343 relations: Aerospace engineering, Agena target vehicle, Aggregat (rocket family), Alan Shepard, Alexey Leonov, Almaz, Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo 1, Apollo 10, Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 13, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16, Apollo 17, Apollo 4, Apollo 5, Apollo 6, Apollo 7, Apollo 8, Apollo 8 Genesis reading, Apollo 9, Apollo Applications Program, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo Lunar Module, Apollo program, Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, Apsis, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Artillery, Asphyxia, Assassination of John F. Kennedy, Astronaut, Atlas LV-3B, Atlas-Agena, Attitude control, Baikonur Cosmodrome, Ballistic missile, Bay of Pigs Invasion, Book of Genesis, Buran programme, Buzz Aldrin, Cambridge University Press, Cannon, Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Charles Lindbergh, Circumlunar trajectory, Classified information, Cold War, ..., Cold War playground equipment, Common heritage of mankind, Communications satellite, Comparison of Asian national space programs, Computer memory, Coordinated Universal Time, Cosmonautics Day, Council of Ministers of the Soviet Union, David E. Bell, Détente, Deke Slayton, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Doubleday (publisher), Dwight D. Eisenhower, Eastern Bloc, Eastern Time Zone, Ebury Publishing, Ed White (astronaut), Energia (corporation), Explorer 1, Extravehicular activity, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Fort Bliss, Frank Borman, Gagarin's Start, Geiger–Müller tube, Gemini 11, Gemini 12, Gemini 3, Gemini 5, Gemini 6A, Gemini 7, Gemini 8, Georgy Beregovoy, Georgy Dobrovolsky, Gherman Titov, Gordon Cooper, Gorodomlya Island, Government spin-off, Great Purge, Gulf of Guinea, Gus Grissom, Helmut Gröttrup, Hermann Oberth, History of spaceflight, Human spaceflight, Huntsville, Alabama, Intercontinental ballistic missile, International Astronautical Federation, International Geophysical Year, International Space Station, James Hagerty, James Van Allen, Jerome Wiesner, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Jim Lovell, John F. Kennedy, John Glenn, John Young (astronaut), Johnson Space Center, Joseph Stalin, Juno I, Jupiter-C, Karl Heinrich Emil Becker, Kármán line, Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39, Kerim Kerimov, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Kummersdorf, Lake Seliger, Leonid Brezhnev, Leonid I. Sedov, Liquid-propellant rocket, List of spaceflight records, Lists of space exploration milestones, 1957–1969, Little, Brown and Company, LK (spacecraft), Low Earth orbit, Luna 1, Luna 2, Luna 3, Luna E-1 No.1, Luna programme, Lunar Roving Vehicle, Lyndon B. Johnson, Man in Space Soonest, Mare Tranquillitatis, Mars, Mars race, Marshall Space Flight Center, McCarthyism, Mercury Seven, Mercury-Atlas 6, Mercury-Atlas 7, Mercury-Atlas 8, Mercury-Atlas 9, Mercury-Redstone 3, Mercury-Redstone 4, Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, Michael Collins (astronaut), Mir, Moon, Moon landing, Moon Shot, Moscow Victory Parade of 1945, N1 (rocket), NASA, NASA Distinguished Service Medal, National Academy of Sciences, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, National Aeronautics and Space Act, National Air and Space Museum, National Geographic Society, National Space Council, Nazi Germany, Neil Armstrong, New Mexico, New York City, New York Herald Tribune, Nikita Khrushchev, NPO Mashinostroyeniya, Nuclear arms race, Nuclear weapon, Ogg, Operation Osoaviakhim, Operation Paperclip, Orbital station-keeping, Orientation (geometry), Outer space, Outer Space Treaty, Party leaders of the United States Senate, Pavel Belyayev, Peenemünde, Penguin Books, Perm, Pete Conrad, PGM-11 Redstone, Plug door, Pravda, Premier of the Soviet Union, President of the United States, Progress (spacecraft), Project Gemini, Project Mercury, Proton (rocket family), R-1 (missile), R-7 (rocket family), R-7 Semyorka, Radar, Random House, Ranger 1, Ranger 2, Ranger 3, Ranger 4, Ranger 5, Ranger 7, Ranger program, Redstone Arsenal, Research and development, Retrorocket, Reverse engineering, Rice University, Richard Nixon, Robert H. Goddard, Rocket, Roger B. Chaffee, RTV-A-2 Hiroc, Russia, Russian Academy of Sciences, S-IVB, Salyut 1, Salyut programme, Samuel C. Phillips, Satellite, Satellite state, Saturn (rocket family), Saturn IB, Saturn V, Sergei Korolev, Shirt-sleeve environment, Shortwave radio, Shuttle–Mir Program, Signal Corps (United States Army), Simon & Schuster, Skylab, Skylab 4, SM-65 Atlas, Smithsonian Institution, Solar panel, Solar panels on spacecraft, Solid-propellant rocket, Soviet air show, Soviet crewed lunar programs, Soviet occupation zone, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz 1, Soyuz 10, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 16, Soyuz 2, Soyuz 3, Soyuz 4, Soyuz 5, Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-L1 No.4L, Soyuz 7K-L1 No.5L, Soyuz 7K-LOK, Space advocacy, Space capsule, Space exploration, Space policy, Space probe, Space propaganda, Space rendezvous, Space Shuttle, Space station, Space Transportation System, Spaceflight, Spiro Agnew, Springer Science+Business Media, Sputnik 1, Sputnik 3, State Duma, Strategic Air Command, Strategic