364 relations: A General Map of the World, or Terraqueous Globe, Abel Tasman, Abraham Ortelius, Act of Parliament, Adamussium, Adélie penguin, Alain Manesson Mallet, Albany, Western Australia, Albatross, Alexander Dalrymple, Alexander Island, Algae, Amphipoda, Amundsen Sea, Animal migration, Antarctic bottom water, Antarctic Circle, Antarctic Circumpolar Current, Antarctic continental shelf, Antarctic Convergence, Antarctic fur seal, Antarctic krill, Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctic silverfish, Antarctic toothfish, Antarctic Treaty System, Antarctica, Anthony de la Roché, Antifreeze protein, Aquatic animal, Arctic Ocean, Argentina, Atlantic Ocean, Auckland Island, Auckland Islands, Bairnsdale, Baleen whale, Balleny Islands, Bartolomeu Dias, Bass Strait, Baudin expedition to Australia, Bellingshausen Sea, Benthic zone, Binot Paulmier de Gonneville, Biomass, Bivalvia, Blue whale, Borders of the oceans, Bouvet Island, Bransfield Strait, ..., Brig, Brood pouch (Peracarida), Broughton Island, New Zealand, Bryozoa, Cape Agulhas, Cape Grim, Cape Horn, Cape Leeuwin, Cape of Good Hope, Cape Otway, Cape Town, Cape Wickham, Cartography, CBS News, Census of Marine Life, Central Intelligence Agency, Cephalopod, Cetacea, Channichthyidae, Chilean Navy, Chinese language, Chinstrap penguin, Coats Land, Colossal squid, Concretion, Continental margin, Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals, Cooperation Sea, Coral, Coriolis force, Cosmonauts Sea, Crabeater seal, Cruise ship, Crustacean, Crystallization, D'Urville Sea, David Henry Lewis, Davis Sea, Deep-sea gigantism, Dictionary of National Biography, Dissostichus, DNA, Drake Passage, Earless seal, Ecosystem, Edmond Halley, Edward Bransfield, Eelpout, Ekman transport, Elephant Island, Elephant seal, Emilio Palma, Emperor penguin, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., Endemism, Endurance (1912 ship), English people, Equinox, Ernest Shackleton, Esperanza Base, Family (biology), Ferdinand Magellan, Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, Filter feeder, Fimbul Ice Shelf, Finn Ronne, France, Francis Drake, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Fresh water, Freycinet Map of 1811, Full-rigged ship, Fur seal, Gabriel de Castilla, Gentoo penguin, Global Challenge, Global warming, Glyptonotus antarcticus, Great Australian Bight, Great South Australian Coastal Upwelling System, Grey-headed albatross, Grytviken, Gull, Harem (zoology), Hemoglobin, History of Victoria, HMS Erebus (1826), HMS Paramour (1694), HMS Terror (1813), Hope Bay, Hydrography, Hydroxide, Ice pier, Iceberg, Icebreaker, Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition, Indian Ocean, International Court of Justice, International Hydrographic Organization, International Polar Year, International Whaling Commission, Iron, Isopoda, Jackie Ronne, Jacob Le Maire, James Clark Ross, James Cook, James Weddell, Japan, Japanese language, Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier, John Cary, Joseph Dalton Hooker, Jules Verne Trophy, Justus Perthes, Kerguelen Islands, Keystone species, Killer whale, King George Island (South Shetland Islands), King Haakon VII Sea, King Island (Tasmania), King penguin, Krill, Lars-Eric Lindblad, Laternula elliptica, Latitude, Lazarev Sea, Leopard seal, List of countries by southernmost point, Livingston Island, Locach, Longitude, Mackerel icefish, Macquarie Harbour, Manganese, Manganese nodule, Marine life, Mauritius, Mawson Sea, Mawson Station, McMurdo Sound, McMurdo Station, Merriam-Webster, Military activity in the Antarctic, Mineral, Mollusca, Mount Erebus, Mount Terror (Antarctica), MV Explorer (1969), NASA, Nathaniel Palmer, National Geographic Society, National Geophysical Data Center, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Science Foundation, Natural gas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hebrides, New Holland (Australia), New South Wales, New Zealand sea lion, Northwest Passage, Notothenia, Nototheniidae, Notothenioidei, Ocean gyre, Oceanic zone, Onykia ingens, Operation Deep Freeze, Operation Highjump, Overfishing, Ozone depletion, Pacific Ocean, Palmer Station, Patagonian toothfish, Pedro Fernandes de Queirós, Pelagic zone, Penguin, Peter I Island, Petrel, Petroleum, Phytoplankton, Pinniped, Placer deposit, Plankton, Port Adelaide, Port Augusta, Port Lincoln, Portland, Victoria, Postimees, Princess Martha Coast, Ptolemy, Queen Maud Land, Regio Patalis, Reuters, Richard E. Byrd, Riiser-Larsen Sea, Roaring Forties, Rockhopper penguin, Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition, Ross Gyre, Ross Ice Shelf, Ross Island, Ross Sea, Ross seal, Rothera Research Station, Royal Society, Salinity, Salp, San Telmo (ship), Schooner, Science (journal), Scotia Sea, Sea, Sea cucumber, Sea ice, Sea of Japan, Sea of Japan naming dispute, Sea spider, Sea urchin, Seal hunting, Second voyage of James Cook, Seven Seas, Shoaling and schooling, Skua, Sloop-of-war, Snailfish, Somov Sea, South America, South Australia, South Australia Act 1834, South East Cape, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, South Georgia Island, South Georgia pipit, South Sandwich Trench, South Shetland Islands, Southern Hemisphere, Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary, Spaniards, Sperm whale, Sponge, Squid, Strait