Bandung, formerly Dutch: Bandoeng), is the capital of West Java province in Indonesia and Greater Bandung made up of 2 municipalities and 38 districts, making it Indonesia's 2nd largest metropolitan area with over 8.5 millions inhabitants listed in the 2015 Badan Pusat Statistik data.
The Greater Bandung metropolitan area (Indonesian: Kawasan metropolitan Bandung Raya) is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia.
Bangka or Bangka Malay is a Malayan language spoken in Indonesia, specifically on the Island of Bangka in the Bangka–Belitung Islands of Sumatra.
Bangkalan, Madura is a town on the western coast of Madura Island in Indonesia, the government seat of the Bangkalan Regency.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Not to be confused with Bangkok Metropolis, which is a reference to Bangkok's city limits. The Bangkok Metropolitan Region (กรุงเทพมหานครและปริมณฑล; RTGS: Krung Thep Mahanakhon Lae Parimonthon; Literally: Bangkok and surrounding provinces), may refer to a government-defined "political definition" of the urban region surrounding the metropolis of Bangkok, or the built-up area, i.e., urban agglomeration of Bangkok, Thailand, which varies in size and shape, and gets filled in as development expands.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Sir Banister Flight Fletcher (15 February 1866, London – 17 August 1953, London) was an English architect and architectural historian, as was his father, also named Banister Fletcher.
Banjar (Banjar:, Indonesian: Bahasa Banjar, Jawi: بهاس بنجر) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Banjar people of South Kalimantan province of Indonesia.
Banten is the westernmost province on the island of Java, in Indonesia.
Batak is a collective term used to identify a number of closely related Austronesian ethnic groups predominantly found in North Sumatra, Indonesia who speak Batak languages.
Pakpak, or Batak Dairi, is an Austronesian language of Sumatra.
The Batak languages are spoken by the Batak people of North Sumatra, Indonesia.
Batek is an aboriginal Mon–Khmer language of Malaya.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
The Bayon (ប្រាសាទបាយ័ន, Prasat Bayon) is a well-known and richly decorated Khmer temple at Angkor in Cambodia.
Bekasi City (Kota Bekasi, Sundanese:, Chinese: 勿加泗市) is a city in West Java, Indonesia, located on the eastern border of Jakarta within the Jakarta metropolitan region.
Bengali, also known by its endonym Bangla (বাংলা), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken in South Asia.
Betawi Malay, also known as Jakartan Malay or Batavian Malay, is the spoken language of the Betawi people in Jakarta, Indonesia.
The Bicolanos are the fifth-largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group.
The Bikol languages are a group of Central Philippine languages spoken mostly in the Bicol Peninsula in the island of Luzon, the neighboring island province of Catanduanes and the island of Burias of Masbate.
The Bima language, or Bimanese (Bima: Nggahi Mbojo, Malay: Bahasa Bima) is an Austronesian language spoken on the eastern half of Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which it shares with speakers of the Sumbawa language.
The binturong (Arctictis binturong), also known as bearcat, is a viverrid native to South and Southeast Asia.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Bogor (Sundanese: ᮘᮧᮌᮧᮁ, Dutch: Buitenzorg) is a city in the West Java province, Indonesia.
The Border or Upper Tami languages are an independent family of Papuan languages in Malcolm Ross's version of the Trans–New Guinea proposal.
The Bornean clouded leopard (Neofelis diardi borneensis) is a subspecies of the Sunda clouded leopard.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
Bisaya, also known as Southern Bisaya or Brunei Bisaya or Tutong language 1, is a Sabahan language spoken in Brunei and Sarawak, Malaysia.
The Brunei dollar (Malay: ringgit Brunei, currency code: BND), has been the currency of the Sultanate of Brunei since 1967.
Brunei Malay (Bahasa Melayu Brunei) is the most widely spoken language in Brunei and a lingua franca in some parts of East Malaysia, such as Labuan, Limbang, Lawas, Sipitang and Papar.
Bubalus is a genus of bovines that was first described by Charles Hamilton Smith in 1827.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Buginese or Bugis (Basa Ugi, elsewhere also Bahasa Bugis, Bugis, Bugi, De) is a language spoken by about five million people mainly in the southern part of Sulawesi, Indonesia.
The Buginese people are an ethnic group—the most numerous of the three major linguistic and ethnic groups of South Sulawesi, in the southwestern province of Sulawesi, third largest island of Indonesia.
Bukit China (Malay: "Chinese Hill"; Chinese: 三保山) is a hillside of historical significance in the capital of Malaysian state of Malacca, Malacca Town.
Bungku is an Austronesian language (one of the Celebic languages) of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.
The Bungku–Tolaki languages are a group of languages spoken primarily in South East Sulawesi province, Indonesia, and in neighboring parts of Central and South Sulawesi provinces.
The kyat (or; ကျပ်; ISO 4217 code MMK) is the currency of Myanmar (Burma).
The Burmese language (မြန်မာဘာသာ, MLCTS: mranmabhasa, IPA) is the official language of Myanmar.
Butuanon is an Austronesian regional language spoken in Agusan del Norte and Agusan del Sur, with some native speakers in Misamis Oriental and Surigao del Norte.
Caloocan (Kalookan) is the fourth most populous city in the Philippines.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The riel (រៀល; sign: ៛; code: KHR) is the currency of Cambodia.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Capiznon (Spanish: capiceño) is an Austronesian regional language spoken in Western Visayas in the Philippines.
Cebu City (Dakbayan sa Sugbu; Lungsod ng Cebu) is a first class highly urbanized city in the island province of Cebu in Central Visayas, Philippines.
The Cebuano or Cebuan language, also often colloquially albeit informally referred to by most of its speakers simply as Bisaya (English translation: "Visayan", not to be confused with other Visayan languages), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Philippines by about 21 million people in Central Visayas, western parts of Eastern Visayas and most parts of Mindanao, most of whom belong to various Visayan ethnolinguistic groups, mainly the Cebuanos.
The Cebuano people (Mga Sugbuanon) are a subgroup of the Visayan people whose primary language is the Cebuano language.
Cham is the language of the Cham people of Southeast Asia, and formerly the language of the kingdom of Champa in central Vietnam.
The Cham-Đại Việt War of 1471 began when Emperor Lê Thánh Tông of Đại Việt launched a military expedition that is widely regarded as an event that marked the downfall of Champa. The Đại Việt forces attacked and sacked the kingdom's capital Vijaya, and decimated the Cham army. As a result of the conflict, Champa was forced to cede territory to Annam and ceased to pose a threat to Annamese territory since then.
Champa (Chăm Pa) was a collection of independent Cham polities that extended across the coast of what is today central and southern Vietnam from approximately the 2nd century AD before being absorbed and annexed by Vietnamese Emperor Minh Mạng in AD 1832.
The Chams, or Cham people (Cham: Urang Campa, người Chăm or người Chàm, ជនជាតិចាម), are an ethnic group of Austronesian origin in Southeast Asia.
Chavacano or Chabacano refers to a number of Spanish-based creole language varieties spoken in the Philippines.
Chữ Nôm (literally "Southern characters"), in earlier times also called quốc âm or chữ nam, is a logographic writing system formerly used to write the Vietnamese language.
Chevrotains, also known as mouse-deer, are small ungulates that make up the family Tragulidae, the only members of the infraorder Tragulina.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
The Chinese domination of Vietnam (Bắc thuộc, 北屬, "Belonging to the North (China)") began in 111 BC, and is usually considered to have ended in 938 AD.
Chinese Singaporeans or Singaporean Chinese are people of full or partial Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who hold Singaporean nationality.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
In 1025, Rajendra Chola, the Chola king from Tamil Nadu in South India, launched naval raids on ports of Srivijaya in maritime Southeast Asia, and conquered Kadaram (modern Kedah) from Srivijaya and occupied it for some time.
Chopsticks are shaped pairs of equal-length sticks that have been used as kitchen and eating utensils in virtually all of East Asia for over 2000 years.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Territory of Christmas Island is an Australian external territory comprising the island of the same name. Christmas Island is located in the Indian Ocean, around south of Java and Sumatra and around north-west of the closest point on the Australian mainland. It has an area of. Christmas Island had a population of 1,843 residents as of 2016, the majority of whom live in settlements on the northern tip of the island. The main settlement is Flying Fish Cove. Around two-thirds of the island's population is estimated to have Malaysian Chinese origin (though just 21.2% of the population declared a Chinese ancestry in 2016), with significant numbers of Malays and white Australians as well as smaller numbers of Malaysian Indians and Eurasians. Several languages are in use, including English, Malay, and various Chinese dialects. Islam and Buddhism are major religions on the island, though a vast majority of the population does not declare a formal religious affiliation and may be involved in ethnic Chinese religion. The first European to sight the island was Richard Rowe of the Thomas in 1615. The island was later named on Christmas Day (25 December) 1643 by Captain William Mynors, but only settled in the late 19th century. Its geographic isolation and history of minimal human disturbance has led to a high level of endemism among its flora and fauna, which is of interest to scientists and naturalists. The majority (63 percent) of the island is included in the Christmas Island National Park, which features several areas of primary monsoonal forest. Phosphate, deposited originally as guano, has been mined on the island since 1899.
This is a chronology of the early European exploration of Asia.
Chryse and Argyre were a pair of legendary islands, located in the Indian Ocean and said to be made of gold (chrysos in Greek) and silver (argyros).
Cimahi is a city located west of Bandung, West Java, Indonesia in the Bandung Metropolitan Area.
