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Spaceflight

Index Spaceflight

Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space. [1]

213 relations: Adolf Hitler, Aerial landscape art, Aerodynamic heating, Animals in space, Ansari X Prize, Apogee kick motor, Apollo 11, Apollo 15, Apollo Lunar Module, Apollo program, Armistice of 11 November 1918, Army Ballistic Missile Agency, Astronaut, Astronomical unit, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Autonomous robot, Ballistics, BFR (rocket), Boeing 747, Brian Binnie, Buran (spacecraft), Buzz Aldrin, Carbon neutrality, Civilian Space eXploration Team, Communications satellite, Corona (satellite), Cosmic ray, Crew Exploration Vehicle, De Laval nozzle, Deconditioning, Delta II, Delta-v, Discoverer 14, Earth, Earth observation satellite, Edwards Air Force Base, Energy, Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle, Explorer 1, Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar, Falcon 9, Flight, Food, Geocentric orbit, Gravity, Gravity assist, Harry Julian Allen, Health threat from cosmic rays, ..., Hermann Oberth, Human mission to Mars, Human spaceflight, Intercontinental ballistic missile, International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety, International Space Station, Interplanetary spaceflight, Interstellar medium, Ion thruster, John Glenn, Joseph Stalin, Juno I, Jupiter, Kármán line, Kessler syndrome, Kliper, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Launch escape system, Launch loop, Launch pad, Launch vehicle, Launch window, Life support system, Liquid-propellant rocket, List of private spaceflight companies, List of Solar System probes, List of spaceflight records, List of unmanned spacecraft by program, London, Low Earth orbit, Magnetic sail, Marshall Space Flight Center, Matter, Mercury-Atlas 6, Michael Foale, Mid-air retrieval, Mike Melvill, Momentum exchange tether, Multistage rocket, N1 (rocket), NASA, National Academy of Sciences, Nautical mile, Neil Armstrong, Neptune, NewSpace, Non-rocket spacelaunch, North American X-15, Nuclear pulse propulsion, Nuclear weapon, Oberth effect, Orbit, Orbital mechanics, Orbital spaceflight, Orbital speed, Orbiter (simulator), Orion (spacecraft), Outer space, Parking orbit, Parom, Perchlorate, Pioneer 1, Planetary system, Plasma (physics), Potentially hazardous object, Private spaceflight, Proxima Centauri, R-7 Semyorka, Radiation, Reconnaissance satellite, Robert H. Goddard, Robotic spacecraft, Rocket, Rocket launch, Rocket propellant, Rocket-based combined cycle, Russia, Safety engineering, Safety-critical system, Satellite, Satellite navigation, Satellite television, Saturn, Saturn (rocket family), Saturn V, Scaled Composites, Science fiction, Scramjet, Sergei Korolev, Shenzhou (spacecraft), Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, Skyhook (structure), Skylon (spacecraft), SM-65 Atlas, Solar flare, Solar irradiance, Solar sail, Solar System, Soviet Union, Soyuz (spacecraft), Soyuz programme, Space adaptation syndrome, Space colonization, Space debris, Space elevator, Space exploration, Space logistics, Space probe, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Atlantis, Space Shuttle Challenger, Space Shuttle Columbia, Space Shuttle Columbia disaster, Space Shuttle Discovery, Space Shuttle Endeavour, Space Shuttle Enterprise, Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System, Space Shuttle program, Space telescope, Space tourism, Spacecraft, Spacecraft propulsion, Spaceplane, Spaceport, SpaceShipOne, SpaceShipTwo, SpaceX, Spall, Specific orbital energy, Splashdown, Sputnik 1, STS-1, STS-119, STS-51-L, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Sydney, Telerobotics, The Independent, The Spaceship Company, Thrust, Time dilation, Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes, Timeline of Solar System exploration, U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps, United States, Unmanned spacecraft, Uranus, V-2 rocket, Van Allen radiation belt, Venus, Vestibular system, Virgin Galactic, Vision for Space Exploration, Vostok 1, Voyager 1, Water, Weather, Weather satellite, Wernher von Braun, William Leitch (scientist), World War I, World War II, Yuri Gagarin. Expand index (163 more) »

Adolf Hitler

Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.