of Magellan, Subantarctic, Sweden, Symbiosis, Tahiti, Tasman Sea, Tasmania, Tern, Terra Australis, The World Factbook, Thermohaline circulation, Thevenard, South Australia, Tierra del Fuego, Times Atlas of the World, Tobias Furneaux, Tonne, Toothed whale, Transit of Venus, Trinity Peninsula, Tropics, Ultraviolet, Undescribed taxon, United States Exploring Expedition, United States Navy, Upwelling, USS Relief (1836), USS Sea Gull (1838), Vasco Núñez de Balboa, Velux 5 Oceans Race, Vendée Globe, Victoria (Australia), Villa Las Estrellas, Volvo Ocean Race, Voyage of the James Caird, Warrnambool, Washington, D.C., Water column, Water mass, Weddell Gyre, Weddell Sea, Weddell seal, Western Australia, Whaling, Whyalla, Wilkes Land, Willem Schouten, William Smith (mariner), Winter Quarters Bay, World Ocean, Yacht racing, Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec, 130th meridian west, 135th meridian west, 147th meridian east, 177th meridian west, 35th parallel south, 40th parallel south, 48th meridian west, 50th meridian west, 50th parallel south, 52nd parallel south, 53rd parallel south, 55th parallel south, 57th parallel south, 58th parallel south, 60th parallel south, 64th parallel south, 65th parallel south, 70th parallel south. 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A General Map of the World, or Terraqueous Globe, full title: A General Map of the World, or Terraqueous Globe with all the New Discoveries and Marginal Delineations, Containing the Most Interesting Particulars in the Solar, Starry and Mundane System, is a general map of the world, or terraqueous globe with all the new discoveries and marginal delineations, containing the most interesting particulars in the solar, starry and mundane system by Samuel Dunn and Thomas Kitchin in 1794.
Abel Janszoon Tasman (1603 – 10 October 1659) was a Dutch seafarer, explorer, and merchant, best known for his voyages of 1642 and 1644 in the service of the Dutch East India Company (VOC).
Abraham Ortelius (also Ortels, Orthellius, Wortels; 14 April 1527 – 28 June 1598) was a Brabantian cartographer and geographer, conventionally recognized as the creator of the first modern atlas, the Theatrum Orbis Terrarum (Theatre of the World).
Acts of Parliament, also called primary legislation, are statutes passed by a parliament (legislature).
Adamussium is a monotypic genus of bivalve molluscs in the large family of scallops, the Pectinidae.
The Adélie penguin (Pygoscelis adeliae) is a species of penguin common along the entire Antarctic coast, which is their only residence.
Alain Manesson Mallet (1630–1706) was a French cartographer and engineer.
Albany is a port city in the Great Southern region of Western Australia, 418 km SE of Perth, the state capital.
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).
Alexander Dalrymple FRS (24 July 1737 – 19 June 1808) was a Scottish geographer and the first Hydrographer of the British Admiralty.
Alexander Island, which is also known as Alexander I Island, Alexander I Land, Alexander Land, Alexander I Archipelago, and Zemlja Alexandra I, is the largest island of Antarctica.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Amphipoda is an order of malacostracan crustaceans with no carapace and generally with laterally compressed bodies.
The Amundsen Sea, an arm of the Southern Ocean off Marie Byrd Land in western Antarctica, lies between Cape Flying Fish (the northwestern tip of Thurston Island) to the east and Cape Dart on Siple Island to the west.
Animal migration is the relatively long-distance movement of individual animals, usually on a seasonal basis.
The Antarctic bottom water (AABW) is a type of water mass in the Southern Ocean surrounding Antarctica with temperatures ranging from −0.8 to 2 °C (35 °F), salinities from 34.6 to 34.7 psu.
The Antarctic Circle is the most southerly of the five major circles of latitude that mark maps of the Earth.
The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC) is an ocean current that flows clockwise from west to east around Antarctica.
The Antarctic continental shelf is a geological feature that underlies the Southern Ocean, surrounding the continent of Antarctica.
The Antarctic Convergence is a curve continuously encircling Antarctica, varying in latitude seasonally, where cold, northward-flowing Antarctic waters meet the relatively warmer waters of the subantarctic.
The Antarctic fur seal, sometimes called the Kerguelen fur seal (Arctocephalus gazella), is one of eight seals in the genus Arctocephalus, and one of nine fur seals in the subfamily Arctocephalinae.
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) is a species of krill found in the Antarctic waters of the Southern Ocean.
The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere.
Pleuragramma antarcticum, the Antarctic silverfish, is a species of cod icefish native to the Southern Ocean and the only truly pelagic fish in the waters near Antarctica.
Dissostichus mawsoni, the Antarctic toothfish, is a species of cod icefish native to the Southern Ocean.
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Anthony de la Roché, born sometime in the 17th century, (spelled also Antoine de la Roché, Antonio de la Roché or Antonio de la Roca in some sources) was an English merchant born in London to a French Huguenot father and an English mother.
