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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991. [1]

497 relations: Abkhazia, Absolute monarchy, Aeroflot, Affirmative action, Afghanistan, Alcohol consumption in Russia, Alexander Chervyakov, Alexander Nove, Alexei Kosygin, Alexey Leonov, Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War, Allies of World War I, Alma-Ata Protocol, Anatoly Lunacharsky, Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, Anti-Sovietism, Appellate court, Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, Armistice, Arms race, Asia, Atheism, Autarky, Automotive industry in the Soviet Union, Avalon Project, Axis powers, Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, Baltic states, Battle of Berlin, Battle of Moscow, Battle of Stalingrad, BBC, Belarus, Belarusians, Belavezha Accords, Bering Strait, Berlin Wall, Beyond Oil, Bible study (Christian), Birth rate, Bolsheviks, Bolshoi Theatre, Border, Boris Yeltsin, Brill Publishers, British Empire, Buddhism, Bukharan People's Soviet Republic, Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic, Cabinet of Ministers (Soviet Union), ..., Cambodia, Cambridge University Press, Capitalism, Caspian Sea, Catherine Merridale, Catholic Church, CCCP (disambiguation), Central Asia, Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union, Central Powers, Chechen Republic of Ichkeria, Chechnya, China, Christian denomination, Christianity, Coast, Cold War, Collective leadership, Collective Security Treaty Organization, Collectivization in the Soviet Union, Comecon, Commonwealth of Independent States, Communist Party of China, Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Communist revolution, Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union, Congress of Soviets, Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union, Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Constitution of the Soviet Union, Constitutional Court of Russia, Constitutional monarchy, Consumer goods in the Soviet Union, Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, Council of People's Commissars, Coup d'état, Credit (finance), Cuban Missile Crisis, Cultural backwardness, Czechoslovakia, Damnatio memoriae, Détente, De jure, De-Stalinization, Decembrist revolt, Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, Democratic centralism, Desert, Developing country, Dialect, Dictator, Diplomatic recognition, Dirt road, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union, Earth, East Germany, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Christianity, Eastern Front (World War II), Economic planning, Economy of the Soviet Union, Education in the Soviet Union, Elisabeth Steiner, Empire of Japan, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., End of World War II in Europe, Energy, Enterprises in the Soviet Union, Era of Stagnation, Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic, Estonian War of Independence, Eurasia, Eurasian Economic Union, Europe, European Court of Human Rights, European Economic Community, February Revolution, Finland, Finnish Declaration of Independence, First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union, First five-year plan (Soviet Union), First World, Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union, Flag of Russia, Foreign trade of the Soviet Union, Francoist Spain, Free trade, Freedom of speech, French Third Republic, Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Geoffrey Hosking, Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic, Georgians, Georgy Malenkov, German–Soviet Axis talks, German–Soviet Commercial Agreement (1940), Glasnost, GOELRO plan, Gosplan, Government budget, Government of Russia, Government of the Soviet Union, Great Purge, Great Russian Encyclopedia, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Greenwood Publishing Group, Grigory Petrovsky, Grigory Zinoviev, Gulag, Hamish Hamilton, Hard currency, Harvard University Press, Heinemann (publisher), History of the Soviet Union (1964–82), History of the Soviet Union (1982–91), History Today, Hungarian People's Republic, Hungarian Revolution of 1956, Hydroelectricity, I.B. 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Soviet Union. Expand index (447 more) »

Abkhazia

Abkhazia (Аҧсны́; აფხაზეთი; Абхазия) is a partially recognised state controlled by a separatist government on the eastern coast of the Black Sea and the south-western flank of the Caucasus.

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Absolute monarchy

Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.

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Aeroflot

OJSC AeroflotRussian Airlines (ОАО "Аэрофло́т-Росси́йские авиали́нии"), commonly known as Aeroflot (Аэрофлот, English translation: "air fleet"), is the flag carrier and largest airline of the Russian Federation.

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Affirmative action

Affirmative action or positive discrimination (known as employment equity in Canada, reservation in India and Nepal, and positive action in the UK) is the policy of favoring members of a disadvantaged group who suffer from discrimination within a culture.

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Afghanistan

Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Afġānistān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Alcohol consumption in Russia

Alcohol consumption in Russia stays among the highest in the world.

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Alexander Chervyakov

Alexander Grigoryevich Chervyakov (Aliaksandr Charviakou, Аляксандр Рыгоравіч Чарвякоў, Aliaksandr Ryhoravič Čarviakoŭ Александр Григорьевич Червяков, Aleksandr Grigor'evič Červjakov; 25 February 1892, Dukhorka - 16 June 1937) was one of the founders and eventually became the leader of the Communist Party of Belorussia.

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Alexander Nove

Alexander Nove, FRSE, FBA (born Aleksandr Yakovlevich Novakovsky; Алекса́ндр Я́ковлевич Новако́вский; also published under Alec Nove; 24 November 1915 – 15 May 1994) was a Professor of Economics at the University of Glasgow and a noted authority on Russian and Soviet economic history.

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Alexei Kosygin

Alexei Nikolayevich Kosygin (p; – 18 December 1980) was a Soviet-Russian statesman during the Cold War.

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Alexey Leonov

Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut and Air Force Major General.

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Allied intervention in the Russian Civil War

The Allied intervention was a multi-national military expedition launched during the Russian Civil War in 1918.

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Allies of World War I

The Allies of World War I, also known as the Entente Powers, were the countries that opposed the Central Powers during the First World War.

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Alma-Ata Protocol

Signing ceremony The Alma-Ata Protocols are the founding declarations and principles of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS).

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Anatoly Lunacharsky

Anatoly Vasilyevich Lunacharsky (Анато́лий Васи́льевич Лунача́рский, Анатолій Васильович Луначарський, – December 26, 1933) was a Russian Marxist revolutionary and the first Soviet People's Commissar of Education responsible for culture and education.

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Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty

The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against ballistic missile-delivered nuclear weapons.

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Anti-Sovietism

Anti-Sovietism and Anti-Soviet refer to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or government power within the Soviet Union.

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Appellate court

An appellate court, commonly called an appeals court, court of appeals (American English), appeal court (British English), court of second instance or second instance court, is any court of law that is empowered to hear an appeal of a trial court or other lower tribunal.

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Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic (Armenian SSR; Հայկական Սովետական Սոցիալիստական Հանրապետություն Haykakan Sovetakan Soc'ialistakan Hanrapetut'yun; Армя́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Armyanskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialističeskaya Respublika) was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union in December 1922.

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Armistice

An armistice is a formal agreement of warring parties to stop fighting.

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Arms race

An arms race, in its original usage, is a competition between two or more parties to have the best armed forces.

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Asia

Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.

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Atheism

Atheism is, in a broad sense, the rejection of belief in the existence of deities.

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Autarky

Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.

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Automotive industry in the Soviet Union

The automotive industry in the Soviet Union spanned the history of the state from 1929 to 1991.

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Avalon Project

The Avalon Project is a digital library of documents relating to law, history and diplomacy.

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Axis powers

The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.

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Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic

The Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic (Azerbaijan SSR; Азәрбајҹан Совет Сосиалист Республикасы, Azərbaycan Sovet Sosialist Respublikası; Азербайджанская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Azerbaydzhanskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union.

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Baltic states

The Baltic states, also known as the Baltics, Baltic nations or Baltic countries (Balti riigid, Baltimaad, Baltijas valstis, Baltijos valstybės), are the three countries in northern Europe on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea: Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.

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Battle of Berlin

The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.

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Battle of Moscow

The Battle of Moscow (Битва за Москву) is the name given by Soviet historians to two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.

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Battle of Stalingrad

The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was a major battle of World War II in which Nazi Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia, on the eastern boundary of Europe.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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Belarus

Belarus (Белару́сь, tr.,; bʲɪlɐˈrusʲ), officially the Republic of Belarus, is a landlocked country in Eastern Europe bordered by Russia to the northeast, Ukraine to the south, Poland to the west, and Lithuania and Latvia to the northwest.

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Belarusians

Belarusians (беларусы, belarusy; белорусы) are an East Slavic ethnic group who populate the majority of the Republic of Belarus.

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Belavezha Accords

The Belavezha Accords (Беловежские соглашения, Белавежскія пагадненні, Біловезькі угоди) is the agreement that declared the Soviet Union effectively dissolved and established the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in its place.

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Bering Strait

The Bering Strait (Берингов пролив, Beringov proliv, Yupik: Imakpik) is a strait connecting the Pacific and Arctic oceans between Russia and the US state of Alaska.

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Berlin Wall

The Berlin Wall (Berliner Mauer) was a barrier that divided Berlin from 1961 to 1989.

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Beyond Oil

Beyond Oil: The View from Hubbert's Peak is a 2006 book by Kenneth S. Deffeyes.

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Bible study (Christian)

In Christianity, Bible study is the study of the Bible by ordinary people as a personal religious or spiritual practice.

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Birth rate

The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 of a population in a year.

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Bolsheviks

The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from большинство bol'shinstvo, "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority") were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.

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Bolshoi Theatre

The Bolshoi Theatre (p) is a historic theatre in Moscow, Russia, designed by architect Joseph Bové, which holds performances of ballet and opera.

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Border

Borders are geographic boundaries of political entities or legal jurisdictions, such as governments, sovereign states, federated states, and other subnational entities.

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Boris Yeltsin

Boris Nikolayevich Yeltsin (p; 1 February 1931 – 23 April 2007) was a Russian politician and the first President of the Russian Federation, serving from 1991 to 1999.

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Brill Publishers

Brill (known as E. J. Brill, Koninklijke Brill, Brill Academic Publishers) is an international academic publisher founded in 1683 in Leiden, Netherlands.

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British Empire

The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom.

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Buddhism

Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").

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Bukharan People's Soviet Republic

The Bukharan People's Soviet Republic (Buxoro Xalq Shoʻro Jumhuriyati; Бухарская Народная Советская Республика Bukharskaya Narodnaya Sovetskaya Respublika) was a short-lived Soviet state that governed the former Emirate of Bukhara during the years immediately following the Russian Revolution.

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Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic (Byelorussian SSR or BSSR; Белару́ская Саве́цкая Сацыялісты́чная Рэспу́бліка, Белару́ская ССР Bielaruskaja Savieckaja Sacyjalistyčnaja Respublika, Bielaruskaja SSR; Белору́сская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Белорусская ССР Belorusskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika, Belorusskaya SSR), also referred to as Byelorussia, was one of fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union (USSR).

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Cabinet of Ministers (Soviet Union)

Cabinet of Ministers of the USSR (Кабинет Министров СССР) functioned as the administrative, executive body and the government after the Council of Ministers was dissolved.