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Aerial landscape art

Aerial landscape art includes paintings and other visual arts which depict or evoke the appearance of a landscape from a perspective above it—usually from a considerable distance—as it might be viewed from an aircraft or spacecraft.

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Aerodynamic heating

Aerodynamic heating is the heating of a solid body produced by its high-speed passage through air (or by the passage of air past a test object in a wind tunnel), whereby its kinetic energy is converted to heat by skin friction on the surface of the object at a rate that depends on the viscosity and speed of the air.

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Animals in space

Non-human animals in space originally served to test the survivability of spaceflight, before human spaceflights were attempted.

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Ansari X Prize

The Ansari X Prize was a space competition in which the X Prize Foundation offered a US$10,000,000 prize for the first non-government organization to launch a reusable manned spacecraft into space twice within two weeks.

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Apogee kick motor

An apogee kick motor (AKM) refers to a rocket motor that is regularly employed on artificial satellites to provide the final impulse to change the trajectory from the transfer orbit into its final (most commonly circular) orbit.

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Apollo 11

Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.

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Apollo 15

Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the United States' Apollo program, the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission.

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Apollo Lunar Module

The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.

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Apollo program

The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.

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Armistice of 11 November 1918

The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.

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Army Ballistic Missile Agency

The Army Ballistic Missile Agency (ABMA) was formed to develop the U.S. Army's first large ballistic missile.

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Astronaut

An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.

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Astronomical unit

The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.

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Atmosphere

An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.

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Atmosphere of Earth

The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.

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Atmospheric entry

Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.

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Autonomous robot

An autonomous robot is a robot that performs behaviors or tasks with a high degree of autonomy.

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Ballistics

Ballistics is the field of mechanics that deals with the launching, flight, behavior, and effects of projectiles, especially bullets, unguided bombs, rockets, or the like; the science or art of designing and accelerating projectiles so as to achieve a desired performance.

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BFR (rocket)

BFR is a privately funded next-generation reusable launch vehicle and spacecraft system developed by SpaceX.

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Boeing 747

The Boeing 747 is an American wide-body commercial jet airliner and cargo aircraft, often referred to by its original nickname, "Jumbo Jet".

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Brian Binnie

William Brian Binnie (born 1953) is a former United States Navy officer and is one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites.

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Buran (spacecraft)

Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.

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Buzz Aldrin

Buzz Aldrin (born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr.; January 20, 1930) is an American engineer, former astronaut, and Command Pilot in the United States Air Force.

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Carbon neutrality

Carbon neutrality, or having a net zero carbon footprint, refers to achieving net zero carbon emissions by balancing a measured amount of carbon released with an equivalent amount sequestered or offset, or buying enough carbon credits to make up the difference.

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Civilian Space eXploration Team

The Civilian Space eXploration Team, known as CSXT, is a team of around 30 civilians interested in private spaceflight.

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Communications satellite

A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.

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Corona (satellite)

The Corona program was a series of American strategic reconnaissance satellites produced and operated by the Central Intelligence Agency Directorate of Science & Technology with substantial assistance from the U.S. Air Force.

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Cosmic ray

Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.

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Crew Exploration Vehicle

The Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) was the conceptual component of the U.S. NASA Vision for Space Exploration that later became known as the Orion spacecraft.

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De Laval nozzle

A de Laval nozzle (or convergent-divergent nozzle, CD nozzle or con-di nozzle) is a tube that is pinched in the middle, making a carefully balanced, asymmetric hourglass shape.

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Deconditioning

Deconditioning is adaptation of an organism to less demanding environment, or, alternatively, the decrease of physiological adaptation to normal conditions.