Antifreeze proteins (AFPs) or ice structuring proteins (ISPs) refer to a class of polypeptides produced by certain vertebrates, plants, fungi and bacteria that permit their survival in subzero environments.
A aquatic animal is an animal, either vertebrate or invertebrate, which lives in the water for most or all of its lifetime.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
Auckland Island is the main island of the Auckland Islands, an uninhabited archipelago in the south Pacific Ocean belonging to New Zealand.
The Auckland Islands (Māori: Motu Maha or Maungahuka) are an archipelago of New Zealand, lying south of the South Island.
Bairnsdale is a city in East Gippsland, Victoria, Australia.
Baleen whales (systematic name Mysticeti), known earlier as whalebone whales, form a parvorder of the infraorder Cetacea (whales, dolphins and porpoises).
The Balleny Islands are a series of uninhabited islands in the Southern Ocean extending from 66°15' to 67°35'S and 162°30' to 165°00'E.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
Bass Strait is a sea strait separating Tasmania from the Australian mainland, specifically the state of Victoria.
The Baudin expedition of 1800 to 1803 was a French expedition to map the coast of New Holland (now Australia).
The Bellingshausen Sea is an area along the west side of the Antarctic Peninsula between 57°18'W and 102°20'W, west of Alexander Island, east of Cape Flying Fish on Thurston Island, and south of Peter I Island (there the southern Vostokkysten).
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
Binot Paulmier, sieur de Gonneville, French navigator of the early 16th century, was widely believed in 17th and 18th century France to have been the true discoverer of the Terra Australis (which does not refer to Australia).
Biomass is an industry term for getting energy by burning wood, and other organic matter.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) is a marine mammal belonging to the baleen whale parvorder, Mysticeti.
The borders of the oceans are the limits of the Earth's oceanic waters.
Bouvet Island is an uninhabited subantarctic high island and dependency of Norway located in the South Atlantic Ocean at, thus putting it north of and outside the Antarctic Treaty System.
Bransfield Strait is a body of water about wide extending for in a general north-east - south-west direction between the South Shetland Islands and the Antarctic Peninsula.
A brig is a sailing vessel with two square-rigged masts.
The marsupium or brood pouch, is a characteristic feature of Peracarida, including the orders Amphipoda, Isopoda and Cumacea.
Broughton Island is the second largest island of The Snares, at just off the South Promontory of the main island North East Island, which lies approximately south of New Zealand's South Island.
Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.
Cape Agulhas (Cabo das Agulhas, "Cape of the Needles") is a rocky headland in Western Cape, South Africa.
Cape Grim is the northwestern point of Tasmania, Australia.
Cape Horn (Cabo de Hornos) is the southernmost headland of the Tierra del Fuego archipelago of southern Chile, and is located on the small Hornos Island.
Cape Leeuwin is the most south-westerly mainland point of the Australian continent, in the state of Western Australia.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
Cape Otway is a cape and a bounded locality of the Colac Otway Shire in southern Victoria, Australia on the Great Ocean Road; much of the area is enclosed in the Great Otway National Park.
Cape Town (Kaapstad,; Xhosa: iKapa) is a coastal city in South Africa.
Cape Wickham is the most northerly point of King Island, Tasmania, Australia.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The Census of Marine Life was a 10-year scientific initiative, involving a global network of researchers in more than 80 nations, engaged to assess and explain the diversity, distribution, and abundance of life in the oceans.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
A cephalopod is any member of the molluscan class Cephalopoda (Greek plural κεφαλόποδα, kephalópoda; "head-feet") such as a squid, octopus or nautilus.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
The crocodile icefish or white-blooded fish (Channichthyidae) comprise a family of notothenioid fish found in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica and southern South America, where water temperatures remain relatively stable (generally ranging from -1.8 to +2.0 °C).
The Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile) is the naval force of Chile.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The chinstrap penguin (Pygoscelis antarcticus) is a species of penguin which inhabits a variety of islands and shores in the Southern Pacific and the Antarctic Ocean.
Coats Land is a region in Antarctica which lies westward of Queen Maud Land and forms the eastern shore of the Weddell Sea, extending in a general northeast-southwest direction between 20º00´W and 36º00´W.
The colossal squid (Mesonychoteuthis hamiltoni, from Greek mesos (middle), onycho (claw, nail), and teuthis (squid)), sometimes called the Antarctic squid or giant cranch squid, is believed to be the largest squid species in terms of mass.
A concretion is a hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil.
The continental margin is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridges.
The Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, also Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources, and CCAMLR, is part of the Antarctic Treaty System.
The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals is part of the Antarctic Treaty System.
Cooperation Sea, also called Commonwealth Sea (erratum) or Sodruzhestvo Sea, is a proposed sea name for part of the Southern Ocean, between Enderby Land (the eastern limit of which is 59°34'E) and West Ice Shelf (85°E), off the coast of MacRobertson Land and Princess Elizabeth Land.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
Cosmonauts Sea, sometimes misspelled Cosmonaut Sea, was a proposed sea name as part of the Southern Ocean, off the Prince Olav Coast and Enderby Land, Antarctica, between about 30°E and 50°E.
The crabeater seal (Lobodon carcinophaga) is a true seal with a circumpolar distribution around the coast of Antarctica.
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, and sometimes the different destinations along the way (i.e., ports of call), are part of the experience.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Crystallization is the (natural or artificial) process by which a solid forms, where the atoms or molecules are highly organized into a structure known as a crystal.
