244 relations: Admiral, Admiral of the fleet, Admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union, Adolf Hitler, Afghanistan, AK-47, AK-74, Aleksandr Vasilevsky, Aleksei Brusilov, Alexander Nevsky, Almaty, Andrei Grechko, Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Armenia, Armoured warfare, Artillery, Azerbaijan, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Baku, Baltic Military District, Baltic states, Battle of Kursk, Battle of Moscow, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of Warsaw (1920), Belarus, Bolt action, Bombardment, Brest, Belarus, Brigade, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Caucasus, Cavalry, Ceasefire, Central Group of Forces, Chief of the General Staff (Russia), Civil defense, Class conflict, Client state, Clip (firearms), Co-belligerence, Colonel, Commander, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Comparative officer ranks of World War II, Council of People's Commissars, Coup d'état, Crimea, Curzon Line, ..., Czechoslovakia, De facto, Dedovshchina, Defender of the Fatherland Day, Demographics of the Soviet Union, Detachment (military), Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Division (military), Drang nach Osten, East Germany, Eastern Front (World War II), England, Epaulette, Estonia, European theatre of World War II, Far East, Fascism, Fighter aircraft, Finland, French invasion of Russia, Gabala Radar Station, General officer, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, General Staff Academy (Imperial Russia), General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Georgia (country), Georgy Zhukov, German Army (German Empire), German–Soviet Commercial Agreement (disambiguation), Glasnost, Great Patriotic War (term), Great Purge, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Greece, Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, Heinz Guderian, HighBeam Research, Hungary, Imperial Russian Army, Infantry, Inner Mongolia, Inside the Soviet Army, Internal Troops, Internet Archive, Internetowa encyklopedia PWN, Issyk-Kul, Japan, Joseph Stalin, Kazakhstan, Khalkhyn Gol, Kiev Offensive (1920), Komandarm, Kombat (military rank), Kombrig, Komdiv, Komkor, Komsomol, Korea, Kresy, Kuril Islands, Kwantung Army, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, League of Nations, Leningrad Military District, Leon Trotsky, Lieutenant, Lieutenant colonel, List of leaders of the Soviet Union, List of military aircraft of the Soviet Union and the CIS, Lithuania, Lviv, Machine gun, Manchukuo, Manchuria, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Michael MccGwire, Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich, Mikhail Frunze, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mikhail Kutuzov, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Military, Military academies in Russia, Military academy, Military Academy of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of Russia, Military advisor, Military district, Military doctrine, Military history of the Soviet Union, Military rank, Military ranks of the Soviet Union, Minister of Defence (Soviet Union), Ministry of Defense (Soviet Union), Ministry of Internal Affairs (Russia), Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, Mongolia, Moscow, Moscow Military District, Mosin–Nagant, Napoleon, NATO, Nazi Germany, Nazism, New world order (politics), NKVD, Non-commissioned officer, Northern Group of Forces, Nuclear weapon, Officer (armed forces), Operation Bagration, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Faustschlag, Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists, Polish Land Forces, Polish–Soviet War, Politburo, Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Political commissar, Postgraduate education, Praporshchik, Puppet state, RAND Corporation, Rear of the Russian Armed Forces, Red Army, Red Guards (Russia), Regiment, Republics of the Soviet Union, Reserve of the Supreme High Command, Revolutionary Military Council, Romanian Bridgehead, Royal Military Academy Sandhurst, Russian Airborne Troops, Russian Armed Forces, Russian Civil War, Russian Empire, Russian Ground Forces, Russian Guards, Russian language, Russian Orthodox Church, Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Saint Petersburg, Sakhalin, Satellite state, Scorched earth, Second Polish Republic, Semi-automatic rifle, Sino-Soviet border conflict, Skidzyel’, SKS, Southern Group of Forces, Soviet Air Defence Forces, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Army, Soviet Navy, Soviet Union, Soviet–Afghan War, Staff (military), State Political Directorate, Strategic Missile Troops, Supreme Commander of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty Organization, Supreme Soviet, SVT-40, T-34, Tajikistan, Tbilisi, Third World, Time (magazine), Transnistria, Tsar, Ukraine, Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, United Kingdom, United States Military Academy, Uzbekistan, Vietnam, Vietnam Syndrome, Viktor Suvorov, Vilnius, Vladimir Lobov, War, Warrant officer, Warsaw Pact, Wielka Encyklopedia PWN, William Eldridge Odom, Witch-hunt, World War II, Yevgeny Shaposhnikov, Yugoslavia, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 5.45×39mm, 5.56×45mm NATO, 7.62×39mm, 7.62×54mmR. Expand index (194 more) » « Shrink index
Admiral is one of the highest ranks in some navies, and in many navies is the highest rank.