Coastal Kadazan, also known as Kadazan Tangaa, is a dialect of the Kadazan Dusun language as well as a minority language primarily spoken in Sabah, Malaysia.
The Territory of Cocos (Keeling) Islands is an Australian external territory in the Indian Ocean, comprising a small archipelago approximately midway between Australia and Sri Lanka.
A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution often, but not necessarily inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism as an intermediate stage.
Confucianism, also known as Ruism, is described as tradition, a philosophy, a religion, a humanistic or rationalistic religion, a way of governing, or simply a way of life.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
The culture of India refers collectively to the thousands of distinct and unique cultures of all religions and communities present in India.
A currency (from curraunt, "in circulation", from currens, -entis), in the most specific use of the word, refers to money in any form when in actual use or circulation as a medium of exchange, especially circulating banknotes and coins.
Cuyonon is a regional Visayan language spoken on the coast of Palawan, and the Cuyo Islands in the Philippines.
, officially the (Dakbayan sa Dabaw, Lungsod ng Dabaw), is a highly urbanized city in the island of Mindanao,.
The Dayak or Dyak or Dayuh are the native people of Borneo.
Rates and causes of deforestation vary from region to region around the world.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Depok (ᮓᮦᮕᮧᮊ᮪) is a city in West Java province, Indonesia on the southern border of Jakarta SCR in the Greater Jakarta metropolitan region.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
, officially the, (Dakbayan sa Digos; Lungsod ng Digos), or simply referred to as Digos City, is a settlement_text and capital of the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
Dili (Portuguese/Tetum: Díli, Indonesian: Kota Dili), also known as “City of Peace”, is the capital, largest city, chief port, and commercial centre of Timor-Leste (East Timor).
The Dong Son culture (named for Đông Sơn, a village in Vietnam) was a Bronze Age culture in ancient Vietnam centred at the Red River Valley of northern Vietnam from 1000 BC until the first century AD.
The Dravidian languages are a language family spoken mainly in southern India and parts of eastern and central India, as well as in Sri Lanka with small pockets in southwestern Pakistan, southern Afghanistan, Nepal, Bangladesh and Bhutan, and overseas in other countries such as Malaysia, Indonesia and Singapore.
The drongos are a family, Dicruridae, of passerine birds of the Old World tropics.
Duarte Barbosa (c. 1480, Lisbon, Portugal1 May 1521, Philippines) was a Portuguese writer and officer from Portuguese India (between 1500 and 1516).
The Dusunic languages are a group of languages spoken by the Bisaya, Dusun, Kadazan, Rungus, and related peoples in the Malaysian province of Sabah on Borneo.
The Dutch East Indies (or Netherlands East-Indies; Nederlands(ch)-Indië; Hindia Belanda) was a Dutch colony consisting of what is now Indonesia.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
The "Sinosphere", or "East Asian cultural sphere", refers to a grouping of countries and regions in East Asia that were historically influenced by the Chinese culture.
The East Geelvink Bay or East Cenderawasih languages are a language family of a dozen Papuan languages along the eastern coast of Geelvink Bay in Indonesian Papua, which is also known as Sarera Bay or Cenderawasih.
The East Indies or the Indies are the lands of South and Southeast Asia.
East Malaysia (Malaysia Timur), also known as Sabah, Sarawak and Labuan (Sabah, Sarawak dan Labuan) or Malaysian Borneo, is the part of Malaysia on the island of Borneo, the world's third largest island.
East Timor or Timor-Leste (Tetum: Timór Lorosa'e), officially the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste (República Democrática de Timor-Leste, Repúblika Demokrátika Timór-Leste), is a sovereign state in Maritime Southeast Asia.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
The Enggano language, or Engganese, is a language of debated linguistic affiliation spoken on Enggano Island off the southwestern coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Enrique of Malacca (Enrique de Malaca; Henrique de Malaca), was a native of the Malay Archipelago who became a slave of the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in the 16th century.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
The Federation of Malaya (Persekutuan Tanah Melayu; Jawi: ڤرسكوتوان تانه ملايو) was a federation of 11 states (nine Malay states and two of the British Straits Settlements, Penang and Malacca)See: Cabinet Memorandum by the Secretary of State for the Colonies.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
Filipino (Wikang Filipino), in this usage, refers to the national language (Wikang pambansa/Pambansang wika) of the Philippines.
Fish sauce is a condiment made from fish coated in salt and fermented from weeks to up to two years.
Flora is the plant life occurring in a particular region or time, generally the naturally occurring or indigenous—native plant life.
Flores (Indonesian: Pulau Flores) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, a group of islands in the eastern half of Indonesia.
Flying Fish Cove (飞鱼湾, Flying Fish Cove) is the capital city and main settlement of Australia's Christmas Island.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Funan, (ហ្វូណន - Fonon), (Phù Nam) or Nokor Phnom (នគរភ្នំ) was the name given by Chinese cartographers, geographers and writers to an ancient Indianised state—or, rather a loose network of states (Mandala)—located in mainland Southeast Asia centered on the Mekong Delta that existed from the first to sixth century CE.
The Fuzhou dialect, (FR) also Fuzhounese, Foochow or Hok-chiu, is the prestige variety of the Eastern Min branch of Min Chinese spoken mainly in the Mindong region of eastern Fujian province.
The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
Gamelan is the traditional ensemble music of Java and Bali in Indonesia, made up predominantly of percussive instruments.
The Garuda is a legendary bird or bird-like creature in Hindu, Buddhist and Jain mythology.
The gaur (Bos gaurus), also called the Indian bison, is the largest extant bovine.
Gayo is an Austronesian language spoken by some 100,000 people (2000) in the mountainous region of Aceh around Central Aceh, Bener Meriah and Gayo Lues regencies.
George Town, the capital city of the Malaysian state of Penang, is located at the northeastern tip of Penang Island.
Gerbangkertosusila or Gerbangkertosusilo refers to Surabaya 'Extended' Metropolitan Area, East Java.
Gili Motang is a small island in Eastern Indonesia.
A gong chime is a generic term for a set of small, high-pitched bossed pot gongs.
The Gorontalo language (also called Hulontalo) is a language spoken in Gorontalo Province (Northern Sulawesi, Indonesia, southern coast) by the Gorontaloan people.
"Great Wall of Sand" is a name first used in March 2015 by US Admiral Harry Harris, who was commander of the Pacific Fleet, to describe a series of uniquely large-scale land reclamation projects by the People's Republic of China (PRC) in the Spratly Islands area of the South China Sea in the period from late 2013 to late 2016.
The term Greater India is most commonly used to encompass the historical and geographic extent of all political entities of the Indian subcontinent, and the regions which are culturally linked to India or received significant Indian cultural influence.
Greater Kuala Lumpur is the geographical term that determines the boundaries of Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur in Malaysia.
The Greater Penang Conurbation that covers all of Penang, southern Kedah and northern Perak is Malaysia's second most populous metropolitan area.
Gresik Regency (older spelling Grissee) (Javanese:Nggersik) is a regency within East Java Province of Indonesia.
Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.
Guimaras (Kapuoran sang Guimaras; Probinsiya kang Guimaras; Lalawigan ng Guimaras) is an island province in the Philippines located in the region of Western Visayas.
Gujarat is a state in Western India and Northwest India with an area of, a coastline of – most of which lies on the Kathiawar peninsula – and a population in excess of 60 million.
The term Gujarati Muslims (گجراتی مسلمان) is usually used to signify an Indian Muslim from the state of Gujarat in North-western coast of India.
Haiphong (Hải Phòng) is a major industrial city, the second largest city in the northern part of Vietnam, and third largest city overall in Vietnam.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
The Hakkas, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
Halmahera, formerly known as Jilolo, Gilolo, or Jailolo, is the largest island in the Maluku Islands.
Prof. Dr. Haji Abdul Malik bin Dr.
Hang Li Po was the fifth wife of Malaccan Sultan Mansur Shah (reigned 1456-1477).
Hanoi (or; Hà Nội)) is the capital of Vietnam and the country's second largest city by population. The population in 2015 was estimated at 7.7 million people. The city lies on the right bank of the Red River. Hanoi is north of Ho Chi Minh City and west of Hai Phong city. From 1010 until 1802, it was the most important political centre of Vietnam. It was eclipsed by Huế, the imperial capital of Vietnam during the Nguyễn Dynasty (1802–1945). In 1873 Hanoi was conquered by the French. From 1883 to 1945, the city was the administrative center of the colony of French Indochina. The French built a modern administrative city south of Old Hanoi, creating broad, perpendicular tree-lined avenues of opera, churches, public buildings, and luxury villas, but they also destroyed large parts of the city, shedding or reducing the size of lakes and canals, while also clearing out various imperial palaces and citadels. From 1940 to 1945 Hanoi, as well as the largest part of French Indochina and Southeast Asia, was occupied by the Japanese. On September 2, 1945, Ho Chi Minh proclaimed the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). The Vietnamese National Assembly under Ho Chi Minh decided on January 6, 1946, to make Hanoi the capital of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam. From 1954 to 1976, it was the capital of North Vietnam, and it became the capital of a reunified Vietnam in 1976, after the North's victory in the Vietnam War. October 2010 officially marked 1,000 years since the establishment of the city. The Hanoi Ceramic Mosaic Mural is a ceramic mosaic mural created to mark the occasion.
Hanoi Capital Region or Hanoi Metropolitan Area (Vùng thủ đô Hà Nội) is a metropolitan area currently planned by the government of Vietnam.
Hayam Wuruk, also called (after 1350) Rajasanagara, Pa-ta-na-pa-na-wu, or Bhatara Prabhu, (1334–1389), was a Javanese Hindu King from the Rajasa Dynasty and the fourth monarch of the Indianised Majapahit Empire.
