250 relations: Aegean Sea, Aircraft carrier, Akula-class submarine, Aleksandr Nemits, Alexander Kerensky, Alfa-class submarine, Alligator-class landing ship, Amphibious warfare, Amphibious warfare ship, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-ship missile, Anti-submarine warfare, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Armoured fighting vehicle, Atlantic Ocean, Attack submarine, Ballistic missile, Ballistic missile submarine, Baltic Fleet, Baltic Military District, Baltic Sea, Baltic Shipyard, Baltiysk, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Caucasus, Battle of the Kerch Peninsula, Battlecruiser, Bellona Foundation, Beluga-class submarine, Bizerte, Black Sea, Black Sea Fleet, Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage, Bolsheviks, Boris Malinin, Bravo-class submarine, Brigade, Carrier battle group, Caspian Flotilla, Caspian Sea, Charlie-class submarine, China, Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning, Coastal artillery, Cold War, Combined arms, Continuation War, Convoy, Corvette, Council of People's Commissars, ..., Crimea, Cruise missile submarine, Cruiser, Dardanelles, Dekabrist-class submarine, Delta-class submarine, Destroyer, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Eastern Europe, Echo-class submarine, Eduard Pantserzhanskiy, Exercise Reforger, Finland, Foxtrot-class submarine, Frigate, German Empire, Gnevny-class destroyer, Grisha-class corvette, Helicopter carrier, Hero of the Soviet Union, History of the Soviet Union (1927–1953), Hotel-class submarine, Hovercraft, Imperial Russian Navy, India-class submarine, International Institute for Strategic Studies, Invasion of Poland, Ivan Rogov-class landing ship, Ivan Yumashev, James Oberg, John Anthony Walker, John B. Hattendorf, Joseph Stalin, Journal of Strategic Studies, Juliett-class submarine, Junkers Ju 87, Kama River, Kamov Ka-27, Kanin-class destroyer, Kara-class cruiser, Kashin-class destroyer, Kerch, Kiev-class aircraft carrier, Kildin-class destroyer, Kilo-class submarine, Kirov-class battlecruiser, Kirov-class cruiser, Klaipėda, Koni-class frigate, Kresta I-class cruiser, Kresta II-class cruiser, Kriegsmarine, Krivak-class frigate, Kronstadt, Kronstadt rebellion, Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier, Kynda-class cruiser, Lake Onega, Landing craft, Lend-Lease, Leningrad Naval Base, Leon Trotsky, Lima-class submarine, List of Russian admirals, List of Russian rulers, List of ships of the Soviet Navy, List of USSR navy flags, Losos-class submarine, Luftwaffe, Marines, Mediterranean Sea, Merchant navy, Mikhail Frinovsky, Mikhail Viktorov, Mikoyan MiG-29, Mirka-class frigate, Missile, Missile boat, Moonsund Landing Operation, Moscow, Moskva-class helicopter carrier, Mykolaiv, Nanuchka-class corvette, NATO, Naval history of World War II, Naval Infantry (Russia), Naval mine, Naval War College Review, Navy, Nazi Germany, New York City, Nikolai Vladimirovich Zateyev, Nikolay Kuznetsov (officer), North Africa, Northern Dvina River, Northern Fleet, November-class submarine, Novorossiysk, Nuclear safety and security, October Revolution, Odessa, Odessa Military District, Operation Barbarossa, Oscar-class submarine, Pacific Fleet (Russia), Parchim-class corvette, Patrol boat, Pechengsky District, People's Liberation Army Navy, Petya-class frigate, Polish–Soviet War, Polnocny-class landing ship, Post-Soviet states, Project 1153 Orel, Pyotr Smirnov, Red Army, Red Terror, Riga-class frigate, Romuald Muklevich, Ropucha-class landing ship, Royal Navy, Russian Airborne Troops, Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Kuznetsov, Russian battleship Petropavlovsk (1911), Russian Civil War, Russian destroyer Novik (1911), Russian Guards, Russian Navy, Russian Revolution, Saint Petersburg, Sea lines of communication, Sergey Gorshkov, Sevastopol, Siege of Leningrad, Siege of Odessa (1941), Siege of Sevastopol (1941–42), Sierra-class submarine, Slava-class cruiser, Sonar, Soobrazitelnyy-class destroyer, Sovetsky Soyuz-class battleship, Soviet Armed Forces, Soviet Army, Soviet Decree, Soviet invasion of Manchuria, Soviet Naval Aviation, Soviet submarine K-19, Soviet submarine K-219, Soviet submarine K-278 Komsomolets, Soviet Union, Soviet–Japanese border conflicts, Sovremennyy-class destroyer, SSN (hull classification symbol), Strategic bomber, Submarine, Sukhoi Su-33, Sverdlov-class cruiser, Tallinn, Tango-class submarine, Tashkent-class destroyer, Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe, Tsar, Tumanny, Tunisia, Tupolev, Tupolev Tu-16, Tupolev Tu-22M, Typhoon-class submarine, Udaloy-class destroyer, Ukraine, United States, United States Navy, V/STOL, Vasili Altfater, Victor-class submarine, Vienna, Vietnam War, Vladimir Chernavin, Vladimir Lenin, Vladimir Mitrofanovich Orlov, Vladivostok, Volga River, Volgograd, Vyacheslav Ivanovich Zof, Warsaw Pact, Washington Naval Treaty, Wehrmacht, Western Front (World War I), White movement, Winter War, World War I, World War II, Wrangel's fleet, Yakovlev Yak-38, Yankee-class submarine, Yevgeny Berens, 1966 Soviet submarine global circumnavigation, 3rd Guards Motor Rifle Division, 5th Operational Squadron, 77th Guards Rifle Division. 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The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
An aircraft carrier is a warship that serves as a seagoing airbase, equipped with a full-length flight deck and facilities for carrying, arming, deploying, and recovering aircraft.
