218 relations: Advanced Crew Escape Suit, Air & Space/Smithsonian, Airlock, Alan Shepard, Alexey Leonov, Alveolar gas equation, Ames Research Center, Aouda, Apollo 1, Apollo 11, Apollo program, Apollo/Skylab A7L, Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, Armstrong limit, Around the World in Eighty Days, Associated Press, Astronaut, Astronautical hygiene, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Austria, Austrian Space Forum, Badlands, Bald eagle, Berkut spacesuit, Beta cloth, Breathing gas, Buck Rogers, Buran (spacecraft), Buzz Aldrin, Carbon dioxide, Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, Constellation program, Constellation Space Suit, Convection, CU Spaceflight, Dan Dare, Decompression sickness, Deposition (phase transition), Desert Research and Technology Studies, Dickinson State University, Discovery, Inc., Diving suit, Dragon 2, Dust, Edison's Conquest of Mars, Effect of spaceflight on the human body, Ejection seat, Emilio Herrera Linares, Erfoud, ..., Evaporation, Extravehicular activity, Extravehicular Mobility Unit, Facebook, Falcon, Falcon Heavy, Feitian space suit, Final Frontier Design, Flight suit, Garrett P. Serviss, Gas mask, Gemini 7, Gemini space suit, Geocentric orbit, Golden eagle, Gravitational field, Gyrfalcon, Hard Upper Torso, Hawk, Helium, Helmet, HowStuffWorks, Human analog missions, Human spaceflight, Hypoxia (medical), I-Suit, ILC Dover, International Space Station, Johnson Space Center, Jules Verne, Krechet-94, Launch Entry Suit, Liquid Cooling and Ventilation Garment, List of cumulative spacewalk records, List of International Space Station spacewalks, List of Mir spacewalks, List of spacewalks 2000–2014, List of spacewalks and moonwalks 1965–1999, Litton Industries, Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird, Lockheed U-2, Mac Mini, Manned Maneuvering Unit, Manned Orbiting Laboratory, Mark III (space suit), Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Maximum Absorbency Garment, Michael Fincke, Micrometeoroid, Moon, Morocco, NASA, NASA Acquisition Internet Service, National Space Development Agency of Japan, Nauka i Zhizn, Navy Mark IV, NBCNews.com, Neutral buoyancy, Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory, Nitrogen, North American X-15, North Dakota, North Dakota State College of Science, North Dakota State University, NPP Zvezda, Obertraun, Oceaneering International, Orlan space suit, Outer space, Oxygen, Oxygen mask, Partial pressure, Particle radiation, People's Daily, Perspiration, Planet, PowerHouse Books, Pressure, Pressure suit, Primary Life Support System, Private spaceflight, Project Gemini, Project Mercury, Pulmonary gas pressures, Purch Group, Radical (chemistry), Rebreather, Respiratory system, Robert A. Heinlein, Rocket launch, Russell Colley, SAE International, Science fiction, Scuba diving, Sea eagle, Shenzhou 5, Shenzhou 6, Shenzhou 7, Shuguang (spacecraft), Shuttle Ejection Escape Suit, Siegfried Hansen, Situation awareness, SK-1 spacesuit, Skylab, Smithsonian Institution, Snoopy, Snoopy cap, Sohu, Sokol space suit, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz 1, Soyuz 11, Soyuz 12, Soyuz 4, Soyuz 5, Space activity suit, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Space suit, Space Systems Laboratory, Space.com, Spacecraft, SpaceX, Special English, Springer Science+Business Media, Strizh (space suit), STS-1, STS-26, STS-4, STS-5, STS-51-L, Subatomic particle, Suitport, Sunlight, Swift, The New York Times, The San Diego Union-Tribune, Theodore Roosevelt National Park, Thermal conduction, Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, Thermal radiation, Thomas P. Stafford, Turtle Mountain Community College, Ultraviolet, Umbilical cable, Underwater diving, United States Air Force, University of Maryland, College Park, University of North Dakota, User interface, Vacuum, Vacuum chamber, Voice of America, Voskhod 1, Voskhod 2, Vostok programme, Water vapor, Weightlessness, Wiley Post, Work (physics), World War II, Xinhua News Agency, Yang Liwei, Yastreb, Yevgeny Chertovsky, Yuri Gagarin, 3D printing. Expand index (168 more) » « Shrink index
The Advanced Crew Escape Suit (ACES) or "pumpkin suit", is a full pressure suit that began to be worn by Space Shuttle crews after STS-65, for the ascent and entry portions of flight.