bomber, Sub-orbital spaceflight, The New York Times, Thermonuclear weapon, Thermosphere, Thomas P. Stafford, Ticker tape parade, Timeline of Solar System exploration, Timeline of space exploration, Timeline of the Space Race, Toronto Star, Torstar, Tortoise, Trans-Earth injection, Trans-lunar injection, Treaty of Versailles, Turkey, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, United Nations General Assembly, United States, United States Air Force, United States Marine Corps, United States Naval Research Laboratory, United States Navy, Universal Newsreel, University of Iowa, University Press of Florida, V-2 rocket, Valentina Tereshkova, Van Allen radiation belt, Vanguard (rocket), Vanguard TV3, Venus, Viking Press, Viktor Patsayev, Vladimir Chelomey, Vladimir Komarov, Vladislav Volkov, Voskhod 1, Voskhod 2, Vostok 1, Vostok 2, Vostok 3, Vostok 4, Vostok 5, Vostok 6, WAC Corporal, Wally Schirra, Walter Dornberger, Warhead, We choose to go to the Moon, Weapon of mass destruction, Weather satellite, Weimar Republic, Wernher von Braun, Western world, White Sands Missile Range, William Anders, Witch-hunt, Woods Hole Conference, Yelizovo, Yuri Gagarin, Zond 4, Zond 5, Zond 6. Expand index (293 more) » « Shrink index
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft.
The Agena Target Vehicle (ATV), also known as Gemini-Agena Target Vehicle (GATV) was an unmanned spacecraft used by NASA during its Gemini program to develop and practice orbital space rendezvous and docking techniques, and to perform large orbital changes, in preparation for the Apollo program lunar missions.
The Aggregat series (German for "Aggregate') was a set of ballistic missile designs developed in 1933–45 by a research program of Nazi Germany's army (Wehrmacht).
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.
The Almaz (Алмаз, "Diamond") program was a highly secretive Soviet military space station program, begun in the early 1960s.
The Apollo spacecraft was composed of three parts designed to accomplish the American Apollo program's goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning them safely to Earth.
Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first manned mission of the United States Apollo program, the program to land the first men on the Moon.
Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, and the second (after Apollo 8) to orbit the Moon.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.
Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon.
Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon.
Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the United States' Apollo program, the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission.
Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, the fifth and penultimate to land on the Moon and the first to land in the lunar highlands.
Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program.
Apollo 4, (also known as AS-501), was the first unmanned test flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle, which was used by the U.S. Apollo program to send the first astronauts to the Moon.
Apollo 5 (also known as AS-204), was the first unmanned flight of the Apollo Lunar Module (LM), which would later carry astronauts to the lunar surface.
Apollo 6 (also known as AS-502), launched on April 4, 1968, was the second A type mission of the United States Apollo program, an unmanned test of the Saturn V launch vehicle.
Apollo 7 was an October 1968 human spaceflight mission carried out by the United States.
Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.
On December 24, 1968, in what was the most watched television broadcast at the time, the crew of Apollo 8 read in turn from the Book of Genesis as they orbited the Moon.
Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the United States Apollo space program and the first flight of the Command/Service Module (CSM) with the Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "lem").
The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science-based manned space missions using hardware developed for the Apollo program.
The Command/Service Module (CSM) was one of the two United States '''Apollo''' spacecraft, used for the Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972.
The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) (Экспериментальный полёт «Аполлон» - «Союз» (ЭПАС), Eksperimentalniy polyot Apollon-Soyuz, lit. "Experimental flight Apollo-Soyuz", commonly referred to by the Soviets as "Soyuz-Apollo"), conducted in July 1975, was the first joint U.S.–Soviet space flight, as a symbol of the policy of détente that the two superpowers were pursuing at the time.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Asphyxia or asphyxiation is a condition of severely deficient supply of oxygen to the body that arises from abnormal breathing.
John F. Kennedy, the 35th President of the United States, was assassinated on Friday, November 22, 1963, at 12:30 p.m. in Dallas, Texas, while riding in a presidential motorcade through Dealey Plaza.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
The Atlas LV-3B, Atlas D Mercury Launch Vehicle or Mercury-Atlas Launch Vehicle, was a human-rated expendable launch system used as part of the United States Project Mercury to send astronauts into low Earth orbit.
