111 relations: Almaz, Anthropometry, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, Astronaut, Atmospheric entry, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Carbon dioxide, Circumlunar trajectory, CSTS, Docking and berthing of spacecraft, Dragon 2, Earth, Energia (corporation), Expedition 25, Federation (spacecraft), Glass cockpit, Global Positioning System, GLONASS, Heat shield, History of spaceflight, Hohmann transfer orbit, Igla (spacecraft docking system), Intercontinental ballistic missile, International Cospas-Sarsat Programme, International Space Station, ISRO Orbital Vehicle, Kazakhstan, Kármán line, Kurs (docking navigation system), Launch escape system, Launch vehicle, List of Russian manned space missions, List of Soviet manned space missions, List of spaceflight-related accidents and incidents, Lithium hydroxide, Low Earth orbit, Micro-g environment, Military Soyuz, Mir, Orbital module, Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station, Payload fairing, Pistol, Potassium superoxide, Progress (spacecraft), Project Mercury, R-7 (rocket family), R-7A Semyorka, Radio, ..., Reentry capsule, Roscosmos, Salyut 1, Salyut programme, Sergei Korolev, Service module, Shenzhou (spacecraft), Sokol space suit, Solar panel, Soviet crewed lunar programs, Soviet space program, Soyuz (rocket family), Soyuz 1, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12, Soyuz 2, Soyuz 22, Soyuz 3, Soyuz 40, Soyuz 5, Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-LOK, Soyuz 7K-OK, Soyuz 7K-OKS, Soyuz 7K-ST No. 16L, Soyuz 7K-T, Soyuz 7K-T No.39, Soyuz 7K-TM, Soyuz MS, Soyuz MS-01, Soyuz P, Soyuz programme, Soyuz TM-31, Soyuz TM-5, Soyuz TMA-01M, Soyuz TMA-08M, Soyuz TMA-10, Soyuz TMA-11, Soyuz TMA-2, Soyuz-A, Soyuz-T, Soyuz-TM, Soyuz-TMA, Space Shuttle orbiter, Space station, Space suit, Spacecraft, Spacecraft propulsion, Spheroid, Springer Science+Business Media, TP-82, Vladimir Komarov, Voskhod (spacecraft), Voskhod Spacecraft "Globus" IMP navigation instrument, Vostok (rocket family), Vostok (spacecraft), Water, Zarya (spacecraft), Zond 4, Zond 8, Zond program. Expand index (61 more) » « Shrink index
The Almaz (Алмаз, "Diamond") program was a highly secretive Soviet military space station program, begun in the early 1960s.
Anthropometry (from Greek ἄνθρωπος anthropos, "human", and μέτρον metron, "measure") refers to the measurement of the human individual.
The Command/Service Module (CSM) was one of the two United States '''Apollo''' spacecraft, used for the Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972.
The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) (Экспериментальный полёт «Аполлон» - «Союз» (ЭПАС), Eksperimentalniy polyot Apollon-Soyuz, lit. "Experimental flight Apollo-Soyuz", commonly referred to by the Soviets as "Soyuz-Apollo"), conducted in July 1975, was the first joint U.S.–Soviet space flight, as a symbol of the policy of détente that the two superpowers were pursuing at the time.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
A circumlunar trajectory, trans-lunar trajectory or lunar free return is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon, and back to Earth using only gravity once the initial trajectory is set.
CSTS (Crew Space Transportation System) or ACTS (Advanced Crew Transportation System) is a human spaceflight system proposal.
Docking and berthing of spacecraft is the joining of two space vehicles.
Dragon 2 (also Crew Dragon, Dragon V2, or formerly DragonRider) is the second version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, which will be a human-rated vehicle.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im.), also known as RSC Energia (РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components.
Expedition 25 was the 25th long-duration mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
Federation (Федерация, Federatsiya), formerly called PPTS (Prospective Piloted Transport System, Перспективная Пилотируемая Транспортная Система, Perspektivnaya Pilotiruemaya Transportnaya Sistema) is a project by Roscosmos to develop a new-generation, partially reusable piloted spacecraft.
A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic (digital) flight instrument displays, typically large LCD screens, rather than the traditional style of analog dials and gauges.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
GLONASS (ГЛОНАСС,; Глобальная навигационная спутниковая система; transliteration), or "Global Navigation Satellite System", is a space-based satellite navigation system operating in the radionavigation-satellite service.
A heat shield is designed to shield a substance from absorbing excessive heat from an outside source by either dissipating, reflecting or simply absorbing the heat.
Spaceflight became part of human achievement in the 20th century following theoretical and practical breakthroughs by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Robert H. Goddard.
In orbital mechanics, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane.