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Cambodia

Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, Kampuchea), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, Preah Reacheanachak Kampuchea) and once known as the Khmer Empire, is a country located in the southern portion of the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Capitalism

Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea (kɐˈspʲijskəjə ˈmorʲə, Xəzər dənizi, Каспий теңізі Kaspiy teñizi, دریای خزر Daryā-e Xazar,دریای کاسپین Daryā-e Kāspiyan, Hazar deňizi) is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Catherine Merridale

Catherine Merridale is a historian and author of materials on the subjects of Russian history, generally focusing on the twentieth century.

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Catholic Church

The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.

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CCCP (disambiguation)

СССР (Союз Советских Социалистических Республик) is a Russian (Cyrillic) abbreviation for the Soviet Union.

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Central Asia

Central Asia is the core region of the Asian continent and stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Центра́льный комите́т Коммунисти́ческой па́ртии Сове́тского Сою́за – ЦК КПСС, Tsentralniy Komitet Kommunistitcheskoi Partii Sovetskogo Soyuza – TsK KPSS), abbreviated in Russian as ЦК, "Tse-ka", was de jure the highest body of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) between Party Congresses.

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Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union

The Central Executive Committee of the Soviet Union (Центральный исполнительный комитет, СССР) was the highest governing body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union, existed from 1922 until 1938, when it was replaced by the Supreme Soviet of first convocation.

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Central Powers

The Central Powers (Mittelmächte; Központi hatalmak; İttifak Devletleri or Bağlaşma Devletleri; Централни сили Tsentralni sili), consisting of Germany,, the Ottoman Empire and Bulgaria – hence also known as the Quadruple Alliance (Vierbund) – was one of the two main factions during World War I (1914–18).

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Chechen Republic of Ichkeria

The Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (Nóxçiyn Paçẋalq Noxçiyçö, Cyrillic: Нохчийн Пачхьалкх Нохчийчоь; Чеченская Республика Ичкерия; abbreviated as "ChRI" or "CRI") is the unrecognized secessionist government of the Chechen Republic.

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Chechnya

The Chechen Republic (tɕɪˈtɕɛnskəjə rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə; Нохчийн Республика, Noxçiyn Respublika), commonly referred to as Chechnya (p; Нохчийчоь, Noxçiyçö), also spelled Chechnia or Chechenia, sometimes referred to as Ichkeria (lit land of minerals), is a federal subject (a republic) of Russia.

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China

China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.

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Christian denomination

A denomination in Christianity is a distinct religious body identified by traits such as a common name, structure, leadership and doctrine.

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Christianity

ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.

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Coast

A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Collective leadership

Collective leadership is considered an ideal form of ruling a communist party, both within and outside a socialist state.

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Collective Security Treaty Organization

The Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO; Организация Договора о Коллективной Безопасности, Organizatsiya Dogovora o Kollektivnoy Bezopasnosti, ODKB) is an intergovernmental military alliance, acting as counterpart to the NATO alliance, which was signed on 15 May 1992.

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Collectivization in the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union enforced the collectivization of its agricultural sector between 1928 and 1940 during the ascendancy of Stalin.

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Comecon

The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Совет Экономической Взаимопомощи, Sovet Ekonomicheskoy Vzaimopomoshchi, СЭВ, SEV; English abbreviation COMECON, CMEA, or CAME) was an economic organization from 1949 to 1991 under the leadership of the Soviet Union that comprised the countries of the Eastern Bloc along with a number of socialist states elsewhere in the world.

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Commonwealth of Independent States

The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS; r; also called the Russian Commonwealth) is a regional organisation whose participating countries are former Soviet Republics, formed during the breakup of the Soviet Union.

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Communist Party of China

The Communist Party of China (CPC) is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China (PRC).

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Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Коммунистическая партия Советского Союза, КПСС), abbreviated in English as CPSU, was the founding and ruling political party of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

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Communist revolution

A communist revolution is a proletarian revolution often, but not necessarily inspired by the ideas of Marxism that aims to replace capitalism with communism, typically with socialism as an intermediate stage.

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Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union

The Congress of People's Deputies of the Soviet Union (Съезд народных депутатов СССР, Syezd narodnykh deputatov SSSR) was the highest body of state authority of the Soviet Union from 1989 to 1991.

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Congress of Soviets

The Congress of Soviets was the supreme governing body of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic and several other Soviet republics from 1917–36 and again from 1989-91.

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Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union

The Congress of Soviets of the Soviet Union (Съезд Советов Советский Союз), was the supreme governing body in the Soviet Union since the formation of the USSR (30 December 1922) and until adoption of the 1936 Soviet Constitution.

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Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (съезд КПСС) was the gathering of the delegates of the Communist Party and its predecessors.

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Constitution of the Soviet Union

There were three versions of the constitution of the Soviet Union, modeled after the 1918 Constitution established by the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (RSFSR), the immediate predecessor of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Constitutional Court of Russia

The Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation (Конституционный Суд Российской Федерации) is a high court within the judiciary of Russia which is empowered to rule on whether certain laws or presidential decrees are in fact contrary to the Constitution of Russia.

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Constitutional monarchy

A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.

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Consumer goods in the Soviet Union

The industry of the Soviet Union was usually divided into two major categories.

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Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union

The Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (p; sometimes abbreviated to Sovmin or referred to as the Soviet of Ministers), was the de jure government comprising the highest executive and administrative body of the Soviet Union from 1946 until 1991.

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Council of People's Commissars

The Council of People's Commissars (Совет народных коммиссаров or Совнарком, translit. Soviet narodnykh kommissarov or Sovnarkom, also as generic SNK) was a government institution formed shortly after the October Revolution in 1917.

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Coup d'état

A coup d'état (literally "blow of state"; plural: coups d'état, pronounced like the singular form), also known simply as a coup, or an overthrow, is the sudden and (usually) illegal seizure of a state, usually instigated by a small group of the existing government establishment to depose the established regime and replace it with a new ruling body.

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Credit (finance)

Credit (from Latin credere, "to believe") is the trust which allows one party to provide money or resources to another party where that second party does not reimburse the first party immediately (thereby generating a debt), but instead arranges either to repay or return those resources (or other materials of equal value) at a later date.

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Cuban Missile Crisis

The Cuban Missile Crisis, also known as the October Crisis (Crisis de octubre), The Missile Scare, or the Caribbean Crisis (Карибский кризис, tr. Karibskiy krizis), was a 13-day (October 16–28, 1962) confrontation between the United States and the Soviet Union over Soviet ballistic missiles deployed in Cuba.

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Cultural backwardness

Cultural backwardness (культурная отсталость) was a term used by Soviet politicians and ethnographers.

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Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia or Czecho-Slovakia (Czech and Československo, Česko-Slovensko, in both of those languages) was a sovereign state in Central Europe that existed from October 1918, when it declared its independence from the Austro-Hungarian Empire, until its peaceful dissolution into the Czech Republic and Slovakia on 1 January 1993.

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Damnatio memoriae

Damnatio memoriae is the Latin phrase literally meaning "condemnation of memory" in the sense of a judgment that a person must not be remembered.

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Détente

Détente (meaning "relaxation") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.

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De jure

De jure (Classical Latin: de iúre) is an expression that means "of right, by right, according to law" (literally "from law"), as contrasted with de facto, which means "in fact, in reality" (literally "from fact").

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De-Stalinization

De-Stalinization (Russian: десталинизация, Destalinizatsiya) refers to a process of political reform in the Soviet Union that took place after the death of long-time leader Joseph Stalin in 1953.

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Decembrist revolt

The Decembrist revolt or the Decembrist uprising (translit: Vosstanie dekabristov) took place in Imperial Russia on.

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Declaration of State Sovereignty of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Declaration on State Sovereignty of the RSFSR (Russian: Декларация о государственном суверенитете РСФСР, Deklaratsiya o gosudarstvennom suverenitete RSFSR) was a political act of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, then part of the Soviet Union, which marked the beginning of constitutional reform in Russia.

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Democratic centralism

Democratic centralism is the name given to the deontological principles of internal organization used by Leninist political parties, and the term is sometimes used as a synonym for any Leninist policy inside a political party.

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Desert

A desert is a barren area of land where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.

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Developing country

A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.

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Dialect

The term dialect (from the ancient Greek word διάλεκτος diálektos, "discourse", from διά diá, "through" and λέγω legō, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways.

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Dictator

A dictator is a ruler who wields absolute authority.

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Diplomatic recognition

Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).

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Dirt road

A dirt road or track is an unpaved road made from the native material of the land surface through which it passes, known to highway engineers as subgrade material.

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Dissolution of the Soviet Union

The dissolution of the Soviet Union was formally enacted on December 26, 1991, as a result of the declaration no.

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Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union

Droughts and famines in Russia and the Soviet Union tended to occur on a fairly regular basis, with famine occurring every 10–13 years and droughts every 5–7 years.

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Earth

Earth (also the world, in Greek: Gaia, or in Latin: Terra), is the third planet from the Sun, the densest planet in the Solar System, the largest of the Solar System's four terrestrial planets, and the only astronomical object known to accommodate life.

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East Germany

East Germany, formally the German Democratic Republic or GDR (Deutsche Demokratische Republik, or DDR), was a state in the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.

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Eastern Bloc

Eastern Bloc was the name used by NATO-affiliated countries for the former communist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.

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Eastern Christianity

Eastern Christianity consists of four main church families: the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Oriental Orthodox Churches, the Assyrian Church of the East and the Eastern Catholic Churches.

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Eastern Front (World War II)

The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other allies, which encompassed Northern, Southern and Central and Eastern Europe from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.

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Economic planning

Economic planning is a mechanism for economic coordination contrasted with the market mechanism.

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Economy of the Soviet Union

The economy of the Soviet Union was based on a system of state ownership of the means of production, collective farming, industrial manufacturing and centralized administrative planning.

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Education in the Soviet Union

Education in the Soviet Union was organized by the leader, Joseph Stalin, in a highly centralized government-run system.

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Elisabeth Steiner

Elisabeth Steiner is a Judge at the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg as of November 1, 2001.

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Empire of Japan

The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. is a Scottish-founded, now American company best known for publishing the Encyclopædia Britannica, the world's oldest continuously published encyclopedia.

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End of World War II in Europe

The final battles of the European Theatre of World War II as well as the German surrender to the Western Allies and the Soviet Union took place in late April and early May 1945.

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Energy

In physics, energy is a property of objects which can be transferred to other objects or converted into different forms, but cannot be created or destroyed.

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Enterprises in the Soviet Union

Enterprises in the Soviet Union were legal entities engaged in some kind of economic activity, such as production, distribution, the provision of services, or any other economic operation.

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Era of Stagnation

The Era of Stagnation (also called the Period of Stagnation, Stagnation Period, Stagnation Era, the Brezhnevian Stagnation, or the Brezhnev Stagnation) was a period of economic, political, and social stagnation in the Soviet Union, which began during the rule of Leonid Brezhnev (1964–1982) and continued under Yuri Andropov (1982–1984) and Konstantin Chernenko (1984–1985).