The Atlas-Agena was an American expendable launch system derived from the SM-65 Atlas missile.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
The Bay of Pigs Invasion (Spanish: Invasión de Playa Girón or Invasión de Bahía de Cochinos or Batalla de Girón) was a failed military invasion of Cuba undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)-sponsored paramilitary group Brigade 2506 on 17 April 1961.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Buran programme (Бура́н,, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.
Buzz Aldrin (born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr.; January 20, 1930) is an American engineer, former astronaut, and Command Pilot in the United States Air Force.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) (known as Cape Kennedy Air Force Station from 1963 to 1973) is an installation of the United States Air Force Space Command's 45th Space Wing.
Charles Augustus Lindbergh (February 4, 1902 – August 26, 1974), nicknamed Lucky Lindy, The Lone Eagle, and Slim was an American aviator, military officer, author, inventor, explorer, and environmental activist.
A circumlunar trajectory, trans-lunar trajectory or lunar free return is a type of free return trajectory which takes a spacecraft from Earth, around the far side of the Moon, and back to Earth using only gravity once the initial trajectory is set.
Classified information is material that a government body deems to be sensitive information that must be protected.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Cold War playground equipment was intended to foster children's curiosity and excitement about the Space Race.
Common heritage of mankind (also termed the common heritage of humanity, common heritage of humankind or common heritage principle) is a principle of international law which holds that defined territorial areas and elements of humanity's common heritage (cultural and natural) should be held in trust for future generations and be protected from exploitation by individual nation states or corporations.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
Several Asian countries have space programs and are actively competing to achieve scientific and technological advancements in space, a situation sometimes referred to as the Asian space race in the popular media as a reference to the earlier Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.
In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".
Cosmonautics Day (День Космона́втики, Den Kosmonavtiki) is an anniversary celebrated in Russia and some other former USSR countries on 12 April.
The Council of Ministers of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (p; sometimes abbreviated to Sovmin or referred to as the Soviet of Ministers), was the de jure government comprising the highest executive and administrative body of the Soviet Union from 1946 until 1991.
David Elliott Bell (January 19, 1919 – September 6, 2000) was a director of the United States' Office of Management and Budget from January 22, 1961 until December 20, 1962 under President John F. Kennedy.
Détente (meaning "relaxation") is the easing of strained relations, especially in a political situation.
Donald Kent "Deke" Slayton (March 1, 1924 – June 13, 1993), (Major, USAF) was an American World War II pilot, aeronautical engineer, test pilot who was selected as one of the original NASA Mercury Seven astronauts, and became NASA's first Chief of the Astronaut Office.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
Dwight David "Ike" Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969) was an American army general and statesman who served as the 34th President of the United States from 1953 to 1961.
The Eastern Bloc was the group of socialist states of Central and Eastern Europe, generally the Soviet Union and the countries of the Warsaw Pact.
The Eastern Time Zone (ET) is a time zone encompassing 17 U.S. states in the eastern part of the contiguous United States, parts of eastern Canada, the state of Quintana Roo in Mexico, Panama in Central America, and the Caribbean Islands.
Ebury Publishing is a division of Penguin Random House, and is a well-known publisher of general non-fiction books in the UK.
Edward Higgins White II (November 14, 1930 – January 27, 1967), (Lt Col, USAF), was an American aeronautical engineer, U.S. Air Force officer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut.
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im.), also known as RSC Energia (РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.
Fort Bliss is a United States Army post in the U.S. states of New Mexico and Texas, with its headquarters located in El Paso, Texas.
Frank Frederick Borman II (born March 14, 1928), (Col, USAF, Ret.), is a retired United States Air Force pilot, aeronautical engineer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut, best remembered as the Commander of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon, making him, along with crew mates Jim Lovell and Bill Anders, the first of only 24 humans to do so.
Gagarin's Start (Гагаринский старт, Gagarinskiy start) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos State Corporation.
The Geiger–Müller tube or G–M tube is the sensing element of the Geiger counter instrument used for the detection of ionizing radiation.
Gemini 11 (officially Gemini XI) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
Gemini 12 (officially Gemini XII) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
Gemini 3 was the first manned mission in NASA's Gemini program, the second American manned space program.
Gemini 5 (officially Gemini V) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
Gemini 6A (officially Gemini VI-A) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
Gemini 7 (officially Gemini VII) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
Gemini 8 (officially Gemini VIII) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
Georgy Timofeyevich Beregovoy (Гео́ргий Тимофе́евич Берегово́й, Гео́ргій Тимофі́йович Берегови́й; April 15, 1921 – June 30, 1995) was a Soviet cosmonaut who commanded the space mission Soyuz 3 in 1968.