An admiral of the fleet or fleet admiral (sometimes also known as admiral of the navy or grand admiral) is a military naval officer of the highest rank.
An admiral of the fleet of the Soviet Union (translit), was the highest naval rank of the Soviet Union.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
The AK-74 (Russian: Автомат Калашникова образца 1974 года or "Kalashnikov automatic rifle model 1974") is an assault rifle developed in the early 1970s by Russian designer Mikhail Kalashnikov as the replacement for the earlier AKM (itself a refined version of the AK-47). It uses a smaller 5.45×39mm cartridge, replacing the 7.62×39mm chambering of earlier Kalashnikov-pattern weapons. The rifle first saw service with Soviet forces engaged in the 1979 Afghanistan conflict.Woźniak, Ryszard: Encyklopedia najnowszej broni palnej—tom 1 A-F, page 25. Bellona, 2001. The head of the Afghan bureau of the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence claimed that the CIA paid $5,000 for the first AK-74 captured by the Mujahideen during the Soviet–Afghan War. Presently, the rifle continues to be used by the majority of countries of the former Soviet Union. Additionally, licensed copies were produced in Bulgaria (AK-74, AKS-74 and AKS-74U), and the former East Germany (MPi-AK-74N, MPi-AKS-74N, MPi-AKS-74NK).Cutshaw, Charlie: The New World of Russian Small Arms & Ammo, page 92. Paladin Press, 1998.McNab, Chris: The AK47 (Weapons of War), page 25. Spellmount Publishers, 2001. Besides former Soviet republics and eastern European countries, Mongolia, North Korean Special Forces, and Vietnamese People's Naval infantry use AK-74s.
Aleksandr Mikhaylovich Vasilevsky (September 30 1895 – December 5, 1977) was a Russian career officer in the Red Army who was promoted to the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union in 1943.
Aleksei Alekseevich Brusilov (Алексе́й Алексе́евич Бруси́лов; – 17 March 1926) was a Russian general most noted for the development of new offensive tactics used in the 1916 Brusilov Offensive, which was his greatest achievement.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Andrei Antonovich Grechko (– 26 April 1976) was a Soviet general, Marshal of the Soviet Union and Minister of Defense.
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Қазақстанның Қарулы күштері, Qazaqstannyń qarýly kúshteri), is the name of the unified armed forces of Kazakhstan.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baltic Military District was a military district of the Soviet armed forces in the occupied Baltic states, formed briefly before the German invasion during the World War II.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of Moscow (translit) was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of Warsaw refers to the decisive Polish victory in 1920 during the Polish–Soviet War.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
Bolt action is a type of firearm action where the handling of cartridges into and out of the weapon's barrel chamber are operated by manually manipulating the bolt directly via a handle, which is most commonly placed on the right-hand side of the weapon (as most users are right-handed).
A bombardment is an attack by artillery fire or by dropping bombs from aircraft on fortifications, combatants, or towns and buildings.
