128 relations: Airlock, Alan Shepard, Alexey Leonov, Aluminium, Apollo 1, Apollo Lunar Module, Apollo program, Apollo spacecraft feasibility study, Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, Astronaut, Atlas LV-3B, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Atmospheric Reentry Demonstrator, Attitude control, Avionics, Beryllium, Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, Center of mass, Ceramic, Chang'e 5-T1, China, Command module, Communism, Corona (satellite), CST-100 Starliner, Delta wing, Density, Docking and berthing of spacecraft, Drag (physics), Dragon 2, Ed White (astronaut), Energia (corporation), Extravehicular activity, Fanhui Shi Weixing, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Federation (spacecraft), Fiberglass, Foton (satellite), Fuel cell, Gemini 3, Gemini 4, Gravity, Gravity of Mars, Gus Grissom, Honeycomb structure, Hypergolic propellant, Intercontinental ballistic missile, International Geophysical Year, Iranian manned spaceship project, ..., ISRO Orbital Vehicle, John F. Kennedy, John Glenn, Kliper, Launch escape system, Launch vehicle, Lifting body, Low Earth orbit, Lunar orbit rendezvous, Mars, Maxime Faget, McDonnell Aircraft, Mercury Seven, Mercury-Atlas 9, Mercury-Redstone 3, Mercury-Redstone 4, Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, Meteoroid, Molecule, Moon, NASA, Nikita Khrushchev, North American Aviation, Nose cone, Orbital module, OREX, Orion (spacecraft), Plug door, Progress (spacecraft), Project Gemini, Project Mercury, R-7 Semyorka, Radiation, Reentry capsule, Retrorocket, Roger B. Chaffee, Saturn V, Sergei Korolev, Service module, Shenzhou (spacecraft), Shuguang (spacecraft), Skylab, Solar cell, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz 1, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-LOK, Soyuz 7K-OK, Space Capsule Recovery Experiment, Space exploration, Space rendezvous, Space Shuttle, Space station, Space suit, Space Task Group, Spacecraft, SpaceX Dragon, Sputnik 2, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Telephone booth, Titan II GLV, TKS (spacecraft), Translation (geometry), U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps, VBK-Raduga, Voskhod (spacecraft), Voskhod 1, Voskhod 2, Vostok (spacecraft), Vostok 5, Vostok programme, Weightlessness, Wernher von Braun, Yang Liwei, Yantar (satellite), Yuri Gagarin. Expand index (78 more) » « Shrink index
An airlock is a device which permits the passage of people and objects between a pressure vessel and its surroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vessel and loss of air from it.
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first manned mission of the United States Apollo program, the program to land the first men on the Moon.
The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The Apollo spacecraft feasibility study was conducted by NASA from July 1960 through May 1961 to investigate preliminary designs for a post-Project Mercury multi-manned spacecraft to be used for possible space station, circum-lunar, lunar orbital, or manned lunar landing missions.
The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) (Экспериментальный полёт «Аполлон» - «Союз» (ЭПАС), Eksperimentalniy polyot Apollon-Soyuz, lit. "Experimental flight Apollo-Soyuz", commonly referred to by the Soviets as "Soyuz-Apollo"), conducted in July 1975, was the first joint U.S.–Soviet space flight, as a symbol of the policy of détente that the two superpowers were pursuing at the time.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
The Atlas LV-3B, Atlas D Mercury Launch Vehicle or Mercury-Atlas Launch Vehicle, was a human-rated expendable launch system used as part of the United States Project Mercury to send astronauts into low Earth orbit.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
The Advanced Reentry Demonstrator (ARD) was a European Space Agency (ESA) suborbital reentry vehicle.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
Avionics are the electronic systems used on aircraft, artificial satellites, and spacecraft.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
Carbon fiber reinforced polymer, carbon fiber reinforced plastic or carbon fiber reinforced thermoplastic (CFRP, CRP, CFRTP or often simply carbon fiber, carbon composite or even carbon), is an extremely strong and light fiber-reinforced plastic which contains carbon fibers.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
A ceramic is a non-metallic solid material comprising an inorganic compound of metal, non-metal or metalloid atoms primarily held in ionic and covalent bonds.
Chang'e 5-T1 is an experimental unmanned lunar mission that was launched on 23 October 2014 by the China National Space Administration (CNSA) to conduct atmospheric re-entry tests on the capsule design planned to be used in the Chang'e 5 mission.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Command module may refer to.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Corona program was a series of American strategic reconnaissance satellites produced and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Science & Technology with substantial assistance from the U.S. Air Force.