Georgiy Timofeyevich Dobrovolsky (Гео́ргий Тимофе́евич Доброво́льский; June 1, 1928June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut who served on the three-man crew of the Soyuz 11 spacecraft.
Gherman Stepanovich Titov (Герман Степанович Титов; 11 September 1935 – 20 September 2000) was a Soviet cosmonaut who, on 6 August 1961, became the second human to orbit the Earth, aboard Vostok 2, preceded by Yuri Gagarin on Vostok 1.
Leroy Gordon "Gordo" Cooper Jr. (March 6, 1927 – October 4, 2004), (Col, USAF), was an American aerospace engineer, test pilot, United States Air Force pilot, and the youngest of the seven original astronauts in Project Mercury, the first manned space program of the United States.
Gorodomlya Island (остров Городомля) is located on Lake Seliger in Tver Oblast, Russia, northwest of Moscow.
Government spin-off is civilian goods which are the collateral result of military or governmental research.
The Great Purge or the Great Terror (Большо́й терро́р) was a campaign of political repression in the Soviet Union which occurred from 1936 to 1938.
The Gulf of Guinea is the northeasternmost part of the tropical Atlantic Ocean between Cape Lopez in Gabon, north and west to Cape Palmas in Liberia.
Lieutenant Colonel Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was one of the original NASA Project Mercury astronauts, a United States Air Force test pilot, and a mechanical engineer.
Helmut Gröttrup (12 February 1916 – 5 July 1981) was a German engineer and rocket scientist.
Hermann Julius Oberth (25 June 1894 – 28 December 1989) was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer.
Spaceflight became part of human achievement in the 20th century following theoretical and practical breakthroughs by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky and Robert H. Goddard.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The International Astronautical Federation (IAF) (Fédération internationale d'astronautique) is an international space advocacy organisation based in Paris, and founded in 1951 as a non-governmental organization to establish a dialogue between scientists around the world and to lay the information for international space cooperation.
The International Geophysical Year (IGY; Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
James Campbell Hagerty (May 9, 1909April 11, 1981) served as the White House Press Secretary from 1953 to 1961 during the administration of Dwight D. Eisenhower.
James Alfred Van Allen (September 7, 1914August 9, 2006) was an American space scientist at the University of Iowa.
Jerome Bert Wiesner (May 30, 1915 – October 21, 1994) was a professor of electrical engineering, chosen by President John F. Kennedy as chairman of his Science Advisory Committee (PSAC).
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
James Arthur Lovell Jr. (born March 25, 1928) is a former NASA astronaut, Naval Aviator, and retired Navy captain.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Colonel John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio.
John Watts Young (September 24, 1930 – January 5, 2018) was an American astronaut, naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and aeronautical engineer.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
The Juno I was a four-stage American booster rocket which launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958.
The Jupiter-C was an American research and development vehicle developed from the Jupiter-A. Jupiter-C was used for three sub-orbital spaceflights in 1956 and 1957 to test re-entry nosecones that were later to be deployed on the more advanced PGM-19 Jupiter mobile missile.
Karl Heinrich Emil Becker (14 September 1879 in Speyer – 8 April 1940 in Berlin) was a German weapons engineer and artillery general.
The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space.
The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers.
Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, United States.
Lieutenant-General Kerim Aliyevich Kerimov (Kərim Əli oğlu Kərimov, Керим Алиевич Керимов; November 14, 1917–March 29, 2003) was a Soviet engineer of Azerbaijani ethnicity, who is regarded as one of many scientists and founders in the Soviet Union's space program, and for many years a central figure in the Soviet space program.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.
Kummersdorf is the name of an estate near Luckenwalde, around 25 km south of Berlin, in the Brandenburg region of Germany.
Seliger (p) is a lake in Ostashkovsky District of Tver Oblast and, in the extreme northern part, in Demyansky District of Novgorod Oblast of Russia, in the northwest of the Valdai Hills, a part of the Volga basin.
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev (a; Леоні́д Іллі́ч Бре́жнєв, 19 December 1906 (O.S. 6 December) – 10 November 1982) was a Soviet politician who led the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982 as the General Secretary of the Central Committee (CC) of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), presiding over the country until his death and funeral in 1982.
Leonid Ivanovitch Sedov (14 November 1907 – 5 September 1999) was a leading physicist of the Soviet Union.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
This is a list of spaceflight records.
Lists of relevant milestones in the period 1957–1969 include.
Little, Brown and Company is an American publisher founded in 1837 by Charles Coffin Little and his partner, James Brown, and for close to two centuries has published fiction and nonfiction by American authors.
The LK (ЛК, from Лунный корабль, "Lunniy korabl", meaning "Lunar craft"; GRAU index: 11F94) was a piloted lunar lander developed in the 1960s as a part of the Soviet attempts at human exploration of the Moon. Its role was analogous to the American Apollo Lunar Module (LM). Several LK articles were flown without crew in Earth orbit, but no LK ever reached the Moon. The development of the N1 launch vehicle required for the Moon flight suffered setbacks (including several launch failures), and the first Moon landings were achieved by US astronauts. As a result, both the N1 and the LK programs were cancelled without any further development.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.
