294 relations: Ablation, Actuator, Akatsuki (spacecraft), Alan Shepard, Almaz, Altair (spacecraft), American Heritage (magazine), Ansari X Prize, Apollo (spacecraft), Astrionics, Astronomical object, Astronomical unit, Astrotech Corporation, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Attitude control, Automated Transfer Vehicle, Autonomous robot, Avatar (spacecraft), Baikonur Cosmodrome, Beryllium, BFR (rocket), Boeing, Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar, Boeing X-37, Breakthrough Starshot, Brian Binnie, Buran (spacecraft), Buran programme, Camera, Cargo spacecraft, Cassini–Huygens, Celsius, Chandrayaan-1, Chang'e 1, Chang'e 2, Chang'e 3, China, China National Space Administration, Clementine (spacecraft), Cluster II (spacecraft), CNES, Communications satellite, CST-100 Starliner, CSTS, Curiosity (rover), Cygnus (spacecraft), DARPA, Darwin (spacecraft), ..., Data logger, Deep Impact (spacecraft), Deep Space 1, Dissolution of the Soviet Union, Dragon 2, Dream Chaser, Earth, Earth observation satellite, East Prussia, Eclipsed conformation, Edwards Air Force Base, European Space Agency, Expendable launch system, Explorer 1, Falcon Heavy, Fédération Aéronautique Internationale, Federation (spacecraft), Flying saucer, Fractionated spacecraft, Free-space optical communication, Gagarin's Start, Galileo (spacecraft), Genesis (spacecraft), Ground segment, Ground station, H-II Transfer Vehicle, Halley's Comet, Hayabusa, Helios (spacecraft), Hermes (spacecraft), Hertz, HOPE-X, Hopper (spacecraft), HOTOL, Hubble Space Telescope, Human spaceflight, IKAROS, India, Indian Space Research Organisation, International Geophysical Year, International Space Station, Interstellar probe, Ionosphere, Iran, Iranian Space Agency, Israel, Israel Space Agency, ISRO Orbital Vehicle, James Webb Space Telescope, Japan, JAXA, Jupiter, Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic, Kármán line, Kliper, Korabl-Sputnik 2, Laika, Launch vehicle, Life support system, List of fictional spacecraft, List of spaceflight records, List of V-2 test launches, Low Earth orbit, Luna 1, Luna 10, Luna 16, Luna 2, Luna 3, Luna 9, Lunar Orbiter program, Lunar Prospector, Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter, Lunokhod programme, Manned Orbiting Laboratory, Mariner 10, Mariner 4, Mariner 9, Mars, Mars 2020, Mars Exploration Rover, Mars Express, Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Orbiter Mission, Mars Pathfinder, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, McDonnell Douglas DC-X, Mercury (planet), Mercury-Redstone 3, MESSENGER, Meteoroid, Mike Melvill, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105, Mir, NASA, National Aerospace Development Administration, National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology, National Space Organization, Navigation, NEAR Shoemaker, Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, Neptune, New Horizons, New Shepard, NewSpace, Nitrogen, North American X-15, North Korea, Opportunity (rover), Orbit, Orbital elements, Orbital inclination, Orbital spaceflight, Orbiter, Orion (spacecraft), Outer space, Particle detector, Payload, Peenemünde, Pioneer 10, Pioneer 11, Pioneer Venus project, Planetary science, Pluto, Private spaceflight, Progress (spacecraft), Project 921-3, Project Gemini, Project Mercury, Radio, Radio frequency, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, Reaction Engines Limited, Reinforced carbon–carbon, Reusable launch system, RLV Technology Demonstration Programme, Robotic spacecraft, Rocket engine, Roscosmos, Rotary Rocket, Russia, Salyut programme, Satellite, Satellite bus, Saturn, Scaled Composites, SCORE (satellite), SELENE, Sensor, Shenzhou program, Shuguang (spacecraft), Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, Single-stage-to-orbit, Skylab, Skylon (spacecraft), SMART-1, Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, Solar panels on spacecraft, Solar sail, Solar System, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz 7K-L1, Soyuz 7K-LOK, Space Age, Space capsule, Space colonization, Space environment, Space exploration, Space launch, Space Launch System, Space probe, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Atlantis, Space Shuttle Challenger, Space Shuttle Columbia, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle