159 relations: Agaricus bisporus, Alanine, Allspice, Amazake, Anak Tomb No. 3, Antioxidant, Asian cuisine, Aspartic acid, Aspergillus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus sojae, Bagan, Baijiu, Bangka Island, Barley, Barrel, Bokkeum, Book of Wei, Brine, British English, Cajsa Warg, Calamondin, Canadian Cancer Society, Caramel color, Carcinogen, Cardiovascular disease, Cereal, Chūbu region, Chinese Indonesian cuisine, Citrus junos, Cognate, Condiment, Cuisine of Hawaii, Dejima, Dipping sauce, Doenjang, Dongyi, Douchi, Dutch East India Company, Edamame, Enzyme, Ethyl carbamate, Famine, Fermentation, Fermentation in food processing, Fish sauce, Fish stock (food), Food browning, Food Standards Agency, Fujian, ..., Genus, Glutamic acid, Gluten, Gluten-related disorders, Goguryeo, Goryeo–Khitan War, Goryeosa, Guangdong, Guk, Gyuhap chongseo, Hakka people, Han dynasty, Health Canada, History of salt, Hoklo people, Hybrid name, Hydrolysis, Indonesia, Indonesian cuisine, Isaac Titsingh, Isoflavones, Jakarta, Japan, Java, Jeju Island, Jeotgal, Jeungbo sallim gyeongje, Jin dynasty (265–420), Jjim, Jorim, Joseon, Kansai region, Kantō region, Ketchup, Korea, Korea under Japanese rule, Korean cuisine, Lactic acid fermentation, Lactobacillales, Languages of the Philippines, Leucine, List of Chinese sauces, List of condiments, List of fermented soy products, List of IARC Group 2A carcinogens, Maillard reaction, Mawangdui, Meju, Microorganism, Mie goreng, Ministry of Food and Drug Safety, Miso, Molasses, Mold, Monosodium glutamate, Mural, Namul, Nasi goreng, National University of Singapore, Nutmeg, Onggi, Palm sugar, Pasteurization, Philippine adobo, Preservative, Protease, Pyebaek, Qimin Yaoshu, Records of the Three Kingdoms, Red cooking, Red wine, Rice, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Salt, Salt substitute, Sambal, Samguk sagi, Samuel Wells Williams, Sashimi, Satay, Sauce, Semur (Indonesian stew), Sherry, Short-chain fatty acid, Sinmun of Silla, Song dynasty, Soup soy sauce, Soy protein, Soybean, Starch, Sushi, Suzhou, Sweet soy sauce, Tương, Thai cuisine, Three Kingdoms of Korea, Tofu, Tongseng, Umami, Vegetarian cuisine, Vinegar, Volvariella volvacea, Wa (Japan), Wheat, Worcestershire sauce, Zhou dynasty, 1,3-Dichloropropan-2-ol, 2007 Vietnam food scare, 3-MCPD. Expand index (109 more) » « Shrink index
Agaricus bisporus is an edible basidiomycete mushroom native to grasslands in Europe and North America.
Alanine (symbol Ala or A) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Allspice, also called pimenta, Jamaica pimenta, or myrtle pepper, is the dried unripe fruit (berries, used as a spice) of Pimenta dioica, a midcanopy tree native to the Greater Antilles, southern Mexico, and Central America, now cultivated in many warm parts of the world.
is a traditional sweet, low- or non-alcohol (depending on recipes) Japanese drink made from fermented rice.
Anak Tomb No.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Asian cuisine includes several major regional cuisines: East Asian, Southeast Asian, South Asian, Central Asian, and Middle Eastern/Western Asian.
Aspartic acid (symbol Asp or D; salts known as aspartates), is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
Aspergillus is a genus consisting of a few hundred mold species found in various climates worldwide.
Aspergillus oryzae, known in English as, is a filamentous fungus (a mold) used in Chinese and other East Asian cuisines to ferment soybeans for making soy sauce and fermented bean paste, and also to saccharify rice, other grains, and potatoes in the making of alcoholic beverages such as huangjiu, sake, makgeolli, and shōchū.
Aspergillus sojae is a fungus species in the genus Aspergillus.
Bagan (formerly Pagan) is an ancient city located in the Mandalay Region of Myanmar.
Baijiu, also known as shaojiu, is a category of at least a dozen Chinese liquors made from grain.
Bangka (or sometimes Banka) is an island lying east of Sumatra, administratively part of Sumatra, Indonesia, with a population of about 1 million.
Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.
A barrel, cask, or tun is a hollow cylindrical container, traditionally made of wooden staves bound by wooden or metal hoops.
Bokkeum is category of stir-fried dishes in Korean cuisine.
The Book of Wei, also known by its Chinese name as the Wei Shu, is a classic Chinese historical text compiled by Wei Shou from 551 to 554, and is an important text describing the history of the Northern Wei and Eastern Wei from 386 to 550.
Brine is a high-concentration solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Anna Christina Warg (23March 17035February 1769, Stockholm), better known as Cajsa (or Kajsa) Warg, was a Swedish cookbook author and one of the best-known cooks in Swedish history.
Calamondin (Citrus microcarpa, × Citrofortunella microcarpa or × Citrofortunella mitis) is an important citrofortunella, meaning that it is an intergeneric hybrid between a member of the genus Citrus (in this case probably the mandarin orange) and the kumquat, formerly considered as belonging to a separate genus Fortunella.
The Canadian Cancer Society (French: Société canadienne du cancer) is a national, community-based charitable organization of volunteers whose mission is to eradicate cancer and enhance the quality of life of those living with the disease.
Caramel color or caramel coloring is a water-soluble food coloring.
A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
The, Central region, or Central Japan (中部日本) is a region in the middle of Honshū, Japan's main island.
Chinese Indonesian cuisine (Masakan Tionghoa Indonesia) is characterized by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style.
Citrus junos or yuzu (from Japanese ユズ) (or more precisely, Citrus × junos) is a citrus fruit and plant in the family Rutaceae.
In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.
A condiment is a spice, sauce, or preparation that is added to food to impart a particular flavor, to enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish.
The cuisine of Hawaii incorporates five distinct styles of food reflecting the diverse food history of settlement and immigration in the Hawaiian Islands.
, in old Western documents Latinised as Deshima, Decima, Desjima, Dezima, Disma, or Disima, was a Dutch trading post notable for being the single place of direct trade and exchange between Japan and the outside world during the Edo period. It was a small fan-shaped artificial island formed by digging a canal through a small peninsula in the bay of Nagasaki in 1634 by local merchants. Dejima was built to constrain foreign traders. Originally built to house Portuguese traders, it was used by the Dutch as a trading post from 1641 until 1853. Covering an area of or, it was later integrated into the city through the process of land reclamation. In 1922, the "Dejima Dutch Trading Post" was designated a Japanese national historic site.
A dip or dipping sauce is a common condiment for many types of food.
Doenjang ("thick sauce") or soybean paste is a type of fermented bean paste made entirely of soybean and brine.
The Dongyi or Eastern Yi was a collective term, referring to ancient peoples who lived in eastern China during the prehistory of ancient China and in lands located in the Shandong peninsula and some other eastern parts of ancient China.
Douchi, or tochi is a type of fermented and salted black soybean.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
Edamame is a preparation of immature soybeans in the pod, found in cuisines with origins in East Asia.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Ethyl carbamate (also called urethane) is an organic compound with the formula CH3CH2OC(O)NH2.
A famine is a widespread scarcity of food, caused by several factors including war, inflation, crop failure, population imbalance, or government policies.
Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.
Fermentation in food processing is the process of converting carbohydrates to alcohol or organic acids using microorganisms—yeasts or bacteria—under anaerobic conditions.
Fish sauce is a condiment made from fish coated in salt and fermented from weeks to up to two years.
Fish stock forms the basis of many dishes, particularly fish soups and sauces.
Browning is the process of food turning brown due to the chemical reactions that take place within.
The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Fujian (pronounced), formerly romanised as Foken, Fouken, Fukien, and Hokkien, is a province on the southeast coast of mainland China.
A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
Gluten-related disorders is the umbrella term for all diseases triggered by gluten.
Goguryeo (37 BCE–668 CE), also called Goryeo was a Korean kingdom located in the northern and central parts of the Korean Peninsula and the southern and central parts of Manchuria.
The Goryeo–Khitan War was a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between Goryeo and the Khitan Liao dynasty near the present-day border between China and North Korea.
The Goryeosa or History of Goryeo is the principal surviving history of Korea's Goryeo Dynasty.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
Guk, also sometimes known as tang, is a class of soup-like dishes in Korean cuisine.
Gyuhap chongseo, roughly translated as "Women's Encyclopedia" is a compendium of advice for women, written by Yi Bingheogak in 1809 during the Korean Joseon Dynasty.