Haze is traditionally an atmospheric phenomenon in which dust, smoke, and other dry particulates obscure the clarity of the sky.
Hạ Long is the capital city and 1st-class provincial city of Quảng Ninh Province, Vietnam.
The Hiligaynon language, also colloquially referred often by most of its speakers simply as Ilonggo, is an Austronesian regional language spoken in the Philippines by about 9.1 million people, mainly in Western Visayas and SOCCSKSARGEN, most of whom belong to the Visayan ethnic group, mainly the Hiligaynons.
The Hiligaynon people, often referred to as Ilonggo people (Mga Hiligaynon/Mga Ilonggo), are a subgroup of the Visayan people whose primary language is the Hiligaynon language, an Austronesian language native to Panay, Guimaras, and Negros.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism in Southeast Asia has a profound impact on the region's cultural development and its history.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
Kedah, also written as Queda, and known in the early days as Qalha, Kalah Bar, Kalah or Kalaha by the Arabs and Persians, Cheh-Cha, Ka-Cha by the Chinese and Kedaram, Kidaram, Kalagam and Kataha by the Tamils, is an early kingdom on the Malay Peninsula and an important early trade centre.
The Hmong/Mong (RPA: Hmoob/Moob) are an indigenous people in Asia.
Ho Chi Minh City (Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh; or; formerly Hô-Chi-Minh-Ville), also widely known by its former name of Saigon (Sài Gòn; or), is the largest city in Vietnam by population.
Ho Chi Minh City metropolitan area (Vùng đô thị Thành phố Hồ Chí Minh) is a metropolitan area that was in June 2008 proposed by the Ministry of Construction of Vietnam to the Government of Vietnam for approval.
The Hoa (Hua 華 in Mandarin Chinese, literally "Chinese") are a minority group living in Vietnam consisting of persons considered ethnic Chinese ("Overseas Chinese").
Hokkien (from) or (閩南語/閩南話), is a Southern Min Chinese dialect group originating from the Minnan region in the south-eastern part of Fujian Province in Southeastern China and Taiwan, and spoken widely there and by the Chinese diaspora in Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, the Philippines and other parts of Southeast Asia, and by other overseas Chinese all over the world.
Homo erectus (meaning "upright man") is an extinct species of archaic humans that lived throughout most of the Pleistocene geological epoch.
Homo floresiensis ("Flores Man"; nicknamed "hobbit") is an extinct species in the genus Homo.
Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
Honey is a sweet, viscous food substance produced by bees and some related insects.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The hornbills (Bucerotidae) are a family of bird found in tropical and subtropical Africa, Asia and Melanesia.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
The Human Genome Organisation (HUGO) is an organization involved in the Human Genome Project, a project about mapping the human genome.
The Iban language (jaku Iban) is spoken by the Iban, a branch of the Dayak ethnic group formerly known as "Sea Dayak" who live in the Malaysian state of Sarawak, the Indonesian province of West Kalimantan and in Brunei.
The Ibanag language (also Ybanag or Ibanak) is spoken by up to 500,000 speakers, most particularly by the Ibanag people, in the Philippines, in the northeastern provinces of Isabela and Cagayan, especially in Tuguegarao, Solana, Abulug, Cabagan, and Ilagan and with overseas immigrants in countries located in the Middle East, United Kingdom and the United States.
The IDX Composite (formerly: JSX Composite, Indonesian: Indeks Harga Saham Gabungan, IHSG) is an index of all stocks listed on the Indonesia Stock Exchange, IDX (formerly known as Jakarta Stock Exchange, JSX).
Igorot, or Cordillerans, is the collective name of several Austronesian ethnic groups in the Philippines, who inhabit the mountains of Luzon.
Ilocano (also Ilokano;; Ilocano: Pagsasao nga Ilokano) is the third most-spoken native language of the Philippines.
The Ilocanos (Tattao nga Iloko/Ilokano), Ilokanos, or Iloko people are the third largest Filipino ethnolinguistic group that mostly reside within the Ilocos Region in the northwestern seaboard of Luzon, Philippines.
Iloilo City, officially the City of Iloilo (Dakbanwa/Syudad sang Iloilo; Syudad kang/ka Iloilo; Lungsod ng Iloilo; Ciudad de Iloílo) is a highly urbanized city on the southeastern tip of Panay island in the Philippines.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
The Indo-European languages are a language family of several hundred related languages and dialects.
Indochina, originally Indo-China, is a geographical term originating in the early nineteenth century and referring to the continental portion of the region now known as Southeast Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian (bahasa Indonesia) is the official language of Indonesia.
The rupiah (Rp) is the official currency of Indonesia. Issued and controlled by the Bank of Indonesia, the ISO 4217 currency code for the Indonesian rupiah is IDR. The name "Rupiah" is derived from the Indian word rupiya (रुपीया), ultimately from Sanskrit rupyakam (रूप्यकम्; silver). Informally, Indonesians also use the word "perak" ("silver" in Indonesian) in referring to rupiah. The rupiah is subdivided into 100 sen, although inflation has rendered all coins and banknotes denominated in sen obsolete. The Riau islands and the Indonesian half of New Guinea (Irian Barat) had their own variants of the rupiah in the past, but these were subsumed into the national rupiah in 1964 and 1971 respectively (see Riau rupiah and West Irian rupiah).
Indosphere is a term coined by the linguist James Matisoff for areas of Indian linguistic and cultural influence in Southeast Asia.
(Sanskrit: इन्द्र), also known as Devendra, is a Vedic deity in Hinduism, a guardian deity in Buddhism, and the king of the highest heaven called Saudharmakalpa in Jainism.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Insulindia is a somewhat archaic geographical term for Maritime Southeast Asia, sometimes extending as far as Australasia.
The Iranun language also Iranon, Illanun is an Austronesian language belonging to the Danao languages spoken in the provinces of Maguindanao and other part of Lanao del Sur and Lanao del Norte and Cotabato in southern Philippines and the Malaysian state of Sabah.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islamization (also spelled Islamisation, see spelling differences; أسلمة), Islamicization or Islamification is the process of a society's shift towards Islam, such as found in Sudan, Pakistan, Iran, Malaysia, or Algeria.
The Ivatan (Ibatan) language, also known as Chirin nu Ibatan ("language of the Ivatan people"), is an Austronesian language spoken in the Batanes Islands.
Jabodetabek or Greater Jakarta is an official and administrative definition of the urban area or megacity surrounding the Indonesia capital city, Jakarta. The original term "Jabotabek" dated from the late 1970s and was revised to "Jabodetabek" in 1999 when "De" (for "Depok") was inserted into the name following its formation. It finally included DKI Jakarta, five cities and three regencies. The area comprises Jakarta and parts of West Java and Banten provinces, specifically the three regencies of those provinces which surround Jakarta - Bekasi and Bogor in West Java, and Tangerang in Banten. Also included were the Kota (formerly Kotamadya) independent municipalities of Bogor, Depok, Bekasi, Tangerang and South Tangerang. The name of the region is taken from the first two (or three) letters of each city's name: Jabo(de)tabek from Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang and Bekasi. The population of Jabodetabek, with an area of 6,392 km2, was over 28.0 million according to the Indonesian Census 2010, and by January 2014 was officially estimated to have increased to over 30.0 millionPenduduk Kabupaten/Kota Umur Tunggal - Tahun 2014. making it the most populous region in Indonesia, as well as the second most populous urban area in the world after Tokyo. The population share of Jabodetabek to national population was increased from 6.1% in 1961 to 11.26% in 2010.Rustiadi et al., Pembangunan Kawasan Transmigrasi Dalam Perspektif Pengembangan Wilayah & Perdesaan, 2012 The region is the center of government, culture, education, and economy of Indonesia. It has pulled many people from throughout of Indonesia to come, live and work. Its economic power makes Jabodetabek the country's premier center for finance, manufacture and commerce. The region was established in 1976 through Presidential Instruction No. 13 in response to the needs to sustain the growing population of capital city. Indonesia's government established Jabotabek Cooperation Body (Badan Kerjasama Pembangunan) of the joint secretariat of Government of DKI Jakarta and West Java province.R.B. Singh, Urban Development Challenges, Risks and Resilience in Asian Mega Cities, 2014.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Jakun is an Austronesian language, perhaps a dialect of Malay, spoken in Malaysia.
Jambi Malay (Jambi Malay: Baso Jambi, Indonesian: Bahasa Jambi or Bahasa Melayu Jambi) is a Malayan language spoken in Jambi province, Indonesia.
Jan Gonda, (14 April 1905 – 28 July 1991) was a Dutch Indologist and the first Utrecht professor of Sanskrit.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
The Javan rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sondaicus), also known as the Sunda rhinoceros or lesser one-horned rhinoceros, is a very rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses.
Javanese (colloquially known as) is the language of the Javanese people from the central and eastern parts of the island of Java, in Indonesia.
The Javanese (Ngoko Javanese:, Madya Javanese:,See: Javanese language: Politeness Krama Javanese:, Ngoko Gêdrìk: wòng Jåwå, Madya Gêdrìk: tiyang Jawi, Krama Gêdrìk: priyantun Jawi, Indonesian: suku Jawa) are an ethnic group native to the Indonesian island of Java.
John W. Dower (born June 21, 1938 in Providence, Rhode Island) is an American author and historian.
Kadazan-Dusun (also written as Kadazandusun) is the term assigned to the unification of the classification of two indigenous peoples of Sabah, Malaysia—the ethnic groups Kadazan and Dusun.
