197 relations: Afghanistan, Aftermath of World War II, AK-47, Al-Qaeda, Almaty, Andrei Grechko, Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Armenia, Army, Army group, ASU-85, Azerbaijan, AZP S-60, Baku, Baltic Military District, Baltic states, Battalion, Beatrice Heuser, Belarus, Belorussian Military District, BM-14, BM-21 Grad, BM-24, BM-25 (MRL), BM-27 Uragan, BM-30 Smerch, BMD-1, BMD-2, BMD-3, BMP-1, BMP-2, BMP-3, Boris Yeltsin, BRDM-1, BRDM-2, BTR-152, BTR-50, BTR-60, BTR-70, BTR-80, BTR-D, Buk missile system, Carpathian Military District, Central Group of Forces, Cold War, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Cuban Missile Crisis, D-74 122 mm field gun, Dalian, ..., Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Division (military), Eastern Europe, Economy, Ethiopian Civil War, Far Eastern Military District, Forest Brothers, Front (military formation), General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, Georgy Zhukov, Ground warfare, Group of Soviet Forces in Germany, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hungary, Inside the Soviet Army, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Ivan Konev, Kalashnikov rifle, Kamov Ka-50, Kazakhstan, Kiev Military District, Korean War, Kyrgyzstan, Lüshunkou District, Leningrad Military District, List of Soviet armies, List of Soviet Army divisions 1989–91, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev, Mil Mi-17, Mil Mi-2, Mil Mi-24, Mil Mi-26, Mil Mi-28, Mil Mi-6, Mil Mi-8, Military district, Military history of the Soviet Union, Military ranks of the Soviet Union, Moscow Military District, MT-LB, Mujahideen, National People's Army, NATO, Nazism, Nikita Khrushchev, NKVD, North Caucasus Military District, Northern Group of Forces, Nuclear weapon, Odessa Military District, OTR-21 Tochka, OTR-23 Oka, Politburo, PT-76, Red Army, Regiment, Revolutions of 1989, Rodion Malinovsky, Russia, Russian Armed Forces, Russian Ground Forces, S-300 missile system, Scud, Seven Days to the River Rhine, Siberian Military District, Sino-Soviet border conflict, Southern Group of Forces, Soviet Air Defence Forces, Soviet Air Forces, Soviet Armed Forces, Soviet occupation of Romania, Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan, Soviet–Afghan War, Strategic Missile Troops, Succession of states, Surface-to-surface missile, T-12 antitank gun, T-54/T-55, T-62, T-64, T-72, T-80, Tajikistan, Tank corps (Soviet Union), Terrorism, Tor missile system, TOS-1, TR-1 Temp, Transbaikal Military District, Transcaucasian Military District, Turkestan Military District, Turkmenistan, Ukraine, Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Ulan-Ude, Uprising of 1953 in East Germany, Uzbekistan, Valentin Varennikov, Vasiliy Petrov (military), Vasily Chuikov, Vietnam War, Viktor Suvorov, Volga–Urals Military District, Warsaw Pact, Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, William Eldridge Odom, World Bank, World War II, ZPU, ZSU-23-4, ZSU-57-2, ZU-23-2, 100 mm air defense gun KS-19, 100 mm field gun M1944 (BS-3), 122 mm howitzer 2A18 (D-30), 122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30), 130 mm towed field gun M1954 (M-46), 14th Army involvement in Transnistria, 152 mm gun 2A36, 152 mm howitzer 2A65, 152 mm howitzer M1943 (D-1), 152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20), 152 mm towed gun-howitzer M1955 (D-20), 152mm SpGH DANA, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 203 mm howitzer M1931 (B-4), 25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K), 2K11 Krug, 2K12 Kub, 2K22 Tunguska, 2S1 Gvozdika, 2S19 Msta, 2S3 Akatsiya, 2S4 Tyulpan, 2S5 Giatsint-S, 2S7 Pion, 2S9 Nona, 37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K), 39th Army (Soviet Union), 85 mm air defense gun M1939 (52-K), 85 mm antitank gun D-48, 85 mm divisional gun D-44, 9K31 Strela-1, 9K33 Osa, 9K35 Strela-10, 9K52 Luna-M. Expand index (147 more) » « Shrink index
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
The Aftermath of World War II was the beginning of an era defined by the decline of all great powers except for the Soviet Union and the United States, and the simultaneous rise of two superpowers: the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States of America (USA).