D'Urville Sea is a sea of the Southern Ocean, north of the coast of Adélie Land, East Antarctica.
David Henry Lewis, DCNZM (1917 – 23 October 2002) was a sailor, adventurer, doctor, and Polynesian scholar.
Davis Sea is an area of the sea along the coast of East Antarctica between West Ice Shelf in the west and the Shackleton Ice Shelf in the east, or between 82° and 96°E.
In zoology, deep-sea gigantism, also known as abyssal gigantism, is the tendency for species of invertebrates and other deep-sea dwelling animals to be larger than their shallower-water relatives.
The Dictionary of National Biography (DNB) is a standard work of reference on notable figures from British history, published from 1885.
Dissostichus, the toothfish, is a genus of cod icefishes found in the southern oceans.
Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.
The Drake Passage or Mar de Hoces—Sea of Hoces—is the body of water between South America's Cape Horn and the South Shetland Islands of Antarctica.
The earless seals, phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage, Pinnipedia.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.
Edward Bransfield (c. 1785 – 31 October 1852) was an Irish sailor who rose to become an officer in the British Royal Navy, serving as a master on several ships, after being impressed into service at the age of 18 in Ireland.
The eelpouts are the ray-finned fish family Zoarcidae.
Ekman transport, part of Ekman motion theory first investigated in 1902 by Vagn Walfrid Ekman, refers to the wind-driven net transport of the surface layer of a fluid that, due to the Coriolis effect, occurs at 90° to the direction of the surface wind.
Elephant Island is an ice-covered mountainous island off the coast of Antarctica in the outer reaches of the South Shetland Islands, in the Southern Ocean.
Elephant seals are large, oceangoing earless seals in the genus Mirounga.
Emilio Marcos Palma (born 7 January 1978) is an Argentine man known for being the first documented person born on the continent of Antarctica.
The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) is the tallest and heaviest of all living penguin species and is endemic to Antarctica.
Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Endurance was the three-masted barquentine in which Sir Ernest Shackleton sailed for the Antarctic on the 1914 Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition.
The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
Sir Ernest Henry Shackleton (15 February 1874 – 5 January 1922) was a polar explorer who led three British expeditions to the Antarctic, and one of the principal figures of the period known as the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.
Esperanza base (Base Esperanza, "Hope Base") is a permanent, all year-round Argentine research station in Hope Bay, Trinity Peninsula (Graham Land, Antarctic Peninsula).
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
The Filchner-Ronne Ice Shelf, also known as Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelf, is an Antarctic ice shelf bordering the Weddell Sea.
Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.
The Fimbul Ice Shelf is an ice shelf about long and wide, nourished by Jutulstraumen Glacier, bordering the coast of Queen Maud Land from 3°W to 3°E.
Finn Ronne (20 December 1899 – 12 January 1980) was a Norwegian-born U.S. citizen and Antarctic explorer.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Sir Francis Drake (– 28 January 1596) was an English sea captain, privateer, slave trader, naval officer and explorer of the Elizabethan era.
The French Southern and Antarctic Lands (Terres australes et antarctiques françaises, TAAF) is an overseas territory (Territoire d'outre-mer or TOM) of France.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
The Freycinet Map of 1811 is the first map of Australia to be published which shows the full outline of Australia.
A full-rigged ship or fully rigged ship is term of art denoting a sailing vessel's sail plan with three or more masts, all of them square-rigged.
Fur seals are any of nine species of pinnipeds belonging to the subfamily Arctocephalinae in the family Otariidae.
Gabriel de Castilla (1577 – c. 1620) was a Spanish explorer and navigator.
The long-tailed gentoo penguin (Pygoscelis papua) is a penguin species in the genus Pygoscelis, most closely related to the Adélie penguin (P. adeliae) and the chinstrap penguin (P. antarcticus).
The Global Challenge (not to be confused with Global Challenge Award) was a round the world yacht race run by Challenge Business, the company started by Sir Chay Blyth in 1989.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Glyptonotus antarcticus is a benthic marine isopod crustacean in the suborder Valvifera.
The Great Australian Bight is a large oceanic bight, or open bay, off the central and western portions of the southern coastline of mainland Australia.
The Great South Australian Coastal Upwelling System is a seasonal upwelling system in the eastern Great Australian Bight, extending from Ceduna, South Australia, to Portland, Victoria, over a distance of about.
The grey-headed albatross (Thalassarche chrysostoma) also known as the grey-headed mollymawk, is a large seabird from the albatross family.
Grytviken is a settlement on the island of South Georgia, part of a British Overseas Territory in the South Atlantic.
Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.
A harem is an animal group consisting of one or two males, a number of females, and their offspring.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
This article describes the history of the Australian colony and state of Victoria.
HMS Erebus was a designed by Sir Henry Peake and constructed by the Royal Navy in Pembroke dockyard, Wales in 1826.
HMS Paramour was a 6-gun pink of the Royal Navy, briefly commanded by the astronomer Edmond Halley, initially as a civilian and later as a "temporary captain".
HMS Terror was a specialized warship and a newly developed bomb vessel constructed for the Royal Navy in 1813.
Hope Bay (Spanish: Bahía Esperanza) on Trinity Peninsula, is long and wide, indenting the tip of the Antarctic Peninsula and opening on Antarctic Sound.