Kahuripan (also spelt Kuripan) later Kediri was an 11th-century Javanese Hindu-Buddhist kingdom with its capital located around the estuarine of Brantas River valley in East Java.
The Kai Islands (also Kei Islands) of Indonesia are a group of islands in the southeastern part of the Maluku Islands in Maluku Province.
Kalimantan is the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo.
Kandal (កណ្ដាល., "Central") is a province (khaet) of Cambodia located in the southeast portion of the country.
Kapampangan, Pampango, or the Pampangan language is one of the major languages of the Philippines.
The Kapampangan people (Taung Kapampangan), also known as Pampangueños or Pampangos, are the fifth largest ethnolinguistic group in the Philippines, numbering about 2.89 million.
The Karay-a language, or Kinaray-a (Karay-a + the infix -in-) (ISO: krj), is an Austronesian regional language spoken by the Karay-a people, mainly in Antique in the Philippines as well as Iloilo and other provinces on the island of Panay.
The Karen or Karenic languages are tonal languages spoken by some seven million Karen people.
Karo (also Cherre, Kere, Kerre) is an Omotic language spoken in the Debub (South) Omo Zone of the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and People's Region in Ethiopia.
Kedah (Jawi: قدح), also known by its honorific Darul Aman or "Abode of Peace", is a state of Malaysia, located in the northwestern part of Peninsular Malaysia.
Kedah Malay or Kedahan (Also known as Pelat Utara or Loghat Utara 'Northern Dialect') also referred in Thailand as "Syburi Malay" (ภาษามลายูไทรบุรี) is a variety of the Malayan languages mainly spoken in the northwestern northern Malaysian states of Perlis, Kedah, Penang, and northern Perak and in the southern Thai provinces of Trang, Satun and parts of Yala, the usage of Kedahan Malay was historically prevalent in southwestern Thailand before being superseded by the Thai language.
The Kedah Sultanate is a Muslim dynasty located in the Malay Peninsula.
Kelabit is one of the most remote languages of Borneo, on the Sarawak–Kalimantan border.
Kelantan-Pattani Malay, often referred to in Thailand as Yawi (in Thai) or Jawi (in Patani Malay), and in Kelantan as Baso Kelate, is a Malayan language spoken in the Malaysian state of Kelantan and the neighbouring southernmost provinces of Thailand.
The Khmer Empire (Khmer: ចក្រភពខ្មែរ: Chakrphup Khmer or អាណាចក្រខ្មែរ: Anachak Khmer), officially the Angkor Empire (Khmer: អាណាចក្រអង្គរ: Anachak Angkor), the predecessor state to modern Cambodia ("Kampuchea" or "Srok Khmer" to the Khmer people), was a powerful Hindu-Buddhist empire in Southeast Asia.
The Khmer Krom (ខ្មែរក្រោម, Khơ Me Crộm) are ethnically Khmer people living in the south western part of Vietnam, where they are recognized as one of Vietnam's fifty-three ethnic minorities.
Khmer or Cambodian (natively ភាសាខ្មែរ phiəsaa khmae, or more formally ខេមរភាសា kheemaʾraʾ phiəsaa) is the language of the Khmer people and the official language of Cambodia.
Khmer people (ខ្មែរ,, Northern Khmer pronunciation) are a Southeast Asian ethnic group native to Cambodia, accounting for 97.6% of the country's 15.9 million people.
The Kingdom of Portugal (Regnum Portugalliae, Reino de Portugal) was a monarchy on the Iberian Peninsula and the predecessor of modern Portugal.
Klang Valley (Lembah Klang) is an area in Malaysia which is centered in Kuala Lumpur, and includes its adjoining cities and towns in the state of Selangor.
Komering is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken in Indonesia, in the southern part of Sumatra.
Komodo (Indonesian Pulau Komodo) is one of the 17,508 islands that compose the Republic of Indonesia.
The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo monitor, is a species of lizard found in the Indonesian islands of Komodo, Rinca, Flores, Gili Motang, and Padar.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Kota Marudu Talantang is an Austronesian language of Sabah, Malaysia.
The Kra–Dai languages (also known as Tai–Kadai, Daic and Kadai) are a language family of tonal languages found in southern China, Northeast India and Southeast Asia.
The kris (ngoko Javanese:; krama inggil Javanese:; ngoko: keris; krama; dhuwung; krama inggil: wangkingan, lit. "to slice"; Jawi: کريس, Thai: กริช krit, Minangkabau: karih, Tagalog: kalis; Bugis and Makassarese: sele) is an asymmetrical dagger with distinctive blade-patterning achieved through alternating laminations of iron and nickelous iron (pamor).
Papia Kristang ("speak kristang"), or just Kristang, is a creole language.
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
Kulintang is a modern term for an ancient instrumental form of music composed on a row of small, horizontally laid gongs that function melodically, accompanied by larger, suspended gongs and drums.
Kulisusu is an Austronesian language (one of the Celebic languages) of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Lacquerware are objects decoratively covered with lacquer.
The Lakes Plain languages are a small family of Papuan languages.
Lamongan Regency is a regency (kabupaten) of East Java, Indonesia, with an area of.
Lampung is the language of the Indonesian province of Lampung at the southern tip of Sumatra.
There is a wide variety of languages spoken throughout Asia, comprising different language families and some unrelated isolates.
More than 700 living languages are spoken in Indonesia.
The indigenous languages of Malaysia belong to the Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian families.
There are some 120 to 187 languages and dialects in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification.
The kip (ກີບ; code: LAK; sign: ₭ or ₭N; kip; Official Name: ເງີນກີບລາວ, lit. "Currency Lao Kip") is the currency of Laos since 1952.
Lao, sometimes referred to as Laotian (ລາວ 'Lao' or ພາສາລາວ 'Lao language') is a tonal language of the Kra–Dai language family.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Lapu-Lapu, officially the City of Lapu-Lapu (Dakbayan sa Lapu-Lapu, Lungsod ng Lapu-Lapu) is a highly urbanized city in the region of, Philippines.
Leganés is a city in central Spain.
Lewotobi is a Central Malayo-Polynesian language of Flores island in Indonesia.
Active volcanoes in the Philippines, as categorized by the Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS), include volcanoes in the country having erupted within historical times (within the last 600 years), with accounts of these eruptions documented by humans; or having erupted within the last 10,000 years (holocene) based on analyses of datable materials.
This is a list of countries and dependent territories by population.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
The world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.
This is a list of countries by gross domestic product (GDP) sector composition.
This is a list of current heads of state and heads of government.
This is a list of national birds, most official, but some unofficial.
This is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia.
This is a list of contiguous urban areas of the world ranked according to population.
Lotud, also known as Dusun Lotud, is a shifting Austronesian language of Sabah, Malaysia.
The language spoken by the Lun Bawangs (or Lundayeh) belongs to the Malayo-Polynesian family.
Luzon is the largest and most populous island in the Philippines.
Ma'anyan or Ma'anjan or Maanyak Dayak is an Austronesian language belonging to the East Barito languages.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Madurese is a language of the Madurese people of Madura Island and eastern Java, Indonesia; it is also spoken on the neighbouring small Kangean Islands and Sapudi Islands, as well as by migrants to other parts of Indonesia, namely the eastern salient of Java (comprising Pasuruan, Surabaya, Malang to Banyuwangi), the Masalembu Islands, and even some on Kalimantan.
The Madurese (sometimes Madurace or Madhure) also known as Orang Madura and Suku Madura in Indonesian are an ethnic group originally from the island of Madura now found in many parts of Indonesia, where they are the third-largest ethnic group by population.
Maguindanao or Maguindanaon is an Austronesian language spoken by majority of the population of Maguindanao province in the Philippines.
Mah Meri, sometimes also known as Besisi or Betise’, is an Austroasiatic language spoken in the Malay Peninsula.
Mahāyāna (Sanskrit for "Great Vehicle") is one of two (or three, if Vajrayana is counted separately) main existing branches of Buddhism and a term for classification of Buddhist philosophies and practice.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
Mainland Southeast Asia, also known as the Indochinese Peninsula and previously as Indochina, is the continental portion of Southeast Asia east of India and south of China that is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the west and the Pacific Ocean to the east.
Mairasi (Faranyao and Kaniran) is a Papuan language of the Bomberai Peninsula of Papua, Indonesia.
The Majapahit Empire (Javanese: ꦏꦫꦠꦺꦴꦤ꧀ꦩꦗꦥꦲꦶꦠ꧀ Karaton Majapahit, Kerajaan Majapahit) was a thalassocracy in Southeast Asia, based on the island of Java (part of modern-day Indonesia), that existed from 1293 to circa 1500.
Makassarese (sometimes spelled Makasar, Makassar, or Macassar) is a language of the Makassarese people, spoken in South Sulawesi province of Indonesia.
Makati, officially the City of Makati (Lungsod ng Makati, Siyudad ng Makati), in the Philippines, is one of the sixteen cities that make up Metro Manila.
The Malacca Sultanate (Kesultanan Melayu Melaka; Jawi script: كسلطانن ملايو ملاك) was a Malay sultanate centred in the modern-day state of Malacca, Malaysia.
The Malagasy (Malgache) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the island and country of Madagascar.
The Malay Archipelago (Malaysian & Indonesian: Kepulauan Melayu/Nusantara, Tagalog: Kapuluang Malay, Visayan: Kapupud-ang Malay) is the archipelago between mainland Indochina and Australia.