Discovery, Space Shuttle Endeavour, Space Shuttle Enterprise, Space Shuttle orbiter, Space station, Space suit, Space vehicle, Spacecraft design, Spacecraft propulsion, Spacecraft thermal control, Spaceflight, Spacelab, Spaceplane, SpaceShipOne, SpaceShipTwo, SpaceX, SpaceX Dragon, SpaceX reusable launch system development program, Spirit (rover), Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, Stardust (spacecraft), Starship, STEREO, STS-51-L, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Sun, Surveyor program, Syncom, Taiwan, Telecommunication, Telerobotics, Telescope, Terrestrial Planet Finder, The Spaceship Company, Timeline of first orbital launches by country, Timeline of Solar System exploration, Timeline of spaceflight, Titan (moon), TKS (spacecraft), Torque, Transponder (satellite communications), Tungsten, Tyuratam, U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps, United States, Uranus, V-2 rocket, Vacuum, Vega 1, Venera 4, VentureStar, Venus, Viking 1, Virgin Galactic, Vision for Space Exploration, Voskhod (spacecraft), Vostok (spacecraft), Vostok 1, Vostok programme, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, VSS Enterprise crash, VTVL, Weather satellite, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe, XCOR Lynx, Yuri Gagarin. 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Ablation is removal of material from the surface of an object by vaporization, chipping, or other erosive processes.
An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system, for example by opening a valve.
, also known as the Venus Climate Orbiter (VCO) and Planet-C, is a Japanese (JAXA) space probe tasked to study the atmosphere of Venus.
Rear Admiral Alan Bartlett Shepard Jr. (November 18, 1923 – July 21, 1998) was an American astronaut, naval aviator, test pilot, and businessman.
The Almaz (Алмаз, "Diamond") program was a highly secretive Soviet military space station program, begun in the early 1960s.
The Altair spacecraft, previously known as the Lunar Surface Access Module or LSAM, was the planned lander spacecraft component of NASA's cancelled Constellation program.
American Heritage is a magazine dedicated to covering the history of the United States of America for a mainstream readership.
The Ansari X Prize was a space competition in which the X Prize Foundation offered a US$10,000,000 prize for the first non-government organization to launch a reusable manned spacecraft into space twice within two weeks.
The Apollo spacecraft was composed of three parts designed to accomplish the American Apollo program's goal of landing astronauts on the Moon by the end of the 1960s and returning them safely to Earth.
Astrionics is the science and technology of the development and application of electronic systems, sub-systems, and components used in spacecraft.
An astronomical object or celestial object is a naturally occurring physical entity, association, or structure that exists in the observable universe.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Astrotech Corporation, formerly Spacehab Inc., is a technology incubator headquartered in Austin, Texas.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
The Automated Transfer Vehicle, originally Ariane Transfer Vehicle or ATV, was an expendable cargo spacecraft developed by the European Space Agency (ESA).
An autonomous robot is a robot that performs behaviors or tasks with a high degree of autonomy.
Avatar (अवतार) (from "Aerobic Vehicle for Transatmospheric Hypersonic Aerospace TrAnspoRtation") is a concept study for a robotic single-stage reusable spaceplane capable of horizontal takeoff and landing, by India's Defence Research and Development Organisation.
Baikonur Cosmodrome (translit; translit) is a spaceport located in an area of southern Kazakhstan leased to Russia.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
BFR is a privately funded next-generation reusable launch vehicle and spacecraft system developed by SpaceX.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
The Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar ("Dynamic Soarer") was a United States Air Force (USAF) program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including aerial reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and as a space interceptor to sabotage enemy satellites.