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Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic (Estonian SSR or ESSR; Eesti Nõukogude Sotsialistlik Vabariik ENSV; Эстонская Советская Социалистическая Республика ЭССР, Estonskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika ESSR) was a republic of the Soviet Union, administered by and a subordinate of the Government of the Soviet Union.

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Estonian War of Independence

The Estonian War of Independence (Vabadussõda, literally "Freedom War"), also known as the Estonian Liberation War, was a defensive campaign of the Estonian Army and its allies, most notably the White Russian Northwestern Army, Latvia, and the United Kingdom, against the Soviet Western Front offensive and the aggression of the Baltische Landeswehr.

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Eurasia

Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Asia and Europe.

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Eurasian Economic Union

The Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU or EEU)Both acronyms are used as per the.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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European Court of Human Rights

The European Court of Human Rights (ECtHR; Cour européenne des droits de l’homme) is a supranational or international court established by the European Convention on Human Rights.

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European Economic Community

The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration between its member states.

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February Revolution

The February Revolution (p) of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917.

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Finland

Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe bordered by Sweden to the west, Norway to the north, and Russia to the east; Estonia lies to the south across the Gulf of Finland.

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Finnish Declaration of Independence

The Finnish declaration of independence (Suomen itsenäisyysjulistus; Finlands självständighetsförklaring) was adopted by the Parliament of Finland on 6 December 1917.

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First All-Union Census of the Soviet Union

The First All Union Census of the Soviet Union took place in December 1926.

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First five-year plan (Soviet Union)

__notoc__ The first five-year plan (I пятилетний план, первая пятилетка) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a list of economic goals, created by General Secretary Joseph Stalin and based on his policy of Socialism in One Country.

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First World

The concept of the First World originated during the Cold War and included countries that were generally aligned with or on friendly terms with the United States (including all NATO countries) and were generally identified as non-theocratic democracies with primarily market-based economies.

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Five-year plans for the national economy of the Soviet Union

The five-year plans for the development of the national economy of the Soviet Union (USSR) (p, literally: "five-year-ers", abbreviation of p) were a series of nationwide centralized economic plans in the Soviet Union.

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Flag of Russia

The flag of Russia is a tricolor flag consisting of three equal horizontal fields; white on the top, blue in the middle and red on the bottom.

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Foreign trade of the Soviet Union

Soviet foreign trade played only a minor role in the Soviet economy.

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Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain (also historically known as Nationalist Spain during the Spanish Civil War) refers to the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain from the government of the Second Spanish Republic after winning the Civil War, and 1978, when the Spanish Constitution of 1978 went into effect.

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Free trade

Free trade is a policy followed by some international markets in which countries' governments do not restrict imports from, or exports to, other countries.

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Freedom of speech

Freedom of speech is the right to communicate one's opinions and ideas without fear of government retaliation or censorship.

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French Third Republic

The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.

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Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex

The S.N. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Complex is a clinical and research ophthalmological center in Moscow, Russia, founded in 1988 by Russian eye surgeon Svyatoslav Fyodorov.

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General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Генеральный секретарь ЦК КПСС) was the title given to the leader of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

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Geoffrey Hosking

Geoffrey Alan Hosking OBE FBA FRHistS (born 28 April 1942) is a British historian of Russia and the Soviet Union and formerly Leverhulme Research Professor of Russian History at the School of Slavonic and East European Studies (SSEES) at University College, London.

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Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (Georgian SSR; საქართველოს საბჭოთა სოციალისტური რესპუბლიკა sakartvelos sabch'ota socialist'uri resp'ublik'a; Грузинская Советская Социалистическая Республика Gruzinskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) was one of the republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.

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Georgians

Georgians (tr) are an indigenous Caucasian nation and ethnic group.

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Georgy Malenkov

Georgy Maximilianovich Malenkov (Гео́ргий Максимилиа́нович Маленко́в; – 14 January 1988) was a Soviet politician and Communist Party leader.

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German–Soviet Axis talks

In October and November 1940, German–Soviet Axis talks occurred concerning the Soviet Union's potential entry as a fourth Axis Power in World War II.

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German–Soviet Commercial Agreement (1940)

The 1940 German-Soviet Commercial Agreement (also known as Economic Agreement of February 11, 1940, Between the German Reich and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics) was an economic arrangement between the Soviet Union and Nazi Germany signed on February 11, 1940 by which the Soviet Union agreed in period from February 11, 1940 to February 11, 1941, in addition to the deliveries under German–Soviet Commercial Agreement, signed on August 19, 1939 deliver the commodities (oil, raw materials and grain) to the value of 420 to 430 million Reichsmarks.

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Glasnost

Glasnost (гла́сность,, lit. "publicity") has several general and specific meanings.

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GOELRO plan

GOELRO plan (план ГОЭЛРО) was the first-ever Soviet plan for national economic recovery and development.

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Gosplan

The State Planning Committee, commonly known as Gosplan (Russian: Госпла́н), was the agency responsible for central economic planning in the Soviet Union.

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Government budget

A government budget is a government document presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year that is often passed by the legislature, approved by the chief executive or president and presented by the Finance Minister to the nation.

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Government of Russia

The Government of the Russian Federation (Прави́тельство Росси́йской Федера́ции) exercises executive power in the Russian Federation.

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Government of the Soviet Union

The Government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Правительство СССР) was the main body of the executive branch of government in the Soviet Union.

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Great Purge

The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большой террор) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.

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Great Russian Encyclopedia

The Great Russian Encyclopedia (GRE) (Большая российская энциклопедия or БРЭ, transliterated as Bolshaya rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or academically as Bolšaja rossijskaja enciklopedija) is a new universal Russian encyclopedia, to be completed in 35 volumes, published since 2004 by Great Russian Entsiklopediya, JSC.

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Great Soviet Encyclopedia

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE) (Большая советская энциклопедия, or БСЭ Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

Greenwood Publishing Group (GPG) is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Grigory Petrovsky

Grigory Ivanovich Petrovsky (Григо́рий Ива́нович Петро́вский, Григорій Іванович Петровський Hryhoriy Ivanovych Petrovsky) (February 3, 1878 - January 9, 1958) was one of the most prominent Russian revolutionaries of Ukrainian origin, He also was participant in the signing two of the most important documents in the Soviet history: the Treaty on the Creation of the USSR and the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, as well as one of organizers of agricultural collectivization in Ukraine.

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Grigory Zinoviev

Grigory Yevseevich Zinoviev (Григо́рий Евсе́евич Зино́вьев,; – August 25, 1936), born Ovsei-Gershon Aronovich Radomyslsky, known also under the name Hirsch Apfelbaum (Овсей-Гершен Аронович Радомысльский, and Апфельбаум), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a Soviet Communist politician.

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Gulag

The Gulag (ru-Gulag.ogg) was the government agency that administered the main Soviet forced labor camp systems during the Stalin era, from the 1930s until the 1950s.

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Hamish Hamilton

Hamish Hamilton Limited was a British book publishing house, founded in 1931 eponymously by the half-Scot half-American Jamie Hamilton (Hamish is the vocative form of the Gaelic 'Seamus', James the English form – which was also his given name, and Jamie the diminutive form).

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Hard currency

Hard currency, or safe-haven currency is any globally traded currency that serves as a reliable and stable store of value.

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Harvard University Press

Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.

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Heinemann (publisher)

Heinemann is a publishing house that was founded in 1890 in the UK.

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History of the Soviet Union (1964–82)

The history of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, referred to as the Brezhnev Era, covers the period of Leonid Brezhnev's rule of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

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History of the Soviet Union (1982–91)

The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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History Today

History Today is an illustrated history magazine.

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Hungarian People's Republic

The Hungarian People's Republic (Magyar Népköztársaság) was a socialist state that administered Hungary from 20 August 1949 until 23 October 1989.

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Hungarian Revolution of 1956

The Hungarian Revolution of 1956 or the Hungarian Uprising of 1956 (1956-os forradalom or felkelés) was a spontaneous nationwide revolt against the government of the Hungarian People's Republic and its Soviet-imposed policies, lasting from 23 October until 10 November 1956.

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Hydroelectricity

Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.

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I.B. Tauris

I.B. Tauris (usually typeset as I.B.Tauris) is an independent publishing house with offices in London and New York.

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Index of Soviet Union-related articles

Articles related to the former nation known as the Soviet Union include.

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Inquisitorial system

An inquisitorial system is a legal system where the court or a part of the court is actively involved in investigating the facts of the case, as opposed to an adversarial system where the role of the court is primarily that of an impartial referee between the prosecution and the defense.

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International Monetary Fund

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, DC, of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world".

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International relations within the Comecon

The "Council for Mutual Economic Assistance" (Comecon) was an economic organization of communist states, created in 1949, and dissolved in 1991, with the collapse of the Soviet Union.

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Interwar period

In the context of the history of the twentieth century, the interwar period or interbellum (Latin: inter-, "between" + bellum, "war") was the period between the end of World War I and the beginning of World War II—the period beginning with the Armistice with Germany that concluded World War I in 1918 and the following Paris Peace Conference in 1919, and ending in 1939 with the invasion of Poland and the start of World War II.

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Iran

Iran (or; ایران), historically known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia.

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Iron Curtain

The Iron Curtain was the ideological conflict and physical boundary dividing Europe into two separate areas from the end of World War II in 1945 until the end of the Cold War in 1991.

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Islam

Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.

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Islam in the Soviet Union

The Soviet Union was a state comprising fifteen communist republics which existed from 1922 until its dissolution into a series of separate nation states in 1991.

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Ismoil Somoni Peak

Ismoil Somoni Peak (Tajik: Қуллаи Исмоили Сомонӣ, Qullai Ismoili Somonī; Russian: пик Исмаила Самани pik Ismaila Samani) is the highest mountain in Tajikistan and in the former Russian Empire and later in the Soviet Union, named after Ismail Samani, the greatest ruler of the Samanid dynasty.

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Ivan Silayev

Ivan Stepanovich Silayev (Ива́н Степа́нович Сила́ев; born on 21 October 1930 in Baktyzino, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union) is a former Soviet official who became a Russian politician following the dissolution of the Soviet Union.

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John Dewey

John Dewey, FAA (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.

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Judaism

Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.

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Karel C. Berkhoff

Karel Cornelis Berkhoff (born 1965) is a senior researcher at NIOD Institute for War, Holocaust and Genocide Studies in Amsterdam.

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Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic

The Karelo-Finnish Soviet Socialist Republic (Karelo-Finnish SSR; Karjalais-suomalainen sosialistinen neuvostotasavalta; r) was a short-lived republic of the Soviet Union.