The AK-47, or AK as it is officially known, also known as the Kalashnikov, is a gas-operated, 7.62×39mm assault rifle, developed in the Soviet Union by Mikhail Kalashnikov.
Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
Andrei Antonovich Grechko (– 26 April 1976) was a Soviet general, Marshal of the Soviet Union and Minister of Defense.
The Armed Forces of the Republic of Kazakhstan (Қазақстанның Қарулы күштері, Qazaqstannyń qarýly kúshteri), is the name of the unified armed forces of Kazakhstan.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
An army (from Latin arma "arms, weapons" via Old French armée, "armed" (feminine)) or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land.
An army group is a military organization consisting of several field armies, which is self-sufficient for indefinite periods.
The ASU-85 (Aviadesantnaya Samokhodnaya Ustanovka, ASU-85 – airborne self-propelled mount) is a Soviet-designed airborne self-propelled gun of the Cold War Era.
57 mm AZP S-60 (Автоматическая зенитная пушка С-60, abbrev. АЗП (AZP); literally: Automatic anti-aircraft gun S-60) is a Soviet towed, road-transportable, short- to medium-range, single-barrel anti-aircraft gun from the 1950s.
Baku (Bakı) is the capital and largest city of Azerbaijan, as well as the largest city on the Caspian Sea and of the Caucasus region, with a population of 2,374,000.
The Baltic Military District was a military district of the Soviet armed forces in the occupied Baltic states, formed briefly before the German invasion during the World War II.
The Baltic states, also known as the Baltic countries, Baltic republics, Baltic nations or simply the Baltics (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), is a geopolitical term used for grouping the three sovereign countries in Northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
A battalion is a military unit.
Beatrice Heuser (born 15 March 1961 in Bangkok), is an historian and political scientist.
Belarus (Беларусь, Biełaruś,; Беларусь, Belarus'), officially the Republic of Belarus (Рэспубліка Беларусь; Республика Беларусь), formerly known by its Russian name Byelorussia or Belorussia (Белоруссия, Byelorussiya), is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.
The Byelorussian Military District (Белорусский военный округ, Belarusskiy Voyenyi Okrug; alternative spelling Belorussian) was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The BM-14 (BM for Boyevaya Mashina, 'combat vehicle'), is a Soviet-made 140mm multiple launch rocket system (MLRS), normally mounted on a truck.
The BM-21 "Grad" (БМ-21 "Град"), is a Soviet truck-mounted 122 mm multiple rocket launcher.
The BM-24 is a multiple rocket launcher designed in the Soviet Union.
The BM-25 is a multiple rocket launcher designed in the Soviet Union.
The BM-27 Uragan (Ураган, "hurricane"; GRAU index 9P140) is a self-propelled multiple rocket launcher system designed in the Soviet Union.
The BM-30 Smerch (Смерч, "whirlwind"), 9K58 Smerch or 9A52-2 Smerch-M is a Soviet heavy multiple rocket launcher.
The BMD-1 is a Soviet airborne amphibious tracked infantry fighting vehicle, which was introduced in 1969 and first seen by the West in 1970.
The BMD-2 is a Soviet airborne infantry fighting vehicle, introduced in 1985.
The BMD-3 (Boyevaya Mashina Desanta, Russian "Боевая Машина Десанта", literally "Combat Vehicle of the Airborne") is an infantry fighting vehicle (IFV) originating from the former Soviet Union.
The BMP-1 is a Soviet amphibious tracked infantry fighting vehicle.
The BMP-2 (Boyevaya Mashina Pekhoty,, literally "infantry combat vehicle") is a second-generation, amphibious infantry fighting vehicle introduced in the 1980s in the Soviet Union, following on from the BMP-1 of the 1960s.
The BMP-3 is a Soviet infantry fighting vehicle, successor to the BMP-1 and BMP-2.
Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Soviet and Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.
The BRDM-1 (Bronirovannaya Razvedyvatelnaya Dozornaya Mashina, Бронированная Разведывательная Дозорная Машина, literally "armored reconnaissance/patrol vehicle") is a Soviet amphibious armored scout car.
