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Space exploration

Index Space exploration

Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology. [1]

304 relations: Abiogenesis, Alan Shepard, Alexey Leonov, Animals in space, Antimatter, Apollo 11, Apollo 17, Apollo 8, Apollo program, Apollo Telescope Mount, Arthur C. Clarke, Associated Press, Asteroid belt, Astrobiology Magazine, Astrobotic Technology, Astronaut, Astronautics, Astronomer, Astronomical object, Astronomy, Atmospheric entry, Aurora, Aurora programme, Axial tilt, Azerbaijan International, Beam-powered propulsion, BepiColombo, Bigelow Commercial Space Station, Biology, Blue Origin, Cassini–Huygens, Ceres (dwarf planet), Chandrayaan-1, Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, Chinese space program, Christopher C. Kraft Jr., Cold War, Colonization of Mars, Colonization of the Moon, Commercial astronaut, Communications satellite, Comparison of Asian national space programs, Constellation program, Crew Exploration Vehicle, Crore, Dawn (spacecraft), Deep Impact (spacecraft), Deep space exploration, Delta-v, Discovery (observation), ..., Discovery and exploration of the Solar System, Discovery Program, Dwarf planet, Earth, Earth observation satellite, Effect of spaceflight on the human body, Energy development, European Space Agency, European Union, Evolution, Exploration, Exploration Mission 2, Exploration of Mars, Explorer 1, Extravehicular activity, Far side of the Moon, Flexible path, Flight controller, Fobos-Grunt, French space program, Galileo (spacecraft), Google Lunar X Prize, Gravity, Gravity assist, Great Dark Spot, H. G. Wells, Halley Armada, Hayabusa, Hermann Oberth, Hope Mars Mission, Human extinction, Human outpost, Human spaceflight, In situ resource utilization, In-space propulsion technologies, India, Intercontinental ballistic missile, Interdisciplinarity, International Business Times, International Cometary Explorer, International Space Station, Interplanetary contamination, Interstellar travel, JAXA, John F. Kennedy, John Glenn, Juno (spacecraft), Jupiter, Kerim Kerimov, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Kosmos 186 and Kosmos 188, Kuiper belt, Lagrangian point, Laika, Land claim, Lander (spacecraft), List of artificial objects on extra-terrestrial surfaces, List of human spaceflight programs, List of human spaceflights, List of landings on extraterrestrial bodies, List of missions to Mars, List of missions to the outer planets, List of Russian explorers, List of siege artillery, List of spaceflight-related accidents and incidents, Lists of space programs, Low Earth orbit, Luna 10, Luna 2, Luna 9, Luna programme, Lunokhod programme, Magnetosphere, Mariner 10, Mariner 2, Mariner 4, Mariner program, Mars, Mars 3, Mars Orbiter Mission, Mars program, Mars to Stay, Marshall Space Flight Center, Maxime Faget, Mercury (planet), Mercury-Atlas 6, Mercury-Redstone 3, MESSENGER, Meteoroid, Militarisation of space, Mir, Miranda (moon), Mission control center, Monkeys and apes in space, Moon, Moon Impact Probe, Moon landing, Moons of Jupiter, Moons of Saturn, Moons of Uranus, NASA, NASA Authorization Act of 2010, NASA Deep Space Network, NASA spinoff technologies, Nature (journal), Nazism, NDTV, NEAR Shoemaker, Neptune, Neptune Orbiter, New Horizons, NewSpace, Nuclear power, Nuclear weapon, Operation Paperclip, Orbital mechanics, Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station, Orbiter, Orion (spacecraft), Outer space, Outer Space Treaty, Outline of space technology, Ozone depletion, Ozone depletion by rocket launches, Paris Gun, Parker Solar Probe, Philae (spacecraft), Phobos (moon), Phobos program, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Pioneer program, Planetary flyby, Plutino, Pluto, Private property, Private spaceflight, Proceedings of the IEEE, Project Gemini, Project Mercury, Proteus (moon), R-1 (missile), R-7 Semyorka, Radar, Ranger 4, Ranger program, Reconnaissance satellite, Recorded history, Reinhold Tiling, Religion in space, Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee, Right to property, Rings of Uranus, Robert H. Goddard, Robert R. Gilruth, Robotic spacecraft, Rocket, Rocket launch, Roscosmos, Rosetta (spacecraft), Rover (space exploration), Salyut 1, Salyut programme, Sample-return mission, Satellite navigation, Satellite radio, Saturn, Saturn V, Scaled Composites Tier One, Sergei Korolev, Shenzhou 5, Sky, Skylab, Sovereign state, Soviet space dogs, Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz programme, Space and survival, Space archaeology, Space architecture, Space colonization, Space habitat, Space Launch System, Space probe, Space Race, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle program, Space station, Space telescope, Space tourism, Space weather, Spacecraft, Spacefaring, Spaceflight, SpaceX, Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, Stardust (spacecraft), Stephen Hawking, STS-133, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Sun, Surveyor 1, Surveyor program, Susan G. Finley, Telescope, Tempel 1, Terrestrial planet, The New York Times, Timeline of Solar System exploration, Timeline of spaceflight, Titan (moon), Triton (moon), U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps, United States, Uranus, V-2 rocket, Valentin Glushko, Valentina Tereshkova, Valeri Polyakov, Van Allen radiation belt, Vanguard TV3, Vasily Mishin, Vega program, Venera, Venera 13, Venera 4, Venera 7, Venera 9, Venus, Viking 1, Viking program, Vision for Space Exploration, Voskhod programme, Vostok 1, Vostok 6, Vostok programme, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Voyager program, Wernher von Braun, World War I, World War II, Yang Liwei, Yuri Gagarin, Zond program, 21P/Giacobini–Zinner, 243 Ida, 25143 Itokawa, 4 Vesta, 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, 951 Gaspra. Expand index (254 more) »