The Hakkas, sometimes Hakka Han, are Han Chinese people whose ancestral homes are chiefly in the Hakka-speaking provincial areas of Guangdong, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, Sichuan, Hunan, Zhejiang, Hainan and Guizhou.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
Health Canada (Santé Canada) is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for national public health.
Salt, also referred to as table salt or by its chemical formula NaCl, is an ionic compound made of sodium and chloride ions.
The Hoklo people are Han Chinese people whose traditional ancestral homes are in Fujian, South China.
In botanical nomenclature, a hybrid may be given a hybrid name, which is a special kind of botanical name, but there is no requirement that a hybrid name should be created for plants that are believed to be of hybrid origin.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
Indonesian cuisine is one of the most vibrant and colourful cuisines in the world, full of intense flavour.
Isaac Titsingh FRS (10 January 1745 in Amsterdam – 2 February 1812 in Paris) was a Dutch scholar, merchant-trader and ambassador.
Isoflavones are a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Java (Indonesian: Jawa; Javanese: ꦗꦮ; Sundanese) is an island of Indonesia.
Jeju Island (Hangul: 제주도, Jejudo; previously Cheju-do) is the largest island off the coast of the Korean Peninsula, and the main island of Jeju Province of South Korea.
Jeotgal or jeot, translated as salted seafood, is a category of salted fermented dishes made with seafood such as shrimps, oysters, clams, fish, and roes.
Jeungbo sallim gyeongje is a Korean book on agriculture compiled by Yu Jung-rim (柳重臨) as revised and enlarged from the Sallim gyeongje written by Hong Man-seon (洪萬選 1643∼1715).
The Jin dynasty or the Jin Empire (sometimes distinguished as the or) was a Chinese dynasty traditionally dated from 266 to 420.
Jjim (찜) is a Korean cuisine term referring to dishes made by steaming or boiling meat, chicken, fish, or shellfish which have been marinated in a sauce or soup.
Jorim is a simmered Korean dish, made by boiling vegetables, meat, fish, seafood, or tofu in seasoned broth until the liquid is absorbed into the ingredients and reduced down.
The Joseon dynasty (also transcribed as Chosŏn or Chosun, 조선; officially the Kingdom of Great Joseon, 대조선국) was a Korean dynastic kingdom that lasted for approximately five centuries.
The or the lies in the southern-central region of Japan's main island Honshū.
The is a geographical area of Honshu, the largest island of Japan.
Ketchup (also catsup) is a condiment.
Korea is a region in East Asia; since 1945 it has been divided into two distinctive sovereign states: North Korea and South Korea.
Korea under Japanese rule began with the end of the short-lived Korean Empire in 1910 and ended at the conclusion of World War II in 1945.
Korean cuisine has evolved through centuries of social and political change.
Lactic acid fermentation is a metabolic process by which glucose and other six-carbon sugars (also, disaccharides of six-carbon sugars, e.g. sucrose or lactose) are converted into cellular energy and the metabolite lactate, which is lactic acid in solution.
Lactobacillales or lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are an order of Gram-positive, low-GC, acid-tolerant, generally nonsporulating, nonrespiring, either rod- or coccus-shaped bacteria that share common metabolic and physiological characteristics. These bacteria, usually found in decomposing plants and milk products, produce lactic acid as the major metabolic end product of carbohydrate fermentation. This trait has, throughout history, linked LAB with food fermentations, as acidification inhibits the growth of spoilage agents. Proteinaceous bacteriocins are produced by several LAB strains and provide an additional hurdle for spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. The industrial importance of the LAB is further evidenced by their generally recognized as safe (GRAS) status, due to their ubiquitous appearance in food and their contribution to the healthy microflora of human mucosal surfaces. The genera that comprise the LAB are at its core Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Pediococcus, Lactococcus, and Streptococcus, as well as the more peripheral Aerococcus, Carnobacterium, Enterococcus, Oenococcus, Sporolactobacillus, Tetragenococcus, Vagococcus, and Weissella; these belong to the order Lactobacillales.
There are some 120 to 187 languages and dialects in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification.
Leucine (symbol Leu or L) is an essential amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.
This is a list of notable Chinese sauces, encompassing sauces that originated in China or are widely used in Chinese cuisine.
A condiment is a supplemental food, such as a sauce, that is added to some foods to impart a particular flavor, enhance its flavor, or in some cultures, to complement the dish.
This is a list of fermented soy products.