The Igla (Игла, "Needle") docking system was a Soviet radio telemetry system for automated docking of Soyuz spacecraft.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The International Cospas-Sarsat Programme is a treaty-based, nonprofit, intergovernmental, humanitarian cooperative of 44 nations and agencies (see box on right) dedicated to detecting and locating radio beacons activated by persons, aircraft or vessels in distress, and forwarding this alert information to authorities that can take action for rescue.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The Indian manned spacecraft, temporarily named Orbital Vehicle, is intended to be the basis of the Indian human spaceflight program.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space.
Kurs (Ukrainian and translit) is a radio telemetry system used by the Soviet and later Russian space program.
A launch escape system (LES) or launch abort system (LAS) is a crew safety system connected to a space capsule, used to quickly separate the capsule from its launch vehicle rocket in case of a launch abort emergency, such as an impending explosion.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
This is a list of the manned space missions conducted by the Russian Federal Space Agency since 1992.
This is a list of the manned space missions conducted by the Soviet space programme.
This article lists verifiable spaceflight-related accidents and incidents resulting in fatality or near-fatality during flight or training for manned space missions, and testing, assembly, preparation or flight of manned and unmanned spacecraft.
Lithium hydroxide is an inorganic compound with the formula LiOH.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
The term micro-g environment (also µg, often referred to by the term microgravity) is more or less a synonym for weightlessness and zero-g, but indicates that g-forces are not quite zero—just very small.
The Soviet Union planned several military Soyuz spacecraft models.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
The orbital module is a portion of spacecraft used only in orbit.
The Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station is a proposed orbital space station intended for commercial clients.
A payload fairing is a nose cone used to protect a spacecraft (launch vehicle payload) against the impact of dynamic pressure and aerodynamic heating during launch through an atmosphere.
A pistol is a type of handgun.
Potassium superoxide is the inorganic compound with the formula.
The Progress (Прогресс) is a Russian expendable cargo spacecraft.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
The R-7 family of rockets (Р-7) is a series of rockets, derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka, the world's first ICBM.
The R-7A Semyorka, GRAU index 8K74, was an early Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile derived from the earlier R-7 Semyorka.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
A reentry capsule is the portion of a spacecraft which returns to Earth following a space flight.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Салют-1; English translation: Salute 1) was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971.
The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
A service module (or equipment module) is a spacecraft compartment containing a variety of support systems used for spacecraft operations.
2O4/MMH): || 10000 N || 2248 lbf ea |- | Delta V: || 380 m/s || 1,240 ft/s --> Shenzhou is a spacecraft developed and operated by China using Soyuz technology to support its manned spaceflight program. The name is variously translated as "Divine Craft", "Divine Vessel of God", "Magic Boat" or similar and is also homophonous with an ancient name for China (written 神州; meaning "Divine State"). Its design resembles the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, but it is larger in size. The first launch was on November 19, 1999 and the first manned launch was on October 15, 2003. In March 2005, an asteroid was named 8256 Shenzhou in honour of the spacecraft.
The Sokol space suit, also known as the Sokol IVA suit or simply the Sokol (Cокол, Falcon), is a type of Russian space suit, worn by all who fly on the Soyuz spacecraft.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
The Soviet crewed lunar programs were a series of unsuccessful programs pursued by the Soviet Union to land a man on the Moon, in competition with the United States Apollo program to achieve the same goal set publicly by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
Soyuz (Союз, meaning "union", GRAU index 11A511) is a family of expendable launch systems developed by OKB-1 and manufactured by Progress Rocket Space Centre in Samara, Russia.
Soyuz 1 (Союз 1, Union 1) was a manned spaceflight of the Soviet space program.
Soyuz 11 (Союз 11, Union 11) was the only manned mission to board the world's first space station, Salyut 1 (Soyuz 10 had soft-docked but had not been able to enter due to latching problems).
Soyuz 12 (Союз 12, Union 12) was a 1973 manned test flight by the Soviet Union of the newly redesigned Soyuz 7K-T spacecraft that was intended to provide greater crew safety in the wake of the Soyuz 11 tragedy.
Soyuz 2 (Союз 2, Union 2) was an uncrewed spacecraft in the Soyuz family intended to be the target of a docking maneuver by the manned Soyuz 3 spacecraft.
Soyuz 22 (Союз 22, Union 22) was a 1976 Soviet manned spaceflight.
Soyuz 3 ("Union 3", Союз 3) was a spaceflight mission launched by the Soviet Union on 26 October 1968.
The Soyuz 40 mission was a 1981 Soviet manned spaceflight and the final flight of the Soyuz 7K-T spacecraft.
Soyuz 5 (Союз 5, Union 5) was a Soyuz mission using the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union on 15 January 1969, which docked with Soyuz 4 in orbit.
The Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the Moon without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon race.
The Soyuz 7K-LOK, or simply LOK (translit meaning "Lunar Orbital Craft") was a Soviet manned spacecraft designed to launch men from Earth to orbit the Moon, developed in parallel to the 7K-L1.