The CST-100 Starliner (Crew Space Transportation) crew capsule is a spacecraft design under construction by Boeing in collaboration with Bigelow Aerospace as their entry for NASA's Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Docking and berthing of spacecraft is the joining of two space vehicles.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
Dragon 2 (also Crew Dragon, Dragon V2, or formerly DragonRider) is the second version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, which will be a human-rated vehicle.
Edward Higgins White II (November 14, 1930 – January 27, 1967), (Lt Col, USAF), was an American aeronautical engineer, U.S. Air Force officer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut.
PAO S. P. Korolev Rocket and Space Corporation Energia (Raketno-kosmicheskaya korporatsiya “Energiya” im.), also known as RSC Energia (РКК «Энергия», RKK “Energiya”), is a Russian manufacturer of ballistic missile, spacecraft and space station components.
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
Fanhui Shi Weixing is a series of Chinese recoverable reconnaissance satellites.
The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.
Federation (Федерация, Federatsiya), formerly called PPTS (Prospective Piloted Transport System, Перспективная Пилотируемая Транспортная Система, Perspektivnaya Pilotiruemaya Transportnaya Sistema) is a project by Roscosmos to develop a new-generation, partially reusable piloted spacecraft.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
Foton (or Photon) is the project name of two series of Russian science satellite and reentry vehicle programs.
A fuel cell is an electrochemical cell that converts the chemical energy from a fuel into electricity through an electrochemical reaction of hydrogen fuel with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.
Gemini 3 was the first manned mission in NASA's Gemini program, the second American manned space program.
Gemini 4 (officially Gemini IV) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
The gravity of Mars is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass around Mars are brought towards it.
Lieutenant Colonel Virgil Ivan "Gus" Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967) was one of the original NASA Project Mercury astronauts, a United States Air Force test pilot, and a mechanical engineer.
Honeycomb structures are natural or man-made structures that have the geometry of a honeycomb to allow the minimization of the amount of used material to reach minimal weight and minimal material cost.
A hypergolic propellant combination used in a rocket engine is one whose components spontaneously ignite when they come into contact with each other.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
The International Geophysical Year (IGY; Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958.
The Iranian manned spaceship project is a proposal by the Iranian Aerospace Research Institute of the Iranian Space Research Center (ISRC) to put an astronaut into space.
The Indian manned spacecraft, temporarily named Orbital Vehicle, is intended to be the basis of the Indian human spaceflight program.
John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.
Colonel John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio.
Kliper (Клипер, English: Clipper) was an early-2000s proposed partly- reusable manned spacecraft concept by RSC Energia.
A launch escape system (LES) or launch abort system (LAS) is a crew safety system connected to a space capsule, used to quickly separate the capsule from its launch vehicle rocket in case of a launch abort emergency, such as an impending explosion.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
A lifting body is a fixed-wing aircraft or spacecraft configuration in which the body itself produces lift.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
Lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) is a key concept for efficiently landing humans on the Moon and returning them to Earth.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Maxime Allen "Max" Faget (pronounced fah-ZHAY; August 26, 1921 – October 10, 2004) was a Belizean-born American mechanical engineer.
The McDonnell Aircraft Corporation was an American aerospace manufacturer based in St. Louis, Missouri.
The Mercury Seven were the group of seven Mercury astronauts announced by NASA on April 9, 1959.
Mercury-Atlas 9 was the final manned space mission of the U.S. Mercury program, launched on May 15, 1963 from Launch Complex 14 at Cape Canaveral, Florida.
Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard.
Mercury-Redstone 4 was the second United States human spaceflight, on July 21, 1961.
The Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, designed for NASA's Project Mercury, was the first American manned space booster.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (15 April 1894 – 11 September 1971) was a Soviet statesman who led the Soviet Union during part of the Cold War as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union from 1953 to 1964, and as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, or Premier, from 1958 to 1964.
North American Aviation (NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane, and the XB-70, as well as Apollo Command and Service Module, the second stage of the Saturn V rocket, the Space Shuttle orbiter and the B-1 Lancer.
The term nose cone is used to refer to the forwardmost section of a rocket, guided missile or aircraft.
The orbital module is a portion of spacecraft used only in orbit.
OREX (Orbital Re-entry Experiment) was a NASDA re-entry demonstrator prototype which was launched in 1994 on the H-II launcher; the satellite was renamed.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is an American interplanetary spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).
A plug door is a door designed to seal itself by taking advantage of pressure difference on its two sides and is typically used on aircraft with cabin pressurization.
The Progress (Прогресс) is a Russian expendable cargo spacecraft.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
A reentry capsule is the portion of a spacecraft which returns to Earth following a space flight.
