197 relations: Active cooling, Aerial refueling, Aerobraking, Aerospace, Aerospaceplane, Air brake (aeronautics), Airbreathing jet engine, Airbus Defence and Space Spaceplane, Aircraft, Airfoil, Amphibious aircraft, Analog Science Fiction and Fact, Ansari X Prize, Ariane (rocket family), ASSET (spacecraft), Atlas V, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric entry, Avatar (spacecraft), Aviation Week & Space Technology, BAC Mustard, Black Horse (rocket), Blackstar (spacecraft), Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar, Boeing X-37, Boeing X-40, Boeing X-51 Waverider, Bomber, BOR-4, BOR-5, Bristol Spaceplanes, Buran (spacecraft), Chrysler SERV, Combustion, Commercial Crew Development, Cosmopolis XXI, CTOL, Da Vinci Project, DARPA Falcon Project, DASA, Defence Research and Development Organisation, Delta wing, Descent (aeronautics), Drag (physics), Dream Chaser, Earth, Eugen Sänger, European Space Agency, Expendable launch system, ..., Falke (spacecraft), Federation of American Scientists, Flight dynamics, France, Friedrich Zander, Germany, Glider (aircraft), H-II, Helipad, Hermes (spacecraft), HL-20 Personnel Launch System, HL-42 (spacecraft), HOPE-X, Hopper (spacecraft), HOTOL, Hyflex, Hypersonic flight, Hypersonic speed, Ice, Indian Space Research Organisation, Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle, International Space Station, Japan, JAXA, Kármán line, Keldysh bomber, Kibo (ISS module), Kliper, Landing gear, Launch vehicle, Leading edge, Lift (force), Lifting body, Liquid air cycle engine, List of crewed spacecraft, List of spaceplanes, List of X-planes, Lockheed L-301, Lockheed Martin X-33, Low Earth orbit, MAKS (spacecraft), Manned Orbiting Laboratory, Martin Marietta, Martin Marietta X-24, Martin X-23 PRIME, Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105, Moscow, Mother ship, NASA, NASA Paresev, NASA Uranus orbiter and probe, NASA X-38, NASA X-43, National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan, National Space Development Agency of Japan, Nazi Germany, North American Aviation, North American DC-3, North American X-15, Northrop HL-10, Orbit, Orbit insertion, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Orbital Sciences X-34, Orbital speed, OREX, Outer space, Oxidizing agent, Pacific Ocean, Parachute, Paris, Payload fraction, Pegasus (rocket), PlanetSpace, Precooled jet engine, Programme for Reusable In-orbit Demonstrator in Europe, Project 921-3, Project Gemini, Prometheus (spacecraft), Pulse detonation engine, Ramjet, Reusable launch system, RLV Technology Demonstration Programme, RLV-TD, Rocket, Rocket engine, Rocket-based combined cycle, Rocket-powered aircraft, Rocketplane XP, Rockwell X-30, Rogallo wing, Ronald Reagan, Rotorcraft, Runway, SABRE (rocket engine), Saenger (spacecraft), Scaled Composites, Scaled Composites White Knight Two, Science fiction, Scramjet, Sharp Edge Flight Experiment, Shenlong (spacecraft), Sierra Nevada Corporation, Silbervogel, Single-stage-to-orbit, Skylon (spacecraft), Snow, Soviet Union, Space, Space logistics, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, Space Shuttle thermal protection system, Spacecraft, Spaceflight, Spacelab, Spaceplane, SpaceShipOne, SpaceShipThree, SpaceShipTwo, Splashdown, State of the Union, Takeoff and landing, The New York Times, Tsybin, Tupolev, Two-stage-to-orbit, United Kingdom, United States, United States Air Force, United States Department of Defense, Unmanned spacecraft, V-2 rocket, VentureStar, Virgin Galactic, Vladimir Chelomey, VSS Enterprise, Water, Wernher von Braun, Willy Ley, Wing, Wired (magazine), World War II, X-41 Common Aero Vehicle, XCOR Aerospace, XCOR Lynx. Expand index (147 more) » « Shrink index
An active cooling system is one that involves the use of energy to cool something, as opposed to passive cooling that uses no energy.
Aerial refueling, also referred to as air refueling, in-flight refueling (IFR), air-to-air refueling (AAR), and tanking, is the process of transferring aviation fuel from one military aircraft (the tanker) to another (the receiver) during flight.