Brest (Брэст There is also the name "Berestye", but it is found only in the Old Russian language and Tarashkevich., Брест Brest, Берестя Berestia, בריסק Brisk), formerly Brest-Litoŭsk (Брэст-Лiтоўск) (Brest-on-the-Bug), is a city (population 340,141 in 2016) in Belarus at the border with Poland opposite the Polish city of Terespol, where the Bug and Mukhavets rivers meet.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (BSSR, or Byelorussian SSR; Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika; Belorusskaya SSR.), also commonly referred to in English as Byelorussia, was a federal unit of the Soviet Union (USSR).
The Caucasus or Caucasia is a region located at the border of Europe and Asia, situated between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea and occupied by Russia, Georgia, Azerbaijan, and Armenia.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
The Central Group of Forces was a formation of the Soviet Armed Forces used to control Soviet troops in Central Europe on two occasions: in Austria and Hungary from 1945-55 and troops stationed in Czechoslovakia after the Prague Spring of 1968.
The Chief of the General Staff (Начальник Генерального штаба / Nachal'nik General'nogo shtaba) is the chief of staff of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Civil defense or civil protection is an effort to protect the citizens of a state (generally non-combatants) from military attacks and natural disasters.
Class conflict, frequently referred to as class warfare or class struggle, is the tension or antagonism which exists in society due to competing socioeconomic interests and desires between people of different classes.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
A clip is a device that is used to store multiple rounds of ammunition together as a unit, ready for insertion into the magazine or cylinder of a firearm.
Co-belligerence is the waging of a war in cooperation against a common enemy without a formal treaty of military alliance.
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The following table compares the officer ranks appointed by the major Allied powers, the major Axis powers and various occupied countries and co-belligerents during World War II.
The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The history of the Curzon Line, with minor variations, goes back to the period following World War I. It was drawn for the first time by the Supreme War Council as the demarcation line between the newly emerging states, the Second Polish Republic, and the Soviet Union.
Czechoslovakia, or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko), was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the:Czech Republic and:Slovakia on 1 January 1993.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Dedovshchina (p; lit. reign of grandfathers) is the informal practice of initiation (hazing) and constant bullying of junior conscripts during their service, formerly to the Soviet Armed Forces and today to the Russian armed forces, Internal Troops, and (to a much lesser extent) FSB Border Guards, as well as the military forces of certain former Soviet Republics.
Defender of the Fatherland Day (День защитника Отечества Den' zashchitnika Otechestva); Отан қорғаушы күні; Рӯзи артиши миллӣ; Мекенди коргоочулардын күнү; Дзень абаронцы Айчыны) is a holiday observed in Russia, Turkmenistan, Belarus, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan and Tajikistan. It is celebrated on 23 February, except in Kazakhstan, where it is celebrated on 7 May.
According to data from the 1989 Soviet census, the population of the Soviet Union was 70% East Slavs, 12% Turkic peoples, and all other ethnic groups below 10%.
A detachment (from the French détachement) is a military unit.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Drang nach Osten ("Drive to the East",Ulrich Best, Transgression as a Rule: German–Polish cross-border cooperation, border discourse and EU-enlargement, 2008, p. 58,, "push eastward",Jerzy Jan Lerski, Piotr Wróbel, Richard J. Kozicki, Historical Dictionary of Poland, 966–1945, 1996, p. 118,, "drive toward the East"Edmund Jan Osmańczyk, Anthony Mango, Encyclopedia of the United Nations and International Agreements, 2003, p. 579,, or "desire to push East") was a term coined in the 19th century to designate German expansion into Slavic lands.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Epaulette (also spelled epaulet) is a type of ornamental shoulder piece or decoration used as insignia of rank by armed forces and other organizations.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The European theatre of World War II, also known as the Second European War, was a huge area of heavy fighting across Europe, from Germany's and the Soviet Union's joint invasion of Poland in September 1939 until the end of the war with the Soviet Union conquering most of Eastern Europe along with the German unconditional surrender on 8 May 1945 (Victory in Europe Day).