Project 971 Щука-Б (Shchuka-B, 'Shchuka' meaning "pike", NATO reporting name "Akula") is a nuclear-powered attack submarine (SSN) first deployed by the Soviet Navy in 1986.
Aleksandr Vasilivich Nemits, (Нёмитц, Александр Васильевич) was a naval officer of Russian Empire, Ukrainian State and Soviet Union.
Alexander Fyodorovich Kerensky (Алекса́ндр Фёдорович Ке́ренский,; Russian: Александръ Ѳедоровичъ Керенскій; 4 May 1881 – 11 June 1970) was a Russian lawyer and revolutionary who was a key political figure in the Russian Revolution of 1917.
The Soviet Union/Russian Navy Project 705 (Лира/Lira, "Lyre") was a class of hunter/killer nuclear-powered submarines.
Project 1171 (Tapir) class landing ship (NATO reporting name: Alligator) is a class of Soviet / Russian general purpose, beachable amphibious transport docks (Soviet classification: Large landing ship, БДК, большой десантный корабль).
Amphibious warfare is a type of offensive military operation that today uses naval ships to project ground and air power onto a hostile or potentially hostile shore at a designated landing beach.
An amphibious warfare ship (or amphib) is an amphibious vehicle warship employed to land and support ground forces, such as marines, on enemy territory during an amphibious assault.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Anti-ship missiles are guided missiles that are designed for use against ships and large boats.
Anti-submarine warfare (ASW, or in older form A/S) is a branch of underwater warfare that uses surface warships, aircraft, or other submarines to find, track and deter, damage, or destroy enemy submarines.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
An attack submarine or hunter-killer submarine is a submarine specifically designed for the purpose of attacking and sinking other submarines, surface combatants and merchant vessels.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
The Baltic Fleet (Балтийский флот) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Baltic Sea.
The Baltic Military District was a military district of the Soviet armed forces in the occupied Baltic states, formed briefly before the German invasion during the World War II.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Baltic Shipyard (Baltiysky Zavod, formerly Shipyard 189) (С.) is one of the oldest shipyards in Russia and is part of United Shipbuilding Corporation today.
Baltiysk (Балти́йск), before 1946 known by its German name Pillau (Piława; Piliava; Yiddish: פּילאַווע, Pilave), is a seaport town and the administrative center of Baltiysky District in Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, located on the northern part of the Vistula Spit, on the shore of the Strait of Baltiysk separating the Vistula Lagoon from the Gdańsk Bay.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.
The Battle of the Kerch Peninsula, which commenced with the Soviet Kerch-Feodosia landing operation (Керченско-Феодосийская десантная операция, Kerchensko-Feodosiyskaya desantnaya operatsiya) and ended with the German Operation Bustard Hunt (Unternehmen Trappenjagd), was a World War II battle between Erich von Manstein's German and Romanian 11th Army and Soviet Crimean Front forces in the Kerch Peninsula, in the eastern part of the Crimea.
The battlecruiser, or battle cruiser, was a type of capital ship of the first half of the 20th century.
The Bellona Foundation is an international environmental NGO based in Oslo, Norway.
Project 1710 Макрель (NATO reporting name "Beluga") was a Russian SSA diesel-electric submarine.