Aerobraking is a spaceflight maneuver that reduces the high point of an elliptical orbit (apoapsis) by flying the vehicle through the atmosphere at the low point of the orbit (periapsis).
Aerospace is the human effort in science, engineering and business to fly in the atmosphere of Earth (aeronautics) and surrounding space (astronautics).
The US Air Force's aerospaceplane project encompassed a variety of projects from 1958 until 1963 to study a fully reusable spaceplane.
In aeronautics, air brakes or speed brakes are a type of flight control surfaces used on an aircraft to increase drag or increase the angle of approach during landing.
An airbreathing jet engine (or ducted jet engine) is a jet engine propelled by a jet of hot exhaust gases formed from heated and expanded air that is drawn into the engine via a compressor, typically a centrifugal or axial type.
The Airbus Defence and Space Spaceplane, also called EADS Astrium TBN according to some sources, is a suborbital spaceplane concept for carrying space tourists, proposed by EADS Astrium (currently Airbus Defence and Space), the space subsidiary of the European consortium EADS (currently Airbus).
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
An airfoil (American English) or aerofoil (British English) is the shape of a wing, blade (of a propeller, rotor, or turbine), or sail (as seen in cross-section).
An amphibious aircraft or amphibian is an aircraft that can take off and land on both land and water.
Analog Science Fiction and Fact is an American science-fiction magazine published under various titles since 1930.
The Ansari X Prize was a space competition in which the X Prize Foundation offered a US$10,000,000 prize for the first non-government organization to launch a reusable manned spacecraft into space twice within two weeks.
Ariane is a series of a European civilian expendable launch vehicles for space launch use.
ASSET, or Aerothermodynamic Elastic Structural Systems Environmental Tests was an experimental US space project involving the testing of an unmanned sub-scale reentry vehicle.
Atlas V ("V" is pronounced "Five") is an expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
Avatar (अवतार) (from "Aerobic Vehicle for Transatmospheric Hypersonic Aerospace TrAnspoRtation") is a concept study for a robotic single-stage reusable spaceplane capable of horizontal takeoff and landing, by India's Defence Research and Development Organisation.
Aviation Week & Space Technology, often abbreviated Aviation Week or AW&ST, is the flagship magazine of the Aviation Week Network.
The Multi-Unit Space Transport And Recovery Device or MUSTARD, usually written as Mustard, was a concept explored by the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) during the mid-1960s for launching payloads weighing as much as into orbit.
The Black Horse was a study concept for a proposed winged single-stage to orbit spaceplane that would use aerial refueling to greatly reduce the size of the spacecraft, to about the size of an F-16 Fighting Falcon.
Blackstar is the reported codename of a secret United States orbital spaceplane system.
The Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar ("Dynamic Soarer") was a United States Air Force (USAF) program to develop a spaceplane that could be used for a variety of military missions, including aerial reconnaissance, bombing, space rescue, satellite maintenance, and as a space interceptor to sabotage enemy satellites.
The Boeing X-37, also known as the Orbital Test Vehicle (OTV), is a reusable uncrewed spacecraft.
The Boeing X-40A Space Maneuver Vehicle was a test platform for the X-37 Future-X Reusable Launch Vehicle.
The Boeing X-51 Waverider is an unmanned research scramjet experimental aircraft for hypersonic flight at and an altitude of.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
The BOR-4 (БОР-4 Беспилотный Орбитальный Ракетоплан 4, Bespilotnyi Orbital'nyi Raketoplan 4, "Unpiloted Orbital Rocketplane 4") flight vehicle is a scaled (1:2) prototype of the Soviet Spiral VTHL (vertical takeoff, horizontal landing) spaceplane.
The BOR-5 (БОР-5 Беспилотный Орбитальный Ракетоплан 5, Bespilotnyi Orbital'nyi Raketoplan 5, "Unpiloted Orbital Rocketplane 5") is a 1:8 sized test flight vehicle, used to study the main aerodynamic, thermal, acoustic and stability characteristics of the Buran.
Bristol Spaceplanes (BSP) is a British aerospace company based in Bristol, England, who have designed a number of spaceplanes with sub-orbital and orbital capabilities.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
SERV, short for Single-stage Earth-orbital Reusable Vehicle, was a proposed space launch system designed by Chrysler's Space Division for the Space Shuttle project.
