41 relations: Alexey Leonov, Apollo 8, Astronaut, Boost-glide, Cosmic ray, Cosmos 154, Earth, Energia (corporation), Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Information display systems, Kosmos (satellite), Kosmos 146, Kosmos 382, List of cosmonauts, Low Earth orbit, Magnetic field, Micrometeoroid, Moon, Moon landing, N1 (rocket), Nikita Khrushchev, Nikolai Kamanin, Proton (rocket family), Sergei Korolev, Solar wind, Soviet crewed lunar programs, Soviet space program, Soyuz 7K-L1 No.4L, Soyuz 7K-L1 No.5L, Soyuz 7K-LOK, Soyuz 7K-OK, Ural Mountains, Valery Bykovsky, Vasily Mishin, Vladimir Chelomey, Zond 4, Zond 5, Zond 6, Zond 7, Zond 8, Zond program.
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.
Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Boost-glide trajectories are a class of spacecraft guidance and reentry trajectories that extend the range of suborbital spaceplanes and reentry vehicles by employing aerodynamic lift in the high upper atmosphere.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
'''Cosmos 154''' (or Космос 154 in Russian) was a Soviet test spacecraft launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Proton-K rocket.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im.), also known as RSC Energia (РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
"Information display systems" (IDS) is the general designation for the control panels and displays of Russian (and previous Soviet) spacecraft.
Kosmos (Ко́смос,, Cosmos) is a designation given to a large number of satellites operated by the Soviet Union and subsequently Russia.
Kosmos 146 was a Soviet test satellite precursor to the Zond series, launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome aboard a Proton K rocket.
Kosmos 382 was a Soyuz 7K-L1E modification of a Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft and was successfully test launched into Low Earth Orbit on a Proton rocket designated as (Soyuz 7K-L1E No.2) on December 2, 1970.
This is a list of cosmonauts who have taken part in the missions of the Soviet space program and the Russian Federal Space Agency, including ethnic Russians and people of other ethnicities.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
A micrometeoroid is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing less than a gram.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.
The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
Nikolai Petrovich Kamanin (Никола́й Петро́вич Кама́нин) (18 October 1908 - 11 March 1982) was a Soviet aviator, awarded the title of Hero of the Soviet Union in 1934 for the rescue of SS Chelyuskin crew from an improvised airfield on the frozen surface of the Chukchi Sea near Kolyuchin Island.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
The Soviet crewed lunar programs were a series of unsuccessful programs pursued by the Soviet Union to land a man on the Moon, in competition with the United States Apollo program to achieve the same goal set publicly by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
Soyuz 7K-L1 No.4L, sometimes identified by NASA as Zond 1967A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1967 as part of the Zond programme.
Soyuz 7K-L1 No.5L, sometimes identified by NASA as Zond 1967B, was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1967 as part of the Zond programme.
The Soyuz 7K-LOK, or simply LOK (translit meaning "Lunar Orbital Craft") was a Soviet manned spacecraft designed to launch men from Earth to orbit the Moon, developed in parallel to the 7K-L1.
Soyuz 7K-OK was the first generation of Soyuz spacecraft in use from 1967 to 1971.
The Ural Mountains (p), or simply the Urals, are a mountain range that runs approximately from north to south through western Russia, from the coast of the Arctic Ocean to the Ural River and northwestern Kazakhstan.
Valery Fyodorovich Bykovsky (Вале́рий Фёдорович Быко́вский; born 2 August 1934) is a retired Soviet cosmonaut who flew three manned space mission space flights: Vostok 5, Soyuz 22, and Soyuz 31.
Vasily Pavlovich Mishin (Василий Павлович Мишин) (January 18, 1917 – October 10, 2001) was a Soviet engineer and a prominent rocketry pioneer, best remembered for the failures in the Soviet Space program that took place under his leadership.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Челоме́й; Ukrainian: Володимир Миколайович Челомей; 30 June 1914 – 8 December 1984) was a Soviet mechanics scientist, aviation and missile engineer.
Zond 4, part of the Soviet Zond program and an unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was one of the first Soviet experiments towards manned circumlunar spaceflight.
Zond 5, a member of the Soviet Zond program, was an unmanned spacecraft that in September 1968 became the second ship to travel to and circle the Moon, and the first to return safely to Earth.
Zond 6, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched on a lunar flyby mission from a parent satellite (68-101B) in Earth parking orbit.
Zond 7, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, the first truly successful test of L1, was launched towards the Moon from a mother spacecraft (69-067B) on a mission of further studies of the Moon and circumlunar space, to obtain color photography of Earth and the Moon from varying distances, and to flight test the spacecraft systems.
Zond 8, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched from an Earth orbiting platform, Tyazheliy Sputnik, towards the Moon.
Zond (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970.