Luna 2 (E-1A series) or Lunik 2 was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon.
Luna 3, or E-2A No.1 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme.
Luna E-1 No.1, sometimes identified by NASA as Luna 1958A, was a Soviet Luna E-1 spacecraft which was intended to impact the Moon.
The Luna programme (from the Russian word Луна "Luna" meaning "Lunar" or "Moon"), occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.
The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) or lunar rover is a battery-powered four-wheeled rover used on the Moon in the last three missions of the American Apollo program (15, 16, and 17) during 1971 and 1972.
Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908January 22, 1973), often referred to by his initials LBJ, was an American politician who served as the 36th President of the United States from 1963 to 1969, assuming the office after having served as the 37th Vice President of the United States from 1961 to 1963.
Man In Space Soonest (MISS) was a United States Air Force (USAF) program to put a man into outer space before the Soviet Union.
Mare Tranquillitatis (Latin for Sea of Tranquility or Sea of Tranquillity (see spelling differences)) is a lunar mare that sits within the Tranquillitatis basin on the Moon.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The Mars race; or race to Mars; or race for Mars; is the competitive environment between various national space agencies, "New Space" and Aerospace manufacturers involving spaceflight to Mars; to have crewed missions reach Mars, land on Mars, or settle there.
The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.
McCarthyism is the practice of making accusations of subversion or treason without proper regard for evidence.
The Mercury Seven were the group of seven Mercury astronauts announced by NASA on April 9, 1959.
Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) was the third human spaceflight for the U.S. and part of Project Mercury.
Mercury-Atlas 7, launched May 24, 1962, was the fourth flight of Project Mercury, the first manned space program of the United States.
Mercury-Atlas 8 (MA-8) was the fifth United States manned space mission, part of NASA's Mercury program.
Mercury-Atlas 9 was the final manned space mission of the U.S. Mercury program, launched on May 15, 1963 from Launch Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral, Florida.
Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard.
Mercury-Redstone 4 was the second United States human spaceflight, on July 21, 1961.
The Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, designed for NASA's Project Mercury, was the first American manned space booster.
Michael Collins (born October 31, 1930) (Major General, USAF, Ret.) is an American former astronaut and test pilot.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.
Moon Shot: The Inside Story of America's Race to the Moon is a book written by Mercury Seven astronaut Alan Shepard, with NBC News correspondent Jay Barbree and Associated Press space writer Howard Benedict.
The Moscow Victory Parade of 1945 (r) was a victory parade held by the Soviet Armed Forces (with the Color Guard Company representing the First Polish Army) after the defeat of Nazi Germany.
The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The NASA Distinguished Service Medal is the highest award which may be bestowed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration of the United States.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research.
The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 is the United States federal statute that created the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C..
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The National Space Council is a body within the Executive Office of the President of the United States that was created in 1989 during the administration of George H.W. Bush, disbanded in 1993, and re-established in June 2017 by President Donald Trump.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York Herald Tribune was a newspaper published between 1924 and 1966.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
NPO Mashinostroyeniya (НПО машиностроения) is a rocket design bureau based in Reutov, Russia.
The nuclear arms race was a competition for supremacy in nuclear warfare between the United States, the Soviet Union, and their respective allies during the Cold War.
A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).
Ogg is a free, open container format maintained by the Xiph.Org Foundation.
Operation Osoaviakhim was a Soviet operation which took place on 22 October 1946, with NKVD and Soviet army units forcibly (at gunpoint) recruiting more than 2,200 German specialists - a total of more than 6,000 people including family members - from the Soviet occupation zone of post-World War II Germany for employment in the Soviet Union.
Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were recruited in post-Nazi Germany and taken to the U.S. for government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959.
In astrodynamics, the orbital maneuvers made by thruster burns that are needed to keep a spacecraft in a particular assigned orbit are called orbital station-keeping.
In geometry the orientation, angular position, or attitude of an object such as a line, plane or rigid body is part of the description of how it is placed in the space it occupies.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law.
The Senate Majority and Minority Leaders are two United States Senators and members of the party leadership of the United States Senate.
Pavel Ivanovich Belyayev (Павел Иванович Беляев; 26 June 1925 – 10 January 1970), was a Soviet fighter pilot with extensive experience in piloting different types of aircraft.
Peenemünde ("Peene Mouth") is a municipality on the Baltic Sea island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
Perm (p;Gramota.ru.) is a city and the administrative center of Perm Krai, Russia, located on the banks of the Kama River in the European part of Russia near the Ural Mountains.