Abiogenesis

Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.

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Alan Shepard

Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.

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Alexey Leonov

Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.

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Animals in space

Non-human animals in space originally served to test the survivability of spaceflight, before human spaceflights were attempted.

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Antimatter

In modern physics, antimatter is defined as a material composed of the antiparticle (or "partners") to the corresponding particles of ordinary matter.

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Apollo 11

Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.

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Apollo 17

Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program.

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Apollo 8

Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.

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Apollo program

The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.

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Apollo Telescope Mount

The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, was a solar observatory attached to Skylab, the first American space station.

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Arthur C. Clarke

Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.

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Associated Press

The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.

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Asteroid belt

The asteroid belt is the circumstellar disc in the Solar System located roughly between the orbits of the planets Mars and Jupiter.

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Astrobiology Magazine

Astrobiology Magazine (exploring the solar system and beyond), or Astrobiology Mag, is an American NASA-sponsored international online popular science magazine containing popular science content, which refers to articles for the general reader on science and technology subjects.

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Astrobotic Technology

Astrobotic Technology is an American privately held company that is developing space robotics technology for planetary missions.

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Astronaut

An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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Astronautics

Astronautics (or cosmonautics) is the theory and practice of navigation beyond Earth's atmosphere.

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Astronomer

An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.

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Astronomical object

An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.

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Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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Atmospheric entry

Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.

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Aurora

An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).

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Aurora programme

The Aurora programme (sometimes called Aurora Exploration Programme, or simply Exploration Programme) is a human spaceflight programme of the European Space Agency (ESA) established in 2001.

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Axial tilt

In astronomy, axial tilt, also known as obliquity, is the angle between an object's rotational axis and its orbital axis, or, equivalently, the angle between its equatorial plane and orbital plane.

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Azerbaijan International

Azerbaijan International is a magazine that discusses issues related to Azerbaijanis around the world.

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Beam-powered propulsion

Beam-powered propulsion, also known as directed energy propulsion, is a class of aircraft or spacecraft propulsion that uses energy beamed to the spacecraft from a remote power plant to provide energy.

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BepiColombo

BepiColombo is a joint mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) and the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) to the planet Mercury.

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Bigelow Commercial Space Station

The Bigelow Next-Generation Commercial Space Station is a private orbital space station currently under development by Bigelow Aerospace.

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Biology

Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.

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Blue Origin

Blue Origin, LLC is an American privately funded aerospace manufacturer and spaceflight services company headquartered in Kent, Washington.

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Cassini–Huygens

The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.

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Ceres (dwarf planet)

Ceres (minor-planet designation: 1 Ceres) is the largest object in the asteroid belt that lies between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, slightly closer to Mars' orbit.

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Chandrayaan-1

Chandrayaan-1 (lit: Moon vehicle) was India's first lunar probe.

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Chinese Lunar Exploration Program

The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program (CLEP), also known as the Chang'e program after the Chinese moon goddess Chang'e, is an ongoing series of robotic Moon missions by the China National Space Administration (CNSA).

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Chinese space program

The space program of the People's Republic of China is directed by the China National Space Administration (CNSA).

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Christopher C. Kraft Jr.

Christopher Columbus "Chris" Kraft Jr. (born February 28, 1924) is an American aerospace engineer and retired NASA engineer and manager who was instrumental in establishing the agency's Mission Control operation.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).