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Delta II

Delta II is an expendable launch system, originally designed and built by McDonnell Douglas.

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Delta-v

Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.

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Discoverer 14

Discoverer 14 (also known as KH-1 9009) was a spy satellite used in the Corona program managed by DARPA and the United States Air Force.

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Earth

Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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Earth observation satellite

Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.

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Edwards Air Force Base

Edwards Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force installation located in Kern County in southern California, about northeast of Lancaster and east of Rosamond.

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Energy

In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.

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Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle

Evolved Expendable Launch Vehicle (EELV) is an expendable launch system program of the United States Air Force (USAF), intended to assure access to space for Department of Defense and other United States government payloads.

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Explorer 1

Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.

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Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar

The Fairchild C-119 Flying Boxcar (Navy and Marine Corps designation R4Q) is an American military transport aircraft developed from the World War II-era Fairchild C-82 Packet, designed to carry cargo, personnel, litter patients, and mechanized equipment, and to drop cargo and troops by parachute.

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Falcon 9

Falcon 9 is a family of two-stage-to-orbit medium lift launch vehicles, named for its use of nine Merlin first-stage engines, designed and manufactured by SpaceX.

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Flight

Flight is the process by which an object moves through an atmosphere (or beyond it, as in the case of spaceflight) without contact with the surface.

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Food

Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism.

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Geocentric orbit

A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Gravity assist

In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.

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Harry Julian Allen

Harry Julian Allen (1 April 1910 – 29 January 1977), also known as Harvey Allen, was an aeronautical engineer and a Director of the NASA Ames Research Center, most noted for his "Blunt Body Theory" of atmospheric entry which permitted successful recovery of orbiting spacecraft.

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Health threat from cosmic rays

The health threat from cosmic rays is the danger posed by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic particles to astronauts on interplanetary missions or any missions that venture through the Van-Allen Belts or outside the Earth's magnetosphere.

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Hermann Oberth

Hermann Julius Oberth (25 June 1894 – 28 December 1989) was an Austro-Hungarian-born German physicist and engineer.

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Human mission to Mars

A human mission to Mars has been the subject of science fiction, aerospace engineering, and scientific proposals since the 19th century.

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Human spaceflight

Human spaceflight (also referred to as crewed spaceflight or manned spaceflight) is space travel with a crew or passengers aboard the spacecraft.

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Intercontinental ballistic missile

An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).

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International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety

The International Association for the Advancement of Space Safety (IAASS) is a non-profit organization committed to furthering international cooperation and scientific advancement in space systems safety.

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International Space Station

The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.

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Interplanetary spaceflight

Interplanetary spaceflight or interplanetary travel is travel between planets, usually within a single planetary system.

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Interstellar medium

In astronomy, the interstellar medium (ISM) is the matter and radiation that exists in the space between the star systems in a galaxy.

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Ion thruster

An ion thruster or ion drive is a form of electric propulsion used for spacecraft propulsion.

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John Glenn

Colonel John Herschel Glenn Jr. (July 18, 1921 – December 8, 2016) was a United States Marine Corps aviator, engineer, astronaut, and United States Senator from Ohio.

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Joseph Stalin

Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.

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Juno I

The Juno I was a four-stage American booster rocket which launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958.

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Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Kármán line

The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space.

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Kessler syndrome

The Kessler syndrome (also called the Kessler effect, collisional cascading or ablation cascade), proposed by the NASA scientist Donald J. Kessler in 1978, is a scenario in which the density of objects in low earth orbit (LEO) is high enough that collisions between objects could cause a cascade where each collision generates space debris that increases the likelihood of further collisions.

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Kliper

Kliper (Клипер, English: Clipper) was an early-2000s proposed partly- reusable manned spacecraft concept by RSC Energia.

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Konstantin Tsiolkovsky

Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.

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Launch escape system

A launch escape system (LES) or launch abort system (LAS) is a crew safety system connected to a space capsule, used to quickly separate the capsule from its launch vehicle rocket in case of a launch abort emergency, such as an impending explosion.