The Far East is a geographical term in English that usually refers to East Asia (including Northeast Asia), the Russian Far East (part of North Asia), and Southeast Asia.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
Gabala Radar Station in some sources Gabala is spelled Qabala, other names are Lyaki, Mingacevir and Mingechaur was a Daryal-type (NATO Pechora) bistatic Passive electronically scanned array early warning radar, built by the Soviet Union in the Qabala district of the Azerbaijan SSR in 1985.
A general officer is an officer of high rank in the army, and in some nations' air forces or marines.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
The General Staff Academy was a Russian military academy, established in 1832 in St.Petersburg.
The General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Генеральный штаб Вооружённых сил Российской Федерации, Генштаб – Genshtab) is the military staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Georgia (tr) is a country in the Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
The Imperial German Army (Deutsches Heer) was the name given to the combined land and air forces of the German Empire (excluding the Marine-Fliegerabteilung maritime aviation formations of the Imperial German Navy).
German–Soviet Commercial Agreement can refer to several agreements between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union.
In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.
The Great Patriotic War (translit) is a term used in Russia and other former republics of the Soviet Union (except for some Baltic States) to describe the conflict fought during the period from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945 along the many fronts of the Eastern Front of World War II between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany and its allies.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
The Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1954–1988) (Группа советских войск в Германии, ГСВГ), also known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945–1954) and the Western Group of Forces (1988–1994) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany.
Heinz Wilhelm Guderian (17 June 1888 – 14 May 1954) was a German general during the Nazi era.
HighBeam Research is a paid search engine and full text online archive owned by Gale, a subsidiary Cengage, for thousands of newspapers, magazines, academic journals, newswires, trade magazines, and encyclopedias in English.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
The Imperial Russian Army (Ру́сская импера́торская а́рмия) was the land armed force of the Russian Empire, active from around 1721 to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Infantry is the branch of an army that engages in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and tank forces.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
Inside the Soviet Army (Hamish Hamilton, 1982; also published in the United States, Prentice Hall), is a book by Viktor Suvorov, which describes the general organisation, doctrine, and strategy of the Soviet armed forces (the term "Army" being used to cover not only the Land Forces, but also Strategic Rocket, Air Defence, Air, and Naval forces).
The Internal Troops, full name Internal Troops of the Ministry for Internal Affairs (MVD) (Внутренние войска Министерства внутренних дел, Vnutrenniye Voiska Ministerstva Vnutrennikh Del; abbreviated ВВ, VV), alternatively translated as "Interior (Troops or Forces)", is a paramilitary gendarmerie-like force in the now-defunct Soviet Union and in some of its successor countries, including in Russia (until 2016), Ukraine (until 2014), Georgia (until 2004), Azerbaijan and Tajikistan.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Internetowa encyklopedia PWN (Polish for Internet PWN Encyclopedia) is a free online Polish-language encyclopedia published by Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN.
Issyk-Kul (also Ysyk Köl, Issyk-Kol: Ысык-Көл, Isıq-Köl, ىسىق-كۅل,; Иссык-Куль, Issyk-Kulj) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tian Shan mountains in eastern Kyrgyzstan.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Khalkh River (also spelled as Khalkha River; Халх гол) is a river in eastern Mongolia and northern China's Inner Mongolia region.
The 1920 Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation), sometimes considered to have started the Soviet-Polish War, was an attempt by the armed forces of the newly re-emerged Poland led by Józef Piłsudski, in alliance with the Ukrainian leader Symon Petliura, to seize the territories of modern-day Ukraine which fell under the Soviet control after the Bolshevik Revolution.
Komandarm is the abbreviation to Commanding of the Army (Командующий армией; literal: Commander of the Army / Army commander), and was a military rank in the Soviet Armed Forces of the USSR in the period from 1935 to 1940.
Kombat (комбат, "kombat"), abbreviated from Командир батальона ("Commander of a battalion") was a military rank in the Red Army from 1918 to 1935.
Kombrig is the abbreviation to Commanding officer of the brigade (Комбриг / Командир бригады; literal: Commander of the brigade / Brigade commander), and was a military rank in the Soviet Armed Forces of the USSR from 1935 to 1940.