The BRDM-2 (Boyevaya Razvedyvatelnaya Dozornaya Mashina, Боевая Разведывательная Дозорная Машина, literally "Combat Reconnaissance/Patrol Vehicle") is an amphibious armoured patrol car used by Russia and the former Soviet Union.
The BTR-152 (also known as BTR-140) was a six-wheeled Soviet armored personnel carrier (БТР, from Бронетранспортер/Bronetransporter, literally "armored transporter"), built on the chassis and drive train of a ZiS-151 utility truck.
The BTR-50 (BTR stands for Bronetransporter (БТР, Бронетранспортер), literally "armored transporter") is a Soviet amphibious armored personnel carrier (APC) based on the PT-76 light tank.
The BTR-60 is the first vehicle in a series of Soviet eight-wheeled armoured personnel carriers (APCs).
The BTR-70 is an eight-wheeled armored personnel carrier (бронетранспортер/''Bronetransporter'', or literally "Armoured Transporter") originally developed by the Soviet Union during the late 1960s under the manufacturing code GAZ-4905.
The BTR-80 (бронетранспортер/Bronetransporter, literally "Armoured Transporter") is an 8×8 wheeled amphibious armoured personnel carrier (APC) designed in the USSR.
The BTR-D is a Soviet airborne multi-purpose tracked armoured personnel carrier which was introduced in 1974 and first seen by the West in 1979 during the Soviet war in Afghanistan.
The Buk missile system ("Бук"; “beech” (tree)) is a family of self-propelled, medium-range surface-to-air missile systems developed by the Soviet Union and its successor state, the Russian Federation, and designed to counter cruise missiles, smart bombs, fixed- and rotary-wing aircraft, and unmanned aerial vehicles.
The Carpathian Military District was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces during the Cold War and subsequently of the Armed Forces of Ukraine during the early Post-Soviet period.
The Central Group of Forces was a formation of the Soviet Armed Forces used to control Soviet troops in Central Europe on two occasions: in Austria and Hungary from 1945-55 and troops stationed in Czechoslovakia after the Prague Spring of 1968.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r), also nicknamed the Russian Commonwealth (in order to distinguish it from the Commonwealth of Nations), is a political and economic intergovernmental organization of nine member states and one associate member, all of which are former Soviet Republics located in Eurasia (primarily in Central to North Asia), formed following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Communist Party of the Soviet Union was the founding and ruling political party of the Soviet Union.
The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis of 1962 (Crisis de Octubre), the Caribbean Crisis, or the Missile Scare, was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union concerning American ballistic missile deployment in Italy and Turkey with consequent Soviet ballistic missile deployment in Cuba.
The 122mm D-74 towed gun is a Soviet built gun.
Dalian is a major city and seaport in the south of Liaoning Province, China.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
The Ethiopian Civil War began on 12 September 1974 when the Marxist-Leninist Derg staged a coup d'état against Emperor Haile Selassie.
The Far Eastern Military District (Dalʹnevostochnyĭ voennyĭ okrug, Дальневосточный военный округ) was a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
The Forest Brothers (also Brothers of the Forest, Forest Brethren, or Forest Brotherhood; metsavennad, meža brāļi, miško broliai) were Estonian, Latvian, and Lithuanian partisans who waged a guerrilla war against Soviet rule during the Soviet invasion and occupation of the three Baltic states during, and after, World War II.
A front (фронт, front) is a type of military formation that originated in the Russian Empire, and has been used by the Polish Army, the Red Army, the Soviet Army, and Turkey.
The General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (Генеральный штаб Вооружённых сил Российской Федерации, Генштаб – Genshtab) is the military staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (– 18 June 1974) was a Soviet Red Army General who became Chief of General Staff, Deputy Commander-in-Chief, Minister of Defence and a member of the Politburo.
Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that take place predominantly on the battlespace land surface of the planet.
The Group of Soviet Forces in Germany (1954–1988) (Группа советских войск в Германии, ГСВГ), also known as the Group of Soviet Occupation Forces in Germany (1945–1954) and the Western Group of Forces (1988–1994) were the troops of the Soviet Army in East Germany.