Combustion, or burning, is a high-temperature exothermic redox chemical reaction between a fuel (the reductant) and an oxidant, usually atmospheric oxygen, that produces oxidized, often gaseous products, in a mixture termed as smoke.
Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) is a multiphase, space technology development program that is funded by the U.S. government and administered by NASA.
Cosmopolis XXI was a late 2000s Russian concept launch vehicle billed as a space tourism vehicle, similar to Mojave Aerospace's Tier One program.
CTOL is an acronym for conventional take-off and landing, and is the process whereby conventional aircraft (such as passenger aircraft) take off and land, involving the use of runways.
The Da Vinci Project was a privately funded, volunteer-staffed attempt to launch a reusable manned suborbital spacecraft.
The DARPA Falcon Project (Force Application and Launch from CONtinental United States) is a two-part joint project between the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the United States Air Force (USAF) and is part of Prompt Global Strike.
DASA (officially Deutsche Aerospace AG, later Daimler-Benz Aerospace AG, then DaimlerChrysler Aerospace AG), was the former aerospace subsidiary of Daimler-Benz AG (later DaimlerChrysler) from 1989. In July 2000, DASA merged with Aérospatiale-Matra and CASA to form EADS.
The Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is an agency of the Republic of India, charged with the military's research and development, headquartered in New Delhi, India.
The delta wing is a wing shaped in the form of a triangle.
A descent during air travel is any portion where an aircraft decreases altitude, and is the opposite of an ascent or climb.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
The Dream Chaser Cargo System is an American reusable lifting-body spaceplane being developed by Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) Space Systems.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Eugen Sänger (22 September 1905 – 10 February 1964) was an Austrian aerospace engineer best known for his contributions to lifting body and ramjet technology.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space.
Falke was a German program to fly a subscale model of the Space Shuttle orbiter in real conditions in order to obtain aerodynamic data in the frame of the preparation of the Hermes spaceplane.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Flight dynamics is the study of the performance, stability, and control of vehicles flying through the air or in outer space.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Friedrich Zander (Фридрих Артурович Цандер Fridrikh Arturovich Tsander. Frīdrihs Canders, – 28 March 1933), was a Baltic German pioneer of rocketry and spaceflight in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
A glider is a heavier-than-air aircraft that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its lifting surfaces, and whose free flight does not depend on an engine.
The H-II (H2) rocket was a Japanese satellite launch system, which flew seven times between 1994 and 1999, with five successes.
A helipad is a landing area or platform for helicopters and powered lift aircraft.
Hermes was a proposed spaceplane designed by the French Centre National d'Études Spatiales (CNES) in 1975, and later by the European Space Agency (ESA).
The HL-20 Personnel Launch System is a NASA spaceplane concept for manned orbital missions studied by NASA's Langley Research Center around 1990.
The HL-42 was a proposed scaled-up version of the HL-20 re-usable manned spaceplane design, which had been developed from 1983 to 1991 at NASA's Langley Research Center but never flown.
HOPE was a Japanese experimental spaceplane project designed by a partnership between NASDA and NAL (both now part of JAXA), started in the 1980s.
Hopper was a proposed European Space Agency (ESA) orbital spaceplane and reusable launch vehicle.
HOTOL, for Horizontal Take-Off and Landing, was a 1980s British design for a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) spaceplane that was to be powered by an airbreathing jet engine.
HYFLEX (Hypersonic Flight Experiment) was a National Space Development Agency of Japan reentry demonstrator prototype which was launched in 1996 on the only flight of the J-I launcher.
Hypersonic flight is flight through the atmosphere below about 90km at speeds above Mach 5, a speed where dissociation of air begins to become significant and high heat loads exist.
In aerodynamics, a hypersonic speed is one that is highly supersonic.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) is the space agency of the Government of India headquartered in the city of Bangalore.
The Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle (IXV) is a European Space Agency (ESA) experimental suborbital re-entry vehicle.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The is the Japanese national aerospace and space agency.
The Kármán line, or Karman line, lies at an altitude of above Earth's sea level and commonly represents the boundary between Earth's atmosphere and outer space.
The Keldysh bomber was a Soviet design for a rocket-powered sub-orbital bomber spacecraft which drew heavily upon work carried out by Eugen Sänger and Irene Bredt for the German Silbervogel project.
