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Soviet crewed lunar programs

Index Soviet crewed lunar programs

The Soviet crewed lunar programs were a series of unsuccessful programs pursued by the Soviet Union to land a man on the Moon, in competition with the United States Apollo program to achieve the same goal set publicly by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961. [1]

62 relations: Alexey Leonov, Andriyan Nikolayev, Apollo 11, Apollo 8, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo Lunar Module, Apollo program, Blok D, Boris Volynov, Buran programme, Colonization of the Moon, First on the Moon, Glasnost, John F. Kennedy, Kosmos 379, Kosmos 382, Kosmos 398, Kosmos 434, Krechet-94, Kuznetsov Design Bureau, Leonid Brezhnev, LK (spacecraft), LK-1, LK-700, Lost Cosmonauts, Low Earth orbit, Lunar orbit rendezvous, Lunokhod programme, Mockumentary, Moon, Moon landing, N1 (rocket), Nikita Khrushchev, Outer space, Pavel Belyayev, Pavel Popovich, Proton (rocket family), Proton-K, Pyotr Klimuk, R-7 (rocket family), Saturn V, Sergei Korolev, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz 1, Soyuz 4, Soyuz 5, Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-LOK, ..., Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz-A, Space Race, The Times, TMK, Universal Rocket, Valery Bykovsky, Vladimir Chelomey, Vladimir Komarov, Yevgeny Khrunov, Yuri Gagarin, Zvezda (moonbase). Expand index (12 more) »

Alexey Leonov

Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.

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Andriyan Nikolayev

Andriyan Grigoryevich Nikolayev (Chuvash and Андриян Григорьевич Николаев; 5 September 1929 – 3 July 2004) was a Soviet cosmonaut.

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Apollo 11

Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.

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Apollo 8

Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.

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Apollo Command/Service Module

The Command/Service Module (CSM) was one of the two United States '''Apollo''' spacecraft, used for the Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972.

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Apollo Lunar Module

The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.

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Apollo program

The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.

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Blok D

Blok D (Блок Д meaning Block D) is an upper stage used on Soviet and later Russian expendable launch systems, including the N1, Proton-K and Zenit.

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Boris Volynov

Boris Valentinovich Volynov (Бори́с Валенти́нович Волы́нов; born 18 December 1934) is a Soviet cosmonaut who flew two space missions of the Soyuz programme: Soyuz 5, and Soyuz 21.

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Buran programme

The Buran programme (Бура́н,, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.

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Colonization of the Moon

The colonization of the Moon is a proposed establishment of permanent human communities or robotic industries on the Moon.

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First on the Moon

First on the Moon (Первые на Луне, Pervye na Lune) is a 2005 Russian mockumentary science fiction film about a fictional 1930s Soviet landing on the Moon.

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Glasnost

In the Russian language the word glasnost (гла́сность) has several general and specific meanings.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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Kosmos 379

Kosmos 379 (Космос 379 meaning "Cosmos 379") was a test of the LK (the Soviet counterpart of the Apollo Lunar Module).

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Kosmos 382

Kosmos 382 was a Soyuz 7K-L1E modification of a Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft and was successfully test launched into Low Earth Orbit on a Proton rocket designated as (Soyuz 7K-L1E No.2) on December 2, 1970.

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Kosmos 398

Kosmos 398 (Космос 398; meaning Cosmos 398) was the second unmanned test flight of the Soviet LK lander, using the T2K version.

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Kosmos 434

Kosmos 434 (Космос 434; meaning Cosmos 434) was the final unmanned test flight of the Soviet LK Lander.

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Krechet-94

The Krechet-94 (Russian Кречет, meaning gyrfalcon) is a space suit model developed for lunar excursion during the Soviet manned lunar program.

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Kuznetsov Design Bureau

The Kuznetsov Design Bureau (СНТК им., also known as OKB-276) is a Russian design bureau for aircraft engines, administrated in Soviet times by Nikolai Dmitriyevich Kuznetsov.

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Leonid Brezhnev

Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.

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LK (spacecraft)

The LK (ЛК, from Лунный корабль, "Lunniy korabl", meaning "Lunar craft"; GRAU index: 11F94) was a piloted lunar lander developed in the 1960s as a part of the Soviet attempts at human exploration of the Moon. Its role was analogous to the American Apollo Lunar Module (LM). Several LK articles were flown without crew in Earth orbit, but no LK ever reached the Moon. The development of the N1 launch vehicle required for the Moon flight suffered setbacks (including several launch failures), and the first Moon landings were achieved by US astronauts. As a result, both the N1 and the LK programs were cancelled without any further development.

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LK-1

LK-1 was a projected Soviet manned lunar flyby spacecraft.

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LK-700

LK-700 was a Soviet direct ascent lunar lander program proposed in 1964.