Hydrography is the branch of applied sciences which deals with the measurement and description of the physical features of oceans, seas, coastal areas, lakes and rivers, as well as with the prediction of their change over time, for the primary purpose of safety of navigation and in support of all other marine activities, including economic development, security and defence, scientific research, and environmental protection.
Hydroxide is a diatomic anion with chemical formula OH−.
An ice pier is a man-made structure used to assist the unloading of ships in Antarctica.
An iceberg or ice mountain is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
The Imperial Trans-Antarctic Expedition (1914–17), also known as the Endurance Expedition, is considered the last major expedition of the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
The International Polar Years (IPY) are collaborative, international efforts with intensive research foci on the polar regions.
The International Whaling Commission (IWC) is an international body set up by the terms of the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW), which was signed in Washington, D.C., United States, on December 2, 1946 to "provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry".
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isopoda is an order of crustaceans that includes woodlice and their relatives.
Edith "Jackie" Ronne (October 13, 1919 – June 14, 2009) was an American explorer of Antarctica and the first woman in the world to be a working member of an Antarctic expedition (1947-8).
Jacob Le Maire (c. 1585, Antwerp or Amsterdam - 22 December 1616, at sea) was a Dutch mariner who circumnavigated the earth in 1615 and 1616.
Sir James Clark Ross (15 April 1800 – 3 April 1862) was a British naval officer and explorer remembered today for his exploration of the Arctic with his uncle Sir John Ross and Sir William Parry and, in particular, his own expedition to Antarctica.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
James Weddell (24 August 1787 in Ostend – 9 September 1834) was a British sailor, navigator and seal hunter who in February 1823 sailed to latitude of 74°15′S (a record 7.69 degrees or 532 statute miles south of the Antarctic Circle) and into a region of the Southern Ocean that later became known as the Weddell Sea.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
Jean Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier (14 January 1705 – 1786) was a French sailor, explorer, and governor of the Mascarene Islands.
John Cary (c. 1754 – 1835) was an English cartographer.
Sir Joseph Dalton Hooker (30 June 1817 – 10 December 1911) was a British botanist and explorer in the 19th century.
The Jules Verne Trophy is a prize for the fastest circumnavigation of the world by any type of yacht with no restrictions on the size of the crew provided the vessel has registered with the organization and paid an entry fee.
Johann Georg Justus Perthes (11 September 1749, Rudolstadt, Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt – 2 May 1816, Gotha, Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg) was a German publisher and founder of the publishing house that bears his name.
The Kerguelen Islands (or; in French commonly Îles Kerguelen but officially Archipel des Kerguelen), also known as the Desolation Islands (Îles de la Désolation in French), are a group of islands in the southern Indian Ocean constituting one of the two exposed parts of the mostly submerged Kerguelen Plateau.
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
King George Island (Argentina: Isla 25 de Mayo, Chile: Isla Rey Jorge, Russian: Ватерло́о Vaterloo) is the largest of the South Shetland Islands, lying off the coast of Antarctica in the Southern Ocean.
King Haakon VII Sea (Kong Haakon VII Hav) is a proposed name for part of the Southern Ocean on the coast of East Antarctica.
King Island is an island in the Bass Strait, belonging to the Australian state of Tasmania.
The king penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) is a large species of penguin, second only to the emperor penguin in size.
Krill are small crustaceans of the order Euphausiacea, and are found in all the world's oceans.
Lars-Eric Lindblad (January 23, 1927 – July 8, 1994) was a Swedish-American entrepreneur and explorer, who pioneered tourism to many remote and exotic parts of the world.
Laternula elliptica is a species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Laternulidae, the lantern shells.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
The Lazarev Sea was a proposed name for a marginal sea of the Southern Ocean.
The leopard seal (Hydrurga leptonyx), also referred to as the sea leopard, is the second largest species of seal in the Antarctic (after the southern elephant seal).
This is a list of countries by southernmost point on land.
Livingston Island (Russian name Smolensk) is an Antarctic island in the South Shetland Islands, Western Antarctica lying between Greenwich Island and Snow Islands.
Lochac, Locach or Locat is a country far south of China mentioned by Marco Polo.
Longitude, is a geographic coordinate that specifies the east-west position of a point on the Earth's surface.
The mackerel icefish, Champsocephalus gunnari, is a fish found only in the Southern Ocean.
Macquarie Harbour is a large, shallow, inlet, located in the West Coast region of Tasmania, Australia.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core.
Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries.
Mauritius (or; Maurice), officially the Republic of Mauritius (République de Maurice), is an island nation in the Indian Ocean about off the southeast coast of the African continent.
Mawson Sea is a proposed sea name along the Queen Mary Land coast of East Antarctica east of the Shackleton Ice Shelf.
The Mawson Station, commonly called Mawson, is one of three permanent bases and research outposts in Antarctica managed by the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD).
McMurdo Sound and its ice-clogged waters extends about 55 kilometres (34 mi) long and wide.
The McMurdo Station is a United States Antarctic research center on the south tip of Ross Island, which is in the New Zealand-claimed Ross Dependency on the shore of McMurdo Sound in Antarctica.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
As Antarctica has never been permanently settled by humans, there has historically been little military activity in the Antarctic.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Mount Erebus is the second-highest volcano in Antarctica (after Mount Sidley) and the southernmost active volcano on Earth.