The Boeing X-37, also known as the Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), is a reusable uncrewed spacecraft.
Breakthrough Starshot is a research and engineering project by the Breakthrough Initiatives to develop a proof-of-concept fleet of light sail spacecraft named StarChip, to be capable of making the journey to the Alpha Centauri star system 4.37 light-years away.
William Brian Binnie (born 1953) is a former United States Navy officer and is one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
The Buran programme (Бура́н,, "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"), also known as the "VKK Space Orbiter programme" ("VKK" is for Воздушно Космический Корабль, "Air Space Ship"), was a Soviet and later Russian reusable spacecraft project that began in 1974 at the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute in Moscow and was formally suspended in 1993.
A camera is an optical instrument for recording or capturing images, which may be stored locally, transmitted to another location, or both.
Cargo spacecraft are robotic spacecraft that are designed to support space stations operation by transporting food, propellant and other supplies.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Chandrayaan-1 (lit: Moon vehicle) was India's first lunar probe.
Chang'e 1 was an unmanned Chinese lunar-orbiting spacecraft, part of the first phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program.
Chang'e 2 is a Chinese unmanned lunar probe that was launched on 1 October 2010.
Chang'e 3 is an unmanned lunar exploration mission operated by the China National Space Administration (CNSA), incorporating a robotic lander and China's first lunar rover.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China National Space Administration (CNSA) is the national space agency of China.
Clementine (officially called the Deep Space Program Science Experiment (DSPSE)) was a joint space project between the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, previously the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, or SDIO) and NASA.
Cluster II is a space mission of the European Space Agency, with NASA participation, to study the Earth's magnetosphere over the course of nearly two solar cycles.
The Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) (English: National Centre for Space Studies) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose").
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
The CST-100 Starliner (Crew Space Transportation) crew capsule is a spacecraft design under construction by Boeing in collaboration with Bigelow Aerospace as their entry for NASA's Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program.
CSTS (Crew Space Transportation System) or ACTS (Advanced Crew Transportation System) is a human spaceflight system proposal.
Curiosity is a car-sized rover designed to explore Gale Crater on Mars as part of NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission (MSL).
The Cygnus spacecraft is an American automated cargo spacecraft developed by Orbital ATK as part of NASA's Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) developmental program.
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of emerging technologies for use by the military.
Darwin was a suggested ESA Cornerstone mission which would have involved a constellation of four to nine spacecraft designed to directly detect Earth-like planets orbiting nearby stars and search for evidence of life on these planets.
A data logger (also datalogger or data recorder) is an electronic device that records data over time or in relation to location either with a built in instrument or sensor or via external instruments and sensors.
Deep Impact was a NASA space probe launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station at 18:47 UTC on January 12, 2005.
Deep Space 1 (DS1) was a NASA technology demonstration spacecraft which flew by an asteroid and a comet.
The dissolution of the Soviet Union occurred on December 26, 1991, officially granting self-governing independence to the Republics of the Soviet Union.
Dragon 2 (also Crew Dragon, Dragon V2, or formerly DragonRider) is the second version of the SpaceX Dragon spacecraft, which will be a human-rated vehicle.
The Dream Chaser Cargo System is an American reusable lifting-body spaceplane being developed by Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space Systems.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.
East Prussia (Ostpreußen,; Prusy Wschodnie; Rytų Prūsija; Borussia orientalis; Восточная Пруссия) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1773 to 1829 and again from 1878 (with the Kingdom itself being part of the German Empire from 1871); following World War I it formed part of the Weimar Republic's Free State of Prussia, until 1945.
In chemistry an eclipsed conformation is a conformation in which two substituents X and Y on adjacent atoms A, B are in closest proximity, implying that the torsion angle X–A–B–Y is 0°.
Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force installation located in Kern County in southern California, about northeast of Lancaster and east of Rosamond.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.