Bizerte (بنزرت); historically: Phoenician: Hippo Acra, Hippo Diarrhytus and Hippo Zarytus), also known in English as Bizerta, is a town of Bizerte Governorate in Tunisia. It is the northernmost city in Africa, located 65 km (40mil) north of the capital Tunis. The city had 142,966 inhabitants in 2014.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Black Sea Fleet (Черноморский Флот, Chernomorsky Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Black Sea, the Sea of Azov and the Mediterranean Sea.
Blind Man's Bluff: The Untold Story of American Submarine Espionage by Sherry Sontag, Christopher Drew, and Annette Lawrence Drew, published in 1998 by Public Affairs Press, is a non-fiction book about U.S. Navy submarine operations during the Cold War.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
Boris Mikhailovich Malinin (1889–1949) (Борис Михайлович Малинин) was a Soviet shipbuilding scientist and graduate of Saint Petersburg Polytechnical Institute.
The Project 690 Kefal ("Mullet") class (known in the West by its NATO reporting name Bravo class) was a design of military submarines that were built in the Soviet Union.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
A carrier battle group (CVBG) consists of an aircraft carrier (designated CV) and its large number of escorts, together defining the group.
The Caspian Flotilla (r) is the flotilla of the Russian Navy in the Caspian Sea.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
The Project 670 Skat submarine (NATO classification Charlie class) was a nuclear-powered cruise missile submarine built for the Soviet Navy and later operated by the Russian Navy.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Liaoning (16) is a Chinese a Type 001 aircraft carrier.
Coastal artillery is the branch of the armed forces concerned with operating anti-ship artillery or fixed gun batteries in coastal fortifications.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Combined arms is an approach to warfare which seeks to integrate different combat arms of a military to achieve mutually complementary effects (for example, using infantry and armor in an urban environment, where one supports the other, or both support each other).
The Continuation War was a conflict fought by Finland and Nazi Germany, as co-belligerents, against the Soviet Union (USSR) from 1941 to 1944, during World War II.
A convoy is a group of vehicles, typically motor vehicles or ships, traveling together for mutual support and protection.
A corvette is a small warship.
The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных комиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
A cruise missile submarine is a submarine that launches cruise missiles (SLCMs) as its primary armament.
A cruiser is a type of warship.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
The Dekabrist-class were the first class of submarines built for the Soviet Navy after the October Revolution.
The Delta class (Project 667B Murena, Project 667BD Murena-M, Project 667BDR Kalmar, Project 667BDRM Delfin) are a common name of four types of submarines which formed the backbone of the Soviet and Russian strategic submarine fleet since their introduction in 1973.
In naval terminology, a destroyer is a fast, maneuverable long-endurance warship intended to escort larger vessels in a fleet, convoy or battle group and defend them against smaller powerful short-range attackers.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The Echo class were nuclear cruise missile submarines of the Soviet Navy built during the 1960s.
Eduard Samuilovich Pantserzhanskiy (- September 26, 1937) was a Russian military leader, Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Naval Forces from December 1921 to December 1924.
Exercise Campaign Reforger (from return of forces to '''Ger'''many) was an annual exercise and campaign conducted, during the Cold War, by NATO.
Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.
The Foxtrot class was the NATO reporting name of a class of diesel-electric patrol submarines that were built in the Soviet Union.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Gnevny class were a group of destroyers built for the Soviet Navy in the late 1930s – early 1940s.
The Albatros class (Russian: Альбатрос; NATO reporting name: Grisha) was a series of anti-submarine corvettes built by the Soviet Union between 1970 and 1990.
A helicopter carrier is a type of aircraft carrier whose primary purpose is to operate helicopters.
The title Hero of the Soviet Union (translit) was the highest distinction in the Soviet Union, awarded personally or collectively for heroic feats in service to the Soviet state and society.
The history of the Soviet Union between 1927 and 1953 covers the period in Soviet history from establishment of Stalinism through victory in the Second World War and down to the death of Joseph Stalin in 1953.
The Hotel class is the general NATO classification for a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine that was originally put into service by the Soviet Union around 1959.
A hovercraft, also known as an air-cushion vehicle or ACV, is a craft capable of travelling over land, water, mud, ice, and other surfaces.
The Imperial Russian Navy was the navy of the Russian Empire.
The Project 940 Lenok class (a type of salmon) (known in the West by its NATO reporting name India class) was a military submarine design of the Soviet Union.
The International Institute for Strategic Studies (IISS) is a British research institute (or think tank) in the area of international affairs.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The Project 1174 (Nosorog) class landing ship (NATO reporting name: Ivan Rogov) is a class of Soviet/Russian dock landing ships (Soviet classification: Large landing ship, БДК, большой десантный корабль).