Malay Indonesians (Malay: orang Melayu Indonesia; Jawi script: اورڠ ملايو ايندونيسيا) are ethnic Malays living throughout Indonesia as one of the indigenous peoples of the island nation.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The concept of a Malay race was originally proposed by the German physician Johann Friedrich Blumenbach (1752–1840), and classified as a brown race.
Malay Singaporeans or Singaporean Malays (Melayu Singapura; Jawi: ملايو سيڠاڤورا) are defined by the Government of Singapore and by intellectuals in the country using the broader concept of the Malay race, including ethnic Malays and related ethnic groups.
In addition to its classical and literary form, Malay had various regional dialects established before the rise of the Malaccan Sultanate.
Malayalam is a Dravidian language spoken across the Indian state of Kerala by the Malayali people and it is one of 22 scheduled languages of India.
The Malayan tapir (Tapirus indicus), also called the Asian tapir, is the largest of the five species of tapir and the only one native to Asia.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malaysian English (MyE), formally known as Malaysian Standard English (MySE), is a form of English used and spoken in Malaysia.
The Malaysian language (bahasa Malaysia), or Malaysian Malay (bahasa Melayu Malaysia) is the name regularly applied to the Malay language used in Malaysia.
Malaysian Malays (Malaysian: Melayu Malaysia, Jawi: ملايو مليسيا) are Malaysians of Malay ethnicity whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in the Malay world.
Malaysian Mandarin is a variety of Mandarin Chinese spoken in Malaysia by ethnic Chinese in Malaysia.
The Malaysian ringgit (plural: ringgit; symbol: RM; currency code: MYR; formerly the Malaysian dollar) is the currency of Malaysia.
The Maluku Islands or the Moluccas are an archipelago within Banda Sea, Indonesia.
Manado Malay, or simply the Manado language, is a creole language spoken in Manado, the capital of North Sulawesi province in Indonesia, and the surrounding area.
Mandailing or Batak Mandailing is an Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, the northern island of Sumatra.
Mandalay is the second-largest city and the last royal capital of Myanmar (Burma).
Mandar (also Andian, Manjar, Mandharsche) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Mandar ethnic group living in West Sulawesi province of Indonesia, especially in the coastal regencies of Majene and Polewali Mandar, as well as in a few settlements in the islands of Pangkep District (also known as the Spermonde Archipelago) and Ujung Lero, a small peninsula near Pare-Pare). It is written in the Lontara (Buginese) script. The ethnic Mandar people are closely related to three other groups living in South Sulawesi: Bugis, Makassar, and Toraja.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Mandaue, officially the City of Mandaue (Dakbayan sa Mandaue; Lungsod ng Mandaue) and often referred to as Mandaue City, is a highly urbanized city in the region of Central Visayas (Region VII), Philippines.
The Manggarai language (Manggarai: tombo Manggarai, Indonesian: bahasa Manggarai) is the language of the Manggarai people from the western parts of the island of Flores, in East Nusa Tenggara Province, Indonesia.
Manila (Maynilà, or), officially the City of Manila (Lungsod ng Maynilà), is the capital of the Philippines and the most densely populated city proper in the world.
The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila; Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships which for two and a half centuries linked the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain.
The Manila massacre (Filipino: Pagpatay sa Maynila) involved atrocities committed against Filipino civilians in the City of Manila, the capital of the Philippines, by Japanese troops during World War II at the Battle of Manila (February 3, 1945 – March 3, 1945).
Sultan Mansur Shah ibni Almarhum Sultan Muzaffar Shah (died 1477) was the sixth Sultan of Malacca.
Maranao is an Austronesian language spoken by the Maranao people in the provinces of Lanao del Norte and Lanao del Sur in the Philippines, and in Sabah, Malaysia.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
Masbateño or Minasbate is a Bicol-Visayan language spoken by more than 600,000 people, primarily in the province of Masbate in the Philippines.
The Proclamation of Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity was made by the Director-General of UNESCO starting in 2001 to raise awareness of intangible cultural heritage and encourage local communities to protect them and the local people who sustain these forms of cultural expressions.
Mayon (Bulkan Mayon, Bulkang Mayon, Monte Mayón), also known as Mayon Volcano or Mount Mayon, is an active stratovolcano in the province of Albay in Bicol Region, on the large island of Luzon in the Philippines.
The Medang Empire or Mataram Kingdom was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom that flourished between the 8th and 11th centuries.
The Mekong Delta (Đồng bằng Sông Cửu Long, "Nine Dragon river delta" or simply Đồng Bằng Sông Mê Kông, "Mekong river delta"), also known as the Western Region (Miền Tây) or the South-western region (Tây Nam Bộ) is the region in southwestern Vietnam where the Mekong River approaches and empties into the sea through a network of distributaries.
Melanau is an Austronesian language spoken in the coastal area of the Rejang delta on northwest Borneo, Sarawak, Malaysia and Brunei.
Metropolitan Cebu, or simply Metro Cebu, (Kaulohang Sugbo, Kalakhang Cebu), is the main urban center of the province of Cebu in the Philippines.
Metro Davao, officially called Metropolitan Davao (Kaulohang Dabaw, Kalakhang Dabaw), is a metropolitan area in the Mindanao island group, Philippines.
The Iloilo–Guimaras Metropolitan Area or Metro Iloilo–Guimaras (MIG) (Hiligaynon: Kaulohan nga Iloilo–Guimaras; Filipino: Kalakhang Iloilo–Guimaras) is a metropolitan area encompassing the highly urbanized city of Iloilo City, the Regional Agro-Industrial Center of Pavia, the towns of Oton, Leganes, Santa Barbara, Cabatuan and San Miguel and the neighboring island province of Guimaras with its five municipalities of Jordan, Buenavista, Nueva Valencia, San Lorenzo and Sibunag.
Metropolitan Manila (Kalakhang Maynila, Kamaynilaan) is the seat of government and one of the three defined metropolitan areas of the Philippines.
The Middle Pleistocene is an informal, unofficial subdivision of the Pleistocene Epoch, from 781,000 to 126,000 years ago.
Min or Miin (BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan.
The Minahasan languages are a group of languages spoken by the Minahasa people in northern Sulawesi.
Minangkabau (autonym: Baso Minang(kabau); Bahasa Minangkabau) is an Austronesian language spoken by the Minangkabau of West Sumatra, the western part of Riau, South Aceh Regency, the northern part of Bengkulu and Jambi, also in several cities throughout Indonesia by migrated Minangkabau.
Minangkabau people (Minangkabau: Urang Minang; Indonesian: Suku Minang; Jawi script: اورڠ مينڠ), also known as Minang, are an ethnic group indigenous to the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia.
Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.
Modern Standard Arabic (MSA; اللغة العربية الفصحى 'the most eloquent Arabic language'), Standard Arabic, or Literary Arabic is the standardized and literary variety of Arabic used in writing and in most formal speech throughout the Arab world to facilitate communication.
Mojokerto (ꦩꦗꦏꦼꦂꦠ (Majakerta)) is a city in East Java Province, Indonesia.
The Moken language is a half dozen closely related varieties spoken by the Moken "Sea Gypsies" off the coast of Burma and Thailand.
The Mon language (ဘာသာ မန်; မွန်ဘာသာ) is an Austroasiatic language spoken by the Mon people, who live in Myanmar and Thailand.
The Mon (မောန် or မည်; မွန်လူမျိုး,; មន, มอญ) are an ethnic group from Myanmar living mostly in Mon State, Bago Region, the Irrawaddy Delta and along the southern border of Thailand and Myanmar.
Mongol invasions and conquests took place throughout the 13th century, resulting in the vast Mongol Empire, which by 1300 covered much of Asia and Eastern Europe.
Mongondow, or Bolaang Mongondow, is one of the Indonesian languages spoken in Bolaang Mongondow Regency and neighbouring regencies of North Sulawesi (Celebes) and Gorontalo Provinces, Indonesia.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Mori Atas, also known as Upper Mori or West Mori, is an Austronesian language of the Celebic branch.
Mori Bawah, also known as Lower Mori or East Mori, is an Austronesian language of the Celebic branch.
Moronene is an Austronesian language spoken in Bombana Regency, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.
Muna is an Austronesian language spoken principally on the island of Muna and the adjacent (nowthwestern) part of Buton Island, off the southeast coast of Sulawesi in Indonesia.
The Murutic languages are a family of half a dozen closely related Austronesian languages, spoken in the northern inland regions of Borneo by the Murut and Tidung.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Myinsaing Kingdom (မြင်စိုင်းခေတ်) was the kingdom that ruled central Burma (Myanmar) from 1297 to 1313.
Nakhon Pathom (นครปฐม) is a city (thesaban nakhon) in central Thailand, the former capital of Nakhon Pathom Province.
Nalanda was a Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.
Nanyang is a sinocentric Chinese term for the warmer and fertile geographical region south of China, otherwise known as the 'South Sea' or Southeast Asia.
The nats (နတ်; MLCTS: nat) are spirits worshipped in Myanmar in conjunction with Buddhism.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Naypyidaw, officially spelled Nay Pyi Taw (formerly known as Kyetpyay, Pyinmana or Kyatpyay, Pyinmana), is the capital city of Myanmar and seat of the government of Myanmar.
The Negrito are several different ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of South and Southeast Asia.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
The category of newly industrialized country (NIC) is a socioeconomic classification applied to several countries around the world by political scientists and economists.
Ngaju is an Austronesian language spoken along the Kapuas, Kahayan, Katingan, and Mentaya Rivers in Central Borneo, Indonesia.
The Nias language is an Austronesian language spoken on Nias Island and the Batu Islands off the west coast of Sumatra in Indonesia.
