331 relations: ABC News, Acoustics, Activision, Adler Planetarium, Advanced Crew Escape Suit, Aerobraking, Aeronautics, Aircraft flight control system, Aircraft pilot, Alliant Techsystems, Alloy, Aluminium, Amateur flight simulation, Ammonia, Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant, Apollo (spacecraft), Apollo program, Apopka, Florida, Approach and Landing Tests, Apsis, Ares I, Armageddon (1998 film), Assembly of the International Space Station, Astronaut, Astrotech Corporation, Atmospheric entry, Auxiliary power unit, Avionics, AXS TV, Batmobile, Bill Gunston, Boeing, Boeing 747, Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar, Buran programme, California Science Center, Canadarm, Cape Canaveral, Chandra X-ray Observatory, Chantilly, Virginia, Charles Bolden, Chrysler SERV, Clint Eastwood, Columbia Accident Investigation Board, Commander, Commercial Crew Development, Commercial Orbital Transportation Services, Comparison of orbital launch systems, Comparison of orbital launchers families, Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, ..., Constellation program, Criticism of the Space Shuttle program, Cumulonimbus incus, Delta wing, Dick Grayson, Dinitrogen tetroxide, Dream Chaser, Edwards Air Force Base, Electrical system of the International Space Station, Elevon, Embedded system, European Space Agency, Extended Duration Orbiter, Flag of the United States, Flight engineer, Flight surgeon, FlightGear, Florida Today, Fly-by-wire, Frangible nut, Fuselage, G-force, G. 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ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
Activision Publishing, Inc. is an American video game publisher.
The Adler Planetarium is a public museum dedicated to the study of astronomy and astrophysics.
The Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) or "pumpkin suit", is a full pressure suit that began to be worn by Space Shuttle crews after STS-65, for the ascent and entry portions of flight.
Aerobraking is a spaceflight maneuver that reduces the high point of an elliptical orbit (apoapsis) by flying the vehicle through the atmosphere at the low point of the orbit (periapsis).
Aeronautics (from the ancient Greek words ὰήρ āēr, which means "air", and ναυτική nautikē which means "navigation", i.e. "navigation into the air") is the science or art involved with the study, design, and manufacturing of air flight capable machines, and the techniques of operating aircraft and rockets within the atmosphere.
A conventional fixed-wing aircraft flight control system consists of flight control surfaces, the respective cockpit controls, connecting linkages, and the necessary operating mechanisms to control an aircraft's direction in flight.
An aircraft pilot or aviator is a person who controls the flight of an aircraft by operating its directional flight controls.
Alliant Techsystems Inc. (ATK) was an American aerospace, defense, and sporting goods company with its headquarters in Arlington County, Virginia, in the United States.
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amateur flight simulation refers to the simulation of various aspects of flight or the flight environment for purposes other than flight training or aircraft development.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium perchlorate composite propellant (APCP) is a modern solid-fuel rocket used in rocket vehicles.
The Apollo spacecraft was composed of three parts designed to accomplish the American Apollo program's goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning them safely to Earth.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
Apopka is a city in Orange County, Florida.
The Approach and Landing Tests were a series of taxi and flight trials of the prototype Space Shuttle Enterprise, conducted in 1977 to test the vehicle's flight characteristics both on its own and when mated to the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, prior to the operational debut of the shuttle system.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
Ares I was the crew launch vehicle that was being developed by NASA as part of the Constellation program.
Armageddon is a 1998 American science fiction disaster film directed by Michael Bay, produced by Jerry Bruckheimer, and released by Touchstone Pictures.
The process of assembling the International Space Station (ISS) has been under way since the 1990s.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Astrotech Corporation, formerly Spacehab Inc., is a technology incubator headquartered in Austin, Texas.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
An auxiliary power unit (APU) is a device on a vehicle that provides energy for functions other than propulsion.
Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites, and spacecraft.
AXS TV (pronounced "access") is an American cable and satellite television network.
The Batmobile is the fictional car driven by the superhero Batman in American comic books published by DC Comics.
Bill Gunston OBE FRAeS (1 March 1927 - 1 June 2013) was a British aviation and military author.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".
The Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar ("Dynamic Soarer") was a United States Air Force (USAF) program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including aerial reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and as a space interceptor to sabotage enemy satellites.
The Buran programme (Бура́н,, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.
The California Science Center (sometimes spelled California ScienCenter) is a state agency and museum located in Exposition Park, Los Angeles, next to the Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County and the University of Southern California.
The Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS), also known as Canadarm (Canadarm 1), is a series of robotic arms that were used on the Space Shuttle orbiters to deploy, maneuver and capture payloads.
Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast.
The Chandra X-ray Observatory (CXO), previously known as the Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (AXAF), is a Flagship-class space observatory launched on STS-93 by NASA on July 23, 1999.
Chantilly is a census-designated place (CDP) in western Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
Charles Frank Bolden Jr. (born August 19, 1946) is a former Administrator of NASA, a retired United States Marine Corps Major General, and a former NASA astronaut.
SERV, short for Single-stage Earth-orbital Reusable Vehicle, was a proposed space launch system designed by Chrysler's Space Division for the Space Shuttle project.
Clinton Eastwood Jr. (born May 31, 1930) is an American actor, filmmaker, musician, and political figure.
The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was convened by NASA to investigate the destruction of the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' during STS-107 upon atmospheric re-entry on February 1, 2003.
Commander is a common naval and air force officer rank.
Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a multiphase, space technology development program that is funded by the U.S. government and administered by NASA.
Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) was a NASA program to coordinate the delivery of crew and cargo to the International Space Station by private companies.
This is a comparison of orbital launch systems.
This page contains a list of orbital launchers' families.
The Compton Gamma Ray Observatory (CGRO) was a space observatory detecting photons with energies from 20 keV to 30 GeV, in Earth orbit from 1991 to 2000.
The Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) is a cancelled manned spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009.
Criticism of the Space Shuttle program stemmed from claims that NASA's Shuttle program failed to achieve its promised cost and utility goals, as well as design, cost, management, and safety issues.
A cumulonimbus incus (Latin incus, "anvil") also known as an anvil cloud is a cumulonimbus cloud which has reached the level of stratospheric stability and has formed the characteristic flat, anvil-top shape.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
Richard John Grayson is a fictional character and superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics, commonly in association with Batman.
Dinitrogen tetroxide, commonly referred to as nitrogen tetroxide, is the chemical compound N2O4.
The Dream Chaser Cargo System is an American reusable lifting-body spaceplane being developed by Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space Systems.
Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force installation located in Kern County in southern California, about northeast of Lancaster and east of Rosamond.
The electrical system of the International Space Station is a critical resource for the International Space Station (ISS) because it allows the crew to live comfortably, to safely operate the station, and to perform scientific experiments.
Elevons are aircraft control surfaces that combine the functions of the elevator (used for pitch control) and the aileron (used for roll control), hence the name.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
The Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) program was a project by NASA to prepare for long-term (months) microgravity research aboard Space Station Freedom, which later evolved into the International Space Station.
The flag of the United States of America, often referred to as the American flag, is the national flag of the United States.
A flight engineer (FE), also sometimes called an air engineer, is the member of an aircraft's flight crew who monitors and operates its complex aircraft systems.
A flight surgeon is a military medical officer practicing in the clinical field variously known as aviation medicine, aerospace medicine, or flight medicine.
FlightGear Flight Simulator (often shortened to FlightGear or FGFS) is a free, open source multi-platform flight simulator developed by the FlightGear project since 1997.
Florida Today is the major daily newspaper serving Brevard County, Florida.
Fly-by-wire (FBW) is a system that replaces the conventional manual flight controls of an aircraft with an electronic interface.
The frangible nut, commonly confused with an explosive bolt, is a component used in many industries, but most commonly by NASA to sever mechanical connections.
The fuselage (from the French fuselé "spindle-shaped") is an aircraft's main body section.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
George Harry Stine (March 26, 1928 – November 2, 1997) was one of the founding figures of model rocketry, a science and technology writer, and (under the name Lee Correy) a science fiction author.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
The Gemini space suit is a space suit worn by American astronauts for launch, in-flight activities (including EVAs) and landing.