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Colonization of Mars

Mars is the focus of much scientific study about possible human colonization.

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Colonization of the Moon

The colonization of the Moon is a proposed establishment of permanent human communities or robotic industries on the Moon.

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Commercial astronaut

A commercial astronaut is a person trained to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a privately funded spacecraft.

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Communications satellite

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

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Comparison of Asian national space programs

Several Asian countries have space programs and are actively competing to achieve scientific and technological advancements in space, a situation sometimes referred to as the Asian space race in the popular media as a reference to the earlier Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union.

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Constellation program

The Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) is a cancelled manned spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009.

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Crew Exploration Vehicle

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was the conceptual component of the U.S. NASA Vision for Space Exploration that later became known as the Orion spacecraft.

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Crore

A crore (abbreviated cr) or koti denotes ten million (10,000,000 or 107 in scientific notation) and is equal to 100 lakh in the Indian numbering system as 1,00,00,000 with the local style of digit group separators (a lakh is equal to one hundred thousand and is written as 1,00,000).

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Dawn (spacecraft)

Dawn is a space probe launched by NASA in September 2007 with the mission of studying two of the three known protoplanets of the asteroid belt, Vesta and Ceres.

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Deep Impact (spacecraft)

Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 18:47 UTC on January 12, 2005.

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Deep space exploration

Deep space exploration (or deep-space exploration) is the branch of astronomy, astronautics and space technology that is involved with exploring the distant regions of outer space.

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Delta-v

Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.

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Discovery (observation)

Discovery is the act of detecting something new, or something "old" that had been unrecognized as meaningful.

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Discovery and exploration of the Solar System

Discovery and exploration of the Solar System is observation, visitation, and increase in knowledge and understanding of Earth's "cosmic neighborhood".

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Discovery Program

NASA's Discovery Program is a series of lower-cost (as compared to New Frontiers or Flagship Programs), highly focused American scientific space missions that are exploring the Solar System.

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Dwarf planet

A dwarf planet is a planetary-mass object that is neither a planet nor a natural satellite.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth observation satellite

Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.

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Effect of spaceflight on the human body

Humans venturing into the environment of space can have negative effects on the body.

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Energy development

Energy development is the field of activities focused on obtaining sources of energy from natural resources.

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European Space Agency

The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Evolution

Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Exploration

Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.

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Exploration Mission 2

The Exploration Mission 2, or EM-2, is a scheduled 2023 mission of the Space Launch System and possibly the first crewed mission of NASA's Orion spacecraft.

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Exploration of Mars

The planet Mars has been explored remotely by spacecraft.

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Explorer 1

Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.

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Extravehicular activity

Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.

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Far side of the Moon

The far side of the Moon (sometimes figuratively known as the dark side of the Moon) is the hemisphere of the Moon that always faces away from Earth.

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Flexible path

The flexible path was a set of destinations for further crewed space exploration in the inner Solar System proposed in the Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee of 2009 and was envisioned as alternative to the Moon-first and Mars-first approaches.

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Flight controller

Flight controllers are personnel who aid space flight by working in such Mission Control Centers as NASA's Mission Control Center or ESA's European Space Operations Centre.

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Fobos-Grunt

Fobos-Grunt or Phobos-Grunt (Фобос-Грунт, literally "Phobos-Ground") was an attempted Russian sample return mission to Phobos, one of the moons of Mars.

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French space program

The French space program includes both civil and military spaceflight activities.

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Galileo (spacecraft)

Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.

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Google Lunar X Prize

The Google Lunar XPRIZE (GLXP), sometimes referred to as Moon 2.0, was a 2007–2018 inducement prize space competition organized by the X Prize Foundation, and sponsored by Google.

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Gravity assist

In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.

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Great Dark Spot

The Great Dark Spot (also known as GDS-89) was one of a series of dark spots on Neptune similar in appearance to Jupiter's Great Red Spot.

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H. G. Wells

Herbert George Wells.

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Halley Armada

The Halley Armada is the name of five space probes sent to examine Halley's Comet during its 1986 sojourn through the inner Solar System, connected with apparition "1P/1982 U1".

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Hayabusa

No description.

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Hermann Oberth

Hermann Julius Oberth (25 June 1894 – 28 December 1989) was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer.

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Hope Mars Mission

The Hope Mars Mission or Emirates Mars Mission (مسبار الأمل) is a space exploration probe mission to Mars, set to be launched by the United Arab Emirates in 2020.

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Human extinction

In futures studies, human extinction is the hypothetical end of the human species.