The Japanese Experiment Module (JEM), nicknamed, is a Japanese science module for the International Space Station (ISS) developed by JAXA.
Kliper (Клипер, English: Clipper) was an early-2000s proposed partly- reusable manned spacecraft concept by RSC Energia.
Landing gear is the undercarriage of an aircraft or spacecraft and may be used for either takeoff or landing.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
The leading edge is the part of the wing that first contacts the air;Crane, Dale: Dictionary of Aeronautical Terms, third edition, page 305.
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a force on it.
A lifting body is a fixed-wing aircraft or spacecraft configuration in which the body itself produces lift.
A liquid air cycle engine (LACE) is a type of spacecraft propulsion engine that attempts to increase its efficiency by gathering part of its oxidizer from the atmosphere.
This is a list of crewed spacecraft types, including space stations, sorted by status, nation and series in chronological order.
A Spaceplane is a craft that is able to fly in the atmosphere like an aeroplane and is also able to reach space and manoeuvre as a spacecraft where conventional aerodynamic controls lose their effectiveness.
The X-planes are a series of experimental United States aircraft and rockets, used to test and evaluate new technologies and aerodynamic concepts.
Lockheed L-301 (sometimes called the X-24C, though this designation was never officially assigned) was an experimental air-breathing hypersonic aircraft project.
The Lockheed Martin X-33 was an unmanned, sub-scale technology demonstrator suborbital spaceplane developed in the 1990s under the U.S. government-funded Space Launch Initiative program.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
The MAKS (Multipurpose aerospace system) (Russian: МАКС (Многоцелевая авиационно-космическая система)) is a cancelled Soviet air-launched with orbiter reusable launch system project that was proposed in 1988, but cancelled in 1991.
The Manned Orbiting Laboratory (MOL), originally referred to as the Manned Orbital Laboratory, was part of the United States Air Force's manned spaceflight program, a successor to the cancelled Boeing X-20 Dyna-Soar military reconnaissance space plane project.
The Martin Marietta Corporation was an American company founded in 1961 through the merger of Glenn L. Martin Company and American Marietta Corporation.
The Martin Marietta X-24 was an American experimental aircraft developed from a joint United States Air Force-NASA program named PILOT (1963–1975).
The Martin X-23A PRIME (Precision Reentry Including Maneuvering reEntry) (SV-5D) was a small lifting-body re-entry vehicle tested by the United States Air Force in the mid-1960s.
Messerschmitt-Bölkow-Blohm (MBB) was a German aerospace manufacturer formed as the result of several mergers in the late 1960s.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-105 part of a programme known as the Spiral (aerospace system), was a manned test vehicle to explore low-speed handling and landing.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
A mother ship, mothership or mother-ship is a large vehicle that leads, serves, or carries other smaller vehicles.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The Paresev (Paraglider Research Vehicle) was an experimental NASA glider aircraft based upon the kite-parachute studies by NASA engineer Francis Rogallo.
A Uranus orbiter and probe is a mission concept for study of the planet Uranus.
The X-38 was an experimental re-entry vehicle designed by NASA to research a possible emergency crew return vehicle (CRV) for the International Space Station (ISS).
The X-43 was an experimental unmanned hypersonic aircraft with multiple planned scale variations meant to test various aspects of hypersonic flight.
The National Aerospace Laboratory of Japan (NAL) was established in July 1955.
The of Japan, or NASDA, was a Japanese national space agency established on October 1, 1969 under the National Space Development Agency Law only for peaceful purposes.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
North American Aviation (NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane, and the XB-70, as well as Apollo Command and Service Module, the second stage of the Saturn V rocket, the Space Shuttle orbiter and the B-1 Lancer.
The DC-3 was a proposed spaceplane designed by Maxime Faget at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) in Houston.
The North American X-15 was a hypersonic rocket-powered aircraft operated by the United States Air Force and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration as part of the X-plane series of experimental aircraft.
The Northrop HL-10 was one of five American heavyweight lifting body designs flown at NASA's Flight Research Center (FRC—later Dryden Flight Research Center) in Edwards, California, from July 1966 to November 1975 to study and validate the concept of safely maneuvering and landing a low lift-over-drag vehicle designed for reentry from space.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
Orbit insertion is the spaceflight operation of adjusting a spacecraft’s momentum, in particular to allow for entry into a stable orbit around a planet, moon, or other celestial body.