Falcon Heavy is a partially reusable heavy-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
The Fédération aéronautique internationale (FAI; The World Air Sports Federation), is the world governing body for air sports.
Federation (Федерация, Federatsiya), formerly called PPTS (Prospective Piloted Transport System, Перспективная Пилотируемая Транспортная Система, Perspektivnaya Pilotiruemaya Transportnaya Sistema) is a project by Roscosmos to develop a new-generation, partially reusable piloted spacecraft.
A flying saucer (also referred to as "a flying disc") is a descriptive term for a supposed type of flying craft having a disc or saucer-shaped body, commonly used generically to refer to an anomalous flying object.
A fractionated spacecraft is a satellite architecture where the functional capabilities of a conventional monolithic spacecraft are distributed across multiple modules which interact through wireless links.
Free-space optical communication (FSO) is an optical communication technology that uses light propagating in free space to wirelessly transmit data for telecommunications or computer networking.
Gagarin's Start (Гагаринский старт, Gagarinskiy start) is a launch site at Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan, used for the Soviet space program and now managed by Roscosmos State Corporation.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
Genesis was a NASA sample-return probe that collected a sample of solar wind particles and returned them to Earth for analysis.
A ground segment consists of all the ground-based elements of a spacecraft system used by operators and support personnel, as opposed to the space segment and user segment.
A ground station, earth station, or earth terminal is a terrestrial radio station designed for extraplanetary telecommunication with spacecraft (constituting part of the ground segment of the spacecraft system), or reception of radio waves from astronomical radio sources.
The H-II Transfer Vehicle (HTV), also called, is an automated cargo spacecraft used to resupply the ''Kibō'' Japanese Experiment Module (JEM) and the International Space Station (ISS).
Halley's Comet or Comet Halley, officially designated 1P/Halley, is a short-period comet visible from Earth every 74–79 years.
Helios-A and Helios-B (also known as and), are a pair of probes launched into heliocentric orbit for the purpose of studying solar processes.
Hermes was a proposed spaceplane designed by the French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) in 1975, and later by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The hertz (symbol: Hz) is the derived unit of frequency in the International System of Units (SI) and is defined as one cycle per second.
HOPE was a Japanese experimental spaceplane project designed by a partnership between NASDA and NAL (both now part of JAXA), started in the 1980s.
Hopper was a proposed European Space Agency (ESA) orbital spaceplane and reusable launch vehicle.
HOTOL, for Horizontal Take-Off and Landing, was a 1980s British design for a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) spaceplane that was to be powered by an airbreathing jet engine.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.
IKAROS (Interplanetary Kite-craft Accelerated by Radiation Of the Sun) is a Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) experimental spacecraft.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
The International Geophysical Year (IGY; Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
An interstellar probe is a space probe that has left—or is expected to leave—the Solar System and enter interstellar space, which is typically defined as the region beyond the heliopause.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Iranian Space Agency (ISA, Persian: سازمان فضایی ایران Sázmán e Fazái e Irán) is Iran's governmental space agency.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israel Space Agency (ISA; סוכנות החלל הישראלית, Sochnut HaChalal HaYisraelit) is a governmental body, a part of Israel's Ministry of Science and Technology, that coordinates all Israeli space research programs with scientific and commercial goals.
The Indian manned spacecraft, temporarily named Orbital Vehicle, is intended to be the basis of the Indian human spaceflight program.
The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) is a space telescope developed in collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency, and the Canadian Space Agency that will be the scientific successor to the Hubble Space Telescope.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936-1991 in northern Central Asia.
The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space.
Kliper (Клипер, English: Clipper) was an early-2000s proposed partly- reusable manned spacecraft concept by RSC Energia.
Korabl-Sputnik 2 (Корабль-Спутник 2 meaning Ship-Satellite 2), also known incorrectly as Sputnik 5 in the West, was a Soviet artificial satellite, and the third test flight of the Vostok spacecraft.
Laika (Лайка; c. 1954 – 3 November 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
In human spaceflight, a life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in space.