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Launch loop

A launch loop or Lofstrom loop is a proposed system for launching objects into space orbit using a moving cable-like system situated inside a sheath attached to the Earth at two ends and suspended above the atmosphere in the middle.

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Launch pad

A launch pad is an above-ground platform from which a rocket-powered missile or space vehicle is vertically launched.

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Launch vehicle

A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).

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Launch window

In the context of spaceflight, launch period is the collection of days and launch window is the time period on a given day during which a particular vehicle (rocket, Space Shuttle, etc.) must be launched in order to reach its intended target.

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Life support system

In human spaceflight, a life support system is a group of devices that allow a human being to survive in space.

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Liquid-propellant rocket

A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.

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List of private spaceflight companies

This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer – or are planning to offer – equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human.

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List of Solar System probes

This is a list of space probes that have left Earth orbit (or were launched with that intention but failed), organized by their planned destination.

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List of spaceflight records

This is a list of spaceflight records.

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List of unmanned spacecraft by program

Here is an incomplete list of all unmanned spacecraft categorized by program.

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London

London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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Low Earth orbit

A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.

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Magnetic sail

A magnetic sail or magsail is a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion which would use a static magnetic field to deflect charged particles radiated by the Sun as a plasma wind, and thus impart momentum to accelerate the spacecraft.

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Marshall Space Flight Center

The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.

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Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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Mercury-Atlas 6

Mercury-Atlas 6 (MA-6) was the third human spaceflight for the U.S. and part of Project Mercury.

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Michael Foale

Colin Michael Foale (born 6 January 1957) is a British-American astrophysicist and former NASA astronaut.

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Mid-air retrieval

Mid-air retrieval is a technique used in atmospheric reentry when the reentering vehicle is incapable of a satisfactory unassisted landing.

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Mike Melvill

Michael Winston "Mike" Melvill (born November 30, 1940 Johannesburg) is a world-record-breaking pilot and one of the test pilots for SpaceShipOne, the experimental spaceplane developed by Scaled Composites.

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Momentum exchange tether

A momentum exchange tether is a kind of space tether that could theorically be used as a launch system, or to change spacecraft orbits.

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Multistage rocket

A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.

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N1 (rocket)

The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind.

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NASA

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.

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National Academy of Sciences

The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.

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Nautical mile

A nautical mile is a unit of measurement defined as exactly.

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Neil Armstrong

Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and aeronautical engineer who was the first person to walk on the Moon.

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Neptune

Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.

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NewSpace

NewSpace—formerly alt.space; also new space, entrepreneurial space, astropreneurship, and commercial space—are umbrella terms for a movement and philosophy encompassing a globally emerging, private spaceflight industry.

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Non-rocket spacelaunch

Non-rocket spacelaunch refers to concepts for launch into space where some or all of the needed speed and altitude are provided by something other than rockets, or by other than expendable rockets.

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North American X-15

The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.

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Nuclear pulse propulsion

Nuclear pulse propulsion or external pulsed plasma propulsion, is a hypothetical method of spacecraft propulsion that uses nuclear explosions for thrust.

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Nuclear weapon

A nuclear weapon is an explosive device that derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions, either fission (fission bomb) or from a combination of fission and fusion reactions (thermonuclear bomb).

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Oberth effect

In astronautics, a powered flyby, or Oberth maneuver, is a maneuver in which a spacecraft falls into a gravitational well, and then accelerates when its fall reaches maximum speed.

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Orbit

In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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Orbital mechanics

Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.

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Orbital spaceflight

An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit.

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Orbital speed

In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is much less massive than the largest body in the system, its speed relative to that largest body.

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Orbiter (simulator)

Orbiter is a freeware space flight simulator program developed to simulate spaceflight using realistic Newtonian physics.

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Orion (spacecraft)

The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is an American interplanetary spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).

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Outer space

Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.