Air & Space/Smithsonian magazine is a bimonthly magazine put out by the National Air and Space Museum.
An airlock is a device which permits the passage of people and objects between a pressure vessel and its surroundings while minimizing the change of pressure in the vessel and loss of air from it.
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.
Alexey Arkhipovich Leonov (p; born 30 May 1934 in Listvyanka, West Siberian Krai, Soviet Union) is a retired Soviet/Russian cosmonaut, Air Force Major general, writer and artist.
The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in the pulmonary alveoli is required to calculate both the alveolar-arterial gradient of oxygen and the amount of right-to-left cardiac shunt, which are both clinically useful quantities.
Ames Research Center (ARC), also known as NASA Ames, is a major NASA research center at Moffett Federal Airfield in California's Silicon Valley.
Aouda, a character in Around the World in Eighty Days by Jules Verne, is an Indian-European princess rescued by Phileas Fogg and Passepartout.
Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first manned mission of the United States Apollo program, the program to land the first men on the Moon.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The title of this topic reflects this subject being a source of confusion to many.
The Apollo–Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) (Экспериментальный полёт «Аполлон» - «Союз» (ЭПАС), Eksperimentalniy polyot Apollon-Soyuz, lit. "Experimental flight Apollo-Soyuz", commonly referred to by the Soviets as "Soyuz-Apollo"), conducted in July 1975, was the first joint U.S.–Soviet space flight, as a symbol of the policy of détente that the two superpowers were pursuing at the time.
The Armstrong limit or Armstrong's line is a measure of altitude above which atmospheric pressure is sufficiently low that water boils at the normal temperature of the human body.
Around the World in Eighty Days (Le tour du monde en quatre-vingts jours) is an adventure novel by the French writer Jules Verne, published in 1873.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
Astronautical hygiene evaluates, and mitigates, hazards and health risks to those working in low-gravity environments.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austrian Space Forum (OeWF) is a national network of aerospace specialists and space enthusiasts.
Badlands are a type of dry terrain where softer sedimentary rocks and clay-rich soils have been extensively eroded by wind and water.
The bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus, from Greek ἅλς, hals "sea", αἰετός aietos "eagle", λευκός, leukos "white", κεφαλή, kephalē "head") is a bird of prey found in North America.
The Berkut (Russian Беркут, meaning golden eagle) is a space suit model developed to be used for extravehicular activity for the Voskhod 2 mission aboard a Voskhod spacecraft on the first spacewalk.
Beta cloth is a type of fireproof silica fiber cloth used in the manufacture of Apollo/Skylab A7L space suits, the Apollo Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment, the McDivitt Purse, and in other specialized applications.
A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for respiration.
Buck Rogers is a fictional space opera character created by Philip Francis Nowlan in the novella Armageddon 2419 A.D., subsequently appearing in multiple media.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
Buzz Aldrin (born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr.; January 20, 1930) is an American engineer, former astronaut, and Command Pilot in the United States Air Force.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
The Central Committee of the Communist Party of China is a political body that comprises the top leaders of the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) is a cancelled manned spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009.
The Constellation Space Suit was a planned full pressure suit system that would have served as an intra-vehicular activity (IVA) and extra-vehicular activity (EVA) garment for the proposed Project Constellation flights, which were planned to begin after the Space Shuttle retired.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
CU Spaceflight is a student-run Cambridge University society founded with the aim of achieving cheap access to space.
Dan Dare is a British science fiction comic hero, created by illustrator Frank Hampson who also wrote the first stories.
Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends, aerobullosis, or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation.
Deposition is a thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which gas transforms into solid without passing through the liquid phase.
NASA's Desert Research and Technology Studies (Desert RATS or D-RATS) is a group of teams which perform an annual series of field trials seeking to demonstrate and test candidate technologies and systems for manned exploration of the surface of the Moon, Mars, or other rocky bodies.
Dickinson State University (DSU) is a four-year public university located in Dickinson, North Dakota, United States, and is a part of the North Dakota University System.
Discovery, Inc. (formerly Discovery Communications) is an American mass media company based in Silver Spring, Maryland, first established in 1985.