George Edwin Mueller (July 16, 1918 – October 12, 2015), was an American electrical engineer who was an associate administrator at NASA who headed the Office of Manned Space Flight from September 1963 until December 1969.
A geosynchronous transfer orbit or geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit—an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane—used to reach geosynchronous or geostationary orbit using high-thrust chemical engines.
Getaway Special was a NASA program that offered interested individuals, or groups, opportunities to fly small experiments aboard the Space Shuttle.
A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.
A glass cockpit is an aircraft cockpit that features electronic (digital) flight instrument displays, typically large LCD screens, rather than the traditional style of analog dials and gauges.
A glider is a heavier-than-air aircraft that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine.
Gliding flight is heavier-than-air flight without the use of thrust; the term volplaning also refers to this mode of flight in animals.
The Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is a major NASA space research laboratory located approximately northeast of Washington, D.C. in Greenbelt, Maryland, United States.
Gravity is a 2013 science fiction thriller film directed, co-written, co-edited, and produced by Alfonso Cuarón.
The Grid Compass (written GRiD by its manufacturer GRiD Systems Corporation) was one of the first laptop computers.
In electrical engineering, ground or earth is the reference point in an electrical circuit from which voltages are measured, a common return path for electric current, or a direct physical connection to the earth.
Guard-Lee Inc is an Apopka, Florida based manufacturer of full size, high fidelity aerospace replicas including aircraft, spacecraft, rockets, and space suits.
HAL/S (High-order Assembly Language/Shuttle) is a real-time aerospace programming language compiler and cross-compiler for avionics applications used by NASA and associated agencies (JPL, etc.). It has been used in many U.S. space projects since 1973 and its most significant use was in the Space Shuttle program (approximately 85% of the Shuttle software is coded in HAL/S).
Hermes was a proposed spaceplane designed by the French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) in 1975, and later by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The HL-20 Personnel Launch System is a NASA spaceplane concept for manned orbital missions studied by NASA's Langley Research Center around 1990.
Honeywell International Inc. is an American multinational conglomerate company that produces a variety of commercial and consumer products, engineering services and aerospace systems for a wide variety of customers, from private consumers to major corporations and governments.
HOPE was a Japanese experimental spaceplane project designed by a partnership between NASDA and NAL (both now part of JAXA), started in the 1980s.
Hopper was a proposed European Space Agency (ESA) orbital spaceplane and reusable launch vehicle.
HOTOL, for Horizontal Take-Off and Landing, was a 1980s British design for a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) spaceplane that was to be powered by an airbreathing jet engine.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama.
Hydrazine is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula (also written), called diamidogen, archaically.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
The IBM System/4 Pi is a family of avionics computers used, in various versions, on the F-15 Eagle fighter, E-3 Sentry, AWACS, Harpoon Missile, NASA's Skylab, MOL, and the Space Shuttle, as well as other aircraft.
The Inertial Upper Stage (IUS), originally designated the Interim Upper Stage, was a two-stage solid-fueled rocket upper stage developed by Boeing for the United States Air Force beginning in 1976 for raising payloads from low Earth orbit to higher orbits or interplanetary trajectories following launch aboard a Titan 34D or Titan IV rocket, or from the payload bay of the Space Shuttle.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The Intrepid Sea, Air & Space Museum is an American military and maritime history museum with a collection of museum ships in New York City.
The James Bond film series is a British series of spy films based on the fictional character of MI6 agent James Bond, "007", who originally appeared in a series of books by Ian Fleming.
The John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is a NASA rocket testing facility.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
Kalpana Chawla (March 17, 1962 – February 1, 2003) was an American astronaut and the first woman of Indian origin in space.
The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers.
Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, United States.
The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is the visitor center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
KH-9 (BYEMAN codename HEXAGON), commonly known as Big Birdp.32 Big Bird or Keyhole-9, was a series of photographic reconnaissance satellites launched by the United States between 1971 and 1986.
Kliper (Клипер, English: Clipper) was an early-2000s proposed partly- reusable manned spacecraft concept by RSC Energia.
Launch commit criteria are the criteria which must be met in order for the countdown and launch of a space shuttle or other launch vehicle to continue.