The agents in this list have been classified in Group 2A (probable carcinogens) by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
The Maillard reaction is a chemical reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars that gives browned food its distinctive flavor.
Mawangdui is an archaeological site located in Changsha, China.
Meju is a brick of dried fermented soybeans.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mie goreng (mie goreng or mi goreng; mee goreng or mi goreng; both meaning "fried noodles"), also known as bakmi goreng, is a flavourful and often spicy fried noodle dish common in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, and Singapore.
The Ministry of Food and Drug Safety (MFDS), formerly known as the Korea Food & Drug Administration (KFDA, 식품의약품안전청), is a South Korea government agency responsible for promoting the public health by ensuring the safety and efficiency of foods, pharmaceuticals, medical devices and cosmetics as well as supporting the development of the food and pharmaceutical industries.
is a traditional Japanese seasoning produced by fermenting soybeans with salt and koji (the fungus Aspergillus oryzae) and sometimes rice, barley, or other ingredients.
Molasses, or black treacle (British, for human consumption; known as molasses otherwise), is a viscous product resulting from refining sugarcane or sugar beets into sugar.
A mold or mould (is a fungus that grows in the form of multicellular filaments called hyphae.
Monosodium glutamate (MSG, also known as sodium glutamate) is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, one of the most abundant naturally occurring non-essential amino acids.
A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent surface.
Namul (나물) refers to either a variety of edible grass or leaves or seasoned herbal dishes made of them.
Nasi goreng, literally meaning "fried rice" in Indonesian, can refer simply to fried pre-cooked rice, a meal including stir fried rice in a small amount of cooking oil or margarine, typically spiced with kecap manis (sweet soy sauce), shallot, garlic, ground shrimp paste, tamarind and chilli and accompanied by other ingredients, particularly egg, chicken and prawns.
The National University of Singapore (NUS) is an autonomous research university in Singapore.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
Onggi is Korean earthenware, which is extensively used as tableware, as well as storage containers in Korea.
Palm sugar is a sweetener derived from any variety of palm tree.
Pasteurization or pasteurisation is a process in which packaged and non-packaged foods (such as milk and fruit juice) are treated with mild heat (Today, pasteurization is used widely in the dairy industry and other food processing industries to achieve food preservation and food safety. This process was named after the French scientist Louis Pasteur, whose research in the 1880s demonstrated that thermal processing would inactivate unwanted microorganisms in wine. Spoilage enzymes are also inactivated during pasteurization. Most liquid products are heat treated in a continuous system where heat can be applied using plate heat exchanger and/or direct or indirect use of steam and hot water. Due to the mild heat there are minor changes to the nutritional quality of foods as well as the sensory characteristics. Pascalization or high pressure processing (HPP) and Pulsed Electric Field (PEF) are non-thermal processes that are also used to pasteurize foods.
Philippine adobo (from Spanish adobar: "marinade," "sauce" or "seasoning") is a popular dish and cooking process in Philippine cuisine that involves meat, seafood, or vegetables marinated in vinegar, soy sauce, garlic, and black peppercorns, which is browned in oil, and simmered in the marinade.
A preservative is a substance or a chemical that is added to products such as food, beverages, pharmaceutical drugs, paints, biological samples, cosmetics, wood, and many other products to prevent decomposition by microbial growth or by undesirable chemical changes.
A protease (also called a peptidase or proteinase) is an enzyme that performs proteolysis: protein catabolism by hydrolysis of peptide bonds.
Pyebaek is a Korean wedding custom that is traditionally held a few days after the official ceremony, with only family members present.
The Qimin Yaoshu is the most completely preserved of the ancient Chinese agricultural texts, and was written by the Northern Wei Dynasty official Jia Sixie.
The Records of the Three Kingdoms is a Chinese historical text which covers the history of the late Eastern Han dynasty (c. 184–220 AD) and the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD).
Red cooking, also called Chinese stewing, red stewing, red braising and flavour potting, is a slow braising Chinese cooking technique that imparts a red colour to the prepared food.
Red wine is a type of wine made from dark-colored (black) grape varieties.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a species of yeast.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
Salt substitutes are low-sodium table salt alternatives marketed to circumvent the risk of high blood pressure and cardiovascular disease associated with a high intake of sodium chloride while maintaining a similar taste.
Sambal is a hot sauce or paste typically made from a mixture of a variety of chili peppers with secondary ingredients such as shrimp paste, fish sauce, garlic, ginger, shallot, scallion, palm sugar, lime juice, and rice vinegar or other vinegars.