A diving suit is a garment or device designed to protect a diver from the underwater environment.
Dragon 2 (also Crew Dragon, Dragon V2, or formerly DragonRider) is the second version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, which will be a human-rated vehicle.
Dust are fine particles of matter.
Edison's Conquest of Mars is an 1898 science fiction novel by American astronomer and writer Garrett P. Serviss.
Humans venturing into the environment of space can have negative effects on the body.
In aircraft, an ejection seat or ejector seat is a system designed to rescue the pilot or other crew of an aircraft (usually military) in an emergency.
Emilio Herrera Linares (February 13, 1879, Granada, Spain – September 13, 1967, Geneve, Switzerland) was a Spanish military engineer and physicist.
Erfoud (Arfud; أرفود) is an oasis town in the Sahara Desert, in the Drâa-Tafilalet region in eastern Morocco.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Extravehicular activity (EVA) is any activity done by an astronaut or cosmonaut outside a spacecraft beyond the Earth's appreciable atmosphere.
The Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) is an independent anthropomorphic spacesuit that provides environmental protection, mobility, life support, and communications for astronauts performing extravehicular activity (EVA) in Earth orbit.
Facebook is an American online social media and social networking service company based in Menlo Park, California.
Falcons are birds of prey in the genus Falco, which includes about 40 species.
Falcon Heavy is a partially reusable heavy-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
A Feitian space suit is a Chinese spacesuit that was developed for the Shenzhou 7.
Final Frontier Design is a seed-stage startup company that builds and tests spacesuits.
A flight suit is a full-body garment, worn while flying aircraft such as military airplanes, gliders and helicopters.
Garrett Putnam Serviss (March 24, 1851 – May 25, 1929) was an American astronomer, popularizer of astronomy, and early science fiction writer.
The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.
Gemini 7 (officially Gemini VII) With Gemini IV, NASA changed to Roman numerals for Gemini mission designations.
The Gemini space suit is a space suit worn by American astronauts for launch, in-flight activities (including EVAs) and landing.
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.
The gyrfalcon is a bird of prey (Falco rusticolus), the largest of the falcon species. The abbreviation gyr is also used. It breeds on Arctic coasts and tundra, and the islands of northern North America, Europe, and Asia. It is mainly a resident there also, but some gyrfalcons disperse more widely after the breeding season, or in winter. Individual vagrancy can take birds for long distances. Its plumage varies with location, with birds being coloured from all-white to dark brown. These colour variations are called morphs. Like other falcons, it shows sexual dimorphism, with the female much larger than the male. For centuries, the gyrfalcon has been valued as a hunting bird. Typical prey includes the ptarmigan and waterfowl, which it may take in flight; it also takes fish and mammals.
A Hard Upper Torso Assembly, or HUT, is a central component of several space suits, notably Roscosmos' Orlan and NASA's Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU).
Hawks are a group of medium-sized diurnal birds of prey of the family Accipitridae.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head from injuries.
HowStuffWorks is an American commercial educational website founded by Marshall Brain to provide its target audience an insight into the way many things work.
Human analog missions are activities undertaken on Earth in various environments to simulate aspects of human missions to other worlds, including the Moon, asteroids, and Mars.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
The I-Suit is a spacesuit model constructed by ILC Dover.
ILC Dover, LP (also known as ILC) is an American special engineering development and manufacturing company based in Frederica, Delaware.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
The Krechet-94 (Russian Кречет, meaning gyrfalcon) is a space suit model developed for lunar excursion during the Soviet manned lunar program.
The Launch Entry Suit (LES), known as the "pumpkin suit", was a partial pressure suit worn by all Space Shuttle crews for the ascent and entry portions of flight from STS-26 (1988) to STS-65 (1994).
A Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG) is a form-fitting garment that is used to remove body heat from the wearer in environments where evaporative cooling from sweating and open air convection cooling does not work, or the wearer has a biological problem that hinders self-regulation of body temperature.
This is a list of cumulative spacewalk records for the 30 astronauts who have the most extra-vehicular activity (EVA) time.
International Space Station spacewalks are major events in the building and maintaining of the orbital laboratory.
Mir (Мир,; lit. Peace or World) was a Soviet and later Russian space station, operational in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001.
This list contains all spacewalks performed between 12 May 2000 and 22 October 2014 where an astronaut fully or partially left a spacecraft.