Ivan Stepanovich Yumashev (Иван Степанович Юмашев) (– September 2, 1972) was a Soviet Navy admiral, Hero of the Soviet Union (September 14, 1945), and Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Naval Forces from January 1947 to July 1951.
James Edward Oberg (born November 7, 1944), often known as Jim Oberg, is an American space journalist and historian, regarded as an expert on the Russian and Chinese space programs.
John Anthony Walker Jr. (July 28, 1937 – August 28, 2014) was a United States Navy Chief Warrant Officer and communications specialist convicted of spying for the Soviet Union from 1968 to 1985.
John Brewster Hattendorf, D.Phil., D.Litt., L.H.D., FRHistS, FSNR, (born December 22, 1941) is an American naval historian.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Journal of Strategic Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering military and diplomatic strategic studies.
The Project 651, known in the West by its NATO reporting name Juliett class, was a class of Soviet diesel-electric submarines armed with cruise missiles.
The Junkers Ju 87 or Stuka (from Sturzkampfflugzeug, "dive bomber") is a German dive bomber and ground-attack aircraft.
The Kama (река́ Ка́ма,; Чулман; Кам) is a major river in Russia, the longest left tributary of the Volga and the largest one in discharge; it is larger than the Volga before their junction.
The Kamov Ka-27 (NATO reporting name 'Helix') is a military helicopter developed for the Soviet Navy, and currently in service in various countries including Russia, Ukraine, Vietnam, China, South Korea, and India.
The Kanin class were a class of destroyers of the Soviet Navy during the Cold War.
The Kara class were Cold War era Soviet warships designated guided missile cruisers by NATO.
The Kashin-class destroyers were a group of guided missile destroyers built for the Soviet Navy in the 1960s and early 1970s.
Kerch (Керчь, Керч, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Keriç, Kerç) is a city of regional significance on the Kerch Peninsula in the east of the Crimea.
The Kiev-class aircraft carriers (also known as Project 1143 or as the Krechyet (Gyrfalcon) class) were the first class of fixed-wing aircraft carriers built in the Soviet Union.
The Kildin-class destroyer was a series of destroyers built for the Soviet Navy in the late 1950s.
The Kilo class is the NATO reporting name for a naval diesel-electric attack submarine that is made in Russia.
The Kirov-class battlecruiser is a class of nuclear-powered warship of the Russian Navy, the largest and heaviest surface combatant warships (i.e. not an aircraft carrier or amphibious assault ship) in operation in the world.
The Kirov-class (Project 26) cruisers were a class of six cruisers built in the late 1930s for the Soviet Navy.
Klaipėda (Samogitian name: Klaipieda, Polish name: Kłajpeda, German name: Memel), is a city in Lithuania on the Baltic Sea coast.
The Koni class is the NATO reporting name for an anti-submarine warfare frigate built by the Soviet Union.
The Kresta I-class cruiser is a Soviet cruiser class.
The Kresta II class, Soviet Designation Project 1134A, Berkut A (golden eagle), were Soviet guided missile cruisers of the Cold War.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
The Project 1135 Burevestnik (Storm Petrel) class were a series of frigates or guard ships (patrol boats).
Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.
The Kronstadt rebellion (Kronshtadtskoye vosstaniye) involved a major unsuccessful uprising against the Bolsheviks in March 1921, during the later years of the Russian Civil War.
The Kuznetsov-class aircraft carrier is a class of aircraft carrier operated by the Russian and Chinese navies.
The Project 58 missile cruisers (Ракетные крейсера проекта 58), known to NATO as the Kynda class and sometimes referred to as the Grozny class (тип «Грозный»), from the name of the first ship of the series to be constructed, were the first generation of Soviet missile cruisers and represented a considerable advance for the Soviet Navy.
Lake Onega (also known as Onego, p; Ääninen or Äänisjärvi; Oniegu or Oniegu-järve; Änine or Änižjärv) is a lake in the north-west European part of Russia, located on the territory of Republic of Karelia, Leningrad Oblast and Vologda Oblast.
Landing craft are small and medium seagoing vessels such as boats, and barges, used to convey a landing force (infantry and vehicles) from the sea to the shore during an amphibious assault.
The Lend-Lease policy, formally titled An Act to Promote the Defense of the United States, was an American program to defeat Germany, Japan and Italy by distributing food, oil, and materiel between 1941 and August 1945.
The Leningrad Naval Base is part of the Baltic Fleet of the Russian Navy.