Lego (stylized as LEGO) is a line of plastic construction toys that are manufactured by The Lego Group, a privately held company based in Billund, Denmark.
Lego City is a theme under which Lego building sets are released.
In aerodynamics, the lift-to-drag ratio, or L/D ratio, is the amount of lift generated by a wing or vehicle, divided by the aerodynamic drag it creates by moving through the air.
A lifting body is a fixed-wing aircraft or spacecraft configuration in which the body itself produces lift.
Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
These chronological lists include all crewed spaceflights that reached an altitude of at least 100 km (the FAI definition of spaceflight, see Kármán line), or were launched with that intention but failed.
This is a list of persons who served aboard Space Shuttle crews, arranged in chronological order by mission.
Three locations in the United States were used as landing sites for the Space Shuttle system.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA).
This article lists verifiable spaceflight-related accidents and incidents resulting in fatality or near-fatality during flight or training for manned space missions, and testing, assembly, preparation or flight of manned and unmanned spacecraft.
The X-planes are a series of experimental United States aircraft and rockets, used to test and evaluate new technologies and aerodynamic concepts.
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests.
The Lockheed Martin X-33 was an unmanned, sub-scale technology demonstrator suborbital spaceplane developed in the 1990s under the U.S. government-funded Space Launch Initiative program.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
In fluid dynamics, the Mach number (M or Ma) is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the local speed of sound.
The Magellan spacecraft, also referred to as the Venus Radar Mapper, was a robotic space probe launched by NASA of the United States, on May 4, 1989, to map the surface of Venus by using synthetic aperture radar and to measure the planetary gravitational field.
Magnetic-core memory was the predominant form of random-access computer memory for 20 years between about 1955 and 1975.
The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.
The Martin B-57 Canberra is an American-built, twinjet tactical bomber and reconnaissance aircraft that entered service with the United States Air Force (USAF) in 1953.
The Martin Marietta Corporation was an American company founded in 1961 through the merger of Glenn L. Martin Company and American Marietta Corporation.
The Martin Marietta X-24 was an American experimental aircraft developed from a joint United States Air Force-NASA program named PILOT (1963–1975).
In aerospace engineering, the maximum dynamic pressure, often referred to as maximum Q or max Q, is the point at which aerodynamic stress on a vehicle in atmospheric flight is maximized.
Maxime Allen "Max" Faget (pronounced fah-ZHAY; August 26, 1921 – October 10, 2004) was a Belizean-born American mechanical engineer.
The McDonnell Douglas F/A-18 Hornet is a twin-engine, supersonic, all-weather, carrier-capable, multirole combat jet, designed as both a fighter and attack aircraft (hence the F/A designation).
Michelin (full name: SCA Compagnie Générale des Établissements Michelin) is a French tyre manufacturer based in Clermont-Ferrand in the Auvergne région of France.
Microsoft Space Simulator is a space flight simulator program, based on Microsoft Flight Simulator for MS-DOS.
Military History Monthly is a monthly military history magazine, published by Current Publishing.
The Stykovochnyy Otsek (стыковочный отсек, Docking compartment), GRAU index 316GK, otherwise known as the Mir docking module or SO, was the sixth module of the Russian space station Mir, launched in November 1995 aboard the.
A mission control center (MCC, sometimes called a flight control center or operations center) is a facility that manages space flights, usually from the point of launch until landing or the end of the mission.
Mission specialist (MS) was a position held by certain NASA astronauts.
The Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) is one of three two-story structures used by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center to support the Space Shuttle stack throughout the build-up and launch process: during assembly at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), while being transported to Launch Pads 39A and B, and as the vehicle's launch platform.
Monomethylhydrazine (MMH) is a volatile hydrazine chemical with the chemical formula CH3(NH)NH2.
Moonraker is a 1979 British spy film, the eleventh in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, and the fourth to star Roger Moore as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.
Moontrap is a 1989 science fiction film from Magic Films.
A Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM) was a large pressurized container used on Space Shuttle missions to transfer cargo to and from the International Space Station (ISS).
The Museum of Flight is a private non-profit air and space museum in the northwest United States.