Soyuz 7K-OK was the first generation of Soyuz spacecraft in use from 1967 to 1971.
Soyuz 7K-OKS (also known as Soyuz 7KT-OK) is a version of the Soyuz spacecraft and was the first spacecraft designed for space station flights.
Soyuz 7K-ST No.16L, sometimes known as Soyuz T-10a or T-10-1, was an unsuccessful Soyuz mission intended to visit the Salyut 7 space station, which was occupied by the Soyuz T-9 crew.
The second generation of the Soyuz spacecraft, the Soyuz Ferry or Soyuz 7K-T, comprised Soyuz 12 through Soyuz 40 (1973-1981).
Soyuz 7K-T No.39, (also named Soyuz 18a or Soyuz 18-1 by some sources and also known as the April 5 Anomaly) was an unsuccessful launch of a manned Soyuz spacecraft by the Soviet Union in 1975.
The 1975 Apollo–Soyuz Test Project version of the Soyuz spacecraft (Soyuz 7K-TM) served as a technological bridge to the third generation Soyuz-T (T - транспортный, Transportnyi meaning transport) spacecraft (1976–1986).
The Soyuz-MS (GRAU: 11F732A48) is the latest revision of the Soyuz spacecraft.
Soyuz MS-01 was a 2016 Soyuz spaceflight to the International Space Station.
Soyuz P (Союз Перехватчик meaning Union Interceptor) was a proposed Soviet manned combat spacecraft and satellite interceptor.
The Soyuz programme (Союз, meaning "Union") is a human spaceflight programme that was initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon.
Soyuz TM-31 was the first Soyuz spacecraft to dock with the International Space Station (ISS).
Soyuz TM-5 was the fifth cosmonaut-carrying spacecraft to visit the Russian Space Station Mir.
Soyuz TMA-01M was a Soyuz flight that transported three members of the Expedition 25 crew to the International Space Station.
Soyuz TMA-08M (Союз ТМА-08M meaning Union TMA-08M), identified as Soyuz 34 or 34S by NASA, was a 2013 flight to the International Space Station.
Soyuz TMA-10 was a human spaceflight mission using a Soyuz-TMA spacecraft to transport personnel to and from the International Space Station (ISS).
Soyuz TMA-11 was a human spaceflight mission using a Soyuz-TMA spacecraft to transport personnel to and from the International Space Station (ISS).
Soyuz TMA-2 was a Soyuz (Russian Союз ТМА-2, Union TMA-2) mission to the International Space Station (ISS) launched by a Soyuz FG launch vehicle.
Sergei Korolev initially promoted the Soyuz A-B-V circumlunar complex (7K-9K-11K) concept (also known as L1) in which a two-man craft Soyuz 7K would rendezvous with other components (9K and 11K) in Earth orbit to assemble a lunar excursion vehicle, the components being delivered by the proven R-7 rocket.
The Soyuz-T (Союз-T, Union-T) spacecraft was the third generation Soyuz spacecraft, in service for seven years from 1979 to 1986.
The Soyuz-TM crew transports (T - транспортный - Transportnyi - meaning transport, M - модифицированный - Modifitsirovannyi - meaning modified) were fourth generation (1986–2002) Soyuz spacecraft used for ferry flights to the Mir and ISS space stations.
The Soyuz-TMA is a revision of the Soyuz spacecraft, superseded in 2010 by the Soyuz TMA-M. (T – транспортный – Transportnyi – meaning transport, M – модифицированный – Modifitsirovannyi – meaning modified, A – антропометрический, – Antropometricheskii meaning anthropometric).
The Space Shuttle orbiter was the spaceplane component of the Space Shuttle, a partially reusable orbital spacecraft system that was part of the Space Shuttle program.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The TP-82 (ТП-82) was a triple-barrelled Soviet pistol that was carried by cosmonauts on space missions.
Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov (p; 16 March 192724 April 1967) was a Soviet test pilot, aerospace engineer and cosmonaut.
The Voskhod ("Sunrise") was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight as part of the Voskhod programme.
Globus IMP instruments were spacecraft navigation instruments used in Soviet and Russian manned spacecraft.
Vostok (Russian: Восток, translated as "East") was a family of rockets derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka ICBM designed for the human spaceflight programme.
The Vostok (Восток, translated as "East") was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The Zarya spacecraft was a secret Soviet project of the late 1980s aiming to design and build a large manned vertical-takeoff, vertical-landing (VTVL) reusable space capsule, a much larger replacement for the Soyuz (spacecraft).
Zond 4, part of the Soviet Zond program and an unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was one of the first Soviet experiments towards manned circumlunar spaceflight.
Zond 8, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched from an Earth orbiting platform, Tyazheliy Sputnik, towards the Moon.
Zond (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970.