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Lost Cosmonauts

The Lost Cosmonauts or Phantom Cosmonauts are subjects of a conspiracy theory alleging that Soviet cosmonauts went to outer space before Yuri Gagarin, but their existence has never been publicly acknowledged by either the Soviet or Russian space authorities.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

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Lunar orbit rendezvous

Lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) is a key concept for efficiently landing humans on the Moon and returning them to Earth.

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Lunokhod programme

Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.

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Mockumentary

A mockumentary (a portmanteau of mock and documentary) or docucomedy is a type of movie or television show depicting fictional events but presented as a documentary.

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Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Moon landing

A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.

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N1 (rocket)

The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind.

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Nikita Khrushchev

Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Pavel Belyayev

Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev (Павел Иванович Беляев; 26 June 1925 – 10 January 1970), was a Soviet fighter pilot with extensive experience in piloting different types of aircraft.

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Pavel Popovich

Pavel Romanovich Popovich (Па́вел Рома́нович Попо́вич, Павло Романович Попович, Pavlo Romanovych Popovych) (October 5, 1930 – September 29, 2009) was a Soviet cosmonaut.

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Proton (rocket family)

Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.

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Proton-K

The Proton-K, also designated Proton 8K82K after its GRAU index, 8K82K, was a Russian, previously Soviet, carrier rocket derived from the earlier Proton.

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Pyotr Klimuk

Pyotr Ilyich Klimuk (Пётр Ільіч Кліму́к; Пётр Ильич Климу́к; born 10 July 1942) is a former Soviet cosmonaut and the first Belarusian to perform space travel.

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R-7 (rocket family)

The R-7 family of rockets (Р-7) is a series of rockets, derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka, the world's first ICBM.

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Saturn V

The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.

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Sergei Korolev

Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.

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Soviet space program

The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soyuz (spacecraft)

Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.

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Soyuz 1

Soyuz 1 (Союз 1, Union 1) was a manned spaceflight of the Soviet space program.

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Soyuz 4

Soyuz 4 (Союз 4, Союз 4, Union 4) was launched on 14 January 1969, carrying cosmonaut Vladimir Shatalov on his first flight.

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Soyuz 5

Soyuz 5 (Союз 5, Union 5) was a Soyuz mission using the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union on 15 January 1969, which docked with Soyuz 4 in orbit.

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Soyuz 7K-L1

The Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the Moon without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon race.

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Soyuz 7K-LOK

The Soyuz 7K-LOK, or simply LOK (translit meaning "Lunar Orbital Craft") was a Soviet manned spacecraft designed to launch men from Earth to orbit the Moon, developed in parallel to the 7K-L1.

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Soyuz 7K-OK

Soyuz 7K-OK was the first generation of Soyuz spacecraft in use from 1967 to 1971.

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Soyuz-A

Sergei Korolev initially promoted the Soyuz A-B-V circumlunar complex (7K-9K-11K) concept (also known as L1) in which a two-man craft Soyuz 7K would rendezvous with other components (9K and 11K) in Earth orbit to assemble a lunar excursion vehicle, the components being delivered by the proven R-7 rocket.

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Space Race

The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.

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The Times

The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.

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TMK

TMK (Тяжелый Межпланетный Корабль - Tyazhely Mezhplanetny Korabl or Heavy Interplanetary Spacecraft) was the designation of a Soviet space exploration project to send a manned flight to Mars and Venus (TMK-MAVR design) without landing.

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Universal Rocket

The Universal Rocket or UR family of missiles and carrier rockets is a Russian, previously Soviet rocket family.

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Valery Bykovsky

Valery Fyodorovich Bykovsky (Вале́рий Фёдорович Быко́вский; born 2 August 1934) is a retired Soviet cosmonaut who flew three manned space mission space flights: Vostok 5, Soyuz 22, and Soyuz 31.

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Vladimir Chelomey

Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Челоме́й; Ukrainian: Володимир Миколайович Челомей; 30 June 1914 – 8 December 1984) was a Soviet mechanics scientist, aviation and missile engineer.

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Vladimir Komarov

Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov (p; 16 March 192724 April 1967) was a Soviet test pilot, aerospace engineer and cosmonaut.

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Yevgeny Khrunov

Yevgeni Vassilyevich Khrunov (September 10, 1933 – May 20, 2000) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 5/Soyuz 4 mission.

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Yuri Gagarin

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.

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Zvezda (moonbase)

Zvezda moonbase (звезда, "star"), also called DLB Lunar Base was a Soviet plan and project from 1962 to 1974 to construct a crewed moonbase as successor to the N1-L3 crewed lunar expedition program.

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Redirects here:

N1-L3, N1/L3, Russian lunar manned spacecraft, Soviet Moon shot, Soviet Moonshot, Soviet crewed unar programs, Soviet manned lunar program, Soviet manned lunar programs, Soviet moonshot.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_crewed_lunar_programs

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