This list contains all spacewalks and moonwalks performed from 1965 to 1999 where an astronaut has fully or partially left a spacecraft.
Named after inventor Charles Litton, Sr., Litton Industries was a large defense contractor in the United States, bought by the Northrop Grumman Corporation in 2001.
The Lockheed SR-71 "Blackbird" is a long-range, Mach 3+ strategic reconnaissance aircraft that was operated by the United States Air Force.
The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed "Dragon Lady", is an American single-jet engine, ultra-high altitude reconnaissance aircraft operated by the United States Air Force (USAF) and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
The Mac mini (marketed and branded with lowercase "mini" as Mac mini) is a small desktop computer manufactured by Apple Inc. Like earlier mini-ITX PC designs, it is square and tall.
The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) is an astronaut propulsion unit that was used by NASA on three Space Shuttle missions in 1984.
The Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), originally referred to as the Manned Orbital Laboratory, was part of the United States Air Force's manned spaceflight program, a successor to the cancelled Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar military reconnaissance space plane project.
The Mark III or MK III (H-1) is a NASA space suit technology demonstrator built by ILC Dover.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
A Maximum Absorbency Garment (MAG) is a piece of clothing NASA astronauts wear during liftoff, landing, and extra-vehicular activity (EVA) to absorb urine and feces.
Edward Michael "Mike"/"Spanky" Fincke (born March 14, 1967) is an American astronaut who formerly held the American record for the most time in space (381.6 days).
A micrometeoroid is a tiny meteoroid; a small particle of rock in space, usually weighing less than a gram.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The NASA Acquisition Internet Service (NAIS) is a service provided by the NASA in order to disseminate information about NASA procurements.
The of Japan, or NASDA, was a Japanese national space agency established on October 1, 1969 under the National Space Development Agency Law only for peaceful purposes.
Nauka i Zhizn (Science and Life, Наука и жизнь) is a science magazine first issued during the years 1890-1900 in Imperial Russia, and then since 1934 in the Soviet Union (and continued in the Russian Federation today).
The Mercury space suit (or Navy Mark IV) was a full-body, high-altitude pressure suit originally developed by the B.F. Goodrich Company and the U.S. Navy for pilots of high-altitude fighter aircraft.
NBCNews.com, formerly known as msnbc.com, is a news website owned and operated by NBCUniversal as the online arm of NBC News.
Neutral buoyancy is a condition in which a physical body's average density is equal to the density of the fluid in which it is immersed.
The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility, near the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
North Dakota is a U.S. state in the midwestern and northern regions of the United States.
The North Dakota State College of Science (NDSCS) is a two-year public college in Wahpeton, in the U.S. state of North Dakota and part of the North Dakota University System.
North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied Sciences, more commonly known as North Dakota State University (NDSU), is a public research university that sits on a 258-acre campus (~1 km2) in Fargo, North Dakota, U.S. The institution was founded as North Dakota Agricultural College in 1890 as the research land-grant institution for the state of North Dakota.
Research & Development Production Enterprise Zvezda, or R&D PE Zvezda (Nauchno-Proizvodstvennoye Predpriyatiye "Zvezda", NPP Zvezda, lit. "Star") is a Russian manufacturer of life-support systems for high-altitude flight and human spaceflight.
Obertraun, Upper Austria is a village in the Salzkammergut, a region in Austria.
Oceaneering International, Inc. is a subsea engineering and applied technology company based in Houston, Texas, U.S. that provides engineered services and hardware to customers who operate in marine, space, and other environments.
Cosmonaut Maksim Surayev next to two Orlan-MK models on the International Space Station The Orlan space suit (Орлан meaning sea eagle) is a series of semi-rigid one-piece space suit models designed and built by NPP Zvezda.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
An oxygen mask provides a method to transfer breathing oxygen gas from a storage tank to the lungs.
In a mixture of gases, each gas has a partial pressure which is the hypothetical pressure of that gas if it alone occupied the entire volume of the original mixture at the same temperature.
Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of fast-moving subatomic particles.
The People's Daily or Renmin Ribao is the biggest newspaper group in China.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
powerHouse Books is an independent publisher of art and photography books founded in 1995 by Daniel Power, based near the Brooklyn waterfront of DUMBO in The powerHouse Arena.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A pressure suit is a protective suit worn by high-altitude pilots who may fly at altitudes where the air pressure is too low for an unprotected person to survive, even breathing pure oxygen at positive pressure.