This is a list of fictional spacecraft, starships and exo-atmospheric vessels that have been identified by name in notable published works of fiction.
This is a list of spaceflight records.
The list of V-2 test launches identifies World War II launches of the A4 rocket (renamed V-2 in 1944).
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
Luna 1, also known as Mechta (Мечта, lit.: Dream), E-1 No.4 and First Lunar Rover, was the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Earth's Moon, and the first spacecraft to be placed in heliocentric orbit.
Luna 10 (E-6S series) was a 1966 Soviet Luna program, robotic spacecraft mission, also called Lunik 10.
Luna 16, also known as Lunik 16, was an unmanned space mission, part of the Soviet Luna program.
Luna 2 (E-1A series) or Lunik 2 was the second of the Soviet Union's Luna programme spacecraft launched to the Moon.
Luna 3, or E-2A No.1 was a Soviet spacecraft launched in 1959 as part of the Luna programme.
Luna 9 (Луна-9), internal designation Ye-6 No.13, was an unmanned space mission of the Soviet Union's Luna programme.
The Lunar Orbiter program was a series of five unmanned lunar orbiter missions launched by the United States from 1966 through 1967.
Lunar Prospector was the third mission selected by NASA for full development and construction as part of the Discovery Program.
The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) is a NASA robotic spacecraft currently orbiting the Moon in an eccentric polar mapping orbit.
Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.
The Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), originally referred to as the Manned Orbital Laboratory, was part of the United States Air Force's manned spaceflight program, a successor to the cancelled Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar military reconnaissance space plane project.
Mariner 10 was an American robotic space probe launched by NASA on November 3, 1973, to fly by the planets Mercury and Venus.
Mariner 4 (together with Mariner 3 known as Mariner–Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode.
Mariner 9 (Mariner Mars '71 / Mariner-I) was an unmanned NASA space probe that contributed greatly to the exploration of Mars and was part of the Mariner program.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mars 2020 is a Mars rover mission by NASA's Mars Exploration Program with a planned launch in 2020.
NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two Mars rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars.
Mars Express is a space exploration mission being conducted by the European Space Agency (ESA).
Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) was an American robotic spacecraft developed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and launched November 1996.
The Mars Orbiter Mission (MOM), also called Mangalyaan ("Mars-craft", from मंगल mangala, "Mars" and यान yāna, "craft, vehicle"), is a space probe orbiting Mars since 24 September 2014.
Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) is an American robotic spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and exploration of Mars from orbit.
The DC-X, short for Delta Clipper or Delta Clipper Experimental, was an unmanned prototype of a reusable single-stage-to-orbit launch vehicle built by McDonnell Douglas in conjunction with the United States Department of Defense's Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) from 1991 to 1993.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard.
Messenger (stylized as MESSENGER, whose backronym is "MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging", and which is a reference to the messenger of the same name from Roman mythology) was a NASA robotic spacecraft that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015.
A meteoroid is a small rocky or metallic body in outer space.
Michael Winston "Mike" Melvill (born November 30, 1940 Johannesburg) is a world-record-breaking pilot and one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105 part of a programme known as the Spiral (aerospace system), was a manned test vehicle to explore low-speed handling and landing.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
National Aerospace Development Administration (NADA) is the official space agency of North Korea, succeeding the Korean Committee of Space Technology.
National Chung-Shan Institute of Science and Technology (NCSIST) is the primary research and development institution of the Republic of China Ministry of National Defense's Armaments Bureau and has been active in the development of various weapons systems and dual use technologies.
The National Space Organization (NSPO; formerly known as the National Space Program Office) is the national civilian space agency of Taiwan under the auspices of the ROC (Taiwan) Ministry of Science and Technology.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
The Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.
The Neil Gehrels Swift Observatory, previously called the Swift Gamma-Ray Burst Mission, is a NASA space telescope designed to detect gamma-ray bursts (GRBs).
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
New Horizons is an interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.