Leon Trotsky (born Lev Davidovich Bronstein; – 21 August 1940) was a Russian revolutionary, theorist, and Soviet politician.
Project 1840 is the name of a Soviet diesel-electric submarine design of which only one vessel was built.
This list of Russian admirals includes the admirals of all ranks, serving in the Russian Imperial Navy, the Soviet Navy and the modern Russian Navy.
This is a list of all reigning monarchs in the history of Russia.
This is a list of ships and classes of the Soviet Navy.
This is a list of naval flags of the USSR.
Project 865 Piranha (Проект 865 «Пиранья») is a type of Russian (formerly Soviet) midget submarine.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Marines, also known as a marine corps or naval infantry, are typically an infantry force that specializes in the support of naval and army operations at sea and on land, as well as the execution of their own operations.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a specific country.
Mikhail Petrovich Frinovsky (January 1898 - February 4, 1940) served as a deputy head of the NKVD in the years of the Great Purge and, along with Nikolai Yezhov, was responsible for setting in motion the Great Purge.
Mikhail Vladimirovich Viktorov (December 24, 1893 - August 1, 1938) was a Russian military leader and Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Naval Forces from August 1937 to January 1938.
The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Микоян МиГ-29; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum) is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
The Mirka class was the NATO reporting name for a class of light frigates built for the Soviet Navy in the mid to late 1960s.
In modern language, a missile is a guided self-propelled system, as opposed to an unguided self-propelled munition, referred to as a rocket (although these too can also be guided).
A missile boat or missile cutter is a small fast warship armed with anti-ship missiles.
The Moonsund Landing Operation (Моонзундская десантная операция; Lääne-Eesti saarte kaitsmine), also known as the Moonzund landing operation, was an amphibious operation and offensive by the Red Army during World War II, taking place in late 1944.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
The Moskva-class helicopter carriers were the first operational Soviet Navy aircraft carriers, called helicopter carriers by the Soviet Navy.
Mykolaiv (Микола́їв), also known as Nikolaev or Nikolayev (Никола́ев), is a city in southern Ukraine, the administrative center of the Mykolaiv Oblast.
The Nanuchka class was the NATO reporting name for a series of corvettes or small missile ships built for the Soviet Navy and export customers between 1969 and 1991.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
In the beginning of World War II the Royal Navy was still the strongest navy in the world, with the largest number of warships built and with naval bases across the globe.
The Russian Naval Infantry (Marines, Морская пехота, Morskaya Pekhota), is the amphibious force of the Russian Navy.
A naval mine is a self-contained explosive device placed in water to damage or destroy surface ships or submarines.
The Naval War College Review is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal published by the United States Navy's Naval War College.
A navy or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or ocean-borne combat operations and related functions.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nikolai Vladimirovich Zateyev (Николай Владимирович Затеев) (c. June 30, 1926 – 28 August 1998) was a Russian submariner and a Captain First Rank in the Soviet Navy, notable as the commander of the ill-fated Soviet submarine K-19 in July 1961 during the Hotel class submarine's nuclear-reactor coolant leak.
Nikolay Gerasimovich Kuznetsov (Никола́й Гера́симович Кузнецо́в; July 24, 1904 – December 6, 1974) was a Soviet naval officer who achieved the rank of Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union and served as People's Commissar of the Navy during The Second World War.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
The Northern Dvina (Се́верная Двина́,; Вы́нва / Výnva) is a river in northern Russia flowing through the Vologda Oblast and Arkhangelsk Oblast into the Dvina Bay of the White Sea.
The Northern Fleet (Северный флот, Severnyy Flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Arctic Ocean.
The Project 627 (Russian – проект 627 "Кит" (Whale), NATO –) class submarine was the Soviet Union's first class of nuclear-powered submarines.
Novorossiysk (p) is a city in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Nuclear safety is defined by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) as "The achievement of proper operating conditions, prevention of accidents or mitigation of accident consequences, resulting in protection of workers, the public and the environment from undue radiation hazards".
The October Revolution (p), officially known in Soviet literature as the Great October Socialist Revolution (Вели́кая Октя́брьская социалисти́ческая револю́ция), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising, the Bolshevik Revolution, or the Bolshevik Coup, was a revolution in Russia led by the Bolsheviks and Vladimir Lenin that was instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.
Odessa (Оде́са; Оде́сса; אַדעס) is the third most populous city of Ukraine and a major tourism center, seaport and transportation hub located on the northwestern shore of the Black Sea.