A Primary (or Portable or Personal) Life Support System (or Subsystem) (PLSS), is a device connected to an astronaut or cosmonaut's spacesuit, which allows extra-vehicular activity with maximum freedom, independent of a spacecraft's life support system.
Private spaceflight is flight beyond the Kármán line (above the nominal edge of space at Earth altitude)—or the development of new spaceflight technology—that is conducted and paid for by an entity other than a government agency.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
The factors that determine the values for alveolar pO2 and pCO2 are.
Purch Group, Inc. formerly known as TechMediaNetworks, Inc.
In chemistry, a radical (more precisely, a free radical) is an atom, molecule, or ion that has an unpaired valence electron.
A rebreather is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide of a user's exhaled breath to permit the rebreathing (recycling) of the substantially unused oxygen content, and unused inert content when present, of each breath.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Robert Anson Heinlein (See also the biography at the end of For Us, the Living, 2004 edition, p. 261. July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was an American science-fiction writer.
A rocket launch is the takeoff phase of the flight of a rocket.
Russell Sidney Colley (July 22, 1897 - February 4, 1996) was a U. S. mechanical engineer who played a role in creating the spacesuits worn by the Project Mercury astronauts, including fitting Alan B. Shepard Jr. for his historic ride as America's first man in space on May 5, 1961.
SAE International, initially established as the Society of Automotive Engineers, is a U.S.-based, globally active professional association and standards developing organization for engineering professionals in various industries.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
A sea eagle (also called erne or ern, mostly in reference to the white-tailed eagle) is any of the birds of prey in the genus Haliaeetus in the bird of prey family Accipitridae.
Shenzhou 5 — was the first human spaceflight mission of the Chinese space program, launched on 15 October 2003.
Shenzhou 6 (Shénzhōu lìuhào) was the second human spaceflight of the Chinese space program, launched on October 12, 2005 on a Long March 2F rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center.
Shenzhou 7 was the third human spaceflight mission of the Chinese space program.
Shuguang One, meaning "dawn" in Mandarin, also known as Project 714, was the first manned spacecraft proposed by the People's Republic of China during the late 1960s and early 1970s that was never built.
The Shuttle Ejection Escape Suit used from STS-1 (1981) to STS-4 (1982) by a two-man crew used in conjunction with the then-installed ejection seats.
Siegfried Hansen (March 29, 1912-June 28, 2002) was an American electrical engineer and inventor notable for his development of the early Mark I space suit., a role that earned him appellations of "Space Suit Father" and "Space Suit Pioneer".
Situational awareness or situation awareness (SA) is the perception of environmental elements and events with respect to time or space, the comprehension of their meaning, and the projection of their status after some variable has changed, such as time, or some other variable, such as a predetermined event.
SK-1 is an initialism of "Skafandr Kosmicheskiy" # 1 (Скафандр Космический.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.
Snoopy is Charlie Brown's pet beagle in the comic strip Peanuts by Charles M. Schulz.
A Snoopy cap, or communication cap, is a part of a space suit worn by American astronauts on the head and incorporating an audio headset for communication.
Sohu, Inc. is a Chinese Internet company headquartered in the Sohu Internet Plaza in Haidian District, Beijing.
The Sokol space suit, also known as the Sokol IVA suit or simply the Sokol (Cокол, Falcon), is a type of Russian space suit, worn by all who fly on the Soyuz spacecraft.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
Soyuz 1 (Союз 1, Union 1) was a manned spaceflight of the Soviet space program.
Soyuz 11 (Союз 11, Union 11) was the only manned mission to board the world's first space station, Salyut 1 (Soyuz 10 had soft-docked but had not been able to enter due to latching problems).
Soyuz 12 (Союз 12, Union 12) was a 1973 manned test flight by the Soviet Union of the newly redesigned Soyuz 7K-T spacecraft that was intended to provide greater crew safety in the wake of the Soyuz 11 tragedy.
Soyuz 4 (Союз 4, Союз 4, Union 4) was launched on 14 January 1969, carrying cosmonaut Vladimir Shatalov on his first flight.