The New Shepard reusable launch system is a vertical-takeoff, vertical-landing (VTVL), suborbital crewed rocket that is being developed by Blue Origin as a commercial system for suborbital space tourism.
NewSpace—formerly alt.space; also new space, entrepreneurial space, astropreneurship, and commercial space—are umbrella terms for a movement and philosophy encompassing a globally emerging, private spaceflight industry.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Opportunity, also known as MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B) or MER-1, is a robotic rover active on Mars since 2004.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit.
An orbiter is a space probe that orbits a planet or other astronomical object.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is an American interplanetary spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
In experimental and applied particle physics, nuclear physics, and nuclear engineering, a particle detector, also known as a radiation detector, is a device used to detect, track, and/or identify ionizing particles, such as those produced by nuclear decay, cosmic radiation, or reactions in a particle accelerator.
Payload is the carrying capacity of an aircraft or launch vehicle, usually measured in terms of weight.
Peenemünde ("Peene Mouth") is a municipality on the Baltic Sea island of Usedom in the Vorpommern-Greifswald district in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany.
Pioneer 10 (originally designated Pioneer F) is an American space probe, launched in 1972 and weighing, that completed the first mission to the planet Jupiter.
Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays.
The Pioneer Venus project was part of the Pioneer program consisting of two spacecraft, the Pioneer Venus Orbiter and the Pioneer Venus Multiprobe, launched to Venus in 1978.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
Pluto (minor planet designation: 134340 Pluto) is a dwarf planet in the Kuiper belt, a ring of bodies beyond Neptune.
Private spaceflight is flight beyond the Kármán line (above the nominal edge of space at Earth altitude)—or the development of new spaceflight technology—that is conducted and paid for by an entity other than a government agency.
The Progress (Прогресс) is a Russian expendable cargo spacecraft.
Project 921-3 is a manned spacecraft sub-system of Project 921.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Mercury was the first human spaceflight program of the United States, running from 1958 through 1963.
Radio is the technology of using radio waves to carry information, such as sound, by systematically modulating properties of electromagnetic energy waves transmitted through space, such as their amplitude, frequency, phase, or pulse width.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
Reaction Engines Limited (REL) is a British aerospace manufacturer based in Oxfordshire, England.
Carbon fibre reinforced carbon (CFRC), carbon–carbon (C/C), or reinforced carbon–carbon (RCC) is a composite material consisting of carbon fiber reinforcement in a matrix of graphite.
A reusable launch system (RLS, or reusable launch vehicle, RLV) is a space launch system intended to allow for recovery of all or part of the system for later reuse.
Reusable Launch Vehicle—Technology Demonstration Programme is a series of technology demonstration missions that has been conceived by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) as a first step towards realising a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) re-usable launch vehicle.
A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
The Roscosmos State Corporation for Space Activities (Государственная корпорация по космической деятельности «Роскосмос»), commonly known as Roscosmos (Роскосмос), is a state corporation responsible for the space flight and cosmonautics program for the Russian Federation.
Rotary Rocket Company was a rocketry company that developed the Roton concept in the late 1990s as a fully reusable single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) manned spacecraft.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Salyut programme (Салю́т,, meaning "salute" or "fireworks") was the first space station programme, undertaken by the Soviet Union.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A satellite bus or spacecraft bus is a general model on which multiple-production satellite spacecraft are often based.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Scaled Composites (often called simply Scaled) is an American aerospace company founded by Burt Rutan and currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located at the Mojave Air and Space Port, Mojave, California, United States.
Project SCORE (Signal Communications by Orbiting Relay Equipment) was the world’s first communications satellite.
SELENE (Selenological and Engineering Explorer), better known in Japan by its nickname, was the second Japanese lunar orbiter spacecraft following the Hiten probe.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, or subsystem whose purpose is to detect events or changes in its environment and send the information to other electronics, frequently a computer processor.
The Shenzhou program is a manned spaceflight initiative by China.