Komdiv is the abbreviation to Commanding officer of the Division (Комдив / Командир дивизии; literal: Commander of the division / Division commander), and was a military rank in the Soviet Armed Forces of the USSR in the period from 1935 to 1940.
Komkor is the abbreviation for Corps Commander (Комкор / Командир корпуса; literal: Commander of the corps / Corps commander), and was a military rank in the Soviet Armed Forces of the USSR in the period from 1935 to 1940.
The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесою́зный ле́нинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation of the Russian kommunisticheskiy soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Kresy Wschodnie or Kresy (Eastern Borderlands, or Borderlands) was the Eastern part of the Second Polish Republic during the interwar period constituting nearly half of the territory of the state.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The Leningrad Military District was a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a junior commissioned officer in the armed forces, fire services, police and other organizations of many nations.
Lieutenant colonel is a rank of commissioned officer in the armies, most marine forces and some air forces of the world, above a major and below a colonel.
Under the 1977 Constitution of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), the Chairman of the Council of Ministers was the head of government and the Chairman of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet was the head of state.
This list of the military aircraft of the Soviet Union and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) includes experimental, prototypes, and operational types regardless of era.
Lithuania (Lietuva), officially the Republic of Lithuania (Lietuvos Respublika), is a country in the Baltic region of northern-eastern Europe.
Lviv (Львів; Львов; Lwów; Lemberg; Leopolis; see also other names) is the largest city in western Ukraine and the seventh-largest city in the country overall, with a population of around 728,350 as of 2016.
A machine gun is a fully automatic mounted or portable firearm designed to fire bullets in rapid succession from an ammunition belt or magazine, typically at a rate of 300 rounds per minute or higher.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, below Generalissimus of the Soviet Union.
Michael Kane MccGwire (9 December 1924 – 26 March 2016) was a British international relations specialist known for his work on Cold War geopolitics and Soviet naval strategy.
Mikhail Dmitriyevich Bonch-Bruyevich (Михаи́л Дми́триевич Бонч-Бруе́вич; – 3 August 1956) was an Imperial Russian and Soviet military commander, Lieutenant General (1944).
Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (2 February 1885 – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Prince Mikhail Illarionovich Golenishchev-Kutuzov (князь Михаи́л Илларио́нович Голени́щев-Куту́зов) was a Field Marshal of the Russian Empire.
Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (Михаи́л Никола́евич Тухаче́вский; – June 12, 1937) was a leading Soviet military leader and theoretician from 1918 to 1937.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Russia has a number of military academies of different specialties.
A military academy or service academy (in the United States) is an educational institution which prepares candidates for service in the officer corps.
The General staff college of the Russian Federation's armed forces, also General staff academy of the Russian Federation's Armed Forces (Военная академия Генерального штаба Вооруженных Сил Российской Федерации) was founded in 1918 in Moscow by Leonid Govorov.
Military advisors, or combat advisors, are soldiers sent to foreign nations to aid that nation with its military training, organization, and other various military tasks.
Military districts (also called military regions) are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory.
Military doctrine is the expression of how military forces contribute to campaigns, major operations, battles, and engagements.
The military history of the Soviet Union began in the days following the 1917 October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks to power.
Military ranks are a system of hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines.
The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917.
The Minister of Defence of the Soviet Union refers to the head of the Ministry of Defence who was responsible for defence of the communist Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic from 1917 to 1922 and the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991.
The Ministry of Defense (Minoboron; Министерство обороны СССР) was a government ministry in the Soviet Union.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation (MOI, Министерство внутренних дел, МВД, Ministerstvo Vnutrennikh Del, MVD) is the interior ministry of Russia.
The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, also known as the Nazi–Soviet Pact,Charles Peters (2005), Five Days in Philadelphia: The Amazing "We Want Willkie!" Convention of 1940 and How It Freed FDR to Save the Western World, New York: PublicAffairs, Ch.