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Human outpost

Human outposts; ByIris Fleischer, Olivia Haider, Morten W. Hansen, Robert Peckyno, Daniel Rosenberg and Robert E. Guinness; 30 September 2003; IAC Bremen, 2003 (29 Sept – 03 Oct 2003) and MoonMars Workshop (26-28 Sept 2003, Bremen).

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Human spaceflight

Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.

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In situ resource utilization

In space exploration, in situ resource utilization (ISRU) is defined as "the collection, processing, storing and use of materials encountered in the course of human or robotic space exploration that replace materials that would otherwise be brought from Earth." ISRU is the practice of leveraging resources found or manufactured on other astronomical objects (the Moon, Mars, asteroids, etc.) to fulfill or enhance the requirements and capabilities of a space mission.

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In-space propulsion technologies

Proposed in-space propulsion technologies describe the propulsion technologies that could meet future space science and exploration needs.

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India

India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Intercontinental ballistic missile

An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).

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Interdisciplinarity

Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).

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International Business Times

The International Business Times is an American online news publication that publishes seven national editions and four languages.

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International Cometary Explorer

The International Cometary Explorer (ICE) spacecraft (designed and launched as the International Sun-Earth Explorer-3 (ISEE-3) satellite), was launched August 12, 1978, into a heliocentric orbit.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Interplanetary contamination

Interplanetary contamination refers to biological contamination of a planetary body by a space probe or spacecraft, either deliberate or unintentional.

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Interstellar travel

Interstellar travel is the term used for hypothetical crewed or uncrewed travel between stars or planetary systems.

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JAXA

The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.

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John F. Kennedy

John Fitzgerald "Jack" Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th President of the United States from January 1961 until his assassination in November 1963.

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John Glenn

Colonel John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio.

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Juno (spacecraft)

Juno is a NASA space probe orbiting the planet Jupiter.

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Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Kerim Kerimov

Lieutenant-General Kerim Aliyevich Kerimov (Kərim Əli oğlu Kərimov, Керим Алиевич Керимов; November 14, 1917–March 29, 2003) was a Soviet engineer of Azerbaijani ethnicity, who is regarded as one of many scientists and founders in the Soviet Union's space program, and for many years a central figure in the Soviet space program.

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Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.

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Kosmos 186 and Kosmos 188

Kosmos 186 (Космос-186 meaning Cosmos 186) and Kosmos 188 (respectively, Cosmos 188) were two unmanned Soviet Union spacecraft that incorporated a Soyuz programme descent module for landing scientific instruments and test objects.

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Kuiper belt

The Kuiper belt, occasionally called the Edgeworth–Kuiper belt, is a circumstellar disc in the outer Solar System, extending from the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to approximately 50 AU from the Sun.

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Lagrangian point

In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.

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Laika

Laika (Лайка; c. 1954 – 3 November 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth.

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Land claim

Land claim(s) are a legal declaration of desired control over areas of property including bodies of water.

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Lander (spacecraft)

A lander is a spacecraft which descends toward and comes to rest on the surface of an astronomical body.

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List of artificial objects on extra-terrestrial surfaces

No description.

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List of human spaceflight programs

This is a list of human spaceflight programs, including successful programs, programs that were canceled, and programs planned for the future.

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List of human spaceflights

These chronological lists include all crewed spaceflights that reached an altitude of at least 100 km (the FAI definition of spaceflight, see Kármán line), or were launched with that intention but failed.

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List of landings on extraterrestrial bodies

This is a list of all spacecraft landings on other planets and bodies in the Solar System, including soft landings and both intended and unintended hard impacts.

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List of missions to Mars

There are a number of derelict orbiters around Mars whose location is not known precisely; there is a proposal to search for small moons, dust rings, and old orbiters with the Optical Navigation Camera on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

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List of missions to the outer planets

A total of nine spacecraft have been launched on missions that involve visits to the outer planets; all nine missions involve encounters with Jupiter, with four spacecraft also visiting Saturn.

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List of Russian explorers

The history of exploration by citizens or subjects of the Russian Federation, the Soviet Union, the Russian Empire, the Tsardom of Russia and other Russian predecessor states forms a significant part of the history of Russia as well as the history of the world.

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List of siege artillery

Siege artillery (also siege guns or siege cannons) is the heavy guns designed to bombard fortifications, cities, and other fixed targets, as distinct from, e.g., field artillery.

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List of spaceflight-related accidents and incidents

This article lists verifiable spaceflight-related accidents and incidents resulting in fatality or near-fatality during flight or training for manned space missions, and testing, assembly, preparation or flight of manned and unmanned spacecraft.