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Parking orbit

A parking orbit is a temporary orbit used during the launch of a satellite or other space probe.

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Parom

The Parom (ferry in Russian) is a space tug that has been proposed by RKK Energia.

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Perchlorate

A perchlorate is the name for a chemical compound containing the perchlorate ion,.

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Pioneer 1

On October 11, 1958, Pioneer 1 became the first spacecraft launched by NASA, the newly formed space agency of the United States.

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Planetary system

A planetary system is a set of gravitationally bound non-stellar objects in or out of orbit around a star or star system.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Potentially hazardous object

A potentially hazardous object (PHO) is a near-Earth object – either an asteroid or a comet – with an orbit that can make exceptionally close approaches to the Earth and large enough to cause significant regional damage in the event of impact.

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Private spaceflight

Private spaceflight is flight beyond the Kármán line (above the nominal edge of space at Earth altitude)—or the development of new spaceflight technology—that is conducted and paid for by an entity other than a government agency.

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Proxima Centauri

Proxima Centauri, or Alpha Centauri C, is a red dwarf, a small low-mass star, about from the Sun in the constellation of Centaurus.

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R-7 Semyorka

The R-7 (Р-7 "Семёрка") was a Soviet missile developed during the Cold War, and the world's first intercontinental ballistic missile.

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Radiation

In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.

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Reconnaissance satellite

A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.

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Robert H. Goddard

Robert Hutchings Goddard (October 5, 1882 – August 10, 1945) was an American engineer, professor, physicist, and inventor who is credited with creating and building the world's first liquid-fueled rocket.

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Robotic spacecraft

A robotic spacecraft is an uncrewed spacecraft, usually under telerobotic control.

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Rocket

A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.

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Rocket launch

A rocket launch is the takeoff phase of the flight of a rocket.

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Rocket propellant

Rocket propellant is a material used either directly by a rocket as the reaction mass (propulsive mass) that is ejected, typically with very high speed, from a rocket engine to produce thrust, and thus provide spacecraft propulsion, or indirectly to produce the reaction mass in a chemical reaction.

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Rocket-based combined cycle

The RBCC, or Rocket-Based Combined Cycle propulsion system, is one of the two types of propulsion systems that may be tested in the Boeing X-43 experimental aircraft.

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Russia

Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.

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Safety engineering

Safety engineering is an engineering discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety.

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Safety-critical system

A safety-critical system or life-critical system is a system whose failure or malfunction may result in one (or more) of the following outcomes.

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Satellite

In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.

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Satellite navigation

A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.

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Satellite television

Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.

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Saturn

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Saturn (rocket family)

The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond.

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Saturn V

The Saturn V (pronounced "Saturn five") was an American human-rated expendable rocket used by NASA between 1967 and 1973.

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Scaled Composites

Scaled Composites (often called simply Scaled) is an American aerospace company founded by Burt Rutan and currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located at the Mojave Air and Space Port, Mojave, California, United States.

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Science fiction

Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.

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Scramjet

A scramjet ("supersonic combustion ramjet") is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.

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Sergei Korolev

Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.

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Shenzhou (spacecraft)

2O4/MMH): || 10000 N || 2248 lbf ea |- | Delta V: || 380 m/s || 1,240 ft/s --> Shenzhou is a spacecraft developed and operated by China using Soyuz technology to support its manned spaceflight program. The name is variously translated as "Divine Craft", "Divine Vessel of God", "Magic Boat" or similar and is also homophonous with an ancient name for China (written 神州; meaning "Divine State"). Its design resembles the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, but it is larger in size. The first launch was on November 19, 1999 and the first manned launch was on October 15, 2003. In March 2005, an asteroid was named 8256 Shenzhou in honour of the spacecraft.

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Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle

Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, or simply Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV), is a term describing one of a wide array of concepts that have been developed for creating space launch vehicles from the components, technology and infrastructure of the Space Shuttle program.