Mount Terror is a large shield volcano that forms the eastern part of Ross Island, Antarctica.
MS Explorer was a Liberian-registered cruise ship designed for Arctic and Antarctic service, originally commissioned and operated by the Swedish explorer Lars-Eric Lindblad.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nathaniel Brown Palmer (8 August 179921 June 1877) was an American seal hunter, explorer, sailing captain, and ship designer.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The United States National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) provided scientific stewardship, products and services for geophysical data describing the solid earth, marine, and solar-terrestrial environment, as well as earth observations from space.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
New Caledonia (Nouvelle-Calédonie)Previously known officially as the "Territory of New Caledonia and Dependencies" (Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et dépendances), then simply as the "Territory of New Caledonia" (French: Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie), the official French name is now only Nouvelle-Calédonie (Organic Law of 19 March 1999, article 222 IV — see). The French courts often continue to use the appellation Territoire de la Nouvelle-Calédonie.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
New Hebrides, officially the New Hebrides Condominium (Condominium des Nouvelles-Hébrides, "Condominium of the New Hebrides") and named for the Hebrides Scottish archipelago, was the colonial name for the island group in the South Pacific Ocean that is now Vanuatu.
New Holland (Nieuw Holland; Nova Hollandia) is a historical European name for mainland Australia.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
The New Zealand sea lion (Phocarctos hookeri), also known as Hooker's sea lion, and whakahao in Māori, is a species of sea lion that primarily breeds on New Zealand's subantarctic Auckland and Campbell islands and to some extent around the coast of New Zealand's South and Stewart islands.
The Northwest Passage (abbreviated as NWP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
Notothenia is a genus of cod icefishes native to the Southern Ocean and other waters around Antarctica.
The cod icefishes or notothens are the family Nototheniidae of acanthopterygian fishes.
Notothenioidei is one of 18 suborders from the order Perciformes and includes Antarctic fish and sub-Antarctic fish.
In oceanography, a gyre is any large system of circulating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.
The oceanic zone is typically defined as the area of the ocean lying beyond the continental shelf, but operationally is often referred to as beginning where the water depths drop to below 200 meters (656 feet), seaward from the coast to the open ocean.
Onykia ingens, the greater hooked squid, is a species of squid in the family Onychoteuthidae.
Operation Deep Freeze (OpDFrz or ODF) is the codename for a series of United States missions to Antarctica, beginning with "Operation Deep Freeze I" in 1955–56, followed by "Operation Deep Freeze II", "Operation Deep Freeze III", and so on.
Operation Highjump, officially titled The United States Navy Antarctic Developments Program, 1946–1947, was a United States Navy operation organized by Rear Admiral Richard E. Byrd, Jr., USN (Ret), Officer in Charge, Task Force 68, and led by Rear Admiral Richard H. Cruzen, USN, Commanding Officer, Task Force 68.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Palmer Station is a United States research station in Antarctica located on Anvers Island, the only US station located north of the Antarctic Circle.
The Patagonian toothfish, Dissostichus eleginoides, is a species of cod icefish found in cold waters between depths of in the southern Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans and Southern Ocean on seamounts and continental shelves around most sub-Antarctic islands.
Pedro Fernandes de Queirós (Pedro Fernández de Quirós) (1565–1614) was a Portuguese navigator in the service of Spain best known for his involvement with Spanish voyages of discovery in the Pacific Ocean, in particular the 1595–1596 voyage of Alvaro de Mendaña de Neira, and for leading a 1605–1606 expedition which crossed the Pacific in search of Terra Australis.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are a group of aquatic, flightless birds.
Peter I Island (остров Петра I, Peter I Øy) is an uninhabited volcanic island in the Bellingshausen Sea, from Antarctica.
Petrels are tube-nosed seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
In geology, a placer deposit or placer is an accumulation of valuable minerals formed by gravity separation from a specific source rock during sedimentary processes.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Port Adelaide is a port-side region of Adelaide, approximately northwest of the Adelaide CBD.
Port Augusta is a small city in South Australia.
Port Lincoln is a city on the Lower Eyre Peninsula in the Australian state of South Australia.
Portland is a small city in Victoria, Australia, and is the oldest European settlement in the state.
Postimees (The Postman) is an Estonian daily newspaper established on January 1, 1857, by Johann Voldemar Jannsen.
Princess Martha Coast is that portion of the coast of Queen Maud Land lying between 05° E and the terminus of Stancomb-Wills Glacier, at 20° W. The entire coastline is bounded by ice shelves with ice cliffs 20 to 35 m high.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Queen Maud Land (Dronning Maud Land) is a c. 2.7 million-square-kilometre (1 million sq mi) region of Antarctica claimed as a dependent territory by Norway.
Regio Patalis is Latin for "the Region of Patala".
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rear Admiral Richard Evelyn Byrd Jr., (October 25, 1888 – March 11, 1957) was an American naval officer and explorer.
The Riiser-Larsen Sea is one of the marginal seas located in the Southern Ocean off East Antarctica and south of the Indian Ocean.
The Roaring Forties are strong westerly winds found in the Southern Hemisphere, generally between the latitudes of 40 and 50 degrees.
The rockhopper penguins are three closely related taxa of crested penguins that have been traditionally treated as a single species and are sometimes split into three species.
The Ronne Antarctic Research Expedition (RARE) was an expedition from 1947–1948 which researched the area surrounding the head of the Weddell Sea in Antarctica.