The Hungarian Revolution of 1956, or Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or 1956-os felkelés), was a nationwide revolt against the Marxist-Leninist government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
Inside the Soviet Army (Hamish Hamilton, 1982; also published in the United States, Prentice Hall), is a book by Viktor Suvorov, which describes the general organisation, doctrine, and strategy of the Soviet armed forces (the term "Army" being used to cover not only the Land Forces, but also Strategic Rocket, Air Defence, Air, and Naval forces).
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
Ivan Stepanovich Konev (Ива́н Степа́нович Ко́нев; – 21 May 1973) was a Soviet military commander who led Red Army forces on the Eastern Front during World War II, retook much of Eastern Europe from occupation by the Axis Powers, and helped in the capture of Germany's capital, Berlin.
A Kalashnikov rifle is any one of a series of automatic rifles based on the original design of Mikhail Kalashnikov.
The Kamov Ka-50 "Black Shark" (translit, NATO reporting name: Hokum A) is a single-seat Russian attack helicopter with the distinctive coaxial rotor system of the Kamov design bureau.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Kiev Military District was a military district of the Imperial Russian Army and subsequently of the Red Army and Soviet Armed Forces.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Lüshunkou District (also Lyushunkou District) is a district of Dalian, in Liaoning province, China.
The Leningrad Military District was a military district of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
An army, besides the generalized meanings of ‘a country's armed forces’ or its ‘land forces’, is a type of formation in militaries of various countries, including the Soviet Union.
This article is an (incomplete) listing of Soviet Ground Forces divisions in 1990, and corresponding information about their later status in 2006.
Marshal of the Soviet Union (Маршал Советского Союза) was the highest military rank of the Soviet Union, below Generalissimus of the Soviet Union.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
The Mil Mi-17 (NATO reporting name: Hip) is a Russian helicopter in production at two factories in Kazan and Ulan-Ude.
The Mil Mi-2 (NATO reporting name Hoplite) is a small, lightly armored turbine-powered transport helicopter that could also provide close air support when armed with 57 mm rockets and a 23 mm cannon.
The Mil Mi-24 (Миль Ми-24; NATO reporting name: Hind) is a large helicopter gunship, attack helicopter and low-capacity troop transport with room for eight passengers.
The Mil Mi-26 (Миль Ми-26, NATO reporting name: Halo) is a Soviet/Russian heavy transport helicopter.
The Mil Mi-28 (NATO reporting name "Havoc") is a Russian all-weather, day-night, military tandem, two-seat anti-armor attack helicopter.
The Mil Mi-6 (NATO reporting name Hook), given the article number izdeliye 50 and company designation V-6, was a Soviet/Russian heavy transport helicopter that was designed by the Mil design bureau.
The Mil Mi-8 (Ми-8, NATO reporting name: Hip) is a medium twin-turbine helicopter, originally designed by the Soviet Union, and now produced by Russia.
Military districts (also called military regions) are formations of a state's armed forces (often of the Army) which are responsible for a certain area of territory.
The military history of the Soviet Union began in the days following the 1917 October Revolution that brought the Bolsheviks to power.
The military ranks of the Soviet Union were those introduced after the October Revolution of 1917.
The Moscow Military District was a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces and the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
The MT-LB (Многоцелевой Тягач Легкий Бронированный, Mnogotselevoy Tyagach Legky Bronirovanny / Multi-Purpose Towing Vehicle Light Armoured) is a Soviet multi-purpose fully amphibious auxiliary armored tracked vehicle, which was first introduced in the 1960s.
Mujahideen (مجاهدين) is the plural form of mujahid (مجاهد), the term for one engaged in Jihad (literally, "holy war").
The National People's Army (NPA) (German: Nationale Volksarmee – NVA) was the name used for the armed forces of the German Democratic Republic.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The North Caucasus Military District was a military district of the Russian Armed Forces, which became in 2010 the Southern Military District and lately also included the Black Sea Fleet and Caspian Flotilla.
The Northern Group of Forces was the military formation of the Soviet Army stationed in Poland from the end of Second World War in 1945 until 1993 when they were withdrawn in the aftermath of the fall of the Soviet Union.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
The Odessa Military District (Одесский военный округ, ОВО) was a military administrative division of the Imperial Russian military, the Soviet Armed Forces and the Ukrainian Armed Forces and was known under such name from around 1862 to 1998.
OTR-21 Tochka (оперативно-тактический ракетный комплекс (ОТР) «Точка» ("dot"); Tactical Operational Missile Complex "Tochka") is a Soviet tactical ballistic missile.