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Lists of space programs

Lists of space programs include.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

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Luna 10

Luna 10 (E-6S series) was a 1966 Soviet Luna program, robotic spacecraft mission, also called Lunik 10.

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Luna 2

Luna 2 (E-1A series) or Lunik 2 was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon.

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Luna 9

Luna 9 (Луна-9), internal designation Ye-6 No.13, was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme.

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Luna programme

The Luna programme (from the Russian word Луна "Luna" meaning "Lunar" or "Moon"), occasionally called Lunik or Lunnik by western media, was a series of robotic spacecraft missions sent to the Moon by the Soviet Union between 1959 and 1976.

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Lunokhod programme

Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.

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Magnetosphere

A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.

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Mariner 10

Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus.

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Mariner 2

Mariner 2 (Mariner-Venus 1962), an American space probe to Venus, was the first robotic space probe to conduct a successful planetary encounter.

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Mariner 4

Mariner 4 (together with Mariner 3 known as Mariner–Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode.

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Mariner program

The Mariner program was a 10-mission program conducted by the American space agency NASA in conjunction with Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL).

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Mars

Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.

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Mars 3

Mars 3 was an unmanned space probe of the Soviet Mars program which spanned the years between 1960 and 1973.

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Mars Orbiter Mission

The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan ("Mars-craft", from मंगल mangala, "Mars" and यान yāna, "craft, vehicle"), is a space probe orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014.

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Mars program

The Mars program was a series of unmanned spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union between 1960 and 1973.

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Mars to Stay

Mars to Stay missions propose astronauts sent to Mars for the first time should intend to stay.

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Marshall Space Flight Center

The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.

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Maxime Faget

Maxime Allen "Max" Faget (pronounced fah-ZHAY; August 26, 1921 – October 10, 2004) was a Belizean-born American mechanical engineer.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Mercury-Atlas 6

Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) was the third human spaceflight for the U.S. and part of Project Mercury.

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Mercury-Redstone 3

Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard.

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MESSENGER

Messenger (stylized as MESSENGER, whose backronym is "MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging", and which is a reference to the messenger of the same name from Roman mythology) was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015.

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Meteoroid

A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.

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Militarisation of space

The militarisation of space is the placement and development of weaponry and military technology in outer space.

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Mir

Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.

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Miranda (moon)

Miranda, also designated Uranus V, is the smallest and innermost of Uranus's five round satellites.

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Mission control center

A mission control center (MCC, sometimes called a flight control center or operations center) is a facility that manages space flights, usually from the point of launch until landing or the end of the mission.

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Monkeys and apes in space

Before humans went into space, several other animals were launched into space, including numerous other primates, so that scientists could investigate the biological effects of space travel.

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Moon

The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.

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Moon Impact Probe

The Moon Impact Probe (MIP) developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), India's national space agency, was a lunar probe that was released by ISRO's Chandrayaan-1 lunar remote sensing orbiter which in turn was launched, on 22 October 2008, aboard a modified version of ISRO's Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle.

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Moon landing

A Moon landing is the arrival of a spacecraft on the surface of the Moon.

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Moons of Jupiter

There are 69 known moons of Jupiter.

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Moons of Saturn

The moons of Saturn are numerous and diverse, ranging from tiny moonlets less than 1 kilometer across to the enormous Titan, which is larger than the planet Mercury.

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Moons of Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet of the Solar System; it has 27 known moons, all of which are named after characters from the works of William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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NASA Authorization Act of 2010

The NASA Authorization Act of 2010 is a U.S. law authorizing NASA appropriations for fiscal years 2011, 2012, 2013 with the same top-line budget values as requested by US President Barack Obama.

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NASA Deep Space Network

The NASA Deep Space Network (DSN) is a worldwide network of US spacecraft communication facilities, located in the United States (California), Spain (Madrid), and Australia (Canberra), that supports NASA's interplanetary spacecraft missions.

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NASA spinoff technologies

NASA spinoff technologies are commercial products and services which have been developed with the help of NASA, through research and development contracts, such as Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) or STTR awards, licensing of NASA patents, use of NASA facilities, technical assistance from NASA personnel, or data from NASA research.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Nazism

National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.

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NDTV

New Delhi Television Limited (NDTV) is an Indian television media company founded in 1988 by Radhika Roy, a journalist.

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NEAR Shoemaker

The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.

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Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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Neptune Orbiter

Neptune Orbiter was a proposed NASA unmanned planetary spacecraft to explore the planet Neptune.

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New Horizons

New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.

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NewSpace

NewSpace—formerly alt.space; also new space, entrepreneurial space, astropreneurship, and commercial space—are umbrella terms for a movement and philosophy encompassing a globally emerging, private spaceflight industry.