The Nicobarese languages, or Nicobaric languages, form an isolated group of about half a dozen closely related Austroasiatic languages, spoken by the majority of the inhabitants of the Nicobar Islands of India.
The Nimboran languages are a small independent family of Papuan languages in the classification of Malcolm Ross, that had been part of Stephen Wurm's Trans–New Guinea proposal.
The Nine-Dash Line—at various times also referred to as the "10-dash line" and the "11-dash line"—refers to the undefined, vaguely located, demarcation line used initially by the Republic of China (1912–1949) and subsequently the governments of the Republic of China (ROC / Taiwan) and the People's Republic of China (PRC), for their claims of the major part of the South China Sea.
Nonthaburi (นนทบุรี) is the principal city of the district and province of the same name in Thailand.
North Moluccan Malay (also known as Ternate Malay) is a language spoken in Ternate, Tidore and Halmahera islands, North Maluku for intergroup communications, and in the Sula Islands.
Terms such as Northeast Asia, North East Asia or Northeastern Asia refer to a subregion of Asia: the northeastern landmass and islands, bordering the Pacific Ocean.
Northeast India (officially North Eastern Region, NER) is the easternmost region of India representing both a geographic and political administrative division of the country.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas; Refaluwasch or Carolinian: Commonwealth Téél Falúw kka Efáng llól Marianas), is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 15 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.
Northern Vietnam (Miền Bắc) is one of the three geographical regions within Vietnam.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Southeast Asia is a rich source of hydrocarbon resources—natural gas and petroleum.
Okolod, or Kolod, is a language spoken by the Murut people of Borneo.
Orang Asli (lit. "original people", "natural people" or "aboriginal people" in Malay) are the indigenous people and the oldest inhabitants of Peninsular Malaysia.
The orangutans (also spelled orang-utan, orangutang, or orang-utang) are three extant species of great apes native to Indonesia and Malaysia.
The Osing language (Indonesian:Bahasa Osing), locally known as the language of Banyuwangi, is the language of the Osing people of East Java, Indonesia.
, officially the, (Banwa kang Oton; Banwa sang Oton; Bayan ng Oton) is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
A paddy field is a flooded parcel of arable land used for growing semiaquatic rice.
Padoe is an Austronesian language of the Celebic branch.
The Kingdom of Pagan (ပုဂံခေတ်,, lit. "Pagan Period"; also commonly known as the Pagan Dynasty and the Pagan Empire) was the first kingdom to unify the regions that would later constitute modern-day Burma (Myanmar).
Pahang Malay (Standard Malay: Bahasa Melayu Pahang; Jawi: بهاس ملايو ڤهڠ) is a dialect of Malay language spoken in the Malaysian state of Pahang.
Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.
Palawan (pron.), officially the Province of Palawan (Cuyonon: Probinsya i'ang Palawan / Paragua; Kapuoran sang Palawan; Lalawigan ng Palawan) is an archipelagic province of the Philippines that is located in the region of MIMAROPA.
Musi, also known as Palembang Malay, Basa Pelembang Sari-sari and Sekayu, is a Malayan language spoken by about 3 million residents of Palembang metropolitan area (the capital of South Sumatra, Indonesia) and the surrounding area.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Pangasinan language or Salitan Pangasinan is one of the major languages of the Philippines.
The Pangasinan people (Totoon Pangasinan), also known as Pangasinense, are a ethnolinguistic group native to the the Philippines.
Papua is the largest and easternmost province of Indonesia, comprising most of Western New Guinea.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
The Papuan languages are the non-Austronesian and non-Australian languages spoken on the western Pacific island of New Guinea, and neighbouring islands, by around 4 million people.
Papuan people are the various indigenous peoples of New Guinea and neighbouring islands, speakers of the Papuan languages.
Parameswara (1344 – c. 1414), thought to be the same person named in the Malay Annals as Iskandar Shah, was the last king of Singapura and the founder of Malacca.
Pasay, officially Pasay City (Lungsod ng Pasay), is a city in Metro Manila, the National Capital Region of the Philippines.
Pathum Thani (ปทุมธานี) is a town (thesaban mueang) in central Thailand, directly north of Bangkok.
The Pauwasi languages are a likely family of Papuan languages, mostly in Indonesia.
Pavia (Lombard: Pavia; Ticinum; Medieval Latin: Papia) is a town and comune of south-western Lombardy, northern Italy, south of Milan on the lower Ticino river near its confluence with the Po.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
Penan, also known as Punan-Nibong, is a language complex spoken by the Penan people of Borneo.
Penang is a Malaysian state located on the northwest coast of Peninsular Malaysia, by the Malacca Strait.
Peninsular Malaysia also known as Malaya or West Malaysia, is the part of Malaysia which lies on the Malay Peninsula and surrounding islands.
The Permanent Court of Arbitration (PCA) is an intergovernmental organization located at The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Philippine eagle (Pithecophaga jefferyi), also known as the monkey-eating eagle or great Philippine eagle, is an eagle of the family Accipitridae endemic to forests in the Philippines.
Philippine Hokkien, is the variant of Hokkien as spoken by about 98.7% of the ethnic Chinese population of the Philippines.
The Philippine peso, also referred to by its Filipino name piso (Philippine English:,, plural pesos; piso; peso; sign: ₱; code: PHP), is the official currency of the Philippines.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
Philippines v. China (PCA case number 2013–19), also known as the South China Sea Arbitration, was an arbitration case brought by the Republic of the Philippines against the People's Republic of China under Annex VII to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) concerning certain issues in the South China Sea including the legality of China's "nine-dotted line" claim.
Phnom Penh (or; ភ្នំពេញ phnum pɨñ), formerly known as Krong Chaktomuk or Krong Chaktomuk Serimongkul (ក្រុងចតុមុខសិរិមង្គល), is the capital and most populous city in Cambodia.
In Greek mythology, a phoenix (φοῖνιξ, phoînix) is a long-lived bird that cyclically regenerates or is otherwise born again.
The pinpeat (ពិណពាទ្យ) orchestra or musical ensemble performs the ceremonial music of the royal courts and temples of Cambodia.
A piphat (ปี่พาทย์) is a kind of ensemble in the classical music of Thailand, which features wind and percussion instruments.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Port Blair is the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, a union territory of India situated in the Bay of Bengal.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
Prambanan or Rara Jonggrang (Rara Jonggrang) is a 9th-century Hindu temple compound in Central Java, Indonesia, dedicated to the Trimurti, the expression of God as the Creator (Brahma), the Preserver (Vishnu) and the Transformer (Shiva).
The PSE Composite Index, commonly known previously as the PHISIX and presently as the PSEi, is a stock market index of the Philippine Stock Exchange consisting of 30 companies.
Puncak Jaya or Carstensz Pyramid (4,884 m) is the highest summit of Mount Jayawijaya or Mount Carstensz in the Sudirman Range of the western central highlands of Papua Province, Indonesia (within Puncak Jaya Regency).
Punjabi (Gurmukhi: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ; Shahmukhi: پنجابی) is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by over 100 million native speakers worldwide, ranking as the 10th most widely spoken language (2015) in the world.
The Pyu city states (ပျူ မြို့ပြ နိုင်ငံများ) were a group of city-states that existed from c. 2nd century BCE to c. mid-11th century in present-day Upper Burma (Myanmar).
Quezon City (Lungsod Quezon,; Ciudad Quezón; also known as QC or Kyusi) is the most populous city in the Philippines.
Ramesh Chandra Majumdar (known as R. C. Majumdar; 4 December 1884 – 11 February 1980) was a historian and professor of Indian history.
Raden Wijaya (also known as Nararya Sangramawijaya, regnal name Kertarajasa Jayawardhana), Raden Vijaya, (reigned 1293–1309) was a Javanese King, the founder and the first monarch of Majapahit empire.
Located off the northwest tip of Bird's Head Peninsula on the island of New Guinea, in Indonesia's West Papua province, Raja Ampat, or the Four Kings, is an archipelago comprising over 1,500 small islands, cays, and shoals surrounding the four main islands of Misool, Salawati, Batanta, and Waigeo, and the smaller island of Kofiau.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
is a Japanese language word for "laborer", but has come to specifically denote forced laborers during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia in World War II.
Regional organizations (ROs) are, in a sense, international organizations (IOs), as they incorporate international membership and encompass geopolitical entities that operationally transcend a single nation state.
Rejang (baso Jang, baso Hɕjang) is an Austronesian language predominantly spoken by the Rejangs people in southwestern height of Sumatra (Bengkulu), Indonesia.
Rinca, also known as Rincah and Rindja, is a small island near Komodo and Flores island, East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia, within the West Manggarai Regency.
The Ring of Fire is a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean where many earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur.
Robam Tep Apsara (របាំទេពអប្សរា, lit., Dance of the Apsara Divinities) is the title of a Khmer classical dance created by the Royal Ballet of Cambodia in the mid-20th century under the patronage of Queen Sisowath Kossamak.
Rohingya, or Ruáingga, is a language spoken by the Rohingya people of Rakhine State.
Romblomanon is an Austronesian regional language spoken, along with Asi and Onhan, in the province of Romblon in the Philippines.
The Royal ballet of Cambodia (របាំព្រះរាជទ្រព្យ - Robam Preah Reachtroap) is a form of performing arts established in the royal courts of Cambodia for the purpose of entertainment as well as ceremonial propitiation.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Sabah is a state of Malaysia located on the northern portion of Borneo Island.
Geologically, the Sahul Shelf is part of the continental shelf of the Australian continent and lies off the coast of mainland Australia.