The OTR-23 Oka (OTP-23 «Ока»; named after Oka River) was a mobile theatre ballistic missile (оперативно-тактический ракетный комплекс) deployed by the Soviet Union near the end of the Cold War to replace the obsolete SS-1C 'Scud B'.
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
The PT-76 is a Soviet amphibious light tank that was introduced in the early 1950s and soon became the standard reconnaissance tank of the Soviet Army and the other Warsaw Pact armed forces.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
A regiment is a military unit.
The Revolutions of 1989 formed part of a revolutionary wave in the late 1980s and early 1990s that resulted in the end of communist rule in Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.
Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky (Родио́н Я́ковлевич Малино́вский; – 31 March 1967) was a Soviet military commander in World War II, Marshal of the Soviet Union, and Defense Minister of the Soviet Union in the late 1950s and 1960s.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the military service of the Russian Federation, established after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
The Ground Forces of the Russian Federation (r) are the land forces of the Russian Armed Forces, formed from parts of the collapsing Soviet Army in 1992.
The S-300 (NATO reporting name SA-10 Grumble) is a series of initially Soviet and later Russian long range surface-to-air missile systems produced by NPO Almaz, based on the initial S-300P version.
Scud is the name of a series of tactical ballistic missiles developed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
Seven Days to the River Rhine (Sem' dney do reki Reyn) was a top-secret military simulation exercise developed in 1979 by the Warsaw Pact.
The Siberian Military District was a Military district of the Russian Ground Forces.
The Sino-Soviet border conflict was a seven-month undeclared military conflict between the Soviet Union and China at the height of the Sino-Soviet split in 1969.
The Southern Group of Forces (YUGV) was a Soviet Armed Forces formation formed twice following the Second World War, most notably around the time of the Hungarian Revolution of 1956.
The Soviet Air Defence Forces (войска ПВО, voyska protivovozdushnoy oborony, voyska PVO, V-PVO, lit. Anti-Air Defence Troops; and formerly protivovozdushnaya oborona strany, PVO strany, lit. Anti-Air Defence of the Nation) was the air defence branch of the Soviet Armed Forces.
The Soviet Air Forces (r (VVS), literally "Military Air Forces") was the official designation of one of the air forces of the Soviet Union.
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
The Soviet occupation of Romania refers to the period from 1944 to August 1958, during which the Soviet Union maintained a significant military presence in Romania.
The final and complete withdrawal of Soviet combatant forces from Afghanistan began on 15 May 1988 and ended on 15 February 1989 under the leadership of Colonel-General Boris Gromov.
The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years, from December 1979 to February 1989.
The Strategic Missile Troops or Strategic Rocket Forces of the Russian Federation or RVSN RF are a military branch of the Russian Armed Forces that controls Russia's land-based intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs).
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
A surface-to-surface missile (SSM) or ground-to-ground missile (GGM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground or the sea and strike targets on land or at sea.
2A19 or T-12 is a Soviet smoothbore 100-mm anti-tank gun, which served as the primary towed anti-tank artillery in the Soviet and Bulgarian armies from the early 1960s to the late 1980s.
The T-54 and T-55 tanks are a series of Soviet main battle tanks introduced in the years following the Second World War.
The T-62 is a Soviet main battle tank that was first introduced 1961.
The T-64 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank introduced in the early 1960s.
The T-72 is a Soviet second-generation main battle tank that entered production in 1971.
The T-80 is a third-generation main battle tank (MBT) designed and manufactured in the Soviet Union.
Tajikistan (or; Тоҷикистон), officially the Republic of Tajikistan (Ҷумҳурии Тоҷикистон, Jumhuriyi Tojikiston), is a mountainous, landlocked country in Central Asia with an estimated population of million people as of, and an area of.
A tank corps (танковый корпус) was a Soviet armoured formation used during World War II.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
The Tor missile system ("Тор"; torus) is an all-weather low to medium altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system designed for engaging airplanes, helicopters, cruise missiles, precision guided munitions, unmanned aerial vehicles and short-range ballistic threats (Anti-Munitions).