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Nuclear power

Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Operation Paperclip

Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were recruited in post-Nazi Germany and taken to the U.S. for government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959.

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Orbital mechanics

Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.

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Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station

The Orbital Technologies Commercial Space Station is a proposed orbital space station intended for commercial clients.

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Orbiter

An orbiter is a space probe that orbits a planet or other astronomical object.

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Orion (spacecraft)

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is an American interplanetary spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Outer Space Treaty

The Outer Space Treaty, formally the Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies, is a treaty that forms the basis of international space law.

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Outline of space technology

Space technology is technology developed by space science or the aerospace industry for use in spaceflight, satellites, or space exploration.

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Ozone depletion

Ozone depletion describes two related events observed since the late 1970s: a steady lowering of about four percent in the total amount of ozone in Earth's atmosphere(the ozone layer), and a much larger springtime decrease in stratospheric ozone around Earth's polar regions.

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Ozone depletion by rocket launches

Rocket launches used for space exploration continue to gain popularity as the human population grows and technology advances toward the future.

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Paris Gun

The Paris Gun (Paris-Geschütz / Pariser Kanone) was the name given to a type of German long-range siege gun, several of which were used to bombard Paris during World War I. They were in service from March to August 1918.

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Parker Solar Probe

Parker Solar Probe (previously Solar Probe, Solar Probe Plus, or Solar Probe+) is a planned NASA robotic spacecraft to probe the outer corona of the Sun.

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Philae (spacecraft)

Philae is a robotic European Space Agency lander that accompanied the ''Rosetta'' spacecraft until it separated to land on comet 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko, ten years and eight months after departing Earth.

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Phobos (moon)

Phobos (systematic designation) is the innermost and larger of the two natural satellites of Mars, the other being Deimos.

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Phobos program

The Phobos (Фобос, Fobos, Φόβος) program was an unmanned space mission consisting of two probes launched by the Soviet Union to study Mars and its moons Phobos and Deimos.

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Pioneer 10

Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.

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Pioneer 11

Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays.

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Pioneer program

The Pioneer program is a series of United States unmanned space missions that were designed for planetary exploration.

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Planetary flyby

A planetary flyby is the act of sending a space probe past a planet or a dwarf planet close enough to record scientific data.

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Plutino

In astronomy, the plutinos are a dynamical group of trans-Neptunian objects in the outermost region of the Solar System that orbit in 2:3 mean-motion resonance with Neptune.

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Pluto

Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.

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Private property

Private property is a legal designation for the ownership of property by non-governmental legal entities.

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Private spaceflight

Private spaceflight is flight beyond the Kármán line (above the nominal edge of space at Earth altitude)—or the development of new spaceflight technology—that is conducted and paid for by an entity other than a government agency.

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Proceedings of the IEEE

The Proceedings of the IEEE is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE).

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Project Gemini

Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.

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Project Mercury

Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.

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Proteus (moon)

Proteus (Greek: Πρωτεύς), also known as Neptune VIII, is the second-largest Neptunian moon, and Neptune's largest inner satellite.

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R-1 (missile)

The R-1 rocket (NATO reporting name SS-1 Scunner, Soviet code name SA11, GRAU index 8A11) was a short-range ballistic missile manufactured in the Soviet Union based on the German V-2 rocket.

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R-7 Semyorka

The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.

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Radar

Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.

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Ranger 4

Ranger 4 was a spacecraft of the Ranger program designed to transmit pictures of the lunar surface to Earth stations during a period of 10 minutes of flight prior to crashing upon the Moon, to rough-land a seismometer capsule on the Moon, to collect gamma-ray data in flight, to study radar reflectivity of the lunar surface, and to continue testing of the Ranger program for development of lunar and interplanetary spacecraft.

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Ranger program

The Ranger program was a series of unmanned space missions by the United States in the 1960s whose objective was to obtain the first close-up images of the surface of the Moon.

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Reconnaissance satellite

A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.

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Recorded history

Recorded history or written history is a historical narrative based on a written record or other documented communication.

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Reinhold Tiling

Reinhold Tiling (13 June 1893 – 11 October 1933) was a German engineer, pilot and a rocket pioneer.

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Religion in space

Astronauts, cosmonauts, and spaceflight participants have observed their religions while in space; sometimes publicly, sometimes privately.

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Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee

The Review of United States Human Space Flight Plans Committee (also known as the HSF Committee, Augustine Commission or Augustine Committee) was a group reviewing the human spaceflight plans of the United States.

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Right to property

The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.

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Rings of Uranus

The rings of Uranus are a system of rings around the planet Uranus, intermediate in complexity between the more extensive set around Saturn and the simpler systems around Jupiter and Neptune.