The Odessa Military District (Одесский военный округ, ОВО) was a military administrative division of the Imperial Russian military, the Soviet Armed Forces and the Ukrainian Armed Forces and was known under such name from around 1862 to 1998.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Project 949 (Granit) and Project 949A (Antey) are Soviet Navy/Russian Navy cruise missile submarines (NATO reporting names: Oscar I and Oscar II respectively).
The Pacific Fleet (Тихоокеанский флот, translit: Tikhookeanskiy flot) is the fleet of the Russian Navy in the Pacific Ocean.
The Parchim-class corvette (Soviet designation Project 1331M) was developed for the East German Navy in the late 1970s, and built by the Wolgast Peene-Werft.
A patrol boat is a relatively small naval vessel generally designed for coastal defence duties.
Pechengsky District (Пе́ченгский райо́н; Petsamo; Peisen; Beahcán; Peäccam) is an administrative district (raion), one of the six in Murmansk Oblast, Russia.
The People's Liberation Army Navy (PLAN), also known as the PLA Navy, is the naval warfare branch of the People's Liberation Army, which is the armed wing of the Communist Party of China and, by default, the national armed forces of the People's Republic of China.
The Petya class was the NATO reporting name for a class of light frigates designed in the 1950s and built for the Soviet Navy in the 1960s.
The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was fought by the Second Polish Republic, Ukrainian People's Republic and the proto-Soviet Union (Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine) for control of an area equivalent to today's western Ukraine and parts of modern Belarus.
The Polnocny (or Polnochny)-class ships are amphibious warfare vessels.
The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the states that emerged and re-emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its breakup in 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union after the Cold War.
Project 1153 Orel (Орёл pr: "Or'yol", Eagle) was a late-1970s plan to give the Soviet Navy a true blue water aviation capability.
Pyotr Alexandrovich Smirnov (Пётр Александрович Смирнов; 1897–1939) was a Soviet Commissar, Deputy Minister of Defence and Commander of the Soviet Navy.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Red Terror was a period of political repression and mass killings carried out by Bolsheviks after the beginning of the Russian Civil War in 1918.
The Riga class was the NATO reporting name for class of frigates built for the Soviet Navy in the 1950s.
Romuald Adamovich Muklevich (November 25, 1890 - February 9, 1938) was a Soviet military figure and Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Naval Forces from August 1926 to July 1931.
The Ropucha-class (toad), or Project 775 landing ships are classified in the Russian Navy as "large landing craft" (Bol'shoy Desantnyy Korabl).
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Russian Airborne Troops or VDV (from "Vozdushno-desantnye voyska Rossii", Russian: Воздушно-десантные войска России, ВДВ; Air-landing Forces) is a military branch of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation.
Admiral Flota Sovetskogo Soyuza Kuznetsov (Адмира́л фло́та Сове́тского Сою́за Кузнецо́в "Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Kuznetsov") is an aircraft carrier (heavy aircraft-carrying missile cruiser, or TAVKR, in Russian classification) serving as the flagship of the Russian Navy.
The Russian battleship Petropavlovsk (Петропавловск) was the third of the four dreadnoughts built before World War I for the Imperial Russian Navy, the first Russian class of dreadnoughts.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
Novík was a destroyer of the Russian Imperial Navy and Soviet Navy, commissioned in 1913 where she served with the Baltic Fleet during World War I. She joined the Bolsheviks in November 1917 and was later renamed.
Guards (гвардия) or Guards units (гвардейские части, gvardeyskiye chasti) were elite military units of Imperial Russia prior to 1917-18.
The Russian Navy (r, lit. Military-Maritime Fleet of the Russian Federation) is the naval arm of the Russian Armed Forces.
The Russian Revolution was a pair of revolutions in Russia in 1917 which dismantled the Tsarist autocracy and led to the rise of the Soviet Union.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
Sea lines of communication (abbreviated as SLOC) is a term describing the primary maritime routes between ports, used for trade, logistics and naval forces.
Admiral of the Fleet of the Soviet Union Sergey Georgiyevich Gorshkov (Серге́й Георгиевич Горшков) (February 26, 1910 – May 13, 1988) was a Soviet naval officer during the Cold War who oversaw the expansion of the Soviet Navy into a global force.
Sevastopol (Севастополь; Севасто́поль; Акъяр, Aqyar), traditionally Sebastopol, is the largest city on the Crimean Peninsula and a major Black Sea port.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
The Siege of Odessa, known to the Soviets as the Defence of Odessa, lasted from 8 August until 16 October 1941, during the early phase of Operation Barbarossa, the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II.