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Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic

The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic (Kazakh SSR or KSSR; Қазақ Кеңестік Социалистік Республикасы, Qazaq Keñestik Socïalïstik Respwblïkası; Казахская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Kazakhskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union.

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KGB

The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p, translated in English as Committee for State Security), was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.

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Khorezm People's Soviet Republic

The Khorezm People's Soviet Republic (Xorazm Xalq Sho'ro Jumhuriyati; Хорезмская Народная Советская Республика, Khorezmskaya Narodnaya Sovetskaya Respublika) was created as the successor to the Khanate of Khiva in February 1920, when the khan abdicated in response to popular pressure, and officially declared by the First Khorezm Kurultay (Assembly) on 26 April 1920.

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Khrushchev Thaw

The Khrushchev Thaw (or Khrushchev's Thaw; p or simply Ottepel)William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era, London: Free Press, 2004 refers to the period from the early 1950s to the early 1960s when repression and censorship in the Soviet Union were relaxed, and millions of Soviet political prisoners were released from Gulag labor camps due to Nikita Khrushchev's policies of de-Stalinization and peaceful coexistence with other nations.

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Khrushchev: The Man and His Era

Khrushchev: The Man and His Era is a 2003 biography of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev.

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Kingdom of Italy

The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.

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Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic

The Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (Kirghiz SSR; Кыргыз Советтик Социалисттик Республикасы Kyrgyz Sovettik Sotsialisttik Respublikasy; Киргизская Советская Социалистическая Республика Kirgizskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika), also referred to as Kirghizia, was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union (USSR).

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Komsomol

The All-Union Leninist Young Communist League (Всесоюзный ленинский коммунисти́ческий сою́з молодёжи (ВЛКСМ)), usually known as Komsomol (Комсомо́л, a syllabic abbreviation from the Russian kommunisticheskii soyuz molodyozhi), was a political youth organization in the Soviet Union.

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Konstantin Chernenko

Konstantin Ustinovich Chernenko (p, 24 September 1911 – 10 March 1985) was a Soviet politician and the fifth General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

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Kulak

Kulaks (a, p) "fist", by extension "tight-fisted"; kurkuls in Ukraine, also used in Russian texts (in Ukrainian contexts) were a category of relatively affluent farmers in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia, and early Soviet Union.

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Laika

Laika (Лайка; c. 1954 – November 3, 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth.

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Lake Baikal

Lake Baikal (p; Байгал нуур, Байгал нуур, Baygal nuur, etymologically meaning, in Turkic, "the rich lake") is a rift lake in Russia, located in southern Siberia, between Irkutsk Oblast to the northwest and the Buryat Republic to the southeast.

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Languages of the Soviet Union

The languages of the Soviet Union are hundreds of different languages and dialects from several different language groups.

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Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Latvian Soviet Socialist Republic (Latvian SSR; Latvijas Padomju Sociālistiskā Republika; Латвийская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Latviyskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) was a republic of the Soviet Union.

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Latvian War of Independence

The Latvian War of Independence (Latvijas brīvības cīņas, literally, "Struggles for Latvia's freedom"), sometimes called the Latvian War of Liberation (Latvijas atbrīvošanas karš, "War of Latvian Liberation"), was a series of military conflicts in Latvia between 5 December 1918, after the Republic of Latvia proclaimed its independence, and the signing of the Treaty of Riga between the Republic of Latvia and the Russian SFSR on 11 August 1920.

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League of Nations

The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.

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Legislature

A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.

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Leon Trotsky

Leon Trotsky (Лев Дави́дович Тро́цкий;; born Lev Davidovich Bronshtein; – 21 August 1940) was a Marxist revolutionary and theorist, Soviet politician, and the founder and first leader of the Red Army.

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Leonid Brezhnev

Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country from 1964 until his death in 1982.

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Lev Kamenev

Lev Borisovich Kamenev (Лев Бори́сович Ка́менев,; – 25 August 1936), born Rozenfeld (Ро́зенфельд), was a Bolshevik revolutionary and a prominent Soviet politician.

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Library of Congress

The Library of Congress is the research library that officially serves the United States Congress, but which is the de facto national library of the United States.

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Library of Congress Country Studies

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.

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Lisbon Protocol

The Lisbon Protocol to the 1991 Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was an agreement by representatives of Russia, Belarus, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan that all nuclear weapons of the former Soviet Union on the soil of those four states would be destroyed or transferred to the control of Russia.

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List of countries by GDP (nominal) per capita

This article includes four lists of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product per capita at nominal values.

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List of heads of state of the Soviet Union

The Constitution of the Soviet Union recognised the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet and the earlier Central Executive Committee (CEC) of the Congress of Soviets as the highest organs of state authority in the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

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List of regions by past GDP (PPP)

These are lists of regions and countries by their estimated real gross domestic product (GDP) in terms of purchasing power parity (PPP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a country/region in a given year.

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List of states with limited recognition

A number of geopolitical entities have declared statehood and have sought recognition as de jure sovereign states with varying degrees of success.

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Literacy

Literacy is traditionally understood as the ability to read and write.

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Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Lithuanian Soviet Socialist Republic (Lithuanian SSR; Lietuvos Tarybų Socialistinė Respublika; Литовская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Litovskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) was a republic of the Soviet Union.

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Lithuanian–Soviet War

The Lithuanian–Soviet War or Lithuanian–Bolshevik War (karas su bolševikais) was fought between newly independent Lithuania and the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic in the aftermath of World War I. It was part of the larger Soviet westward offensive of 1918–1919.

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Lunokhod 1

Lunokhod 1 (Луноход, moon walker in Russian; Аппарат 8ЕЛ № 203, vehicle 8ЕЛ№203) was the first of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of its Lunokhod program.

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Lunokhod 2

Lunokhod 2 (in Russian Луноход, moon walker) was the second of two unmanned lunar rovers landed on the Moon by the Soviet Union as part of the Lunokhod programme.

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M. E. Sharpe

M.E. Sharpe, Inc., an academic publisher, was founded by Myron Sharpe in 1958 with the original purpose of publishing translations from Russian in the social sciences and humanities.

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Manchester University Press

Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.

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Manchukuo

Manchukuo was a puppet state in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia, which was governed under a form of constitutional monarchy.

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Mao Zedong

Mao Zedong, also transliterated as Mao Tse-tung and commonly referred to as Chairman Mao (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he governed as Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.

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Martinus Nijhoff Publishers

Martinus Nijhoff Publishers was an independent academic publishing company dating back to the nineteenth century, which is now an imprint of Brill Publishers.

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Marxism

Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that analyzes class relations and societal conflict, that uses a materialist interpretation of historical development, and a dialectical view of social transformation.

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Marxism–Leninism

Marxism–Leninism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of Marxism and Leninism, and seeks to establish socialist states and develop them further.

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Maxim Gorky

Alexei Maximovich Peshkov (Алексе́й Макси́мович Пешко́в or Пе́шков; 28 March 1868 – 18 June 1936), primarily known as Maxim (Maksim) Gorky (Макси́м Го́рькій or Го́рький), was a Russian and Soviet writer, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist.

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Mercer University Press

Mercer University Press, established in 1979, is a publisher that is part of Mercer University.

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Merchant navy

A merchant navy or merchant marine is the fleet of merchant vessels that are registered in a certain country.

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Metaphysical naturalism

Metaphysical naturalism, also called ontological naturalism, philosophical naturalism and scientific materialism is a worldview which holds that there is nothing but natural elements, principles, and relations of the kind studied by the natural sciences, i.e., those required to understand our physical environment by mathematical modelling.

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Mikhail Bulgakov

Mikhaíl Afanasyevich Bulgakov (Михаи́л Афана́сьевич Булга́ков,; – March 10, 1940) was a Russian writer and playwright active in the first half of the 20th century.

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Mikhail Frunze

Mikhail Vasilyevich Frunze (Михаи́л Васи́льевич Фру́нзе; Mihail Vasilievici Frunză; – 31 October 1925) was a Bolshevik leader during and just prior to the Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Mikhail Gorbachev

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev (a; born 2 March 1931) is a former Soviet statesman.

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Mikhail Kalinin

Mikhail Ivanovich Kalinin (Михаи́л Ива́нович Кали́нин; 3 June 1946), known familiarly by Soviet citizens as "Kalinych", was a Bolshevik revolutionary and Stalinist functionary, who served as the nominal head of state of Russia and later of the Soviet Union from 1919 to 1946, but effectively subordinate to Joseph Stalin.

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Mikhail Tskhakaya

Mikhail Grigoryevich Tskhakaya (1865, Martvili Municipality – 1950), a.k.a. Barsov, was a Georgian communist.

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Mingrelians

The Megrelians (Megrelian: მარგალი, margali; მეგრელები: megrelebi) are a subethnic group of Georgians that mostly live in Samegrelo region of Georgia.

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Ministry of Health (Soviet Union)

The Ministry of Health (MOH) of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Министерство здравоохранения СССР), formed on 15 March 1946, was one of the most important government offices in the Soviet Union.

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Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic (Moldavian SSR or MSSR; Moldovan/Romanian: Република Советикэ Сочиалистэ Молдовеняскэ or Republica Sovietică Socialistă Moldovenească; Молда́вская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика Moldavskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) was one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union.

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Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact

The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, named after the Soviet foreign minister Vyacheslav Molotov and the German foreign minister Joachim von Ribbentrop, officially the Treaty of Non-aggression between Germany and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a non-aggression pact signed between Nazi Germany and the Soviet Union in Moscow on 23 August 1939.

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Mongolian People's Republic

The Mongolian People's Republic (Бүгд Найрамдах Монгол Ард Улс (БНМАУ), Bügd Nairamdakh Mongol Ard Uls (BNMAU)) was a socialist state in Central Asia which existed between 1924 and 1992.

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Mortality rate

Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.

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Moscow

Moscow (or; a) is the capital and the largest city of Russia with 12.2 million residents within the city limits and 16.8 million within the urban area.

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Moscow Kremlin

The Moscow Kremlin (p), usually referred to as the Kremlin, is a fortified complex at the heart of Moscow, overlooking the Moskva River to the south, Saint Basil's Cathedral and Red Square to the east, and the Alexander Garden to the west.

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Moskovskij Komsomolets

Moskovskij Komsomolets (Московский комсомолец, "Moscow Komsomolets") is a Moscow-based daily newspaper with a circulation approaching one million, covering general news.

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Mountain

A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.

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Multilingualism

Multilingualism is the use of more than two languages, either by an individual speaker or by a community of speakers.

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Munich Agreement

The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation "Sudetenland" was coined.

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Murray Feshbach

Murray Feshbach (born August 8, 1929) is a scholar focusing on the demographics of the Soviet Union and demographics of Russia (population, health, and environment).

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Nagorno-Karabakh

Nagorno-Karabakh is a landlocked region in the South Caucasus, lying between Lower Karabakh and Zangezur and covering the southeastern range of the Lesser Caucasus mountains.