Charles "Pete" Conrad Jr. (June 2, 1930 – July 8, 1999), (Captain, USN), was an American NASA astronaut, aeronautical engineer, naval officer and aviator, test pilot, and during the Apollo 12 mission became the third man to walk on the Moon.
The PGM-11 Redstone was the first large American ballistic missile.
A plug door is a door designed to seal itself by taking advantage of pressure difference on its two sides and is typically used on aircraft with cabin pressurization.
Pravda (a, "Truth") is a Russian broadsheet newspaper, formerly the official newspaper of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, when it was one of the most influential papers in the country with a circulation of 11 million.
The Premier of the Soviet Union (Глава Правительства СССР) was the head of government of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR).
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
The Progress (Прогресс) is a Russian expendable cargo spacecraft.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
Proton (Russian: Протон) (formal designation: UR-500) is an expendable launch system used for both commercial and Russian government space launches.
The R-1 rocket (NATO reporting name SS-1 Scunner, Soviet code name SA11, GRAU index 8A11) was a short-range ballistic missile manufactured in the Soviet Union based on the German V-2 rocket.
The R-7 family of rockets (Р-7) is a series of rockets, derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka, the world's first ICBM.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Ranger 1 was a prototype spacecraft launched as part of the Ranger program of unmanned space missions.
Ranger 2 was a flight test of the Ranger spacecraft system of the NASA Ranger program designed for future lunar and interplanetary missions.
Ranger 3 was a space exploration mission conducted by NASA to study the Moon.
Ranger 4 was a spacecraft of the Ranger program designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to crashing upon the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft.
Ranger 5 was a spacecraft of the Ranger program designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to impacting on the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft.
Ranger 7 was the first space probe of the United States to successfully transmit close images of the lunar surface back to Earth.
The Ranger program was a series of unmanned space missions by the United States in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface of the Moon.
Redstone Arsenal (RSA) is a United States Army post and a census-designated place (CDP) adjacent to Huntsville in Madison County, Alabama, United States and is part of the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
A retrorocket (short for retrograde rocket) is a rocket engine providing thrust opposing the motion of a vehicle, thereby causing it to decelerate.
Reverse engineering, also called back engineering, is the process by which a man-made object is deconstructed to reveal its designs, architecture, or to extract knowledge from the object; similar to scientific research, the only difference being that scientific research is about a natural phenomenon.
William Marsh Rice University, commonly known as Rice University, is a private research university located on a 300-acre (121 ha) campus in Houston, Texas, United States.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Roger Bruce Chaffee (February 15, 1935 – January 27, 1967) was an American naval officer and naval aviator, aeronautical engineer, and NASA astronaut in the Apollo program.
The RTV-A-2 Hiroc (high-altitude rocket) was the United States' first attempt at an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS; Росси́йская акаде́мия нау́к (РАН) Rossíiskaya akadémiya naúk) consists of the national academy of Russia; a network of scientific research institutes from across the Russian Federation; and additional scientific and social units such as libraries, publishing units, and hospitals.
The S-IVB (sometimes S-4B, always pronounced "ess four bee") was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company and served as the third stage on the Saturn V and second stage on the Saturn IB.
Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Салют-1; English translation: Salute 1) was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971.
The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.
General Samuel Cochran Phillips (February 19, 1921 – January 31, 1990) was a United States Air Force four-star general who served as Director of NASA's Apollo Manned Lunar Landing Program from 1964 to 1969, the seventh Director of the National Security Agency from 1972 to 1973, and as Commander, Air Force Systems Command (COMAFSC) from 1973 to 1975.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
The term satellite state designates a country that is formally independent in the world, but under heavy political, economic and military influence or control from another country.
The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond.
The Saturn IB (pronounced "one B", also known as the Uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the Apollo program.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
"Shirt-sleeve environment" is a term used in aircraft design to describe the interior of an aircraft in which no special clothing need be worn.
Shortwave radio is radio transmission using shortwave radio frequencies.
The Shuttle–Mir Program was a collaborative space program between Russia and the United States, which involved American Space Shuttles visiting the Russian space station Mir, Russian cosmonauts flying on the shuttle, and an American astronaut flying aboard a Soyuz spacecraft to engage in long-duration expeditions aboard Mir.
The United States Army Signal Corps (USASC) develops, tests, provides, and manages communications and information systems support for the command and control of combined arms forces.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
Skylab 4 (also SL-4 and SLM-3) was the third manned Skylab mission and placed the third and final crew aboard the first American space station.
The SM-65 Atlas was the first operational intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed by the United States and the first member of the Atlas rocket family.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
Spacecraft operating in the inner Solar System usually rely on the use of photovoltaic solar panels to derive electricity from sunlight.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
In the life of Soviet Union, air shows were a highly regarded type of parade, almost always of military nature.