Samguk sagi (삼국사기, 三國史記, History of the Three Kingdoms) is a historical record of the Three Kingdoms of Korea: Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla.
Samuel Wells Williams (衛三畏; 22 September 1812 - 16 February 1884) was a linguist, official, missionary and Sinologist from the United States in the early 19th century.
Sashimi (刺身) is a Japanese delicacy consisting of very fresh raw meat or fish sliced into thin pieces.
Satay, or sate in Indonesian spelling, is a dish of seasoned, skewered and grilled meat, served with a sauce.
In cooking a sauce is a liquid, cream, or semi-solid food served on or used in preparing other foods.
Semur is a type of meat stew (mainly beef), that is braised in thick brown gravy commonly found in Indonesian cuisine.
Sherry (Jerez or) is a fortified wine made from white grapes that are grown near the city of Jerez de la Frontera in Andalusia, Spain.
Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.
Sinmun of Silla (r. 681–692) was the thirty-first king of Silla, a Korean state that originated in the southwestern Korean peninsula and went on to unify most of the peninsula under its rule in the mid 7th century.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Guk-ganjang (국간장) or soup soy sauce is a type of Korean soy sauce (ganjang) made entirely of fermented soybean (meju) and brine.
Soy protein is a protein that is isolated from soybean.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
is a Japanese dish of specially prepared, usually with some sugar and salt, combined with a variety of, such as seafood, vegetables, and occasionally tropical fruits.
Suzhou (Wu Chinese), formerly romanized as Soochow, is a major city located in southeastern Jiangsu Province of East China, about northwest of Shanghai.
Sweet soy sauce (kecap manis) is a sweetened aromatic soy sauce, originating from Indonesia, which has a dark colour, a thick syrupy consistency and a unique, pronounced, sweet and somewhat molasses-like flavor due to the generous addition of palm sugar.
Tương is the name applied to a variety of condiments a kind of fermented bean paste made from soybean and commonly used in Vietnamese cuisine.
Thai cuisine (อาหารไทย) is the national cuisine of Thailand.
The concept of the Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje (백제), Silla (신라) and Goguryeo (고구려).
Tofu, also known as bean curd, is a food cultivated by coagulating soy milk and then pressing the resulting curds into soft white blocks.
Tongseng is goat meat, mutton or beef stew dish in curry-like soup with vegetables and kecap manis (sweet soy sauce).
Umami, or savory taste, is one of the five basic tastes (together with sweetness, sourness, bitterness, and saltiness).
Vegetarian cuisine is based on food that meets vegetarian standards by not including meat and animal tissue products (such as gelatin or animal-derived rennet).
Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water (H2O), and trace chemicals that may include flavorings.
Volvariella volvacea (also known as paddy straw mushroom or straw mushroom) is a species of edible mushroom cultivated throughout East and Southeast Asia and used extensively in Asian cuisines.
Japanese is the oldest recorded name of Japan.
Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.
Worcestershire sauce is a fermented liquid condiment of complex mixture originally created in England by the Worcester chemists John Wheeley Lea and William Henry Perrins, who went on to form the company Lea & Perrins.
The Zhou dynasty or the Zhou Kingdom was a Chinese dynasty that followed the Shang dynasty and preceded the Qin dynasty.
1,3-Dichloropropan-2-ol (1,3-DCP) is a chemical compound in the class of chloropropanols.
The 2007 Vietnam food scare was a food scandal which exposed contaminated food.
3-MCPD (3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol or 3-chloropropane-1,2-diol) is an organic chemical compound which is the most common member of chemical food contaminants known as chloropropanols.
Chiang-yu, Dark soy sauce, Ganjang, Japanese soy sauce, Jiang you, Jiàng yóu, Jiàngyóu, Kancang, Kanchang, Kanjang, Kecap, Kecap asin, Ketjap manis, Kicap manis, Korean soy sauce, Liquid aminos, Nama shoyu, See yau, Sho-yu, Shooyu, Shouyu, Shoyu, Shoyu sauce, Shô-yu, Shôyu, Shō-yu, Shōyu, Soy Sauce, Soy sauces, Soya sauce, Soysauce, Syooyu, Syouyu, Syoyu, Syôyu, Tamari sauce, Toyo at Kalamansi, Toyo at kalamansi, Toyo't Kalamansi, Toyo't kalamansi, Toyomansi, ซอสถั่วเหลือง, しょうゆ, 酱油, 醤油, 醬油, 간장.