TOS-1 (тяжёлая огнемётная система (ТОС-1), Heavy Flamethrower System) is a Soviet 220mm 30-barrel (original system, Ob.634 or TOS-1M) or 24-barrel (Ob.634B or TOS-1A) multiple rocket launcher and thermobaric weapon mounted on a T-72 tank chassis.
The TR-1 Temp is a mobile theatre ballistic missile developed and deployed by the Soviet Union during the Cold War.
The Transbaikal Military District (Забайкальский военный округ) was a military district of first the Soviet Armed Forces and then the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation, formed on May 17, 1935 and included the Buryat Republic, Chita Oblast, and Yakutia.
The Transcaucasian Military District, a military district of the Soviet Armed Forces, traces its history to May 1921 and the incorporation of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia into the Soviet Union.
The Turkestan Military District (Туркестанский военный округ (ТуркВО), Turkestansky voyenyi okrug (TurkVO)) was a military district of both the Imperial Russian Army and the Soviet Armed Forces, with its headquarters at Tashkent.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Ukrainian Insurgent Army (Українська повстанська армія, УПА, Ukrayins’ka Povstans’ka Armiya, UPA) was a Ukrainian nationalist paramilitary and later partisan army that engaged in a series of guerrilla conflicts during World War II against Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, Czechoslovakia, and both Underground and Communist Poland.
Ulan-Ude (p; Улаан Үдэ, Ulaan Üde) is the capital city of the Republic of Buryatia, Russia; it is located about southeast of Lake Baikal on the Uda River at its confluence with the Selenga.
The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany started with a strike by East Berlin construction workers on 16 June 1953.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
Valentin Ivanovich Varennikov (Валентин Иванович Варенников) (December 15, 1923 – May 6, 2009) was a Soviet/Russian Army general and politician, best known for being one of the planners and leaders of the Soviet war in Afghanistan, as well as one of the instigators of the 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt.
Vasiliy Ivanovich Petrov (Васи́лий Ива́нович Петро́в; – 1 February 2014) was a senior Russian military official and Marshal of the Soviet Union.
Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (12 February 1900 – 18 March 1982) was a Soviet military officer.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Vladimir Bogdanovich Rezun, Влади́мир Богда́нович Резу́н, born April 20, 1947, in Barabash, Primorsky Krai, and known as Viktor Suvorov (Ви́ктор Суво́ров), is a Russian writer and a former Soviet military intelligence officer who defected to the United Kingdom.
The Volga–Ural Military District was a military district of the Russian Ground Forces, formed on 1 September 2001 by the amalgamation of the Volga Military District and the Ural Military District.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia, officially known as Operation Danube, was a joint invasion of Czechoslovakia by five Warsaw Pact nations – the Soviet Union, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Poland – on the night of 20–21 August 1968.
William Eldridge Odom (June 23, 1932 – May 30, 2008) was a retired U.S. Army 3-star general, and former Director of the NSA under President Ronald Reagan, which culminated a 31-year career in military intelligence, mainly specializing in matters relating to the Soviet Union.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The ZPU (Russian: зенитная пулемётная установка, meaning "anti-aircraft machine gun mount") is a family of towed anti-aircraft gun based on the Soviet 14.5×114mm KPV heavy machine gun.
The ZSU-23-4 "Shilka" is a lightly armored Soviet self-propelled, radar guided anti-aircraft weapon system (SPAAG).
The ZSU-57-2 Ob'yekt 500 is a Soviet self-propelled anti-aircraft gun (SPAAG), armed with two 57 mm autocannons.
The ZU-23-2, also known as ZU-23, is a Soviet towed 23 mm anti-aircraft twin-barreled autocannon.
100 mm air defense gun KS-19 (100-мм зенитная пушка КС-19) was a Soviet anti-aircraft gun.
The 100 mm field gun M1944 (BS-3) (100-мм полевая пушка обр.) was a Soviet 100 mm anti-tank and field gun.
The 122-mm howitzer D-30 (GRAU index 2A18) is a Soviet howitzer that first entered service in the 1960s.
The 122 mm howitzer M1938 (M-30) was a Soviet 121.92 mm (4.8 inch) howitzer.
The 130 mm towed field gun M-46 (130-мм пушка M-46) is a manually loaded, towed 130 mm artillery piece, manufactured in the Soviet Union in the 1950s.
The involvement of the Soviet 14th Guards Army in the War of Transnistria was extensive and contributed to the outcome, which left the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR) with de facto independence from the Republic of Moldova.