Mongolia (Monggol Ulus in Mongolian; in Mongolian Cyrillic) is a landlocked unitary sovereign state in East Asia.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moscow Military District was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces and the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
The 3-line rifle M1891 (трёхлинейная винтовка образца 1891 года, tryokhlineynaya vintovka obraztsa 1891 goda), colloquially known as Mosin–Nagant (винтовка Мосина, ISO 9) is a five-shot, bolt-action, internal magazine–fed, military rifle developed from 1882 to 1891, and used by the armed forces of the Russian Empire, the Soviet Union and various other nations.
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The term "new world order" has been used to refer to any new period of history evidencing a dramatic change in world political thought and the balance of power.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission.
The Northern Group of Forces was the military formation of the Soviet Army stationed in Poland from the end of Second World War in 1945 until 1993 when they were withdrawn in the aftermath of the fall of the Soviet Union.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
An officer is a member of an armed force or uniformed service who holds a position of authority.
Operation Bagration (Операция Багратио́н, Operatsiya Bagration) was the codename for the Soviet 1944 Belorussian Strategic Offensive Operation, (Белорусская наступательная операция «Багратион», Belorusskaya nastupatelnaya Operatsiya Bagration) a military campaign fought between 22 June and 19 August 1944 in Soviet Byelorussia in the Eastern Front of World War II.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
The Operation Faustschlag ("Operation Fist Punch"), also known as the Eleven Days' War,Mawdsley (2007), p. 35 was a Central Powers offensive against the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) in World War I. It was the last major action on the Eastern Front.
The Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists (OUN) (Організація Українських Націоналістів, (ОУН), Orhanizatsiya Ukrayins'kykh Natsionalistiv) was a Ukrainian nationalist political organization established in 1929 in Vienna; it first operated in Western Ukraine (at the time part of interwar Poland).
The Land Forces (Wojska Lądowe) are a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Republic of Poland.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS) was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
In the military, a political commissar or political officer (or politruk, from политический руководитель, "political leader"), is a supervisory officer responsible for the political education (ideology) and organization of the unit they are assigned to, and intended to ensure civilian control of the military.
Postgraduate education, or graduate education in North America, involves learning and studying for academic or professional degrees, academic or professional certificates, academic or professional diplomas, or other qualifications for which a first or bachelor's degree generally is required, and it is normally considered to be part of higher education.
Praporshchik (3) is a rank in the Russian military, also used in other uniformed services of the Russian government such as the police.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
The Rear of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (RAF-RF) (Tyl Vooruzhonnykh Sil Rossiyskoy Federatsii), often referred to in English as the rear services, is an organization of support services for the Russian Armed Forces.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Red Guards (Красная гвардия) were paramilitary volunteer formations consisting mainly of factory workers, peasants, cossacks and partially of soldiers and sailors for "protection of the soviet power".
A regiment is a military unit.
The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (r) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based proto-states that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.
The Reserve of the Supreme High Command (Russian: Резерв Верховного Главнокомандования) (also known as Stavka Reserve or RVGK) comprised formations and units which acted as the principal military reserve of the Soviet Red Army during World War II and now of the Russian Armed Forces.
The Revolutionary Military Council (Revolutionary Military Council), sometimes called the Revolutionary War Council or Revvoyensoviet (Реввоенсовет), was the supreme military authority of Soviet Russia and later the Soviet Union.
The Romanian Bridgehead (Przedmoście rumuńskie) was an area in southeastern Poland, now located in Ukraine.
The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS or RMA Sandhurst), commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is one of several military academies of the United Kingdom and is the British Army's initial officer training centre.
The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV (from "Vozdushno-desantnye voyska Rossii", Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска России, ВДВ; Air-landing Forces) is a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.
Guards (гвардия) or Guards units (гвардейские части, gvardeyskiye chasti) were elite military units of Imperial Russia prior to 1917-18.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya pravoslávnaya tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.