A sailor, seaman, mariner, or seafarer is a person who navigates waterborne vessels or assists as a crewmember in their operation and maintenance.
Salakanagara kingdom is the first historically recorded Indianised kingdom in Western Java This Kingdom existed between 130-362 AD.
The Sama–Bajaw languages are a well established group of languages spoken by the Bajau and Sama peoples of the Philippines, Indonesia and Malaysia.
, officially the (Pulong Harding Lungsod ng Samal, Pulong Harding Dakbayan sa Samal), or sometimes called IGaCOS, is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
Samudera Pasai, also known as Samudera or Pasai or Samudera Darussalam, was a Muslim harbour kingdom on the north coast of Sumatra from the 13th to the 16th centuries CE.
Samut Prakan (สมุทรปราการ) is one of the central provinces (changwat) of Thailand, established by the Act Establishing Changwat Samut Prakan, Changwat Nonthaburi, Changwat Samut Sakhon and Changwat Nakhon Nayok, Buddhist Era 2489 (1946), which came into force 9 March 1946.
Samut Sakhon (สมุทรสาคร) is a City in Thailand, capital of Samut Sakhon Province.
, officially the, is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sarawak is a state of Malaysia.
The Sasak language is spoken by the Sasak ethnic group, which make up the majority of the population of Lombok in Indonesia.
Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
Selangor, also known by its Arabic honorific Darul Ehsan, or "Abode of Sincerity", is one of the 13 states of Malaysia.
Semai is a Mon–Khmer language of western Malaysia spoken by about 44,000 Semai people.
The Semang are the Negrito and Austric ethnic groups of the Malay Peninsula.
Semelai is an Austroasiatic language spoken in the Malay Peninsula.
The Senagi languages are a small independent family of Papuan languages in the classification of Malcolm Ross, that had been part of Stephen Wurm's Trans–New Guinea proposal.
Seram (formerly spelled Ceram; also Seran or Serang) is the largest and main island of Maluku province of Indonesia, despite Ambon Island's historical importance.
The SET Index is a Thai composite stock market index which is calculated from the prices of all common stocks (including unit trusts of property funds) on the main board of the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET), except for stocks that have been suspended for more than one year.
Shaivism (Śaivam) (Devanagari: शैव संप्रदाय) (Bengali: শৈব) (Tamil: சைவம்) (Telugu: శైవ సాంప్రదాయం) (Kannada:ಶೈವ ಸಂಪ್ರದಾಯ) is one of the major traditions within Hinduism that reveres Shiva as the Supreme Being.
The Shan language (Shan written: လိၵ်ႈတႆး), Shan spoken: ၵႂၢမ်းတႆး), or ၽႃႇသႃႇတႆး,; ရှမ်းဘာသာ,; ภาษาไทใหญ่) is the native language of the Shan people and is mostly spoken in Shan State, Burma. It is also spoken in pockets of Kachin State in Burma, in northern Thailand, and decreasingly in Assam. Shan is a member of the Tai–Kadai language family, and is related to Thai. It has five tones, which do not correspond exactly to Thai tones, plus a "sixth tone" used for emphasis. It is called Tai Yai, or Tai Long in the Tai languages. The number of Shan speakers is not known in part because the Shan population is unknown. Estimates of Shan people range from four million to 30 million, though the true number is somewhere around six million, with about half speaking the Shan language. In 2001 Patrick Johnstone and Jason Mandryk estimated 3.2 million Shan speakers in Myanmar; the Mahidol University Institute for Language and Culture gave the number of Shan speakers in Thailand as 95,000 in 2006.http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code.
The Shan (တႆး;, ရှမ်းလူမျိုး;; ไทใหญ่ or ฉาน) are a Tai ethnic group of Southeast Asia.
Shan States and British Shan States (1885 - 1948) is an historic name for Minor Kingdoms (analogous to Princely state of British India) ruled by Saopha (similar to Thai royal title Chao Fa Prince or Princess) in large areas of today's Burma (Myanmar), China's Yunnan Province, Laos and Northern Thailand from the late 13th century until the mid-20th century.
The, or Shōwa era, refers to the period of Japanese history corresponding to the reign of the Shōwa Emperor, Hirohito, from December 25, 1926 until his death on January 7, 1989.
Sidoarjo Regency is a regency (kabupaten) of East Java, Indonesia.
The Simeulue language is spoken by the Devayan people of Simeulue off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Singapore dollar (sign: S$; code: SGD) is the official currency of Singapore.
Singhasari was a Javanese Hindu–Buddhist kingdom located in east Java between 1222 and 1292 (today Indonesia).
Colloquial Singaporean English, better known as Singlish, is an English-based creole language spoken in Singapore.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
The Sko or Skou languages are a small language family spoken by about 7000 people, mainly along the coast of Sandaun Province in Papua New Guinea, with a few being inland from this area and at least one just across the border in the Indonesian province of Papua (formerly known as Irian Jaya).
Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.
Soil erosion is the displacement of the upper layer of soil, one form of soil degradation.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
South China or Southern China is a geographical and cultural region that covers the southernmost part of China.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
The South China Sea Islands consist of over 250 islands, atolls, cays, shoals, reefs, and sandbars in the South China Sea, none of which have indigenous people, few of which have any natural water supply, many of which are naturally under water at high tide, while others are permanently submerged.
South East Asia Command (SEAC) was the body set up to be in overall charge of Allied operations in the South-East Asian Theatre during World War II.
The South-East Asian Theatre of World War II was the name given to the campaigns of the Pacific War in Burma, Ceylon, India, Thailand, Philippines, Indochina, Malaya and Singapore.
The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) was an international organization for collective defense in Southeast Asia created by the Southeast Asia Collective Defense Treaty, or Manila Pact, signed in September 1954 in Manila, Philippines.
Southeast Asian coral reefs have the highest levels of biodiversity for the world's marine ecosystems.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
Southern Thai (Southern Thai/Thai: ภาษาไทยถิ่นใต้), also known as Pak Thai (Southern Thai: ภาษาปักษ์ใต้) or Dambro (ภาษาตามโพร), is a Southwestern Tai language spoken in the fourteen provinces of southern Thailand as well as by small communities in the northernmost Malaysian states.
Southern Thailand is a distinct region of Thailand, connected with the central region by the narrow Kra Isthmus.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish East Indies (Spanish: Indias orientales españolas; Filipino: Silangang Indiyas ng Espanya) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899.
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
The Spratly Islands (南沙群岛 (Nánshā Qúndǎo), Kepulauan Spratly, Kapuluan ng Kalayaan, Quần đảo Trường Sa) are a disputed group of islands, islets and cays and more than 100 reefs, sometimes grouped in submerged old atolls, in the South China Sea.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Stilt houses are houses raised on piles over the surface of the soil or a body of water.
The Strait of Malacca (Selat Melaka, Selat Malaka; Jawi: سلت ملاک) or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
The Straits Settlements (Negeri-negeri Selat, نݢري٢ سلت) were a group of British territories located in Southeast Asia.
A subregion is a part of a larger region or continent and is usually based on location.
The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropics at latitude 23.5° (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and temperate zones (normally referring to latitudes 35–66.5°) north and south of the Equator.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.
The Sulu Sea (Dagat Sulu, Laut Sulu, Mar de Joló) is a body of water in the southwestern area of the Philippines, separated from the South China Sea in the northwest by Palawan and from the Celebes Sea in the southeast by the Sulu Archipelago.
Sumatra is an Indonesian island in Southeast Asia that is part of the Sunda Islands.
The Sumatran rhinoceros, also known as the hairy rhinoceros or Asian two-horned rhinoceros (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis), is a rare member of the family Rhinocerotidae and one of five extant rhinoceroses.
The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica) is a tiger population that lives in the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Sumbawa (Sumbawan: Basa Semawa, Indonesian: Bahasa Sumbawa) or Sumbawarese is a Malayo-Polynesian language of the western half of Sumbawa Island, Indonesia, which it shares with speakers of Bima.
The Sunda Plate is a minor tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere on which the majority of Southeast Asia is located.
The Sunda Strait (Indonesian: Selat Sunda) is the strait between the Indonesian islands of Java and Sumatra.
Sundanese (in Sundanese script ᮘᮞ ᮞᮥᮔ᮪ᮓ, literally "language of Sunda") is a Malayo-Polynesian language spoken by the Sundanese.
The Sundanese (Sundanese:, Urang Sunda) are an Austronesian ethnic group native to the western part of the Indonesian island of Java.
Surabaya (formerly Dutch: Soerabaia and later Surabaja) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia.
Surigaonon is a Philippine regional language spoken by Surigaonon people in the province of Surigao del Norte, Dinagat Islands, Surigao del Sur, and some portions of Agusan del Norte especially the towns near the Mainit Lake, Agusan del Sur and Davao Oriental.
Tae’ is a language spoken in Tana Luwu (Land of Luwu).
Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.
The Tagalog people (Baybayin) are a major ethnolingustic group in the Philippines.
Taguig (Tagíg,, officially the City of Taguig, Lungsod ng Tagíg) is a highly urbanized city located in the south-eastern portion of Metro Manila in the Philippines.
, officially the, (Dakbayan sa Tagum; Lungsod ng Tagum), or simply referred to as Tagum City, is a settlement_text and capital of the,. According to the, it has a population of people.
Tai peoples refers to the population of descendants of speakers of a common Tai language, including sub-populations that no longer speak a Tai language.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Talisay, officially the City of Talisay and often referred to as Talisay City, is a prefix.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tangerang (Sundanese:, Chinese: 丹格朗) is a city in the province of Banten, Indonesia.
