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Abd-ar-Rahman III (′Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn ′Abd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hakam ar-Rabdi ibn Hisham ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ad-Dakhil; عبد الرحمن الثالث; 11 January 889/91 – 15 October 961) was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Ummayad dynasty in al-Andalus.
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Abengoa S.A. is a Spanish multinational corporation, which includes companies in the domains of energy, telecommunications, transportation, and the environment.
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Abraham Cresques (1325–1387), whose real name was Cresques (son of) Abraham, was a 14th-century Jewish cartographer from Palma, Majorca (then part of the Crown of Aragon).
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Absolute monarchy or absolutism is a monarchical form of government in which the monarch has absolute power among his or her people.
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The Academy Awards or The Oscars is an annual American awards ceremony honoring cinematic achievements in the film industry.
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Acciona, S.A. is a Spanish conglomerate group dedicated to the development and management of infrastructure (construction, water, industrial and services) and renewable energy.
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Adolfo Suárez González, Duke of Suárez, Grandee of Spain KOGF OCIII (25 September 1932 – 23 March 2014) was a Spanish attorney and politician.
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Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport (Aeropuerto Adolfo Suárez Madrid-Barajas) is the main international airport serving Madrid in Spain.
Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.
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The Age of Discovery is an informal and loosely defined European historical period from the 15th century to the 18th century, marking the time in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture.
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The Age of Enlightenment or simply the Enlightenment or Age of Reason is an era from the 1620s to the 1780s in which cultural and intellectual forces in Western Europe emphasized reason, analysis, and individualism rather than traditional lines of authority.
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al-Andalus (الأندلس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Andalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus or Wandalus), also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim cultural domain and territory occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
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Al-Qæda (or; القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a global militant Islamist organization founded by Osama bin Laden, Abdullah Azzam, and several others, at some point between August 1988.
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The Alans, or the Alani, occasionally termed Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
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The albacore (Thunnus alalunga) is a species of tuna in the family Scombridae.
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El Albayzín (also Albaicín) is a district of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain, that retains the narrow winding streets of its Medieval Moorish past.
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Alberto Contador Velasco (born 6 December 1982) is a Spanish professional cyclist, one of six riders to have won all three Grand Tours of road cycling.
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The Isla de Alborán is a small islet in the Alborán Sea, part of the western Mediterranean, about north of the Moroccan coast and south of the Spanish province of Almería.
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Alcalá de Henares, meaning Citadel on the river Henares, is a Spanish city whose historical centre is one of UNESCO's World Heritage Sites.
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The Alcázar of Seville (Spanish "Reales Alcázares de Sevilla" or "Royal Alcazars of Seville") is a royal palace in Seville, Spain, originally developed by Moorish Muslim kings.
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Alejandro Fernando Amenábar Cantos, commonly known as Alejandro Amenábar (born March 31, 1972), is a Spanish film director, screenwriter and composer.
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Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso X, Alphonse X, or Alfons X, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death.
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Alfredo Kraus Trujillo (24 November 192710 September 1999) was a distinguished Spanish tenor from the Canary islands, particularly known for the artistry he brought to opera's bel canto roles.
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Alhambra (الْحَمْرَاء,, Al-Ḥamrā', lit. "the red one"), the complete form of which was Calat Alhamra, is a palace and fortress complex located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain.
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The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July, of that year.
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Alicante, or Alacant, both official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community.
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Alicante–Elche Airport (Aeropuerto de Alicante-Elche, Aeroport d'Alacant-Elx),, originally named El Altet, is the sixth busiest airport in Spain based on passenger numbers, and the main airport for the Valencian Community and the Region of Murcia.
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Alicia de Larrocha i de la Calle (23 May 192325 September 2009) was a Spanish pianist from Catalonia.
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An alluvial plain is a largely flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms.
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Almadén is a town and municipality in the Spanish province of Ciudad Real, within the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha.
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Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, situated in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea.