The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; Ru-Российская Советская Федеративная Социалистическая Республика.ogg), also unofficially known as the Russian Federation, Soviet Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I or Russia (rɐˈsʲijə; from the Ρωσία Rōsía — Rus'), was an independent state from 1917 to 1922, and afterwards the largest, most populous, and most economically developed union republic of the Soviet Union from 1922 to 1991 and then a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with priority of Russian laws over Union-level legislation in 1990 and 1991.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sakhalin (Сахалин), previously also known as Kuye Dao (Traditional Chinese:庫頁島, Simplified Chinese:库页岛) in Chinese and in Japanese, is a large Russian island in the North Pacific Ocean, lying between 45°50' and 54°24' N.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
A semi-automatic rifle, also known as a self-loading rifle ('SLR') or auto-loading rifle, is a self-loading rifle that fires a single round each time the trigger is pulled.
The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union and China at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in 1969.
Skidzieĺ (Скідзель, also Скідаль, Skidal’; Skidlius; Skidel; Скидель) is a town in the Grodno Region of Belarus located 31 kilometers from Grodno.
The SKS is a Soviet semi-automatic carbine chambered for the 7.62×39mm round, designed in 1943 by Sergei Gavrilovich Simonov.
The Southern Group of Forces (YUGV) was a Soviet Armed Forces formation formed twice following the Second World War, most notably around the time of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
The Soviet Air Defence Forces (войска ПВО, voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony, voyska PVO, V-PVO, lit. Anti-Air Defence Troops; and formerly protivovozdushnaya oborona strany, PVO strany, lit. Anti-Air Defence of the Nation) was the air defence branch of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
The Soviet Navy (Military Maritime Fleet of the USSR) was the naval arm of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
A military staff (often referred to as general staff, army staff, navy staff, or air staff within the individual services) is a group of officers, enlisted and civilian personnel that are responsible for the administrative, operational and logistical needs of its unit.
The State Political Directorate (also translated as the State Political Administration) (GPU) was the intelligence service and secret police of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (RSFSR) from February 6, 1922 to December 29, 1922 and the Soviet Union from December 29, 1922 until November 15, 1923.
The Strategic Missile Troops or Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation or RVSN RF are a military branch of the Russian Armed Forces that controls Russia's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
The Supreme Commander of the Unified Armed Forces of the Warsaw Treaty Organization was a post in overall command of the military forces of the Warsaw Pact.
The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verkhóvnyj Sovét, literally "Supreme Council") was the common name for the legislative bodies (parliaments) of the Soviet socialist republics (SSR) in the Soviet Union.
The SVT-40 (Samozaryadnaya Vintovka Tokareva, Obrazets 1940 goda, "Tokarev self-loading rifle, model of 1940", Russian: Самозарядная винтовка Токарева, образец 1940 года, often nicknamed "Sveta") is a Soviet semi-automatic rifle.
The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank that had a profound and lasting effect on the field of tank design.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
Tbilisi (თბილისი), in some countries also still named by its pre-1936 international designation Tiflis, is the capital and the largest city of Georgia, lying on the banks of the Kura River with a population of approximately 1.5 million people.