Orbital Sciences Corporation (commonly referred to as Orbital) was an American company specializing in the design, manufacture and launch of small- and medium- class space and rocket systems for commercial, military and other government customers.
The Orbital Sciences X-34 was intended to be a low-cost testbed for demonstrating "key technologies" which could be integrated into the Reusable Launch Vehicle program.
In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is much less massive than the largest body in the system, its speed relative to that largest body.
OREX (Orbital Re-entry Experiment) was a NASDA re-entry demonstrator prototype which was launched in 1994 on the H-II launcher; the satellite was renamed.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
A parachute is a device used to slow the motion of an object through an atmosphere by creating drag (or in the case of ram-air parachutes, aerodynamic lift).
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
In aerospace engineering, payload fraction is a common term used to characterize the efficiency of a particular design.
The Pegasus is an air-launched rocket developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation (now part of Northrop Grumman Innovation System after Northrop Grumman acquired Orbital ATK).
PlanetSpace was a privately funded Chicago-based rocket and space travel project founded by Geoff Sheerin, CEO of the Canadian Arrow corporation and Dr.
A precooled jet engine is a concept for high speed jet engines that features a cryogenic fuel-cooled heat exchanger immediately after the air intake to precool the air entering the engine.
The Programme for Reusable In-orbit Demonstrator in Europe (PRIDE) is a European Space Agency (ESA) programme that aims to develop a reusable robotic spacecraft.
Project 921-3 is a manned spacecraft sub-system of Project 921.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Prometheus was a proposed manned vertical-takeoff, horizontal-landing (VTHL) spaceplane concept put forward by Orbital Sciences Corporation in late 2010 as part of the second phase of NASA's Commercial Crew Development (CCDev) program.
A pulse detonation engine (PDE) is a type of propulsion system that uses detonation waves to combust the fuel and oxidizer mixture.
A ramjet, sometimes referred to as a flying stovepipe or an athodyd (an abbreviation of aero thermodynamic duct), is a form of airbreathing jet engine that uses the engine's forward motion to compress incoming air without an axial compressor or a centrifugal compressor.
A reusable launch system (RLS, or reusable launch vehicle, RLV) is a space launch system intended to allow for recovery of all or part of the system for later reuse.
Reusable Launch Vehicle—Technology Demonstration Programme is a series of technology demonstration missions that has been conceived by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) as a first step towards realising a Two Stage To Orbit (TSTO) re-usable launch vehicle.
RLV-TD is the first unmanned flying testbed being developed for the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)’s Reusable Launch Vehicle Technology Demonstration Programme.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
The RBCC, or Rocket-Based Combined Cycle propulsion system, is one of the two types of propulsion systems that may be tested in the Boeing X-43 experimental aircraft.
A rocket-powered aircraft or rocket plane is an aircraft that uses a rocket engine for propulsion, sometimes in addition to airbreathing jet engines.
The Rocketplane XP was a suborbital spaceplane design that was under development c. 2005 by Rocketplane Kistler.
The Rockwell X-30 was an advanced technology demonstrator project for the National Aero-Space Plane (NASP), part of a United States project to create a single-stage-to-orbit (SSTO) spacecraft and passenger spaceliner.
The Rogallo wing is a flexible type of airfoil.
Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was an American politician and actor who served as the 40th President of the United States from 1981 to 1989.
A rotorcraft or rotary-wing aircraft is a heavier-than-air flying machine that uses lift generated by wings, called rotary wings or rotor blades, that revolve around a mast.
According to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), a runway is a "defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and takeoff of aircraft".
SABRE (Synergistic Air-Breathing Rocket Engine) is a concept under development by Reaction Engines Limited for a hypersonic precooled hybrid air-breathing rocket engine.
Saenger or Sänger was a West German concept design for a two-stage spaceplane.
Scaled Composites (often called simply Scaled) is an American aerospace company founded by Burt Rutan and currently owned by Northrop Grumman that is located at the Mojave Air and Space Port, Mojave, California, United States.
The Scaled Composites Model 348 White Knight Two (WK2) is a jet-powered cargo aircraft that is used to lift the SpaceShipTwo spacecraft to release altitude.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
A scramjet ("supersonic combustion ramjet") is a variant of a ramjet airbreathing jet engine in which combustion takes place in supersonic airflow.