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National delimitation in the Soviet Union

National delimitation in the Soviet Union refers to the process of creating well-defined national territorial units (Soviet socialist republics – SSR, autonomous Soviet socialist republics – ASSR, autonomous provinces – oblasts, or autonomous national territories – okrugi) from the ethnic diversity of the Soviet Union and its subregions.

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National Review

National Review (N.R.) is a semimonthly magazine founded by author William F. Buckley, Jr., in 1955 and based in New York City.

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NATO

The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.

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Nazi Germany

Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).

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Neo-Sovietism

Neo-Sovietism is a broad term of reference relating both to existing policy decisions in the former Soviet Union and to a small political movement dedicated to reviving the Soviet Union in the modern world.

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New Economic Policy

For the Malaysian policy enacted in 1971, see Malaysian New Economic Policy. The New Economic Policy (NEP) (Новая экономическая политика, НЭП, Novaya Ekonomicheskaya Politika) was an economic policy of Soviet Russia proposed by Vladimir Lenin, who called it "state capitalism".

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New Soviet man

The New Soviet man or New Soviet person (новый советский человек novy sovetsky chelovek), as postulated by the ideologists of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, was an archetype of a person with certain qualities that were said to be emerging as dominant among all citizens of the Soviet Union, irrespective of the country's cultural, ethnic, and linguistic diversity, creating a single Soviet people, Soviet nation.

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Nicholas II of Russia

Nicholas II (r) (– 17 July 1918) was the last Emperor of Russia, Grand Duke of Finland, and titular King of Poland.

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Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (– September 11, 1971) was a Russian politician who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War.

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Nikolai Podgorny

Nikolai Viktorovich Podgorny (p, Микола Вікторович Підгорний; – 12 January 1983) was a Soviet Ukrainian statesman during the Cold War.

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Nikolai Yezhov

Nikolai Ivanovich Yezhov or Ezhov (Никола́й Иванович Ежо́в,; May 1, 1895 – February 4, 1940) was a Soviet secret police official under Joseph Stalin.

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Nikolay Gumilyov

Nikolay Stepanovich Gumilyov (a; April 15 NS 1886 – August 25, 1921) was an influential Russian poet, literary critic, traveler, and military officer.

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NKVD

The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was a law enforcement agency of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the All Union Communist Party.

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Nomenklatura

The nomenklatura (p; nomenclatura) were a category of people within the Soviet Union and other Eastern Bloc countries who held various key administrative positions in all spheres of those countries' activity: government, industry, agriculture, education, etc., whose positions were granted only with approval by the communist party of each country or region.

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North America

North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within the Western Hemisphere.

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North Korea

North Korea, officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK), is a country in East Asia, in the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.

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Norway

Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk)), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a sovereign and unitary monarchy whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus Jan Mayen and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard.

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Nuclear weapons delivery

Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its target.

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Occupation of the Baltic states

The occupation of the Baltic states refers to the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact on 14 June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics, unrecognised internationally by most countries.

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October Revolution

The October Revolution (p), officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution (r), and commonly referred to as Red October, the October Uprising or the Bolshevik Revolution, was a seizure of state power instrumental in the larger Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Official names of the Soviet Union

The official names of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in the languages of the Soviet Republics (presented in the constitutional order) and other languages of the USSR (in alphabetical order) were as follows.

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Old Bolshevik

Old Bolshevik (ста́рый большеви́к, stary bolshevik), also Old Bolshevik Guard or Old Party Guard, became an unofficial designation for those who were members of the Bolshevik party before the Russian Revolution of 1917.

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Old Style and New Style dates

Old Style (O.S.) and New Style (N.S.) are sometimes used with dates to indicate whether the Julian year has been adjusted to start on 1 January (N.S.), even though documents written at the time use a different start of year (O.S.), or whether a date conforms to the Julian calendar (O.S.), formerly in use in many countries, rather than the Gregorian (N.S.). web page of the.

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On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences

"On the Cult of Personality and Its Consequences" («О культе личности и его последствиях») was a report by Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev made to the 20th Party Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union on 25 February 1956.

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Operation Barbarossa

Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for Nazi Germany's invasion of the Soviet Union during World War II, which began on 22 June 1941.

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Order of the Red Banner of Labour

Reverse of a post 1943 type 2 Order of the Red Banner of Labour The Order of the Red Banner of Labour (Орден Трудового Красного Знамени) was an order of the Soviet Union established to honour great deeds and services to the Soviet state and society in the fields of production, science, culture, literature, the arts, education, health, social and other spheres of labour activities.

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Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development

The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest of the Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Patriarch Alexy I of Moscow

Patriarch Alexy I (Alexius I, Патриарх Алексий I, secular name Sergey Vladimirovich Simanskiy, Серге́й Владимирович Симанский; – April 17, 1970) was the 13th Patriarch of Moscow and all Rus', Primate of the Russian Orthodox Church (ROC) between 1945 and 1970.

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Patriarch Sergius of Moscow

Patriarch Sergius (Патриарх Сергий, born Ivan Nikolayevich Stragorodsky, Иван Николаевич Страгородский; – May 15, 1944) was the 12th Patriarch of Moscow and all the Rus', from September 8, 1943 until his death.

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Peace of Riga

The Peace of Riga, also known as the Treaty of Riga; Traktat Ryski was signed in Riga on 18 March 1921, between Poland, Soviet Russia (acting also on behalf of Soviet Belarus) and Soviet Ukraine.

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Pearson Education

Pearson Education is a British-owned education publishing and assessment service to schools and corporations, as well as directly to students.

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Penguin Books

Penguin Books is a British publishing house.

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Penn State University Press

The Penn State University Press, also called Penn State Press was established in 1956, and is a non-profit publisher of scholarly books and journals.

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People's Court (Soviet Union)

People's court in the late Soviet Union is a court of first instance which handled the majority of civil and criminal offenses, as well as certain administrative law offenses.

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People's Socialist Republic of Albania

The People's Socialist Republic of Albania (Republika Popullore Socialiste e Shqipërisë) was the official name of Albania from 1976 until 1992.

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Perestroika

Perestroika (a) was a political movement for reformation within the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the 1980s (1986), widely associated with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev and his glasnost (meaning "openness") policy reform.

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Permanent members of the United Nations Security Council

The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council, also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5, include the following five governments: China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

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Peter Lang (publisher)

Peter Lang is an academic publisher specializing in the humanities and social sciences.

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Petroleum

Petroleum (L. petroleum, from early 15c. "petroleum, rock oil" (mid-14c. in Anglo-French), from Medieval Latin petroleum, from petra: "rock" + ''oleum'': "oil".) is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface, which is commonly refined into various types of fuels.

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Pipeline transport

Pipeline transport is the transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

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Planned economy

A planned economy is the economic system in which decisions regarding production and investment are embodied in a plan formulated by a central authority, usually by a public body such as a government agency.

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Polish People's Republic

The Polish People's Republic (Polish: Polska Rzeczpospolita Ludowa, PRL) was the official name of Poland until 1989 according to Constitution of 1952 based originally on the Soviet blueprint.

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Polish–Soviet War

The Polish–Soviet War (February 1919 – March 1921) was an armed conflict that pitted Soviet Russia and Soviet Ukraine against the Second Polish Republic and the Ukrainian People's Republic over the control of an area equivalent to today's Ukraine and parts of modern-day Belarus.

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Politburo of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Politburo (p, full: Political Bureau of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, abbreviated Политбюро ЦК КПСС, Politbyuro TsK KPSS), was the highest policy-making government authority under the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

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Political union

A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states.

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Politics of the Soviet Union

The political system of the Soviet Union was characterized by the superior role of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), the only party permitted by the Constitution.

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Post-Soviet states

The post-Soviet states, also collectively known as the former Soviet Union (FSU) or former Soviet Republics, are the 15 independent states that emerged from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in its dissolution in December 1991, with Russia internationally recognised as the successor state to the Soviet Union.

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Power station

A power station (also referred to as a generating station, power plant, powerhouse, or generating plant) is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.

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Poznań 1956 protests

The Poznań 1956 protests, also known as the Poznań 1956 uprising or Poznań June (Poznański Czerwiec), were the first of several massive protests against the government of the People's Republic of Poland.

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Prague Spring

The Prague Spring (Pražské jaro, Pražská jar) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia during the era of its domination by the Soviet Union after World War II.

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Pravda

Pravda (a, "Truth") was the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union and was one of the most influential papers in the country.

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Premier of the Soviet Union

The office of Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was synonymous with head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).

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Presidency of Ronald Reagan

The United States presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan administration, was a Republican administration headed by Ronald Reagan from January 20, 1981, to January 20, 1989.

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President of Russia

The President of the Russian Federation (Президент Российской Федерации, Romanized: President Rossiiskoi Federatsii) is the head of state, Supreme Commander-in-chief and holder of the highest office within the Russian Federation.

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President of the Soviet Union

The President of the Soviet Union (Президент Советского Союза, Prezident Sovetskogo Soyuza), officially called President of the USSR (Президент СССР) or President of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics (Президент Союза Советских Социалистических Республик), was the head of state of the Soviet Union from 15 March 1990 to 25 December 1991.

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Presidium of the Supreme Soviet

The Presidium of the Supreme Soviet (Президиум Верховного Совета or Prezidium Verkhovnogo Soveta) was a Soviet governmental institution – a permanent body of the Supreme Soviets (parliaments).

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Procurator General of the Soviet Union

The Procurator General of the USSR (Генеральный прокурор СССР in Russian, or Generalnyi prokuror SSSR), was the highest functionary of the Office of Public Procurator of the USSR, responsible for the whole system of offices of public procurators and supervision of their activities on the territory of the Soviet Union.

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Project Socrates

Project Socrates was a classified U.S. Defense Intelligence Agency program established in 1983 within the Reagan administration.

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Proletarian internationalism

Proletarian internationalism, sometimes referred to as international socialism, is a socialist form of internationalism, based on the view that capitalism is a global system, and therefore the working class must act as a global class if it is to defeat it in class conflict.

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Protestantism

Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.

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Puppet state

A puppet state is a metaphor of a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power, it is nominally sovereign but effectively controlled by a foreign or otherwise alien power, for reasons such as financial interests, in fact anything but the common good.

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Purchasing power parity

Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.

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Rabkrin

Rabkrin, RKI or Workers' and Peasants' Inspectorate (WPI) (Russian: Рабо́че-крестья́нская инспе́кция, Рабкри́н, РКИ) was a governmental establishment in the early Soviet Union responsible for scrutinizing the state, local and enterprise administrations from 1920 to 1934.

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Radio Moscow

Radio Moscow (r), also known as Radio Moscow World Service, was the official international broadcasting station of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Rebellion

Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order.