The Ross Gyre is one of the two gyres that exist within the Southern Ocean.
The Ross Ice Shelf is the largest ice shelf of Antarctica (as of 2013 an area of roughly and about across: about the size of France).
Ross Island is an island formed by four volcanoes in the Ross Sea near the continent of Antarctica, off the coast of Victoria Land in McMurdo Sound.
The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica, between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land and within the Ross Embayment.
The Ross seal (Ommatophoca rossii) is a true seal (family Phocidae) with a range confined entirely to the pack ice of Antarctica.
The Rothera Research Station is a British Antarctic Survey (BAS) base on the Antarctic Peninsula, located at Rothera Point, Adelaide Island.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
A salp (plural salps), salpa (plural salpae or salpas), is a barrel-shaped, planktonic tunicate.
San Telmo ("Saint Peter Gonzalez" or "Saint Erasmus of Formiae") was a Spanish 74-gun ship of the line, launched in 1788.
A schooner is a type of sailing vessel with fore-and-aft sails on two or more masts.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
The Scotia Sea is a sea located at the northern edge of the Southern Ocean at its boundary with the South Atlantic Ocean.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
The Sea of Japan (see below for other names) is a marginal sea between the Japanese archipelago, Sakhalin, the Korean Peninsula and Russia.
A dispute exists over the international name for the body of water which is bordered by Japan, Korea (North and South) and Russia.
Sea spiders, also called Pantopoda or pycnogonids, ('pycno-' closely packed, 'gonid' gonidia) are marine arthropods of class Pycnogonida.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
Seal hunting, or sealing, is the personal or commercial hunting of seals.
The second voyage of James Cook, from 1772 to 1775, commissioned by the British government with advice from the Royal Society, was designed to circumnavigate the globe as far south as possible to finally determine whether there was any great southern landmass, or Terra Australis.
The "Seven Seas" (as in the idiom "sail the Seven Seas") is an ancient phrase for all of the world's oceans.
In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling (pronounced), and if the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are schooling (pronounced). In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely.
The skuas are a group of seabirds with about seven species forming the family Stercorariidae and the genus Stercorarius.
In the 18th century and most of the 19th, a sloop-of-war in the Royal Navy was a warship with a single gun deck that carried up to eighteen guns.
The Liparidae, commonly known as snailfish or sea snails, are a family of scorpaeniform marine fishes.
Somov Sea was a proposed name for part of the Southern Ocean.
South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.
South Australia (abbreviated as SA) is a state in the southern central part of Australia.
The South Australia Act 1834 (4 & 5 Will. IV c. 95) is the short title of an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom with the long title: It provided for the settlement of a province or multiple provinces on the lands between 132 degrees east and 141 degrees of east longitude, and between the Southern Ocean, and 26 degrees south latitude, including the islands adjacent to the coastline.
The South East Cape is a cape located at the southernmost point of the main island of Tasmania, the southernmost state of Australia.
South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands (SGSSI) is a British Overseas Territory in the southern Atlantic Ocean.
South Georgia is an island in the southern Atlantic Ocean that is part of the British Overseas territory of South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands.
The South Georgia pipit (Anthus antarcticus) is a sparrow-sized bird only found on the South Georgia archipelago off the Antarctic Peninsula.
The South Sandwich Trench is a deep arcuate trench in the South Atlantic Ocean lying 100 km to the east of the South Sandwich Islands.
The South Shetland Islands are a group of Antarctic islands, lying about north of the Antarctic Peninsula, with a total area of.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
The Southern Ocean Whale Sanctuary is an area of 50 million square kilometres surrounding the continent of Antarctica where the International Whaling Commission (IWC) has banned all types of commercial whaling.
Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
The sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) or cachalot is the largest of the toothed whales and the largest toothed predator.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
The Strait of Magellan, also called the Straits of Magellan, is a navigable sea route in southern Chile separating mainland South America to the north and Tierra del Fuego to the south.
The Subantarctic is a region in the southern hemisphere, located immediately north of the Antarctic region.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
Tahiti (previously also known as Otaheite (obsolete) is the largest island in the Windward group of French Polynesia. The island is located in the archipelago of the Society Islands in the central Southern Pacific Ocean, and is divided into two parts: the bigger, northwestern part, Tahiti Nui, and the smaller, southeastern part, Tahiti Iti. The island was formed from volcanic activity and is high and mountainous with surrounding coral reefs. The population is 189,517 inhabitants (2017 census), making it the most populous island of French Polynesia and accounting for 68.7% of its total population. Tahiti is the economic, cultural and political centre of French Polynesia, an overseas collectivity (sometimes referred to as an overseas country) of France. The capital of French Polynesia, Papeete, is located on the northwest coast of Tahiti. The only international airport in the region, Fa'a'ā International Airport, is on Tahiti near Papeete. Tahiti was originally settled by Polynesians between 300 and 800AD. They represent about 70% of the island's population, with the rest made up of Europeans, Chinese and those of mixed heritage. The island was part of the Kingdom of Tahiti until its annexation by France in 1880, when it was proclaimed a colony of France, and the inhabitants became French citizens. French is the only official language, although the Tahitian language (Reo Tahiti) is widely spoken.
The Tasman Sea (Māori: Te Tai-o-Rehua) is a marginal sea of the South Pacific Ocean, situated between Australia and New Zealand.
Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.
Terns are seabirds in the family Laridae that have a worldwide distribution and are normally found near the sea, rivers, or wetlands.
Terra Australis (Latin for South Land) is a hypothetical continent first posited in antiquity and which appeared on maps between the 15th and 18th centuries.
The World Factbook, also known as the CIA World Factbook, is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.
Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
Thevenard (postcode 5690) is a port town south-west of Ceduna, South Australia.
Tierra del Fuego (Spanish for "Land of Fire") is an archipelago off the southernmost tip of the South American mainland, across the Strait of Magellan.
The Times Atlas of the World, rebranded The Times Atlas of the World: Comprehensive Edition in its 11th edition and The Times Comprehensive Atlas of the World from its 12th edition, is a world atlas currently published by HarperCollins Publisher L.L.C. Its most recent edition, the fourteenth, was published on 25 September 2014.
Captain Tobias Furneaux (21 August 1735 – 18 September 1781) was an English navigator and Royal Navy officer, who accompanied James Cook on his second voyage of exploration.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
The toothed whales (systematic name Odontoceti) are a parvorder of cetaceans that includes dolphins, porpoises, and all other whales possessing teeth, such as the beaked whales and sperm whales.
A transit of Venus across the Sun takes place when the planet Venus passes directly between the Sun and a superior planet, becoming visible against (and hence obscuring a small portion of) the solar disk.
Trinity Peninsula is the northernmost part of the Antarctic Peninsula.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
In taxonomy, an undescribed taxon is a taxon (for example, a species) that has been discovered, but not yet formally described and named.
The United States Exploring Expedition was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean and surrounding lands conducted by the United States from 1838 to 1842.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Upwelling is an oceanographic phenomenon that involves wind-driven motion of dense, cooler, and usually nutrient-rich water towards the ocean surface, replacing the warmer, usually nutrient-depleted surface water.
The first USS Relief was a supply ship in the United States Navy.
USS Sea Gull was a schooner in the service of the United States Navy.
Vasco Núñez de Balboa (c. 1475around January 12–21, 1519) was a Spanish explorer, governor, and conquistador.
The Velux 5 Oceans Race is a round-the-world single-handed yacht race, sailed in stages, managed by Clipper Ventures Plc since 2000.
The Vendée Globe is a single-handed (solo) non-stop yacht race around the world without assistance.
Victoria (abbreviated as Vic) is a state in south-eastern Australia.
Villa Las Estrellas (English: "The Stars Town") is a Chilean town and research station in Antártica Commune, Antártica Chilena Province, Magallanes and Antártica Chilena Region.
The Volvo Ocean Race (formerly the Whitbread Round the World Race) is a yacht race around the world, held every three years.
The voyage of the James Caird was a small-boat journey from Elephant Island in the South Shetland Islands to South Georgia in the southern Atlantic Ocean, a distance of.
Warrnambool is a regional centre and former port city on the south-western coast of Victoria, Australia.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
A water column is a conceptual column of water from the surface of a sea, river or lake to the bottom sediment.
An oceanographic water mass is identifiable body of water with a common formation history which has physical properties distinct from surrounding water.
The Weddell Gyre is one of the two gyres that exist within the Southern Ocean.
The Weddell Sea is part of the Southern Ocean and contains the Weddell Gyre.
The Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddellii, is a relatively large and abundant true seal (family: Phocidae) with a circumpolar distribution surrounding Antarctica.
Western Australia (abbreviated as WA) is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia.
Whaling is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber.
Whyalla, founded as "Hummocks Hill" and known by that name until 1916, is the third most populous city in the Australian state of South Australia after Adelaide and Mount Gambier.
Wilkes Land is a large district of land in eastern Antarctica, formally claimed by Australia as part of the Australian Antarctic Territory, though the validity of this claim has been placed for the period of the operation of the Antarctic Treaty, to which Australia is a signatory.
Willem Cornelisz Schouten (– 1625) was a Dutch navigator for the Dutch East India Company.
William Smith (c. 1790–1847) was the English captain born in Blyth, Northumberland, who discovered the South Shetland Islands, an archipelago off the Graham Land in Antarctica.
Winter Quarters Bay is a small cove of McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, located due south of New Zealand at 77°50'S.
The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of.
Yacht racing is a form of sport involving sailing yachts and larger sailboats, as distinguished from dinghy racing.
Yves-Joseph de Kerguelen-Trémarec (13 February 1734 – 3 March 1797) was a French explorer and naval officer.
The meridian 130° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 135° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, North America, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 147° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, Australasia, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 177° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 35th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 35 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 40th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 40 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 48° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 50° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, the Atlantic Ocean, South America, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The 50th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 52nd parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 52 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 53rd parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 53 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 55th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 55 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 57th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 57 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 58th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 58 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 60th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 60 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 64th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 64 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 65th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 65 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 70th parallel south is a circle of latitude that is 70 degrees south of the Earth's equatorial plane in the Antarctic.
Antarctic Ocean, Antarctic ocean, Antartic Ocean, Antartic ocean, Austral Ocean, Australia and the Southern Ocean, Australia and the southern ocean, Great Southern Ocean, South Ocean, South Polar Ocean, South ocean, South polar ocean, South-Polar Ocean, Southern Icy Ocean, Southern Oceans, Southern ocean, The Southern Ocean.