The Siege of Sevastopol also known as the Defence of Sevastopol (Оборона Севастополя, transliteration: Oborona Sevastopolya) or the Battle of Sevastopol (German: Schlacht um Sewastopol) was a military battle that took place on the Eastern Front of the Second World War.
The Sierra I class is the NATO reporting name for a type of nuclear attack submarines intended for the Soviet Navy and Russian Navy.
The Slava-class cruiser (Soviet designation Project 1164 Atlant) is a type of large, conventionally powered warship, designed and constructed for the Soviet Navy and currently operated by the Russian Navy.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
The Soobrazitel'nyi class were destroyers built for the Soviet Navy in the early 1940s.
The Sovetsky Soyuz-class battleships (Project 23, Советский Союз, "Soviet Union"), also known as "Stalin's Republics", were a class of battleships begun by the Soviet Union in the late 1930s but never brought into service.
The Soviet Armed Forces, also called the Armed Forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and Armed Forces of the Soviet Union (Russian: Вооружённые Силы Союза Советских Социалистических Республик Vooruzhonnyye Sily Soyuza Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Вооружённые Силы Советского Союза) refers to the armed forces of the Russian SFSR (1917–1922), the Soviet Union (1922–1991) and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1912–1991) from their beginnings in the aftermath of the Russian Civil War to its dissolution on 26 December 1991.
The Soviet Army (SA; Советская Армия, Sovetskaya Armiya) is the name given to the main land-based branch of the Soviet Armed Forces between February 1946 and December 1991, when it was replaced with the Russian Ground Forces, although it was not taken fully out of service until 25 December 1993.
Decrees (декреты) were legislative acts of the highest Soviet institutions, primarily of the Council of People's Commissars (the highest executive body) and of the Supreme Soviet or VTsIK (the highest legislative body), issued between 1917 and 1924.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
Soviet Naval Aviation (AV-MF, for Авиация военно-морского флота in Russian, or Aviatsiya voyenno-morskogo flota, literally "aviation of the military maritime fleet") was a part of the Soviet Navy.
K-19 was one of the first two Soviet submarines of the Project 658 class (NATO reporting name), the first generation nuclear submarine equipped with nuclear ballistic missiles, specifically the R-13 SLBM.
K-219 was a Project 667A ''Navaga''-class ballistic missile submarine (NATO reporting name Yankee I) of the Soviet Navy.
K-278 Komsomolets was the only Project 685 Plavnik (Плавник, meaning "fin", also known by its NATO reporting name of "Mike"-class) nuclear-powered attack submarine of the Soviet Navy.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet–Japanese border conflicts (also known as the Soviet-Japanese Border War) was a series of battles and skirmishes between the forces of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the Empire of Japan, as well as their respective client states of Mongolia and Manchukuo.
The Sovremenny-class destroyer is the principal anti-surface warship of the Russian Navy ("Sovremenny" translates like "Modern").
An SSN is a nuclear-powered general-purpose attack submarine.
A strategic bomber is a medium to long range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
The Sukhoi Su-33 (Сухой Су-33; NATO reporting name: Flanker-D) is an all-weather carrier-based twin-engine air superiority fighter designed by Sukhoi and manufactured by Komsomolsk-on-Amur Aircraft Production Association, derived from the Su-27 and initially known as the Su-27K.
The Sverdlov-class cruisers, Soviet designation Project 68bis, were the last conventional gun cruisers built for the Soviet Navy.
Tallinn (or,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Estonia.
The Tango class was the NATO reporting name of a class of diesel-electric submarines that were built in the Soviet Union to replace the s assigned to the Black Sea and Northern Fleets.
The Tashkent class (Project 20) was a group of destroyer leaders, designed in Italy and built for the Soviet Navy just before World War II.
The original Treaty on Conventional Armed Forces in Europe (CFE) was negotiated and concluded during the last years of the Cold War and established comprehensive limits on key categories of conventional military equipment in Europe (from the Atlantic to the Urals) and mandated the destruction of excess weaponry.
Tsar (Old Bulgarian / Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь or цар, цaрь), also spelled csar, or czar, is a title used to designate East and South Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers of Eastern Europe.
Tumanny (Тума́нный) is an urban locality (an urban-type settlement) in Kolsky District of Murmansk Oblast, Russia, located on the Kola Peninsula on the lower Voronya River, east of Murmansk.
Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.
Tupolev (Ту́полев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
The Tupolev Tu-16 (NATO reporting name: Badger) was a twin-engined jet strategic heavy bomber used by the Soviet Union.