The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Communist Bloc.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Transnistria, the self-proclaimed Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR; Приднестровская Молдавская Республика, ПМР; Republica Moldovenească Nistreană, RMN; Република Молдовеняскэ Нистрянэ; Придністровська Молдавська Республіка), and also called Transdniester, Trans-Dniestr, Transdniestria, or Pridnestrovie, is a non-recognized state which controls part of the geographical region Transnistria (the area between the Dniester river and Ukraine) and also the city of Bender and its surrounding localities on the west bank.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkrSSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР, УРСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР, УССР; see "Name" section below), also known as the Soviet Ukraine, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union from the Union's inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991. The republic was governed by the Communist Party of Ukraine as a unitary one-party socialist soviet republic. The Ukrainian SSR was a founding member of the United Nations, although it was legally represented by the All-Union state in its affairs with countries outside of the Soviet Union. Upon the Soviet Union's dissolution and perestroika, the Ukrainian SSR was transformed into the modern nation-state and renamed itself to Ukraine. Throughout its 72-year history, the republic's borders changed many times, with a significant portion of what is now Western Ukraine being annexed by Soviet forces in 1939 from the Republic of Poland, and the addition of Zakarpattia in 1946. From the start, the eastern city of Kharkiv served as the republic's capital. However, in 1934, the seat of government was subsequently moved to the city of Kiev, Ukraine's historic capital. Kiev remained the capital for the rest of the Ukrainian SSR's existence, and remained the capital of independent Ukraine after the breakup of the Soviet Union. Geographically, the Ukrainian SSR was situated in Eastern Europe to the north of the Black Sea, bordered by the Soviet republics of Moldavia, Byelorussia, and the Russian SFSR. The Ukrainian SSR's border with Czechoslovakia formed the Soviet Union's western-most border point. According to the Soviet Census of 1989 the republic had a population of 51,706,746 inhabitants, which fell sharply after the breakup of the Soviet Union. For most of its existence, it ranked second only to the Russian SFSR in population, economic and political power.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Military Academy (USMA), also known as West Point, Army, Army West Point, The Academy or simply The Point, is a four-year coeducational federal service academy located in West Point, New York, in Orange County.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Vietnam Syndrome, in US politics, is a term used to refer to public aversion to American overseas military involvements, following the domestic controversy over the Vietnam War, which ended in 1975.
Vladimir Bogdanovich Rezun, Влади́мир Богда́нович Резу́н, born April 20, 1947, in Barabash, Primorsky Krai, and known as Viktor Suvorov (Ви́ктор Суво́ров), is a Russian writer and a former Soviet military intelligence officer who defected to the United Kingdom.
Vilnius (see also other names) is the capital of Lithuania and its largest city, with a population of 574,221.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Lobov (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Ло́бов; born 22 July 1935) is a former Soviet and Russian military commander, who was Chief of the General Staff of the Soviet Armed Forces in 1991, General of the Army, Doctor of Military Sciences and People's Deputy of the USSR from 1989 to 1991.
War is a state of armed conflict between states, societies and informal groups, such as insurgents and militias.
A warrant officer (WO) is an officer in a military organisation who is designated an officer by a warrant, as distinguished from a commissioned officer who is designated an officer by a commission, and a non-commissioned officer who is designated an officer, often by virtue of seniority.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
Wielka Encyklopedia PWN (Great PWN Encyclopedia) is a universal encyclopedia in Polish, published by Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN (until 1991 Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe - State Scientific Publishers, PWN) in Warsaw, between 2001 and 2005.
William Eldridge Odom (June 23, 1932 – May 30, 2008) was a retired U.S. Army 3-star general, and former Director of the NSA under President Ronald Reagan, which culminated a 31-year career in military intelligence, mainly specializing in matters relating to the Soviet Union.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yevgeny Ivanovich Shaposhnikov (Евгений Иванович Шапошников; born 3 February 1942) is a Russian military leader and business figure, Marshal of Aviation (1991).
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The 5.45×39mm cartridge is a rimless bottlenecked Intermediate cartridge.
The 5.56×45mm NATO (official NATO nomenclature 5.56 NATO) is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge family developed in Belgium by FN Herstal.
The 7.62×39mm (aka 7.62 Soviet or formerly.30 Russian Short) round is a rimless bottlenecked intermediate cartridge of Soviet origin that was designed during World War II.
The 7.62×54mmR is a rimmed rifle cartridge developed by the Russian Empire and introduced as a service cartridge in 1891.
Armed Forces of USSR, Armed Forces of the USSR, Military of the Soviet Union, Military of the USSR, Soviet Military, Soviet armed forces, Soviet forces, Soviet military, The Soviet Armed Forces, USSR Armed Forces, USSR military.