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Red Army

The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия; РККА, or Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya: RKKA, frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия; KA, in English: Red Army) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and after 1922 the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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Republics of the Soviet Union

The Republics of the Soviet Union or the Union Republics (союзные республики, soyuznye respubliki) of the Soviet Union were ethnically based administrative units that were subordinated directly to the Government of the Soviet Union.

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Research and development

Research and Development (R&D), also known in Europe as research and technical (or technological) development (RTD), is a general term for activities in connection with corporate or governmental innovation.

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Revisionism (Marxism)

Within the Marxist movement, the word revisionism is used to refer to various ideas, principles and theories that are based on a significant revision of fundamental Marxist premises.

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Revolution of 1905

The Revolution of 1905 was a wave of mass political and social unrest that spread through vast areas of the Russian Empire, some of which was directed at the government.

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Revolutions of 1989

The Revolutions of 1989 were part of a revolutionary wave that resulted in the Fall of Communism in the Communist states of Central and Eastern Europe and beyond.

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Rise of Joseph Stalin

Joseph Stalin was the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union's Central Committee from 1922 until his death in 1953.

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Roger Keeran

Roger Keeran (or Roger Roy Keeran / Roger R. Keeran) (born in 1944, in Lapeer, Michigan,: "Roger Keeran - nasceu em Lapeer, Michigan, em 1944. Licenciado em Filosofia pela Wayne State University (Detroit), Mestre de História Americana e Doutorado em História pela Universidade de Wisconsin (Madison). Enquanto estudava, trabalhou na fábrica de automóveis da General Motors e foi co-presidente do Detroit Committee to End the War in Vietnam. Ensinou nas Universidades de Cornell, Princeton e Rutgers e foi professor e responsável pelo programa de pós-graduação em estudos sobre as políticas laborais do Empire State College (Universidade Estadual de Nova York). É autor de The Communist Party and the Auto Workers Union (Indiana University Press, 1980), e co-autor, com Thomas Kenny, de Socialism Betrayed: Behind the Collapse of the Soviet Union, International Publishers, 1984 (em Portugal: O Socialismo Traído. Por trás do colapso da União Soviética, Edições Avante!, 2008). Escreveu também diversos artigos sobre a História dos Comunistas nos Estados Unidos. Desde 2013, é Professor Emérito no Empire State College.") is an American historian and university professor who taught successively at Cornell, Princeton, Rutgers and the New York State University (SUNY).

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Roman law

Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman Military Jurisdiction and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the 12 Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I. The historical importance of Roman defication is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it.

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Romanization of Russian

Romanization of the Russian alphabet is the process of transliterating the Russian language from the Cyrillic script into the Latin alphabet.

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Rossiyskaya Gazeta

Rossiyskaya Gazeta (Российская газета, lit. Russian Gazette) is a Russian government daily newspaper of record which publishes the official decrees, statements and documents of state bodies.

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RT (TV network)

RT (founded as "Russia Today") is a Russian state-funded television network which runs cable and satellite television channels, as well as Internet content directed to audiences outside the Russian Federation.

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Ruling class

A ruling class is the social class of a given society that decides upon and sets that society's political agenda by mandating that there is one such particular class in the given society, and then appointing itself as that class.

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Russia

Russia (Ru-Россия.ogg), also officially known as the Russian Federation (a), is a country in northern Eurasia.

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Russian Civil War

The Russian Civil War (Гражданская война́ в Росси́и Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiy) (November 1917-October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.

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Russian Constituent Assembly

The All Russian Constituent Assembly (Всероссийское Учредительное собрание, Vserossiyskoye Uchreditelnoye sobraniye) was a constitutional body convened in Russia after the October Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Constitution of 1918

The first constitution of Russia, which governed the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic, described the regime that assumed power in the October Revolution of 1917.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Pre-reform Russian orthography: Россійская Имперія, Modern Russian: Российская империя, translit: Rossiyskaya Imperiya) was a state that existed from 1721 until overthrown by the short-lived liberal February Revolution in 1917.

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Russian famine of 1921

The Russian famine of 1921, also known as Povolzhye famine, was a severe famine in Bolshevik Russia which began in early spring of 1921 and lasted through 1922.

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Russian language

Russian (ру́сский язы́к, russkiy yazyk, pronounced) is an East Slavic language and an official language in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan.

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Russian Orthodox Church

The Russian Orthodox Church (ROC; Rússkaya Pravoslávnaya Tsérkov), alternatively legally known as the Moscow Patriarchate (Moskóvskiy Patriarkhát), is one of the autocephalous Eastern Orthodox churches, in full communion with other Eastern Orthodox patriarchates.

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Russian Provisional Government

The Russian Provisional Government (Временное правительство России, translit.) was a provisional government of the Russian Republic established immediately following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II (March 15, 1917).

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Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic

The Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic (Russian SFSR or RSFSR; r) commonly referred to as Soviet Russia or simply as Russia,Declaration of Rights of the laboring and exploited people, article I was a sovereign state in 1917–22, the largest, most populous, and most economically developed republic of the Soviet Union in 1922–91 and a sovereign part of the Soviet Union with own legislation in 1990–91.

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Russians

Russians (русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Russia, who speak the Russian language and primarily live in Russia. They are the most numerous ethnic group in Russia constituting more than 80% of the country's population according to the census of 2010, and the most numerous ethnic group in Europe.

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Saint Petersburg

Saint Petersburg (p) is the second largest city in Russia, politically incorporated as a federal subject (a federal city).

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Samizdat

Samizdat (p) was a key form of dissident activity across the Soviet bloc in which individuals reproduced censored publications by hand and passed the documents from reader to reader.

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Satellite state

The political term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.

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Saudi Arabia

Saudi Arabia, officially known as the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, is an Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.

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Sąjūdis

Sąjūdis (initially known as the Reform Movement of Lithuania, Lietuvos Persitvarkymo Sąjūdis) is the political organization which led the struggle for Lithuanian independence in the late 1980s and early 1990s.

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Science and technology in the Soviet Union

In the Soviet Union, science and technology served as an important part of national politics, practices, and identity.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Second Polish Republic

The Second Polish Republic, also known as the Second Commonwealth of Poland or the interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).

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Second Spanish Republic

The Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española) was the republican regime that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939, preceded by the Restoration and followed by Francoist Spain after the Spanish Civil War.

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Secretariat of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Secretariat of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), often referred to as the Secretariat of the CPSU Central Committee, was responsible for the central administration of the party as opposed to drafting government policy which was usually handled by the Politburo.

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Separation of powers

The separation of powers, often imprecisely used interchangeably with the trias politica principle, is a model for the governance of a state (or who controls the state).

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Serfdom in Russia

The origins of serfdom in Russia are traced to Kievan Rus' in the 11th century.

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Sergei Eisenstein

Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein (p; 22 January 1898 – 11 February 1948) was a Soviet Russian film director and film theorist, a pioneer in the theory and practice of montage.

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Service (economics)

In economics, a service is an intangible commodity.

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Sheila Fitzpatrick

Sheila Fitzpatrick (born June 4, 1941) is an Australian-American historian.

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Shia Islam

Shia (شيعة Shīʿah), an abbreviation of Shīʻatu ʻAlī (شيعة علي, "followers/party of Ali"), is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his son-in-law and cousin Ali ibn Abi Talib.

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Shooting of the Romanov family

The Russian Imperial Romanov family (Tsar Nicholas II, his wife Tsarina Alexandra and their five children Olga, Tatiana, Maria, Anastasia, and Alexei) and all those who chose to accompany them into exile – notably Eugene Botkin, Anna Demidova, Alexei Trupp and Ivan Kharitonov – were shot in Yekaterinburg on 17 July 1918.

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Single-party state

A single-party state, one-party state, one-party system, or single-party system is a type of state in which a single political party has the right to form the government, usually based on the existing constitution.

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Sino-Soviet split

The Sino-Soviet split (1960–1989) was the worsening of political and ideological relations between the neighboring states of People's Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) during the Cold War.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established in 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Social mobility

Social mobility is the movement of individuals, families, households, or other categories of people within or between social strata in a society.

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Socialism

Socialism is a social and economic system characterised by social ownership and/or social control of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy, as well as a political theory and movement that aims at the establishment of such a system.

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Socialism in One Country

Socialism in One Country (Sotsyializm v odnoi strane) was a theory put forth by Joseph Stalin in 1924, elaborated by Nikolai Bukharin in 1925 and finally adopted by the Soviet Union as state policy.

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Socialist economics

Socialist economics refers to the economic theories, practices, and norms of hypothetical and existing socialist economic systems.

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Socialist mode of production

In Marxist theory, socialism, also called lower-stage communism or the socialist mode of production, refers to a specific historical phase of economic development and its corresponding set of social relations that supersede capitalism in the schema of historical materialism.

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Socialist realism

Socialist realism is a style of realistic art that was developed in the Soviet Union and became a dominant style in various other socialist countries.

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Socialist Republic of Romania

The Socialist Republic of Romania (Republica Socialistă România, RSR) was a single-party socialist state that existed officially from 1947 to 1989.

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Socialist state

The term socialist state or socialist republic usually refers to any state that is constitutionally dedicated to the construction of a socialist society.

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Somalia

Somalia (Soomaaliya; الصومال), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.

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South Ossetia

South Ossetia or Tskhinvali RegionSouth Ossetia (Хуссар Ирыстон, Xussar Iryston; სამხრეთი ოსეთი, Samxreti Oseti; Южная Осетия, Yuzhnaya Osetiya)Tskhinvali Region (ცხინვალის რეგიონი, Tsxinvalis regioni; Цхинвальский регион, Tskhinvalskiy region) is a partially recognised state in the South Caucasus, located in the territory of the South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast within the former Georgian SSR of the Soviet Union.

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Sovereignty

Sovereignty is understood in jurisprudence as the full right and power of a governing body to govern itself without any interference from outside sources or bodies.

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Soviet (council)

Soviets (singular: soviet; сове́т,, literally "council" in English) were political organizations and governmental bodies, primarily associated with the Russian Revolutions and the history of the Soviet Union, and which gave the name to the latter state.

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Soviet (disambiguation)

Soviet may refer to.

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Soviet Central Asia

Soviet Central Asia refers to the section of Central Asia formerly controlled by the Soviet Union, as well as the time period of Soviet administration (1918–1991).

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Soviet Empire

The informal term "Soviet Empire" is used by critics of the Soviet Union and Russian nationalists"The borders of the Russian World extend significantly farther than borders of Russian Federation.

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Soviet invasion of Manchuria

The Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operaciya) began on 9 August 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo and was the last campaign of the Second World War and the largest of the 1945 Soviet–Japanese War which resumed hostilities between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan after almost six years of peace.

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Soviet invasion of Poland

The Soviet invasion of Poland was a Soviet military operation that started without a formal declaration of war on 17 September 1939.