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Skyhook (structure)

A skyhook is a proposed momentum exchange tether that aims to reduce the cost of placing payloads into space.

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Skylon (spacecraft)

Skylon is a series of designs for a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane by the British company Reaction Engines Limited (REL), using SABRE, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system.

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SM-65 Atlas

The SM-65 Atlas was the first operational intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) developed by the United States and the first member of the Atlas rocket family.

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Solar flare

A solar flare is a sudden flash of increased Sun's brightness, usually observed near its surface.

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Solar irradiance

Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.

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Solar sail

Solar sails (also called light sails or photon sails) are a proposed method of spacecraft propulsion using radiation pressure exerted by sunlight on large mirrors.

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Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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Soviet Union

The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.

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Soyuz (spacecraft)

Soyuz is a series of spacecraft designed for the Soviet space program by the Korolev Design Bureau (now RKK Energia) in the 1960s that remains in service today.

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Soyuz programme

The Soyuz programme (Союз, meaning "Union") is a human spaceflight programme that was initiated by the Soviet Union in the early 1960s, originally part of a Moon landing project intended to put a Soviet cosmonaut on the Moon.

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Space adaptation syndrome

Space adaptation syndrome (SAS) or space sickness is a condition experienced by around half of space travelers during adaptation to weightlessness.

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Space colonization

Space colonization (also called space settlement, or extraterrestrial colonization) is permanent human habitation off the planet Earth.

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Space debris

Space debris (also known as space junk, space waste, space trash, space litter or space garbage) is a term for the mass of defunct, artificially created objects in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages.

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Space elevator

A space elevator is a proposed type of planet-to-space transportation system.

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Space exploration

Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.

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Space logistics

According to the AIAA Space Logistics Technical Committee, space logistics is However, this definition in its larger sense includes terrestrial logistics in support of space travel, including any additional "design and development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of space materiel", movement of people in space (both routine and for medical and other emergencies), and contracting and supplying any required support services for maintaining space travel.

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Space probe

A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.

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Space Shuttle

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.

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Space Shuttle Atlantis

Space Shuttle Atlantis (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV‑104) is a Space Shuttle orbiter vehicle belonging to the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), the spaceflight and space exploration agency of the United States.

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Space Shuttle Challenger

Space Shuttle Challenger (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-099) was the second orbiter of NASA's space shuttle program to be put into service, after ''Columbia''.

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Space Shuttle Columbia

Space Shuttle Columbia (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first space-rated orbiter in NASA's Space Shuttle fleet.

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Space Shuttle Columbia disaster

On February 1, 2003, the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' disintegrated upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, killing all seven crew members.

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Space Shuttle Discovery

Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the orbiters from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the third of five fully operational orbiters to be built.

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Space Shuttle Endeavour

Space Shuttle Endeavour (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-105) is a retired orbiter from NASA's Space Shuttle program and the fifth and final operational shuttle built.

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Space Shuttle Enterprise

Space Shuttle Enterprise (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first orbiter of the Space Shuttle system.

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Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System

The Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), is a system of hypergolic liquid-propellant rocket engines used on the Space Shuttle.

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Space Shuttle program

The Space Shuttle program was the fourth human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished routine transportation for Earth-to-orbit crew and cargo from 1981 to 2011.

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Space telescope

A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.

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Space tourism

Space tourism is space travel for recreational, leisure or business purposes.

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Spacecraft

A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.

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Spacecraft propulsion

Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.

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Spaceplane

A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.

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Spaceport

A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching (or receiving) spacecraft, by analogy to seaport for ships or airport for aircraft.

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SpaceShipOne

SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with sub-orbital spaceflight capability at speeds of up to 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s), using a hybrid rocket motor.

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SpaceShipTwo

The Scaled Composites Model 339 SpaceShipTwo (SS2) is an air-launched suborbital spaceplane type designed for space tourism.

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SpaceX

Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.