The Tupolev Tu-22M (Russian: Туполев Ту-22М; NATO reporting name: Backfire) is a supersonic, variable-sweep wing, long-range strategic and maritime strike bomber developed by the Tupolev Design Bureau.
The Project 941 or Akula, Russian "Акула" ("Shark") class submarine (NATO reporting name: Typhoon) is a type of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarine deployed by the Soviet Navy in the 1980s.
The Udaloy I class are a series of anti-submarine destroyers built for the Soviet Navy, eight of which are currently in service with the Russian Navy. The Russian designation is Project 1155 Fregat. Twelve ships were built between 1980 and 1991, while a thirteenth ship built to a modified design as the Udaloy II class followed in 1999. They complement the Sovremennyy-class destroyer in anti-aircraft warfare and anti-surface warfare operations.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
A vertical and/or short take-off and landing (V/STOL) aircraft is an airplane able to take-off or land vertically or on short runways.
Vasili Mikhailovich Altfater (16 December 1883 – April 20, 1919) was a Russian-Soviet naval officer, the first Commander-in-chief of the Soviet Navy.
The Victor class is the NATO reporting name for a type of nuclear-powered submarine that was originally put into service by the Soviet Union around 1967.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
The Vietnam War (Chiến tranh Việt Nam), also known as the Second Indochina War, and in Vietnam as the Resistance War Against America (Kháng chiến chống Mỹ) or simply the American War, was a conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975.
Fleet Admiral Vladimir Nikolayevich Chernavin (Владимир Николаевич Чернавин; born April 22, 1928) was the last Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Navy from 1985 to 1991 and the only Commander-in-Chief of the Commonwealth of Independent States Navy from 1991 to 1992.
Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov, better known by the alias Lenin (22 April 1870According to the new style calendar (modern Gregorian), Lenin was born on 22 April 1870. According to the old style (Old Julian) calendar used in the Russian Empire at the time, it was 10 April 1870. Russia converted from the old to the new style calendar in 1918, under Lenin's administration. – 21 January 1924), was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
Vladimir Mitrofanovich Orlov (Владимир Митрофанович Орлов) (July 15, 1895 - July 28, 1938) was a Russian military leader and Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Naval Forces from July 1931 to July 1937.
Vladivostok (p, literally ruler of the east) is a city and the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, located around the Golden Horn Bay, not far from Russia's borders with China and North Korea.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.
Vyacheslav Ivanovich Zof (Вячеслав Иванович Зоф in Russian) (December 1889, Dubno - June 20, 1937) was a Soviet military figure and a statesman of Czech ethnicity.
The Warsaw Pact, formally known as the Treaty of Friendship, Cooperation and Mutual Assistance, was a collective defence treaty signed in Warsaw, Poland among the Soviet Union and seven Soviet satellite states of Central and Eastern Europe during the Cold War.
The Washington Naval Treaty, also known as the Five-Power Treaty, the Four-Power Treaty, and the Nine-Power Treaty, was a treaty signed during 1922 among the major nations that had won World War I, which agreed to prevent an arms race by limiting naval construction.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
The Western Front was the main theatre of war during the First World War.
The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армія/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya), the White Guardsmen (Белогвардейцы, Belogvardeytsi) or simply the Whites (Белые, Beliye), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks, also known as the Reds, in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.
The Winter War was a military conflict between the Soviet Union (USSR) and Finland.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wrangel's Fleet, the last remnant of the Black Sea Fleet of the Imperial Russian Navy, existed from 1920 until 1924.
The Yakovlev Yak-38 (Яковлев Як-38; NATO reporting name: "Forger") was the Soviet Naval Aviation's only operational VTOL strike fighter aircraft, in addition to being its first operational carrier-based fixed-wing aircraft.
The Yankee class was a class of Soviet nuclear ballistic missile submarines that was constructed from 1967 onward.
Yevgeny Andreyevich Berens (occasionally transliterated as Behrens) (– April 7, 1928) was a Russian military leader, Commander-in-Chief of the Soviet Naval Forces from April 1919 to February 1920.
The 1966 Soviet submarine global circumnavigation was announced to be the first submerged around-the-world voyage by a group of Soviet nuclear-powered submarines.
The 3rd Volnovaskyi Guards Red Banner Order of Suvorov Motor Rifle Division (Military Unit Number (V/Ch) 61415) was a division of the Soviet Army from 1957 to around 1992.
The 5th Mediterranean squadron of warships, or Fifth Eskadra, was/is a flotilla of ships of the Soviet Navy, and much later, the Russian Navy.
The 77th Guards Rifle Division was an infantry division of the Soviet Union's Red Army during World War II.