The Tanimbar Islands, also called Timur Laut, are a group of about 65 islands in the Maluku province of Indonesia, including Fordata, Larat, Maru, Molu, Nuswotar, Selaru, Selu, Seira, Wotap, Wuliaru and Yamdena.
Tarumanagara or Taruma Kingdom or just Taruma is an early Sundanese Indianised kingdom, whose 5th-century ruler, Purnawarman, produced the earliest known inscriptions on Java island.
Tausug (Tausug: Bahasa Sūg, Bahasa Suluk) is a regional language spoken in the province of Sulu in the Philippines, in the eastern area of the state of Sabah, Malaysia, and in North Kalimantan, Indonesia by the Tausūg people.
Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
Temiar is a Central Aslian (Mon–Khmer) language spoken in Western Malaysia by the Temiar people.
Temuan language (Temuan: Benua,Bual Uwang Hutarn, bual Mutan, Niap, Bahasak Temuan, Bahasa Temuan) is a Malayan language (part of the Austronesian language family) spoken by the Temuan people, one of the Orang Asli or indigenous peoples of Peninsular Malaysia which can be found in the states of Selangor, Pahang, Johor, Malacca and Negeri Sembilan.
Teochew (Chaozhou dialect: Diê⁵ziu¹ uê⁷; Shantou dialect: Dio⁵ziu¹ uê⁷) is a variant of Southern Min spoken mainly by the Teochew people in the Chaoshan region of eastern Guangdong and by their diaspora around the world.
Terengganu Malay (Bahasa Melayu Terengganu, Terengganu Malay: Base Tranung/Ganu) is a variety of Malay spoken in the Malaysian state of Terengganu all the way southward to coastal Pahang and Mersing, Johor and historically spoken in the Anambas and Natuna islands of Riau Islands, Indonesia but its speakers are fastly diminishing and replaced by the local Malay dialects on the islands.
Ternate or Ternatese is a North Halmahera language spoken on the island of Ternate, and some neighboring areas in North Maluku, including Kayoa, the Bacan islands and Halmahera.
Tetum, also Tetun, is an Austronesian language spoken on the island of Timor.
The baht (บาท,; sign: ฿; code: THB) is the currency of Thailand.
Thai, Central Thai, or Siamese, is the national and official language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority Thai of Chinese origin.
Thai Malays (Orang Melayu Thai, ไทยเชื้อสายมลายู, Jawi: ملايو تاي, Pattani Malay: Oré Nayu, Jawi or Bangso Yawi) is a term used to refer to ethnic Malays in Thailand.
Thai people or the Thais (ชาวไทย), also known as Siamese (ไทยสยาม), are a nation and Tai ethnic group native to Southeast Asia, primarily living mainly Central Thailand (Siamese proper).
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
Thanlyin (သန်လျင်မြို့, or; သေၚ်,; formerly, Syriam) is a major port city of Myanmar, located across Bago River from the city of Yangon.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Times of India (TOI) is an Indian English-language daily newspaper owned by The Times Group.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Tidore is a North Halmahera language of Indonesia.
The term Tiger Cub Economies collectively refers to the economies of the developing countries of Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam the five dominant countries in Southeast Asia.
Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, north of the Timor Sea.
Tok Pisin is a creole language spoken throughout Papua New Guinea.
Tolaki (To'olaki) is the major language of Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.
Tomadino is an Austronesian language of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia.
In early Philippine history, the Tagalog settlement at Tondo (Baybayin) was a major trade hub located on the northern part of the Pasig River delta, on Luzon island.
Toraja-Sa’dan (Sa’dan, South Toraja) is an Austronesian language of West Sulawesi, Indonesia.
The Tor–Kwerba languages are an independent family of Papuan languages proposed in 2005 by Malcolm Ross.
Rainfall and the tropical climate dominate the tropical rain belt, which oscillates from the northern to the southern tropics over the course of the year, roughly following the solar equator.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
Uab Meto is an Austronesian language spoken by Atoni people of West Timor.
The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The United Nations Statistics Division (UNSD), formerly the United Nations Statistical Office, serves under the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs (DESA) as the central mechanism within the Secretariat of the United Nations to supply the statistical needs and coordinating activities of the global statistical system.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
UTC+05:30 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +05:30.
UTC+06:30 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +06:30.
UTC+07:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +07:00.
UTC+08:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +08:00.
UTC+09:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +09.
Vũng Tàu (Hanoi accent:, Saigon accent) is the largest city and former capital of Bà Rịa–Vũng Tàu Province in Vietnam.
The veneration of the dead, including one's ancestors, is based on love and respect for the deceased.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Vientiane (ວຽງຈັນ/ວຽງຈັນທນ໌/ວຽງຈັນທະບູຣີ ສຼີສັຕນາຄຄນາຫຸຕ ວິສຸທທິຣັຕນຣາຊທານີ ບໍຣີຣົມຍ໌, Viang chan) is the capital and largest city of Laos, on the banks of the Mekong River near the border with Thailand.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The đồng (sign: ₫; code: VND) has been the currency of Vietnam since May 3, 1978.
Vietnamese folk religion or Vietnamese indigenous religion (tín ngưỡng dân gian Việt Nam, tôn giáo bản địa Việt Nam) is the ethnic religion of the Vietnamese people.
Vietnamese (Tiếng Việt) is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language.
The Vietnamese people or the Kinh people (người Việt or người Kinh), are an ethnic group originating from present-day northern Vietnam.
The vinta (locally known as lepa-lepa or sakayan) is a traditional boat from the Philippine island of Mindanao.
Visayan (Bisaya or Binisaya) is a group of languages of the Philippines that are related to Tagalog and Bikol languages, all three of which are part of the Central Philippine languages.
Vishnu (Sanskrit: विष्णु, IAST) is one of the principal deities of Hinduism, and the Supreme Being in its Vaishnavism tradition.
Volcanology (also spelled vulcanology) is the study of volcanoes, lava, magma, and related geological, geophysical and geochemical phenomena.
The Wallace Line or Wallace's Line is a faunal boundary line drawn in 1859 by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace and named by Thomas Henry Huxley, that separates the ecozones of Asia and Wallacea, a transitional zone between Asia and Australia.
Wallacea is a biogeographical designation for a group of mainly Indonesian islands separated by deep-water straits from the Asian and Australian continental shelves.
Waray is the fifth-most-spoken native regional language of the Philippines, native to Eastern Visayas.
The water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) or domestic Asian water buffalo is a large bovid originating in South Asia, Southeast Asia, and China.
Wawonii is an Austronesian language (one of the Celebic languages) of the Wawonii (Konawe Kepulauan Regency, Southeast Sulawesi) and Menui (in Morowali Regency, Central Sulawesi) islands of Indonesia.
Wayang (Krama Javanese: Ringgit, "Shadow"), also known as Wajang, is a form of puppet theatre art found in Indonesia and other parts of Southeast Asia, wherein a dramatic story is told through shadows thrown by puppets and sometimes combined with human characters.
West Island (Malay: Pulau Panjang, Cocos Malay: Pulu Panjang) is the capital of the Cocos (Keeling) Islands.
West Java (Jawa Barat, abbreviated as Jabar; Sundanese: Jawa Kulon) is a province of Indonesia.
West Papua (Papua Barat) is a province of Indonesia.
Western New Guinea, also known as Papua (formerly Irian Jaya) and West Papua, is the part of the island of New Guinea (also known as Papua) annexed by Indonesia in 1962.
The whale shark (Rhincodon typus) is a slow-moving, filter-feeding carpet shark and the largest known extant fish species.
The wild water buffalo (Bubalus arnee), also called Asian buffalo, Asiatic buffalo and wild Asian buffalo, is a large bovine native to the Indian Subcontinent and Southeast Asia.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yangon (ရန်ကုန်မြို့, MLCTS rankun mrui,; formerly known as Rangoon, literally: "End of Strife") was the capital of the Yangon Region of Myanmar, also known as Burma.
Yangon Region (formerly Rangoon Division and Yangon Division) is an administrative region of Myanmar.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
, officially the, is a settlement_text in the province of,. According to the, it has a population of people.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
The 1997 Southeast Asian haze was a large-scale air quality disaster that occurred during the second half of 1997, its after-effects causing widespread atmospheric visibility and health problems within Southeast Asia.
The 2006 Hengchun earthquakes occurred on December 26 at 20:26 and 20:34 local time off the southwest coast of Taiwan in the Luzon Strait, which connects the South China Sea with the Philippine Sea.
The 2006 Southeast Asian haze event was caused by continued uncontrolled burning from "slash and burn" cultivation in Indonesia, and affected several countries in the Southeast Asian region and beyond, such as Malaysia, Singapore, southern Thailand, and as far as Saipan; the effects of the haze may have spread to South Korea.
The 2013 Southeast Asian haze was a haze crisis that affected several countries in Southeast Asia, including Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Southern Thailand, mainly during June and July 2013.
Asia, Southeastern, Climate of Southeast Asia, Culture of Southeast Asia, Demographics of Southeast Asia, East South Asia, Environmental issues in Southeast Asia, Geography of Southeast Asia, List of countries in Southeast Asia, List of countries in Southeastern Asia, Religion in Southeast Asia, SE Asia, SEAsia, Souteast asia, South East Asia, South East Asian, South Eastern Asia, South east Asia, South-East Asia, South-East Asian, South-East-Asia, South-Eastern Asia, South-east Asia, South-east Asian, South-east asia, South-eastern Asia, SouthEast Asia, Southeast Asian, Southeast asia, Southeast-Asia, Southeastern Asia.