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Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina

The Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina was the military occupation of the formerly Romanian regions of Bessarabia, Northern Bukovina, and Hertza by the Soviet Red Army during June 28 – July 4, 1940.

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Soviet occupation of the Baltic states (1940)

The Soviet occupation of the Baltic states covers the period from the Soviet–Baltic mutual assistance pacts in 1939, to their invasion and annexation in 1940, to the mass deportations of 1941.

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Soviet of Nationalities

The Soviet of Nationalities (Совет Национальностей, Sovyet Natsionalnostey) was one of the two chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot in accordance with the principles of Soviet democracy.

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Soviet of the Union

The Soviet of the Union (Сове́т Сою́за, Sovet Soyuza) was one of the two chambers of the Supreme Soviet of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, elected on the basis of universal, equal and direct suffrage by secret ballot in accordance with the principles of Soviet democracy, and with the rule that there be one deputy for every 300,000 people.

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Soviet offensive plans controversy

The Soviet offensive plans controversy refers to the debate among historians on the question of whether Soviet leader Joseph Stalin was planning to invade Germany prior to Operation Barbarossa.

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Soviet people

Soviet people or Soviet nation (советский народ) or Citizens of the USSR (Граждане СССР) was an umbrella demonym for the population of the Soviet Union.

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Soviet ruble

The Soviet ruble or rouble (рубль; see below for other languages of the USSR) was the currency of the Soviet Union.

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Soviet Union and the United Nations

The Soviet Union was a charter member of the United Nations and one of five permanent members of the Security Council.

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Soviet Union referendum, 1991

A referendum on the future of the Soviet Union was held on 17 March 1991.

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Soviet–Afghan War

The Soviet–Afghan War lasted over nine years from December 1979 to February 1989.

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Soviet–Japanese border conflicts

The Soviet–Japanese border conflicts was a series of combats and skirmishes, without any formal declaration of war, occurred between 1932 and 1945.

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Soviet–Japanese Neutrality Pact

The, also known as the was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War (1939).

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Soviet–Japanese War (1945)

The Soviet-Japanese War of 1945 (Советско-японская война; ソビエト戦争) within the Second World War began on August 9, 1945, with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.

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Space Race

The Space Race was a 20th-century (1955–1972) competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for supremacy in spaceflight capability.

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Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Sputnik 1

Sputnik 1 (Спутник-1 "Satellite-1", or ПС-1) was the first artificial Earth satellite.

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Stalin and His Hangmen

Stalin and His Hangmen: An Authoritative Portrait of a Tyrant and Those Who Served Him by Donald Rayfield, and the imprinted with another subtitle: Stalin and His Hangmen: The Tyrant and Those Who Killed for Him, is a 2004 political biography by Donald Rayfield, of Joseph Stalin and his subordinates who ran the Soviet secret police: Felix Dzerzhinsky, Vyacheslav Menzhinsky, Genrikh Yagoda, Nikolai Yezhov and Lavrentiy Beria.

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Standing (law)

In law, standing or locus standi is the term for the ability of a party to demonstrate to the court sufficient connection to and harm from the law or action challenged to support that party's participation in the case.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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Stanley Fischer

Stanley "Stan" Fischer (סטנלי פישר; born October 15, 1943) is an economist and the vice chair of the U.S. Federal Reserve System.

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State Anthem of the Soviet Union

The "State Anthem of the USSR" (r) was introduced during World War II on 15 March 1944, replacing The Internationale as the official anthem of the Soviet Union and the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic.

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State atheism

State atheism is a popular term used for a government that is either antireligious, antitheistic or promotes atheism.

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State Committee for Publishing

Goskomizdat (Russian: Госкомиздат, an abbreviation for Государственный комитет по делам издательств, полиграфии и книжной торговли СССР, Gosudarstvenny komitet po delam izdatelstv, poligrafii i knizhnoy torgovli SSSR) was the State Committee for Publishing in the Soviet Union.

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State Council of the Soviet Union

Following the August 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, the State Council of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) (Государственный Совет СССР), but also known as the State Soviet, was formed on 5 September 1991 and was designed to be one of the most important government offices in Mikhail Gorbachev's Soviet Union.

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State Duma

The State Duma (Госуда́рственная ду́ма (Gosudarstvennaya Duma), common abbreviation: Госду́ма (Gosduma)) in the Russian Federation is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia (legislature), the upper house being the Federation Council of Russia.

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Steppe

In physical geography, a steppe (a) is an ecoregion, in the montane grasslands and shrublands and temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biomes, characterized by grassland plains without trees apart from those near rivers and lakes.

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Stock

The stock (also capital stock) of a corporation constitutes the equity stake of its owners.

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Strasbourg

Strasbourg (Lower Alsatian: Strossburi) is the capital and principal city of the Alsace region in north eastern France and is the official seat of the European Parliament.

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Street network

A street network is a system of interconnecting lines and points that represent a system of streets or roads for a given area.

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Sub-replacement fertility

Sub-replacement fertility is a total fertility rate (TFR) that (if sustained) leads to each new generation being less populous than the previous one in a given area.

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Succession of states

Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created sovereign state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is a denomination of Islam which holds that the Islamic prophet Muhammad's proper successor as Caliph was his father-in-law Abu Bakr.

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Supreme Court of Russia

The Supreme Court of the Russian Federation (Russian: Верховный Суд Российской Федерации) is a court within the judiciary of Russia and the court of last resort in Russian administrative law, civil law and criminal law cases.

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Supreme Court of the Soviet Union

The Supreme Court of the Soviet Union (Верховный Суд СССР) was the highest court of the Soviet Union during its existence.

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Supreme Soviet of Russia

The Supreme Soviet of the Russian SFSR (Верховный Совет РСФСР, Verkhovniy Sovet RSFSR), later Supreme Soviet of the Russian Federation (Верховный Совет Российской Федерации, Verkhovniy Sovet Rossiyskoi Federatsii) was the supreme government institution of the Russian SFSR in 1938–1990; in 1990–1993 it was a permanent parliament, elected by the Congress of People's Deputies of the Russian Federation.

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Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union

The Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union (Верхо́вный Сове́т СССР, Verkhóvnyj Sovét SSSR) was the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments.

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Surrender of Japan

The surrender of the Empire of Japan was announced by Imperial Japan on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.

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Svyatoslav Fyodorov

Svyatoslav Nikolayevich Fyodorov (born August 8, 1927 – June 2, 2000) was a Russian ophthalmologist, politician, professor, full member of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Russian Academy of Medical Sciences.

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Taiga

Taiga (p; from Turkic) also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.

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Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic

The Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic (Tajik SSR; Республикаи Советии Социалистии Тоҷикистон, Respulikaji Sovetiji Sotsialistiji Toçikiston; Таджикская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Tadzhikskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union.

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Taylor & Francis

Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in the United Kingdom that publishes books and academic journals.

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The BMJ

The BMJ is a weekly peer-reviewed medical journal.

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The Economic History Review

The Economic History Review is a peer-reviewed history journal published quarterly by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the Economic History Society.

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The World Factbook

The World Factbook (ISSN; also known as the CIA World Factbook) is a reference resource produced by the Central Intelligence Agency with almanac-style information about the countries of the world.

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Third World

The term Third World arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO, or the Communist Bloc.

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Time zone

A time zone is a region that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.

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Tolyatti

Tolyatti (p), also known in English as Togliatti, is a city in Samara Oblast, Russia.

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Totalitarianism

Totalitarianism is a political system in which the state holds total control over the society and seeks to control all aspects of public and private life wherever possible.

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Transaction Publishers

Transaction Publishers is a New Jersey-based publishing house that specializes in social sciences books.

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Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic

The Transcaucasian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic (Transcaucasian SFSR or TSFSR), also known as the Transcaucasian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union that existed from 1922 to 1936.

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Transnistria

Transnistria (also called Trans-Dniestr or Transdniestria) is a partially recognized state located mostly on a strip of land between the River Dniester and the eastern Moldovan border with Ukraine.

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Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, between the new Bolshevik government of Soviet Russia and the Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey), that ended Russia's participation in World War I. The treaty was signed at Brest-Litovsk (Brześć Litewski; since 1945 Brest, Belarus), after two months of negotiations.

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Treaty on the Creation of the USSR

The Treaty on the Creation of the USSR officially created the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), commonly known as the Soviet Union.

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Tsar

Tsar (Old Church Slavonic: ц︢рь (usually written thus with a tilde) or цар, цaрь; also Czar or Tzar in Latin alphabet languages) is a title used to designate certain European Slavic monarchs or supreme rulers.

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Tsarist autocracy

Tsarist autocracy (царское самодержавие, transcr. tsarskoye samoderzhaviye) refers to a form of autocracy (later absolute monarchy) specific to the Grand Duchy of Moscow, which later became Tsardom of Russia and the Russian Empire.

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Tundra

In physical geography, tundra is type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.

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Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic

The Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (initially, the Turkestan Socialist Federative Republic; 30 April 191827 October 1924) was an autonomous republic of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic located in Soviet Central Asia.

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Turkey

Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Turkish), is a parliamentary republic in Eurasia, largely located in Western Asia, with the smaller portion of Eastern Thrace in Southeast Europe.

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Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic

The Turkmen Soviet Socialist Republic (Turkmen SSR; Түркменистан Совет Социалистик Республикасы, Türkmenistan Sowet Sotsialistik Respublikasy; Туркменская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Turkmenskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) was one of the constituent republics of the Soviet Union located in Central Asia.

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Ukraine

Ukraine (Україна, tr. Ukraina) is a country in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast, Belarus to the northwest, Poland and Slovakia to the west, Hungary, Romania, and Moldova to the southwest, and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.

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Ukrainian independence referendum, 1991

A referendum on the Act of Declaration of Independence was held in Ukraine on 1 December 1991.

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Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic

The Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic (Ukrainian SSR or UkSSR; Украї́нська Радя́нська Соціалісти́чна Респу́бліка, Украї́нська РСР; Украи́нская Сове́тская Социалисти́ческая Респу́блика, Украи́нская ССР; see "Name" section below), commonly referred to as Soviet Ukraine or simply as Ukraine, was a sovereign Soviet socialist state and one of the fifteen constituent republics of the Soviet Union from its inception in 1922 to its breakup in 1991.

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Ukrainians

Ukrainians (українці, ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Ukraine, which is by total population the sixth-largest nation in Europe.

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Ukrainians in Russia

The Ukrainians in Russia make up the largest single Ukrainian diaspora of the Ukrainian people.

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Unfree labour

Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will by the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), lawful compulsion, or other extreme hardship to themselves or to members of their families.

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Union of Sovereign States

The Union of Sovereign States (Сою́з Сувере́нных Госуда́рств Soyuz Suverennykh Gosudarstv) was the proposed name of a reorganization of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics into a new confederal entity.