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Robert H. Goddard

Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.

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Robert R. Gilruth

Robert Rowe Gilruth (October 8, 1913 – August 17, 2000) was an American aerospace engineer and an aviation/space pioneer who was the first director of NASA's Manned Spacecraft Center, later renamed the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center.

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Robotic spacecraft

A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.

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Rocket

A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

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Rocket launch

A rocket launch is the takeoff phase of the flight of a rocket.

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Roscosmos

The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.

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Rosetta (spacecraft)

Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.

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Rover (space exploration)

A rover (or sometimes planetary rover) is a space exploration vehicle designed to move across the surface of a planet or other celestial body.

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Salyut 1

Salyut 1 (DOS-1) (Салют-1; English translation: Salute 1) was the first space station of any kind, launched into low Earth orbit by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1971.

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Salyut programme

The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.

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Sample-return mission

A sample-return mission is a spacecraft mission with the goal of collecting and returning with tangible samples from an extraterrestrial location to Earth for analysis.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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Satellite radio

Satellite radio is defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)'S ITU Radio Regulations (RR) as a broadcasting-satellite service.

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Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Saturn V

The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.

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Scaled Composites Tier One

Tier One was a Scaled Composites' 1990s–2004 program of suborbital human spaceflight using the reusable spacecraft SpaceShipOne and its launcher White Knight.

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Sergei Korolev

Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.

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Shenzhou 5

Shenzhou 5 — was the first human spaceflight mission of the Chinese space program, launched on 15 October 2003.

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Sky

The sky (or celestial dome) is everything that lies above the surface of the Earth, including the atmosphere and outer space.

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Skylab

Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.

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Sovereign state

A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.

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Soviet space dogs

During the 1950s and 1960s the USSR used dogs for sub-orbital and orbital space flights to determine whether human spaceflight was feasible.

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Soviet space program

The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soyuz (spacecraft)

Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.

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Soyuz programme

The Soyuz programme (Союз, meaning "Union") is a human spaceflight programme that was initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon.

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Space and survival

Space and survival refers to the idea that the long-term survival of the human species and civilization requires proper use of the resources of outer space and the need for space colonization and space science.

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Space archaeology

In archaeology, space archaeology is the research-based study of various human-made items found in space, their interpretation as clues to the adventures mankind has experienced in space, and their preservation as cultural heritage.

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Space architecture

Space architecture, in its simplest definition, is the theory and practice of designing and building inhabited environments in outer space.

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Space colonization

Space colonization (also called space settlement, or extraterrestrial colonization) is permanent human habitation off the planet Earth.

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Space habitat

A space habitat (also called a space colony, space settlement, orbital habitat, orbital settlement or orbital colony) is a type of space station, intended as a permanent settlement rather than as a simple way-station or other specialized facility.

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Space Launch System

The Space Launch System (SLS) is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle.

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Space probe

A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.

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Space Race

The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Space Shuttle program

The Space Shuttle program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011.

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Space station

A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.

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Space telescope

A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.

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Space tourism

Space tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.

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Space weather

Space weather is a branch of space physics and aeronomy concerned with the time varying conditions within the Solar System, including the solar wind, emphasizing the space surrounding the Earth, including conditions in the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and exosphere.

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Spacecraft

A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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Spacefaring

To be spacefaring is to be capable of and active in space travel or space transport, the operation of spacecraft or spaceplanes.

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Spaceflight

Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.

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SpaceX

Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.

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Sputnik 1

Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.

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Sputnik 2

Sputnik 2 (Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, italic, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch.

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Stardust (spacecraft)

Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.

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Stephen Hawking

Stephen William Hawking (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, and author, who was director of research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology at the University of Cambridge at the time of his death.

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STS-133

STS-133 (ISS assembly flight ULF5) was the 133rd mission in NASA's Space Shuttle program; during the mission, Space Shuttle ''Discovery'' docked with the International Space Station.

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Sub-orbital spaceflight

A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.

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Sun

The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.

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Surveyor 1

Surveyor 1 was the first lunar soft-lander in the unmanned Surveyor program of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA, United States).

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Surveyor program

The Surveyor program was a NASA program that, from June 1966 through January 1968, sent seven robotic spacecraft to the surface of the Moon.

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Susan G. Finley

Susan G. Finley has been an employee of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) since January of 1958, making her the longest-serving woman in NASA.

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Telescope

A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).

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Tempel 1

Tempel 1 (official designation: 9P/Tempel) is a periodic Jupiter-family comet discovered by Wilhelm Tempel in 1867.