Shuguang One, meaning "dawn" in Mandarin, also known as Project 714, was the first manned spacecraft proposed by the People's Republic of China during the late 1960s and early 1970s that was never built.
The Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) are two extensively modified Boeing 747 airliners that NASA used to transport Space Shuttle orbiters.
A single-stage-to-orbit (or SSTO) vehicle reaches orbit from the surface of a body without jettisoning hardware, expending only propellants and fluids.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
Skylon is a series of designs for a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane by the British company Reaction Engines Limited (REL), using SABRE, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system.
SMART-1 was a Swedish-designed European Space Agency satellite that orbited around the Moon.
The Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) is a spacecraft built by a European industrial consortium led by Matra Marconi Space (now Astrium) that was launched on a Lockheed Martin Atlas II AS launch vehicle on December 2, 1995, to study the Sun, and has discovered over 3000 comets.
Spacecraft operating in the inner Solar System usually rely on the use of photovoltaic solar panels to derive electricity from sunlight.
Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails) are a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion using radiation pressure exerted by sunlight on large mirrors.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.
The Soyuz 7K-L1 "Zond" spacecraft was designed to launch men from the Earth to circle the Moon without going into lunar orbit in the context of the Soviet manned moon-flyby program in the Moon race.
The Soyuz 7K-LOK, or simply LOK (translit meaning "Lunar Orbital Craft") was a Soviet manned spacecraft designed to launch men from Earth to orbit the Moon, developed in parallel to the 7K-L1.
The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events.
A space capsule is an often manned spacecraft which has a simple shape for the main section, without any wings or other features to create lift during atmospheric reentry.
Space colonization (also called space settlement, or extraterrestrial colonization) is permanent human habitation off the planet Earth.
Space environment is a branch of astronautics, aerospace engineering and space physics that seeks to understand and address conditions existing in space that affect the design and operation of spacecraft.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
Space launch is the earliest part of a flight that reaches space.
The Space Launch System (SLS) is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
Space Shuttle Atlantis (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV‑104) is a Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle belonging to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the spaceflight and space exploration agency of the United States.
Space Shuttle Challenger (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was the second orbiter of NASA's space shuttle program to be put into service, after ''Columbia''.
Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.
On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.
Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the orbiters from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the third of five fully operational orbiters to be built.
Space Shuttle Endeavour (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational shuttle built.
Space Shuttle Enterprise (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first orbiter of the Space Shuttle system.
The Space Shuttle orbiter was the spaceplane component of the Space Shuttle, a partially reusable orbital spacecraft system that was part of the Space Shuttle program.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
A space suit is a garment worn to keep a human alive in the harsh environment of outer space, vacuum and temperature extremes.
A space vehicle or spaceship is a rocket-powered vehicle used to transport unmanned satellites or humans between the Earth's surface and outer space.
The design of spacecraft covers a broad area, including the design of both robotic spacecraft (satellites and planetary probes), and spacecraft for human spaceflight (spaceships and space stations).
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
In spacecraft design, the function of the thermal control system (TCS) is to keep all the spacecraft's component systems within acceptable temperature ranges during all mission phases.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with sub-orbital spaceflight capability at speeds of up to 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s), using a hybrid rocket motor.
The Scaled Composites Model 339 SpaceShipTwo (SS2) is an air-launched suborbital spaceplane type designed for space tourism.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
Dragon is a reusable spacecraft developed by SpaceX, an American private space transportation company based in Hawthorne, California.
The SpaceX reusable launch system development program is a privately funded program to develop a set of new technologies for an orbital launch system that may be reused many times in a manner similar to the reusability of aircraft.
Spirit, also known as MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A) or MER-2, is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Sputnik 2 (Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, italic, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch.
Stardust was a 390 kilogram robotic space probe launched by NASA on 7 February 1999.
A starship, starcraft or interstellar spacecraft is a theoretical spacecraft designed for traveling between planetary systems, as opposed to an aerospace-vehicle designed for orbital spaceflight or interplanetary travel.