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United Nations Security Council

The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations and is charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Naval Institute

The United States Naval Institute (USNI), based in Annapolis, Maryland, is a private, non-profit, professional military association that seeks to offer independent, nonpartisan forums for debate of national defense and security issues.

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University of California Press

University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.

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University Press of New England

The University Press of New England (or UPNE), located in Lebanon, New Hampshire and founded in 1970, is a university press consortium including Brandeis University, Dartmouth College (its host member), the University of New Hampshire, and Northeastern University.

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USSR (disambiguation)

USSR most commonly refers to the Soviet Union (Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, 1922–1991).

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Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic

The Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic (Uzbek SSR; Ўзбекистон Совет Социалистик Республикаси, Oʻzbekiston Sovet Sotsialistik Respublikasi; Узбекская Советская Социалистическая Республика, Uzbekskaya Sovetskaya Sotsialisticheskaya Respublika) was one of the republics of the Soviet Union.

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Uzbeks

The Uzbeks (Oʻzbek, pl. Oʻzbeklar) are the largest Turkic ethnic group in Central Asia.

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Valentina Tereshkova

Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (a; born 6 March 1937) is the first woman to have flown in space, having been selected from more than four hundred applicants and five finalists to pilot Vostok 6 on 16 June 1963.

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Valery Zorkin

Valery Dmitrievich Zorkin (Вале́рий Дми́триевич Зо́рькин) is the first and the current Chairman of the Constitutional Court of the Russian Federation.

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Viking Press

Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.

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Vladimir Ivashko

Vladimir Antonovich Ivashko (Влади́мир Анто́нович Ива́шко; Володимир Антонович Івашко) (28 October 1932 – 13 November 1994), was briefly the acting General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) during the period from 24 August 1991 to 29 August 1991.

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Vladimir Lenin

Vladimir Ilyich Ulyanov (p), alias Lenin (p) (– 21 January 1924) was a Russian communist revolutionary, politician and political theorist.

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Vladimir Mayakovsky

Vladimir Vladimirovich Mayakovsky (Влади́мир Влади́мирович Маяко́вский; – 14 April 1930) was a Russian Soviet poet, playwright, artist and stage and film actor.

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Vocational-technical school

A vocational-technical school, often called a voc-tech school, is a high school in the United States and Canada designed to bring vocational and technical training to its students.

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Vojtech Mastny

Vojtech Mastny (born in Prague, Czechoslovakia, in 1936http://www.nias.knaw.nl/en/oudfellows/research_group_1988_1989/summaries_88_89/v_mastny/) is an American historian of Czech descent,http://www.nato.int/docu/pr/1996/p96-084e.htm professor of political science and international relations, specializing in the history of the Cold War.

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Vostok 1

Vostok 1 (Восто́к-1, East 1 or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first human spaceflight in history.

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War communism

War communism or military communism (Военный коммунизм) was the economic and political system that existed in Soviet Russia during the Russian Civil War, from 1918 to 1921.

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War of Laws

The War of Laws (Война законов, Voyna zakonov) was the series of conflicts between the central government of the Soviet Union, and the governments of the Russian Federation and other constituent republics during the last years of the USSR, which eventually led to the dissolution of the union.

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Warsaw Pact

The Warsaw Pact (formally, the Treaty of Friendship, Co-operation, and Mutual Assistance, sometimes, informally WarPac, akin in format to NATO) was a collective defense treaty among eight communist states of Central and Eastern Europe in existence during the Cold War, led by the USSR.

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Warsaw Pact invasion of Czechoslovakia

On the night of 20–21 August 1968, the Soviet Union and its main allies in the Warsaw Pact—Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany, and Poland—invaded the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic in order to halt Alexander Dubček's Prague Spring political liberalisation reforms.

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West Germany

West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany or FRG (Bundesrepublik Deutschland or ''BRD'') in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 to German reunification on 3 October 1990.

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White movement

The White movement (p) and its military arm the White Army (Бѣлая Армiя/Белая Армия, Belaya Armiya), also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардiя/Белая Гвардия, Belaya Gvardiya) or the Whites (Белые and белогвардейцы, "White Guardsmen"), was a loose confederation of Anti-Communist forces that fought the Bolsheviks (большевики, "Majority") in the Russian Civil War (1917–1922/3) and, to a lesser extent, continued operating as militarized associations both outside and within Russian borders until roughly the Second World War.

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William Easterly

William Russell Easterly (born September 7, 1957) is an American economist, specializing in economic development.

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William Taubman

William Chase Taubman (born November 13, 1940 in New York City) is an American political scientist.

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Winter Palace

The Winter Palace (p) in Saint Petersburg, Russia, was, from 1732 to 1917, the official residence of the Russian monarchs.

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Winter War

The Winter War (Talvisota, Vinterkriget, r) was a military conflict between the Soviet Union and Finland in 1939–1940.

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Workers of the world, unite!

The political slogan Workers of the world, unite! is one of the most famous rallying cries from the Communist Manifesto (1848), by Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (Proletarier aller Länder vereinigt Euch!, literally "Proletarians of all countries, unite!" but soon popularized in English as "Workers of the world, unite! You have nothing to lose but your chains!", although this is not found in any official publication).

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Workers' council

A workers' council is a form of political and economic organization in which a single place of work or enterprise, such as a factory, school, or farm, is controlled collectively by the workers of that workplace, through the core principle of temporary and instantly revocable delegates.

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World

World is a common name for the whole of human civilization, specifically human experience, history, or the human condition in general, worldwide, i.e. anywhere on Earth or pertaining to anywhere on earth.

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World Bank

The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs.

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World Disarmament Conference

The Conference for the Reduction and Limitation of Armaments of 1932–1934 (sometimes World Disarmament Conference or Geneva Disarmament Conference) was an effort by member states of the League of Nations, together with the U.S. and the United Kingdom, to actualize the ideology of disarmament.

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World economy

The world economy or global economy is the economy of the world, considered as an international exchange of goods and services.

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World War I

World War I (WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war centered in Europe that began on 28 July 1914 and lasted until 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, though related conflicts began earlier.

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World War II casualties of the Soviet Union

World War II casualties of the Soviet Union from all related causes were over 20,000,000, both civilians and military, although the statistics vary to a great extent largely because these figures are currently disputed.

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Yale University

Yale University is a private Ivy League research university in New Haven, Connecticut.

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Yalta Conference

The Yalta Conference, sometimes called the Crimea Conference and codenamed the Argonaut Conference, held from February 4 to 11, 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union, represented by President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Premier Joseph Stalin, respectively, for the purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization.

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Yevgeniy Chazov

Yevgeniy Ivanovich Chazov (born 10 June 1929) (Евгений Иванович Чазов) is a prominent physician of the Soviet Union and Russia, specializing in cardiology, Chief of the Fourth Directorate of the Ministry of Health of the USSR, Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, a recipient of numerous awards and decorations, Soviet, Russian, and foreign.

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Yevgeny Zamyatin

Yevgeny Ivanovich Zamyatin (p; January 20 (Julian) / February 1 (Gregorian), 1884 – March 10, 1937) was a Russian author of science fiction and political satire.

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Yuri Andropov

Yuri Vladimirovich Andropov (p; – 9 February 1984) was a Soviet politician and the General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 12 November 1982 until his death fifteen months later.

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Yuri Gagarin

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Russian Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.

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Yury Trifonov

Yury Valentinovich Trifonov (Юрий Валентинович Трифонов; 28 August 1925 – 28 March 1981) was a leading representative of the so-called Soviet "Urban Prose".

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.su

.su was assigned as the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Soviet Union on 19 September 1990.

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1924 Soviet Constitution

The 1924 Soviet Constitution legitimated the December 1922 Treaty on the Creation of the USSR between the Russian SFSR, the Ukrainian SSR, the Belarusian SSR, and the Transcaucasian SFSR to form the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.

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1936 Soviet Constitution

The 1936 Soviet constitution, adopted on December 5, 1936, and also known as the Stalin constitution, redesigned the government of the Soviet Union.

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1965 Soviet economic reform

The 1965 Soviet economic reform, sometimes called the Kosygin reform or Liberman reform, were a set of planned changes in the economy of the Soviet Union (USSR).

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1977 Soviet Constitution

At the Seventh (Special) Session of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR Ninth Convocation on October 7, 1977, the third and last Soviet Constitution, also known as the Brezhnev Constitution, was unanimously adopted.

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1980s oil glut

The 1980s Oil Glut was a serious surplus of crude oil caused by falling demand following the 1970s Energy Crisis.

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1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt

The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Putsch or August Coup (Августовский путч Avgustovsky Putch), was a coup d'état attempt by a group of members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet president Mikhail Gorbachev.

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19th Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union

The Nineteenth Congress of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was held from 5 to 14 October 1952.

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All-Union, All-union, C C C P, C-C-C-P, C. C. C. P., C.-C.-C.-P., C.C.C.P., C.–C.–C.–P., CCCP, CCCP\, CPCP, Cccp, C–C–C–P, European USSR, Neuvostoliitto, PSRS, S.U. (country), SRSR, SSSR, SU (country), Soveit Union, Sovetskij Soyuz, Sovetskiy Soyuz, Soviet, Soviet union, Soviet-Union, SovietUnion, Sovietic Union, Soviets, Sovietsky Soyuz, Sovietunion, Soviet–Union, Sovjet, Sovyet Union, Sovyet-Union, Sowjetunion, Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, Soyuz Sovietskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik, TSRS, The C C C P, The C-C-C-P, The C. C. C. P., The C.-C.-C.-P., The C.C.C.P., The C.–C.–C.–P., The CCCP, The C–C–C–P, The Soviet, The Soviet Union, The Soviet-Union, The Soviets, The Soviet–Union, The U S S R, The U-S-S-R, The U. S. S. R., The U.-S.-S.-R., The U.S.S.R., The U.–S.–S.–R., The USSR, The Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R), The U–S–S–R, The union of Soviet Socialist Rebublics, U S S R, U-S-S-R, U. S. S. R., U.-S.-S.-R., U.S.S.R, U.S.S.R., U.–S.–S.–R., USSR, USSr, UdSSR, Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), Union of soviet socialist republics, United Soviet Socialist Rebublic, United Soviet Socialist Republics, United Soviets Socialist Rebublic, United soviet socialist republic, United soviets socialist republic, Ussr, U–S–S–R, СССР, Совет Социалистиг Республикаларның Эвилели, Совет Социалистик Республикалар Союзы, Совет Ушем, Советлар Союзы, Советскай Социалистическай Республикалар Союзтара, Советскай Союз, Советский Союз, Советской Социалистической Республикаослэн Союззы, Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, Союз Советских Социалистическая Республика, Союз Советских Социалистических Республик, სსრკ.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union

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