SHEFEX (Sharp Edge Flight Experiment), is an experiment conducted by the German Aerospace Center (DLR), for the development of some new, cheaper and safer design principles for space capsules, hypersonic vehicles and spaceplanes with re-entry capability in the atmosphere and their integration into a complete system.
Shenlong is a prototype Chinese robotic spaceplane that is similar to the American Boeing X-37.
Sierra Nevada Corporation (SNC) is an American privately held electronic systems provider and systems integrator specializing in microsatellites, telemedicine, and commercial orbital transportation services.
Silbervogel, (German for "silver bird"), was a design for a liquid-propellant rocket-powered sub-orbital bomber produced by Eugen Sänger and Irene Bredt in the late 1930s for The Third Reich/Nazi Germany.
A single-stage-to-orbit (or SSTO) vehicle reaches orbit from the surface of a body without jettisoning hardware, expending only propellants and fluids.
Skylon is a series of designs for a single-stage-to-orbit spaceplane by the British company Reaction Engines Limited (REL), using SABRE, a combined-cycle, air-breathing rocket propulsion system.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Space is the boundless three-dimensional extent in which objects and events have relative position and direction.
According to the AIAA Space Logistics Technical Committee, space logistics is However, this definition in its larger sense includes terrestrial logistics in support of space travel, including any additional "design and development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of space materiel", movement of people in space (both routine and for medical and other emergencies), and contracting and supplying any required support services for maintaining space travel.
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were the first solid fuel motors to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight.
The Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) is the barrier that protected the Space Shuttle Orbiter during the searing heat of atmospheric reentry.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
Spacelab was a reusable laboratory used on certain spaceflights flown by the Space Shuttle.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
SpaceShipOne is an experimental air-launched rocket-powered aircraft with sub-orbital spaceflight capability at speeds of up to 900 m/s (3,000 ft/s), using a hybrid rocket motor.
The Scaled Composites SpaceShipThree (SS3) was a mid-2000s proposed spaceplane to be developed by Virgin Galactic and Scaled Composites, ostensibly to follow SpaceShipTwo.
The Scaled Composites Model 339 SpaceShipTwo (SS2) is an air-launched suborbital spaceplane type designed for space tourism.
Splashdown is the method of landing a spacecraft by parachute in a body of water.
The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.
Aircraft can have different ways to take off and land.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Tsybin (Цыбин) is a Russian last name.
Tupolev (Ту́полев) is a Russian aerospace and defence company, headquartered in Basmanny District, Central Administrative Okrug, Moscow.
A two-stage-to-orbit or two-stage rocket launch vehicle is a spacecraft in which two distinct stages provide propulsion consecutively in order to achieve orbital velocity.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
Unmanned spacecraft are spacecraft without people ("man") on board, used for unmanned spaceflight.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
VentureStar was a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch system proposed by Lockheed Martin and funded by the U.S. government.
Virgin Galactic is a spaceflight company within the Virgin Group.
Vladimir Nikolayevich Chelomey (Russian: Влади́мир Никола́евич Челоме́й; Ukrainian: Володимир Миколайович Челомей; 30 June 1914 – 8 December 1984) was a Soviet mechanics scientist, aviation and missile engineer.
VSS Enterprise (tail number: N339SS) was the first SpaceShipTwo (SS2) spaceplane, built by Scaled Composites for Virgin Galactic.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
Willy Otto Oskar Ley (October 2, 1906 – June 24, 1969) was a German-American science writer, spaceflight advocate, and historian of science who helped to popularize rocketry, spaceflight, and natural history in both Germany and the United States.
A wing is a type of fin that produces lift, while moving through air or some other fluid.
Wired is a monthly American magazine, published in print and online editions, that focuses on how emerging technologies affect culture, the economy, and politics.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Initiated in 2003, X-41 is the designation for a still-classified U.S. military spaceplane.
XCOR Aerospace was an American private spaceflight and rocket engine development company based at the Mojave Air and Space Port in Mojave, California, Midland International Air and Spaceport in Midland, Texas and the Amsterdam area, the Netherlands.
The XCOR Lynx was a proposed suborbital horizontal-takeoff, horizontal-landing (HTHL), rocket-powered spaceplane that was under development by the California-based company XCOR Aerospace to compete in the emerging suborbital spaceflight market.