STEREO (Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory) is a solar observation mission.
STS-51-L was the 25th mission of the United States Space Shuttle program, and disastrous final mission of the Space Shuttle ''Challenger''.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The Surveyor program was a NASA program that, from June 1966 through January 1968, sent seven robotic spacecraft to the surface of the Moon.
Syncom (for "synchronous communication satellite") started as a 1961 NASA program for active geosynchronous communication satellites, all of which were developed and manufactured by Hughes Space and Communications.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Telerobotics is the area of robotics concerned with the control of semi-autonomous robots from a distance, chiefly using Wireless network (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Deep Space Network, and similar) or tethered connections.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) was a proposed project by NASA to construct a system of space telescopes for detecting extrasolar terrestrial planets.
The Spaceship Company (TSC) is a British/American spacecraft manufacturing company that was founded by Burt Rutan and Richard Branson in mid-2005 and was jointly owned by Virgin Group (70%) and Scaled Composites (30%) until 2012 when Virgin Galactic became the sole owner.
This is a timeline of first orbital launches by country.
This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch.
This is a timeline of known spaceflights, both manned and unmanned, sorted chronologically by launch date.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
The TKS spacecraft (Транспортный корабль снабжения., Transportnyi Korabl’ Snabzheniia, Transport Supply Spacecraft, GRAU index 11F72) was a Soviet spacecraft conceived in the late 1960s for resupply flights to the military Almaz space station.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
A communications satellite's transponder is the series of interconnected units that form a communications channel between the receiving and the transmitting antennas.
Tungsten, or wolfram, is a chemical element with symbol W (referring to wolfram) and atomic number 74.
Tyuratam (Төретам, (Töretam); Тюратам, (Tyuratam)) is a station on the main Moscow to Tashkent railway, located in Kazakhstan.
With the advent of unmanned and manned space flight a new era of American history had presented itself.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
Vega 1 (along with its twin Vega 2) is a Soviet space probe part of the Vega program.
Venera 4 (Венера-4 meaning Venus 4), also designated 1V (V-67) s/n 310 was a probe in the Soviet Venera program for the exploration of Venus.
VentureStar was a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch system proposed by Lockheed Martin and funded by the U.S. government.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft (along with Viking 2) sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program.
Virgin Galactic is a spaceflight company within the Virgin Group.
The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was a plan for space exploration announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush.
The Voskhod ("Sunrise") was a spacecraft built by the Soviet Union's space program for human spaceflight as part of the Voskhod programme.
The Vostok (Восток, translated as "East") was a type of spacecraft built by the Soviet Union.
Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.
The Vostok programme (Восто́к,, Orient or East) was a Soviet human spaceflight project to put the first Soviet citizens into low Earth orbit and return them safely.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
On October 31, 2014, the VSS ''Enterprise'', a Virgin Galactic Scaled Composites Model 339 SpaceShipTwo experimental spaceflight test vehicle-->, suffered a catastrophic in-flight breakup and crashed in the Mojave Desert, California, United States, while performing a test flight.
Vertical takeoff, vertical landing (VTVL) is a form of takeoff and landing for rockets.
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.
The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft operating from 2001 to 2010 which measured temperature differences across the sky in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) – the radiant heat remaining from the Big Bang.
The XCOR Lynx was a proposed suborbital horizontal-takeoff, horizontal-landing (HTHL), rocket-powered spaceplane that was under development by the California-based company XCOR Aerospace to compete in the emerging suborbital spaceflight market.
Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.
List of spacecraft, Orbital Vehicle, Orbital vehicle, Rocket Ship, Rocket Ship (song), Rocketship, Space Ship, Space craft, Space ship, Space ships, Space-ship, Spacecraft communication, Spacecraft instrumentation, Spacecraft structure, Spacecraft system, Spacecraft systems, Spacecrafts, Spaceships, TT&C, Tracking, telemetry, and control.