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Terrestrial planet

A terrestrial planet, telluric planet, or rocky planet is a planet that is composed primarily of silicate rocks or metals.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Timeline of Solar System exploration

This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch.

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Timeline of spaceflight

This is a timeline of known spaceflights, both manned and unmanned, sorted chronologically by launch date.

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Titan (moon)

Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.

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Triton (moon)

Triton is the largest natural satellite of the planet Neptune, and the first Neptunian moon to be discovered.

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U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps

With the advent of unmanned and manned space flight a new era of American history had presented itself.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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V-2 rocket

The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.

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Valentin Glushko

Valentin Petrovich Glushko (Валенти́н Петро́вич Глушко́, Valentin Petrovich Glushko; Валентин Петрович Глушко, Valentyn Petrovych Hlushko; born 2 September 1908 – 10 January 1989), was a Soviet engineer, and designer of rocket engines during the Soviet/American Space Race.

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Valentina Tereshkova

Valentina Vladimirovna Tereshkova (a; born 6 March 1937) is a retired Russian cosmonaut, engineer, and politician.

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Valeri Polyakov

Valeri Vladimirovich Polyakov (Валерий Владимирович Поляков, born Valeri Ivanovich Korshunov on April 27, 1942) is a former Russian cosmonaut.

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Van Allen radiation belt

A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.

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Vanguard TV3

Vanguard TV3, also called Vanguard Test Vehicle Three was the first attempt of the United States to launch a satellite into orbit around the Earth.

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Vasily Mishin

Vasily Pavlovich Mishin (Василий Павлович Мишин) (January 18, 1917 – October 10, 2001) was a Soviet engineer and a prominent rocketry pioneer, best remembered for the failures in the Soviet Space program that took place under his leadership.

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Vega program

The Vega program (Cyrillic: ВеГа) was a series of Venus missions that also took advantage of the appearance of comet 1P/Halley in 1986.

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Venera

The Venera series space probes were developed by the Soviet Union between 1961 and 1984 to gather data from Venus, Venera being the Russian name for Venus.

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Venera 13

Venera 13 (Венера-13 meaning Venus 13) was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.

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Venera 4

Venera 4 (Венера-4 meaning Venus 4), also designated 1V (V-67) s/n 310 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.

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Venera 7

Venera 7 (Венера-7, meaning Venus 7) was a Soviet spacecraft, part of the Venera series of probes to Venus.

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Venera 9

Venera 9 (Венера-9 meaning Venus 9), manufacturer's designation: 4V-1 No.

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Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Viking 1

Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft (along with Viking 2) sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program.

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Viking program

The Viking program consisted of a pair of American space probes sent to Mars, Viking 1 and Viking 2.

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Vision for Space Exploration

The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was a plan for space exploration announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush.

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Voskhod programme

The Voskhod programme (Восхо́д,, Ascent or Dawn) was the second Soviet human spaceflight project.

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Vostok 1

Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.

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Vostok 6

Vostok 6 (Восток-6, Orient 6 or East 6) was the first human spaceflight to carry a woman, cosmonaut Valentina Tereshkova, into space.

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Vostok programme

The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.

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Voyager 1

Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.

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Voyager 2

Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.

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Voyager program

The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.

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Wernher von Braun

Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yang Liwei

Yang Liwei (born 21 June 1965) is a major general, military pilot, and China National Space Administration astronaut.

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Yuri Gagarin

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.

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Zond program

Zond (Зонд; Russian for "probe") was the name given to two distinct series of Soviet unmanned space program undertaken from 1964 to 1970.

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21P/Giacobini–Zinner

Comet Giacobini–Zinner (official designation: 21P/Giacobini–Zinner) is a periodic comet in the Solar System.

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243 Ida

243 Ida is an asteroid in the Koronis family of the asteroid belt.

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25143 Itokawa

25143 Itokawa (イトカワ,いとかわ,糸川) is a stony sub-kilometer asteroid, classified as near-Earth object of the Apollo group and potentially hazardous asteroid, that measures approximately 350 meters in diameter.

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4 Vesta

Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.

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67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko

67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko (abbreviated as 67P or 67P/C-G) is a Jupiter-family comet, originally from the Kuiper belt, with a current orbital period of 6.45 years, a rotation period of approximately 12.4 hours and a maximum velocity of.

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951 Gaspra

951 Gaspra is an S-type asteroid that orbits very close to the inner edge of the asteroid belt.

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Redirects here:

Exploration of space, Extraterrestrial exploration, History of space exploration, Space Discoverers, Space Exploration, Space historian, Space mission, Space missions.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_exploration

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