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Spall

Spall is flakes of a material that are broken off a larger solid body and can be produced by a variety of mechanisms, including as a result of projectile impact, corrosion, weathering, cavitation, or excessive rolling pressure (as in a ball bearing).

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Specific orbital energy

In the gravitational two-body problem, the specific orbital energy \epsilon\,\! (or vis-viva energy) of two orbiting bodies is the constant sum of their mutual potential energy (\epsilon_p\,\!) and their total kinetic energy (\epsilon_k\,\!), divided by the reduced mass.

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Splashdown

Splashdown is the method of landing a spacecraft by parachute in a body of water.

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Sputnik 1

Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.

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STS-1

STS-1 (Space Transportation System-1) was the first orbital spaceflight of NASA's Space Shuttle program.

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STS-119

STS-119 (ISS assembly flight 15A) was a space shuttle mission to the International Space Station (ISS) which was flown by Space Shuttle ''Discovery'' during March 2009.

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STS-51-L

STS-51-L was the 25th mission of the United States Space Shuttle program, and disastrous final mission of the Space Shuttle ''Challenger''.

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Sub-orbital spaceflight

A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.

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Sydney

Sydney is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania.

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Telerobotics

Telerobotics is the area of robotics concerned with the control of semi-autonomous robots from a distance, chiefly using Wireless network (like Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, the Deep Space Network, and similar) or tethered connections.

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The Independent

The Independent is a British online newspaper.

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The Spaceship Company

The Spaceship Company (TSC) is a British/American spacecraft manufacturing company that was founded by Burt Rutan and Richard Branson in mid-2005 and was jointly owned by Virgin Group (70%) and Scaled Composites (30%) until 2012 when Virgin Galactic became the sole owner.

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Thrust

Thrust is a reaction force described quantitatively by Newton's third law.

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Time dilation

According to the theory of relativity, time dilation is a difference in the elapsed time measured by two observers, either due to a velocity difference relative to each other, or by being differently situated relative to a gravitational field.

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Timeline of artificial satellites and space probes

This timeline of artificial satellites and space probes includes unmanned spacecraft including technology demonstrators, observatories, lunar probes, and interplanetary probes.

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Timeline of Solar System exploration

This is a timeline of Solar System exploration ordered by date of spacecraft launch.

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U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps

With the advent of unmanned and manned space flight a new era of American history had presented itself.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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Unmanned spacecraft

Unmanned spacecraft are spacecraft without people ("man") on board, used for unmanned spaceflight.

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Uranus

Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.

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V-2 rocket

The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.

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Van Allen radiation belt

A Van Allen radiation belt is a zone of energetic charged particles, most of which originate from the solar wind, that are captured by and held around a planet by that planet's magnetic field.

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Venus

Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.

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Vestibular system

The vestibular system, in most mammals, is the sensory system that provides the leading contribution to the sense of balance and spatial orientation for the purpose of coordinating movement with balance. Together with the cochlea, a part of the auditory system, it constitutes the labyrinth of the inner ear in most mammals.

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Virgin Galactic

Virgin Galactic is a spaceflight company within the Virgin Group.

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Vision for Space Exploration

The Vision for Space Exploration (VSE) was a plan for space exploration announced on January 14, 2004 by President George W. Bush.

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Vostok 1

Vostok 1 (Восто́к, East or Orient 1) was the first spaceflight of the Vostok programme and the first manned spaceflight in history.

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Voyager 1

Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.

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Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Weather

Weather is the state of the atmosphere, describing for example the degree to which it is hot or cold, wet or dry, calm or stormy, clear or cloudy.

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Weather satellite

The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.

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Wernher von Braun

Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.

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William Leitch (scientist)

William Leitch (20 May 1814 – 9 May 1864) was a Scottish astronomer, naturalist and mathematician, and a minister of the Church of Scotland.

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yuri Gagarin

Yuri Alekseyevich Gagarin (p; 9 March 1934 – 27 March 1968) was a Soviet pilot and cosmonaut.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spaceflight

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