The Soviet crewed lunar programs were a series of unsuccessful programs pursued by the Soviet Union to land a man on the Moon, in competition with the United States Apollo program to achieve the same goal set publicly by President John F. Kennedy on May 25, 1961.
The Soviet Occupation Zone (Sovetskaya okkupatsionnaya zona Germanii, "Soviet Occupation Zone of Germany") was the area of central Germany occupied by the Soviet Union from 1945 on, at the end of World War II.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
Soyuz 1 (Союз 1, Union 1) was a manned spaceflight of the Soviet space program.
Soyuz 10 ('Союз 10', Union 10) was launched on 22 April 1971 as the world's first mission to the world's first space station, the Soviet Salyut 1.
Soyuz 11 (Союз 11, Union 11) was the only manned mission to board the world's first space station, Salyut 1 (Soyuz 10 had soft-docked but had not been able to enter due to latching problems).
Soyuz 16 (Союз 16, Union 16) was a 1974 manned test flight for a joint Soviet-US space flight which culminated in the Apollo-Soyuz mission in July 1975.
Soyuz 2 (Союз 2, Union 2) was an uncrewed spacecraft in the Soyuz family intended to be the target of a docking maneuver by the manned Soyuz 3 spacecraft.
Soyuz 3 ("Union 3", Союз 3) was a spaceflight mission launched by the Soviet Union on 26 October 1968.
Soyuz 4 (Союз 4, Союз 4, Union 4) was launched on 14 January 1969, carrying cosmonaut Vladimir Shatalov on his first flight.
Soyuz 5 (Союз 5, Union 5) was a Soyuz mission using the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union on 15 January 1969, which docked with Soyuz 4 in orbit.
The Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the Moon without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon race.
Soyuz 7K-L1 No.4L, sometimes identified by NASA as Zond 1967A, was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1967 as part of the Zond programme.
Soyuz 7K-L1 No.5L, sometimes identified by NASA as Zond 1967B, was a Soviet spacecraft which was launched in 1967 as part of the Zond programme.
The Soyuz 7K-LOK, or simply LOK (translit meaning "Lunar Orbital Craft") was a Soviet manned spacecraft designed to launch men from Earth to orbit the Moon, developed in parallel to the 7K-L1.
Space advocacy is supporting or advocating for space exploration, space colonization and private spaceflight.
A space capsule is an often manned spacecraft which has a simple shape for the main section, without any wings or other features to create lift during atmospheric reentry.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
Space policy is the political decision-making process for, and application of, public policy of a state (or association of states) regarding spaceflight and uses of outer space, both for civilian (scientific and commercial) and military purposes.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
Space propaganda is about achievements in space science and technology that are used as propaganda.
A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver during which two spacecraft, one of which is often a space station, arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact).
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
The Space Transportation System (STS), also known internally to NASA as the Integrated Program Plan (IPP), was a proposed system of reusable manned space vehicles envisioned in 1969 to support extended operations beyond the Apollo program.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
Spiro Theodore "Ted" Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the 39th Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to his resignation in 1973.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Sputnik 3 (Спутник-3, Satellite 3) was a Soviet satellite launched on May 15, 1958 from Baikonur Cosmodrome by a modified R-7/SS-6 ICBM.
The State Duma (r), commonly abbreviated in Russian as Госду́ма (Gosduma), is the lower house of the Federal Assembly of Russia, while the upper house is the Council of the Federation.
Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a Department of Defense Specified Command and a United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command (MAJCOM), responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U.S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad," with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs (the third leg of the triad being submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) of the U.S. Navy).
A strategic bomber is a medium to long range penetration bomber aircraft designed to drop large amounts of air-to-ground weaponry onto a distant target for the purposes of debilitating the enemy's capacity to wage war.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere.
Thomas Patten Stafford (born September 17, 1930; Lt Gen, USAF, Ret.) is an American former Air Force officer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut.
A ticker tape parade is a parade event held in a built-up urban setting, allowing large amounts of shredded paper (originally actual ticker tape, but now mostly confetti) to be thrown from nearby office buildings onto the parade route, creating a celebratory effect by the snowstorm-like flurry.
This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch.
This is for a timeline of space exploration including notable achievements and first accomplishments or major events in humanity's exploration of outer space.
This is a timeline of first achievements in spaceflight from the first intercontinental ballistic missile through the first multinational human-crewed mission—spanning the era of the Space Race.
The Toronto Star is a Canadian broadsheet daily newspaper.
Torstar Corporation is a Canadian media and publishing company.
Tortoises are a family, Testudinidae. Testudinidae is a Family under the order Testudines and suborder Cryptodira.
A trans-Earth injection (TEI) is a propulsion maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory which will intersect the Earth's Sphere of influence, usually putting the spacecraft on a Free return trajectory.