A retrorocket (short for retrograde rocket) is a rocket engine providing thrust opposing the motion of a vehicle, thereby causing it to decelerate.
Roger Bruce Chaffee (February 15, 1935 – January 27, 1967) was an American naval officer and naval aviator, aeronautical engineer, and NASA astronaut in the Apollo program.
The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
A service module (or equipment module) is a spacecraft compartment containing a variety of support systems used for spacecraft operations.
2O4/MMH): || 10000 N || 2248 lbf ea |- | Delta V: || 380 m/s || 1,240 ft/s --> Shenzhou is a spacecraft developed and operated by China using Soyuz technology to support its manned spaceflight program. The name is variously translated as "Divine Craft", "Divine Vessel of God", "Magic Boat" or similar and is also homophonous with an ancient name for China (written 神州; meaning "Divine State"). Its design resembles the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, but it is larger in size. The first launch was on November 19, 1999 and the first manned launch was on October 15, 2003. In March 2005, an asteroid was named 8256 Shenzhou in honour of the spacecraft.
Shuguang One, meaning "dawn" in Mandarin, also known as Project 714, was the first manned spacecraft proposed by the People's Republic of China during the late 1960s and early 1970s that was never built.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
A solar cell, or photovoltaic cell, is an electrical device that converts the energy of light directly into electricity by the photovoltaic effect, which is a physical and chemical phenomenon.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
Soyuz 1 (Союз 1, Union 1) was a manned spaceflight of the Soviet space program.
Soyuz 11 (Союз 11, Union 11) was the only manned mission to board the world's first space station, Salyut 1 (Soyuz 10 had soft-docked but had not been able to enter due to latching problems).
The Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the Moon without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon race.
The Soyuz 7K-LOK, or simply LOK (translit meaning "Lunar Orbital Craft") was a Soviet manned spacecraft designed to launch men from Earth to orbit the Moon, developed in parallel to the 7K-L1.
Soyuz 7K-OK was the first generation of Soyuz spacecraft in use from 1967 to 1971.
The Space Capsule Recovery Experiment (SCRE or more commonly SRE or SRE-1) is an Indian experimental spacecraft which was launched at 03:53 UTC on January 10, 2007 from Sriharikota by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver during which two spacecraft, one of which is often a space station, arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact).
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
The Space Task Group was a working group of NASA engineers created in 1958, tasked with managing America's manned spaceflight programs.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Dragon is a reusable spacecraft developed by SpaceX, an American private space transportation company based in Hawthorne, California.
Sputnik 2 (Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, italic, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
A telephone booth, telephone kiosk, telephone call box, telephone box or public call box is a small structure furnished with a payphone and designed for a telephone user's convenience.
The Titan II GLV (Gemini Launch Vehicle) or Gemini-Titan II was an American expendable launch system derived from the Titan II missile, which was used to launch twelve Gemini missions for NASA between 1964 and 1966.
The TKS spacecraft (Транспортный корабль снабжения., Transportnyi Korabl’ Snabzheniia, Transport Supply Spacecraft, GRAU index 11F72) was a Soviet spacecraft conceived in the late 1960s for resupply flights to the military Almaz space station.
In Euclidean geometry, a translation is a geometric transformation that moves every point of a figure or a space by the same distance in a given direction.
With the advent of unmanned and manned space flight a new era of American history had presented itself.
The VBK-Raduga capsule was a reentry capsule that was used for returning materials to Earth's surface from the space station Mir.
The Voskhod ("Sunrise") was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight as part of the Voskhod programme.
Voskhod 1 (Восход-1; Восход is Russian for Sunrise) was the seventh manned Soviet space flight.
Voskhod 2 (Sunrise-2) was a Soviet manned space mission in March 1965.
The Vostok (Восток, translated as "East") was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union.
Vostok 5 (Восток-5, Orient 5 or East 5) was a joint mission of the Soviet space program together with Vostok 6; as with the previous pair of Vostok 3 and Vostok 4 the two Vostok spacecraft came close to one another in orbit and established a radio link.
The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.
Weightlessness, or an absence of weight, is an absence of stress and strain resulting from externally applied mechanical contact-forces, typically normal forces (from floors, seats, beds, scales, etc.). Counterintuitively, a uniform gravitational field does not by itself cause stress or strain, and a body in free fall in such an environment experiences no g-force acceleration and feels weightless.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
Yang Liwei (born 21 June 1965) is a major general, military pilot, and China National Space Administration astronaut.
Yantar (Янтарь meaning amber) is a series of Russian (previously Soviet) reconnaissance satellites, which supplemented and eventually replaced the Zenit spacecraft.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.