Soyuz 5 (Союз 5, Union 5) was a Soyuz mission using the Soyuz 7K-OK spacecraft launched by the Soviet Union on 15 January 1969, which docked with Soyuz 4 in orbit.
A space activity suit (SAS) or mechanical counterpressure suit is an experimental spacesuit which applies stable pressure against the skin by means of skintight elastic garments.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of (OV-99) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts and two payload specialists.
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
The Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) is part of the Aerospace Engineering Department and A. James Clark School of Engineering at the University of Maryland in College Park, Maryland.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
Special English is a controlled version of the English language first used on 19 October 1959, and still presented daily by the United States broadcasting service Voice of America (VOA).
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Strizh (Стриж meaning swift) is a space suit that was originally developed for the crew of the Russian Buran space shuttle and resembled the Sokol space suit worn by Soyuz crew members.
STS-1 (Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program.
STS-26 was the 26th NASA Space Shuttle mission and the seventh flight of the orbiter ''Discovery''.
STS-4 was the fourth NASA Space Shuttle mission, and also the fourth for Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-5 was the fifth NASA Space Shuttle mission and the fifth flight of the Space Shuttle ''Columbia''.
STS-51-L was the 25th mission of the United States Space Shuttle program, and disastrous final mission of the Space Shuttle ''Challenger''.
In the physical sciences, subatomic particles are particles much smaller than atoms.
A suitport or suitlock is an alternative technology to an airlock, designed for use in hazardous environments and in human spaceflight, especially planetary surface exploration.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
The swifts are a family, Apodidae, of highly aerial birds.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune. The name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing, later renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities. The sale closed on June 18, 2018.
Theodore Roosevelt National Park is an American national park comprising three geographically separated areas of badlands in western North Dakota.
Thermal conduction is the transfer of heat (internal energy) by microscopic collisions of particles and movement of electrons within a body.
An (Integrated) Thermal Micrometeoroid Garment (TMG or ITMG) is the outer layer of a space suit.
Thermal radiation is electromagnetic radiation generated by the thermal motion of charged particles in matter.
Thomas Patten Stafford (born September 17, 1930; Lt Gen, USAF, Ret.) is an American former Air Force officer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut.
Turtle Mountain Community College is a tribal college in Belcourt, North Dakota.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
An umbilical cable or umbilical is a cable and/or hose that supplies required consumables to an apparatus, diver or astronaut.
Underwater diving, as a human activity, is the practice of descending below the water's surface to interact with the environment.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The University of Maryland, College Park (commonly referred to as the University of Maryland, UMD, or simply Maryland) is a public research university located in the city of College Park in Prince George's County, Maryland, approximately from the northeast border of Washington, D.C. Founded in 1856, the university is the flagship institution of the University System of Maryland.
The University of North Dakota (also known as UND or North Dakota) is a public research university in Grand Forks, North Dakota.
The user interface (UI), in the industrial design field of human–computer interaction, is the space where interactions between humans and machines occur.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
A vacuum chamber is a rigid enclosure from which air and other gases are removed by a vacuum pump.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
Voskhod 1 (Восход-1; Восход is Russian for Sunrise) was the seventh manned Soviet space flight.
Voskhod 2 (Sunrise-2) was a Soviet manned space mission in March 1965.
The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.
Weightlessness, or an absence of weight, is an absence of stress and strain resulting from externally applied mechanical contact-forces, typically normal forces (from floors, seats, beds, scales, etc.). Counterintuitively, a uniform gravitational field does not by itself cause stress or strain, and a body in free fall in such an environment experiences no g-force acceleration and feels weightless.
Wiley Hardeman Post (November 22, 1898 – August 15, 1935) was a famed American aviator during the interwar period, the first pilot to fly solo around the world.
In physics, a force is said to do work if, when acting, there is a displacement of the point of application in the direction of the force.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Yang Liwei (born 21 June 1965) is a major general, military pilot, and China National Space Administration astronaut.
Yastreb (hawk) is a Russian space suit that was specially developed for early Soyuz space vehicle missions and for EVA.
Yevgeny Yefimovich Chertovsky (Евгений Ефимович Чертовский; born February 15, 1902, date of death unknown) was a Soviet Russian inventor who designed the first full pressure suit in Leningrad in 1931.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
3D printing is any of various processes in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together (such as liquid molecules or powder grains being fused together).