The 2A36 Giatsint-B is a Soviet/Russian towed 152 mm field gun which entered service in 1975.
The 2A65 "Msta-B" is a Soviet towed 152.4 mm howitzer.
The D-1 howitzer M1943 (152-mm gaubitsa obr.) is a Soviet World War II-era 152.4 mm howitzer.
The 152 mm howitzer-gun M1937 (ML-20) (152-мм гаубица-пушка обр.), is a Soviet heavy gun-howitzer.
The 152 mm gun-howitzer M1955, also known as the D-20, (152-мм пушка-гаубица Д-20 обр.) is a manually loaded, towed 152 mm artillery piece, manufactured in the Soviet Union during the 1950s.
The DANA (the name being derived from "dělo automobilní nabíjené automaticky" (gun on truck loaded automatically)) is a wheeled self-propelled artillery piece.
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
203 mm howitzer M1931 (B-4) (203-мм гаубица обр.) was a 203 mm (8 inch) Soviet heavy howitzer.
25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K) (25-мм автоматическая зенитная пушка образца 1940 года (72-К)) was a Soviet 25 mm caliber anti-aircraft gun.
The 2K11 Krug (2К11 «Круг»; circle) is a Soviet and now Russian medium-range, medium-to-high altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system.
The 2K12 "Kub" (2К12 "Куб"; cube) (NATO reporting name: SA-6 "Gainful") mobile surface-to-air missile system is a Soviet low to medium-level air defence system designed to protect ground forces from air attack.
The 2K22 Tunguska (2К22 "Тунгуска".; Tunguska) is a Russian tracked self-propelled anti-aircraft weapon armed with a surface-to-air gun and missile system.
The 2S1 Gvozdika (2С1 «Гвоздика», "Carnation") is a Soviet self-propelled howitzer based on the MT-LB APC chassis, mounting a 122 mm 2A18 howitzer.
The 2S19 "Msta-S" (Мста, after the Msta River) is a 152.4 mm self-propelled howitzer designed by Russia/Soviet Union, which entered service in 1989 as the successor to the 2S3 Akatsiya.
SO-152 (СО-152) is a Soviet 152.4 mm self-propelled gun developed in 1968.
The 2S4 Tyulpan (often spelled Tulpan, 2С4 «Тюльпан»; tulip) is a Soviet 240mm self-propelled mortar.
The 2S5 Giatsint-S (2С5 «Гиацинт-С»; hyacinth) is a Soviet/Russian 152 mm self-propelled gun.
The 2S7 Pion ("peony") or Malka is a Soviet self-propelled gun.
The 2S9 NONA (Новейшее Орудие Наземной Артилерии - Newest Ordnance of Ground Artillery) is an extremely light-weight self-propelled and air-droppable 120 mm mortar designed in the Soviet Union that entered service in 1981.
The 37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K) (37-мм автоматическая зенитная пушка образца 1939 года (61-К)) was a Soviet 37 mm calibre anti-aircraft gun developed during the late 1930s and used during World War II.
The 39th Army was a Field Army of the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II and of the Soviet Army during the Cold War.
The 85 mm air defense gun M1939 (52-K) (85-мм зенитная пушка обр.) was an 85-mm Soviet air defense gun, developed under guidance of leading Soviet designers M. N. Loginov and G. D. Dorokhin.
The 85-mm antitank gun D-48 (85-мм противотанковая пушка Д-48) was a Soviet 85-mm calibre anti-tank gun used after World War II.
The 85-mm divisional gun D-44 (85-мм дивизионная пушка Д-44) was a Soviet divisional 85-mm calibre field artillery gun used in the last action of World War II.
The 9K31 Strela-1 (9К31 «Стрела-1»; arrow) is a highly mobile, short-range, low altitude infra-red guided surface-to-air missile system.
The 9K33 Osa (wasp) is a highly mobile, low-altitude, short-range tactical surface-to-air missile system designed in the Soviet Union.
The 9K35 Strela-10 (9К35 «Стрела-10»; arrow) is a highly mobile, visually aimed, optical/infrared-guided, low-altitude, short-range surface-to-air missile system.
The 9K52 Luna-M (Луна; moon) is a Soviet short-range artillery rocket system.