A trans-lunar injection (TLI) is a propulsive maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory that will cause it to arrive at the Moon.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) was established in 1959 (shortly after the launch of Sputnik) as an ad hoc committee.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
The United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is the corporate research laboratory for the United States Navy and the United States Marine Corps.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Universal Newsreel (sometimes known as Universal-International Newsreel or just U-I Newsreel) was a series of 7- to 10-minute newsreels that were released twice a week between 1929 and 1967 by Universal Studios.
The University of Iowa (also known as the UI, U of I, UIowa, or simply Iowa) is a flagship public research university in Iowa City, Iowa.
The University Press of Florida (UPF) is the scholarly publishing arm of the State University System of Florida, representing Florida's twelve state universities.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (a; born 6 March 1937) is a retired Russian cosmonaut, engineer, and politician.
A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.
The Vanguard rocket was intended to be the first launch vehicle the United States would use to place a satellite into orbit.
Vanguard TV3, also called Vanguard Test Vehicle Three was the first attempt of the United States to launch a satellite into orbit around the Earth.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Viking Press is an American publishing company now owned by Penguin Random House.
Viktor Ivanovich Patsayev (Ви́ктор Ива́нович Паца́ев; 19 June 193330 June 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 11 mission and was part of the second crew to die during a space flight.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Челоме́й; Ukrainian: Володимир Миколайович Челомей; 30 June 1914 – 8 December 1984) was a Soviet mechanics scientist, aviation and missile engineer.
Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov (p; 16 March 192724 April 1967) was a Soviet test pilot, aerospace engineer and cosmonaut.
Vladislav Nikolayevich Volkov (Владисла́в Никола́евич Во́лков; November 23, 1935June 30, 1971) was a Soviet cosmonaut who flew on the Soyuz 7 and Soyuz 11 missions.
Voskhod 1 (Восход-1; Восход is Russian for Sunrise) was the seventh manned Soviet space flight.
Voskhod 2 (Sunrise-2) was a Soviet manned space mission in March 1965.
Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.
Vostok 2 (Восток-2, Orient 2 or East 2) was a Soviet space mission which carried cosmonaut Gherman Titov into orbit for a full day on August 6, 1961 to study the effects of a more prolonged period of weightlessness on the human body.
Vostok 3 (Восток-3, Orient 3 or East 3) was a spaceflight of the Soviet space program intended to determine the ability of the human body to function in conditions of weightlessness and test the endurance of the Vostok 3KA spacecraft over longer flights.
Vostok 4 (Восток-4, Orient 4 or East 4) was a mission in the Soviet space program.
Vostok 5 (Восток-5, Orient 5 or East 5) was a joint mission of the Soviet space program together with Vostok 6; as with the previous pair of Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 the two Vostok spacecraft came close to one another in orbit and established a radio link.
Vostok 6 (Восток-6, Orient 6 or East 6) was the first human spaceflight to carry a woman, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, into space.
The WAC or WAC Corporal was the first sounding rocket developed in the United States.
Walter Marty "Wally" Schirra Jr. (March 12, 1923 – May 3, 2007), (Captain, USN), was an American naval aviator and astronaut.
A warhead is the explosive or toxic material that is delivered by a missile, rocket, or torpedo.
"We choose to go to the Moon" is the famous tagline of a speech about the effort to reach the Moon delivered by President John F. Kennedy to a large crowd gathered at Rice Stadium in Houston, Texas on September 12, 1962.
A weapon of mass destruction (WMD) is a nuclear, radiological, chemical, biological or other weapon that can kill and bring significant harm to a large number of humans or cause great damage to human-made structures (e.g., buildings), natural structures (e.g., mountains), or the biosphere.
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
White Sands Missile Range (WSMR) is a United States Army military testing area of almost in parts of five counties in southern New Mexico.
William Alison "Bill" Anders (born October 17, 1933), (Maj Gen, USAFR, Ret.), is a former United States Air Force officer, electrical engineer, nuclear engineer, NASA astronaut, and businessman.
A witch-hunt or witch purge is a search for people labelled "witches" or evidence of witchcraft, often involving moral panic or mass hysteria.
The Woods Hole Conference was held at Woods Hole, Massachusetts as a response to the Soviet Union's launch of the Sputnik series of satellites, in 1959 to identify the problems of science education and to recommend solutions.
Yelizovo (Е́лизово) is a town in Kamchatka Krai, Russia, located on the Avacha River northwest of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
Zond 4, part of the Soviet Zond program and an unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned Moon-flyby spacecraft, was one of the first Soviet experiments towards manned circumlunar spaceflight.
Zond 5, a member of the Soviet Zond program, was an unmanned spacecraft that in September 1968 became the second ship to travel to and circle the Moon, and the first to return safely to Earth.
Zond 6, a formal member of the Soviet Zond program and unmanned version of Soyuz 7K-L1 manned moon-flyby spacecraft, was launched on a lunar flyby mission from a parent satellite (68-101B) in Earth parking orbit.