MV Liberty Star was a NASA-owned and United Space Alliance-operated vessel which primarily served as an SRB recovery ship following the launch of Space Shuttle missions.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) logo has three main official designs, although the one with stylized red curved text (the "worm") has been retired from official use since 1992.
The NASA Office of Inspector General (NASA OIG or OIG) is the inspector general office in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the space agency of the United States.
The NASA recovery ships are two ships, the and the, that were tasked with retrieving spent Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) following the launch of Space Shuttle missions.
NASA TV (originally NASA Select) is the television service of the United States government agency NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration).
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research.
The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C..
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Museum of the United States Air Force (formerly the United States Air Force Museum) is the official museum of the United States Air Force located at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, northeast of Dayton, Ohio.
The National Postal Museum, located opposite Union Station in Washington, D.C., United States, was established through joint agreement between the United States Postal Service and the Smithsonian Institution and opened in 1993.
The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) is a member of the United States Intelligence Community and an agency of the United States Department of Defense.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement defined as exactly.
Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon.
New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.
Nomex is a flame-resistant meta-aramid material developed in the early 1960s by DuPont and first marketed in 1967.
The DC-3 was a proposed spaceplane designed by Maxime Faget at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
The Northrop HL-10 was one of five American heavyweight lifting body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC—later Dryden Flight Research Center) in Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space.
The Northrop T-38 Talon is a two-seat, twinjet supersonic jet trainer.
An O-ring, also known as a packing, or a toric joint, is a mechanical gasket in the shape of a torus; it is a loop of elastomer with a round cross-section, designed to be seated in a groove and compressed during assembly between two or more parts, creating a seal at the interface.
Oberpfaffenhofen is a village which is part of the municipality of Weßling in the district of Starnberg, Bavaria, Germany.
Odyssey 5 is a Canadian science fiction series that first ran in 2002 on Showtime in the United States and on Space in Canada.
Orbit insertion is the spaceflight operation of adjusting a spacecraft’s momentum, in particular to allow for entry into a stable orbit around a planet, moon, or other celestial body.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
Orbiter is a freeware space flight simulator program developed to simulate spaceflight using realistic Newtonian physics.
An Orbiter Processing Facility (OPF) was one of three hangars where U.S. space shuttle orbiters underwent maintenance between flights.
Each NASA space shuttle designation was composed of a prefix and suffix separated by a dash.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is an American interplanetary spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).
Patrick Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation located between Satellite Beach and Cocoa Beach, in Brevard County, Florida, in the United States.
The Payload Assist Module (PAM) is a modular upper stage designed and built by McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing), using Thiokol Star-series solid propellant rocket motors.
A proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller or three term controller) is a control loop feedback mechanism widely used in industrial control systems and a variety of other applications requiring continuously modulated control.
PL/I (Programming Language One, pronounced) is a procedural, imperative computer programming language designed for scientific, engineering, business and system programming uses.
Playalinda Beach (Playa Linda - Spanish for "beautiful beach") is a beach located on Florida's east coast in Canaveral National Seashore.
A polar orbit is one in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body being orbited (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly another body such as the Moon or Sun) on each revolution.
Ponce Inlet is a town in Volusia County, Florida, United States.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
A pyrotechnic fastener (also called an explosive bolt, or pyro, within context) is a fastener, usually a nut or bolt, that incorporates a pyrotechnic charge that can be initiated remotely.
Queueing theory is the mathematical study of waiting lines, or queues.
In aeronautics, the rate of climb (RoC) is an aircraft's vertical speed – the rate of positive altitude change with respect to time or distance.
A reaction control system (RCS) is a spacecraft system that uses thrusters to provide attitude control, and sometimes translation.
In computer science, real-time computing (RTC), or reactive computing describes hardware and software systems subject to a "real-time constraint", for example from event to system response.
Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFRC), carbon–carbon (C/C), or reinforced carbon–carbon (RCC) is a composite material consisting of carbon fiber reinforcement in a matrix of graphite.
A request for proposal (RFP) is a document that solicits proposal, often made through a bidding process, by an agency or company interested in procurement of a commodity, service, or valuable asset, to potential suppliers to submit business proposals.
A reusable launch system (RLS, or reusable launch vehicle, RLV) is a space launch system intended to allow for recovery of all or part of the system for later reuse.
Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.
RLV-TD is the first unmanned flying testbed being developed for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)’s Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstration Programme.
A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines.
Rocketdyne was an American rocket engine design and production company headquartered in Canoga Park, in the western San Fernando Valley of suburban Los Angeles, in southern California.
Rockwell International was a major American manufacturing conglomerate in the latter half of the 20th century, involved in aircraft, the space industry, both defense-oriented and commercial electronics, automotive and truck components, printing presses, valves and meters, and industrial automation.
Roger A. Pielke Jr. (born November 2, 1968) is an American political scientist and professor and the director of the Sports Governance Center within the Department of Athletics at the Center for Science and Technology Policy Research at the University of Colorado Boulder.
Rogers Dry Lake is an endorheic desert salt pan in the Mojave Desert of Kern County, California.
A rudder is a primary control surface used to steer a ship, boat, submarine, hovercraft, aircraft, or other conveyance that moves through a fluid medium (generally air or water).
The Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) are two extensively modified Boeing 747 airliners that NASA used to transport Space Shuttle orbiters.
Shuttle Down is a novel by American author G. Harry Stine, written under the nom de plume Lee Correy.
The Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) is an airport located on Merritt Island in Brevard County, Florida, USA.
The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is an international research effort that obtained digital elevation models on a near-global scale from 56° S to 60° N, to generate the most complete high-resolution digital topographic database of Earth prior to the release of the ASTER GDEM in 2009.
The Shuttle Training Aircraft (STA) was a NASA training vehicle that duplicated the Space Shuttle's approach profile and handling qualities, allowing Space Shuttle pilots to simulate Shuttle landings under controlled conditions before attempting the task on board the orbiter.
The Shuttle-C was a NASA proposal to turn the Space Shuttle launch stack into a dedicated unmanned cargo launcher.
Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, or simply Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV), is a term describing one of a wide array of concepts that have been developed for creating space launch vehicles from the components, technology and infrastructure of the Space Shuttle program.
Simulation is the imitation of the operation of a real-world process or system.
A single-stage-to-orbit (or SSTO) vehicle reaches orbit from the surface of a body without jettisoning hardware, expending only propellants and fluids.
Skylon is a series of designs for a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane by the British company Reaction Engines Limited (REL), using SABRE, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
A solid-propellant rocket or solid rocket is a rocket with a rocket engine that uses solid propellants (fuel/oxidizer).
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
Space Center Houston is a leading science and space learning center, the official visitor center of NASA Johnson Space Center in Houston and a Smithsonian Affiliate museum.
Space Cowboys is a 2000 American space drama film directed and produced by Clint Eastwood.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
A space flight simulation game is a genre of flight simulator video games that lets players experience space flight to varying degrees of realism.
The Space Launch System (SLS) is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle.
Space Shuttle (full title: Space Shuttle: Pinball Adventure) is a Space Shuttle themed pinball machine designed by Barry Oursler and Joe Kaminkow and produced in 1984 by WMS Industries.
Space Shuttle abort modes were procedures by which the nominal launch of the NASA Space Shuttle could be terminated.
Space Shuttle Atlantis (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV‑104) is a Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle belonging to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the spaceflight and space exploration agency of the United States.
Space Shuttle Challenger (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was the second orbiter of NASA's space shuttle program to be put into service, after ''Columbia''.
On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of (OV-99) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts and two payload specialists.
Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.
On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.
Even before the Project Apollo moon landing in 1969, NASA began studies of space shuttle designs as early as October 1968.
Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the orbiters from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the third of five fully operational orbiters to be built.
Space Shuttle Endeavour (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational shuttle built.
Space Shuttle Enterprise (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first orbiter of the Space Shuttle system.
A Space Shuttle external tank (ET) was the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contained the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer.
Space Shuttle Independence, formerly known as Explorer, is a full-scale, high-fidelity replica of the Space Shuttle.
Space Shuttle Inspiration is a full-scale Space Shuttle mockup built in 1972 by North American Rockwell.
The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System.
Space Shuttle Mission 2007, also SSM2007 is a highly realistic Space Shuttle stand-alone mission simulator for the Microsoft Windows operating system.
The Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), is a system of hypergolic liquid-propellant rocket engines used on the Space Shuttle.
The Space Shuttle orbiter was the spaceplane component of the Space Shuttle, a partially reusable orbital spacecraft system that was part of the Space Shuttle program.
The Space Shuttle Orbiter Pathfinder (unofficial Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-098) is a Space Shuttle test simulator made of steel and wood.
The Space Shuttle program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011.
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were the first solid fuel motors to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight.
The Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is the barrier that protected the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing heat of atmospheric reentry.
The Space Transportation System (STS), also known internally to NASA as the Integrated Program Plan (IPP), was a proposed system of reusable manned space vehicles envisioned in 1969 to support extended operations beyond the Apollo program.
SpaceCamp is a 1986 American space adventure film inspired by the U.S. Space Camp in Huntsville, Alabama.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.
Spiro Theodore "Ted" Agnew (November 9, 1918 – September 17, 1996) was the 39th Vice President of the United States, serving from 1969 to his resignation in 1973.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
The Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center, also called the Udvar-Hazy Center, is the Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum (NASM)'s annex at Washington Dulles International Airport in the Chantilly area of Fairfax County, Virginia, United States.
STS-1 (Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program.
STS-107 was the 113th flight of the Space Shuttle program, and the final flight of Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-114 was the first "Return to Flight" Space Shuttle mission following the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
STS-118 was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) flown by the orbiter Endeavour.
STS-120 was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) that launched on 23 October 2007 from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida.
STS-131 (ISS assembly flight 19A) was a NASA Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
STS-133 (ISS assembly flight ULF5) was the 133rd mission in NASA's Space Shuttle program; during the mission, Space Shuttle ''Discovery'' docked with the International Space Station.
STS-134 (ISS assembly flight ULF6) was the penultimate mission of NASA's Space Shuttle program and the 25th and last spaceflight of.
STS-135 (ISS assembly flight ULF7) was the 135th and final mission of the American Space Shuttle program.
STS-2 was the second Space Shuttle mission conducted by NASA, and the second flight of the orbiter ''Columbia''.
STS-26 was the 26th NASA Space Shuttle mission and the seventh flight of the orbiter ''Discovery''.
STS-3 was NASA's third Space Shuttle mission, and was the third mission for the Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-30 was the 29th NASA Space Shuttle mission and the fourth mission for Space Shuttle ''Atlantis''.
STS-31 was the thirty-fifth mission of the American Space Shuttle program, which launched the Hubble Space Telescope astronomical observatory into Earth orbit.
STS-41-D was the 12th flight of NASA's Space Shuttle program, and the first mission of Space Shuttle ''Discovery''.
STS-47 was the 50th Space Shuttle mission of the program, as well as the second mission of Space Shuttle Endeavour.
STS-49 was the maiden flight of the Space Shuttle ''Endeavour''.
STS-5 was the fifth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-51-J was the 21st NASA Space Shuttle mission and the first flight of Space Shuttle ''Atlantis''.
STS-51-L was the 25th mission of the United States Space Shuttle program, and disastrous final mission of the Space Shuttle ''Challenger''.
STS-55 (Space Transportation System 55), or D-2 was the 55th overall flight of the US Space Shuttle and the 14th flight of Shuttle Columbia.
STS-6 was the sixth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the maiden flight of the Space Shuttle ''Challenger''.
STS-61-A (also known as D-1) was the 22nd mission of NASA's Space Shuttle program.
STS-61-C was the twenty-fourth mission of NASA's Space Shuttle program, and the seventh mission of Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-70 was the 21st flight of the Space Shuttle ''Discovery'', and the last of 7 shuttle missions to carry a Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS).
STS-71 was the third mission of the US/Russian Shuttle-Mir Program and the first Space Shuttle docking to Russian space station Mir.
STS-79 was the 17th flight of Space Shuttle ''Atlantis'', and the 79th mission of the Space Shuttle program.
STS-80 was a Space Shuttle mission flown by Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-82 was the 22nd flight of the Space Shuttle ''Discovery'' and the 82nd mission of the Space Shuttle program.
STS-88 was the first Space Shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS).
STS-9 (also referred to as STS-41A and Spacelab 1) was the ninth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the sixth mission of the Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-91 was the final Space Shuttle mission to the Mir space station.
STS-93 marked the 95th launch of the Space Shuttle, the 26th launch of ''Columbia'', and the 21st night launch of a Space Shuttle.
Swades is a 2004 Indian drama film written, produced and directed by Ashutosh Gowariker.
Aircraft can have different ways to take off and land.
A test article is a version of space craft or related vehicle or equipment, built as a platform to perform testing.
Texas A&M University (Texas A&M or A&M) is a coeducational public research university in College Station, Texas, United States.
The Cape is an American dramatic TV series, with elements of science fiction, action/adventure, and drama, that was produced for syndication during the 1996–97 television season.
The Core is a 2003 American science fiction disaster film, directed by Jon Amiel and starring Aaron Eckhart, Hilary Swank, Delroy Lindo, Stanley Tucci, Tchéky Karyo, DJ Qualls, Bruce Greenwood and Alfre Woodard.
The Lego Batman Movie is a 2017 3D computer-animated superhero comedy film, produced by Warner Animation Group.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The thermosphere is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and below the exosphere.
Thiokol (variously Thiokol Chemical Corporation, Morton-Thiokol Inc., Cordant Technologies Inc., Thiokol Propulsion, AIC Group, ATK Thiokol, ATK Launch Systems Group; finally Orbital ATK before becoming part of Northrop Grumman Innovation Systems) was an American corporation concerned initially with rubber and related chemicals, and later with rocket and missile propulsion systems.
Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
, officially, is one of the 47 prefectures of Japan and has been the capital since 1869.
A tracking and data relay satellite (TDRS) is a type of communications satellite that forms part of the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) used by NASA and other United States government agencies for communications to and from independent "User Platforms" such as satellites, balloons, aircraft, the International Space Station, and remote bases like the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station.
The Transfer Orbit Stage (TOS) was an upper stage developed by Martin Marietta for Orbital Sciences Corporation during the late 1980s and early 1990s.
The is a line of toys produced by the American toy company Hasbro and Japanese company Takara (now known as Takara Tomy).
The U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama is a museum operated by the government of Alabama, showcasing rockets, achievements, and artifacts of the U.S. space program.
Ulysses is a decommissioned robotic space probe whose primary mission was to orbit the Sun and study it at all latitudes.
United Space Alliance (USA) is a spaceflight operations company.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
U.S. Space Camp is a camp and related programs owned and operated by the Alabama Space Science Exhibit Commission's U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama.
Space Launch Complex-6 (SLC-6, pronounced "Slick Six") at Vandenberg Air Force Base in California is a launch pad and support area.
Vandenberg Air Force Base is a United States Air Force Base northwest of Lompoc, California.
The Vehicle (originally Vertical) Assembly Building, or VAB, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a building designed to assemble large space vehicles, such as the massive Saturn V and the Space Shuttle.
The Virginia Air and Space Center is a museum and educational facility in Hampton, Virginia that also serves as the visitors center for NASA's Langley Research Center and Langley Air Force Base.
Weibel Scientific is a Danish designer and manufacturer of doppler radars.
Wet workshop is the idea of using a spent rocket stage as a makeshift space station.
White Sands Space Harbor (WSSH) was a Space Shuttle runway, a test site for rocket research, and the primary training area used by NASA for Space Shuttle pilots practicing approaches and landings in the Shuttle Training Aircraft and T-38 Talon aircraft.
A wind tunnel is a tool used in aerodynamic research to study the effects of air moving past solid objects.
Wings of Dreams is an aviation museum located at the Keystone Heights Airport in Starke, Florida.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
WMS Industries, Inc. is an American electronic gaming and amusement manufacturer in Enterprise, Nevada.
Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of trees and other woody plants.
Woodpeckers are part of the family Picidae, a group of near-passerine birds that also consist of piculets, wrynecks, and sapsuckers.
X-Plane is a flight simulator produced by Laminar Research.
Zaccaria, (later briefly reorganized under Mr. Game before ending production) was an Italian company of pinball and arcade machines that existed in Bologna from 1974 - 1990.
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