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The Almohad Caliphate (Imweḥḥden, from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement founded in the 12th century.
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The Almoravids (ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ Imṛabḍen, المرابطون Al-Murābiṭūn) were a Berber dynasty of Morocco, who formed an empire in the 11th century that stretched over the western Maghreb and Al-Andalus.
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Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
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Alvarado I is a large solar thermal power station in Alvarado, in Extremadura, Spain.
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The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), the American War of Independence, or simply the Revolutionary War in the United States, was the armed conflict between Great Britain and thirteen of its former North American colonies, which had declared themselves the independent United States of America.
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The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).
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Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty and AI) is a non-governmental organisation focused on human rights with over 7 million members and supporters around the world.
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An anchovy is a small, common salt-water forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
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Ancient Carthage was the Phoenician city-state of Carthage.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history that lasted from the Archaic period of the 8th to 6th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (circa 600 AD).
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Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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Ancient Hebrew (ISO 639-3 code) is a blanket term for varieties of the Hebrew language used in ancient times.
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Ancient Rome was an Italic civilization that began on the Italian Peninsula as early as the 8th century BC.
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Andalusia (Andalucía) is a south-western European region established as an autonomous community of the Kingdom of Spain.
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Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France.
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The Anglo–Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared.
The anti-austerity movement in Spain, also referred to as the 15-M Movement (Spanish: Movimiento 15-M), the Indignants Movement, and Take the Square #spanishrevolution, is a series of ongoing demonstrations in Spain whose origin can be traced to social networks such as Real Democracy NOW (Democracia Real YA) or Youth Without a Future (Juventud Sin Futuro), among other civilian digital platforms and 200 other small associations.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
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Benedict XIII, born Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor (25 November 1328 – 23 May 1423), known as el Papa Luna in Spanish, was an Aragonese nobleman, who is officially considered by the Catholic Church to be an antipope.
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Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Spanish Catalan architect from Reus and the best known practitioner of Catalan Modernism.
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Antonio de Nebrija (1441 – 5 July 1522), also known as Antonio de Lebrija, Elio Antonio de Lebrija, Antonius Nebrissensis, and Antonio of Lebrixa, was a Spanish Renaissance scholar.
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Antonio Machado, in full Antonio Cipriano José María y Francisco de Santa Ana Machado y Ruiz (26 July 1875 – 22 February 1939), was a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of '98.
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The Aqueduct of Segovia (or more precisely, the aqueduct bridge) is a Roman aqueduct and one of the most significant and best-preserved ancient monuments left on the Iberian Peninsula.
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Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
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Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken by between 10,000 and 30,000 people throughout the valleys of the Pyrenees in Aragon, Spain, mainly in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza.
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Aranese (Aranés) is a standardized form of the Pyrenean Gascon variety of the Occitan language spoken in the Val d'Aran, in northwestern Catalonia close to the Spanish border with France, where it is one of the three official languages beside Catalan and Spanish.
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Aranjuez is a town and municipality lying south of Madrid in the southern part of the Madrid Region or Community of Madrid, Spain.
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In many denominations of the Christian religion, an archbishop (via Latin archiepiscopus, from Greek ἀρχιεπίσκοπος, from ἀρχι-, "chief", and ἐπίσκοπος, "bishop") is a bishop of higher rank or office.
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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands.
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This is a list of countries and territories in Europe by population density.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.
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Arròs negre (arroz negro) is a Valencian and Catalan dish made with cuttlefish (or squid) and rice, somewhat similar to seafood paella.
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An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years.
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Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852), was a soldier and statesman, and one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain.
Asia is the Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the eastern and northern hemispheres.
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Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
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Astur-Leonese is a group of mutually intelligible Romance dialects of the West Iberian branch, including.
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Pre-Romanesque architecture in Asturias is framed between the years 711 and 910, the period of the rise, extension and disappearance of the kingdom of Asturias.
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Asturian cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients found in the cuisine of the Asturias region of Spain.
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Asturian (autonym: asturianu,Art. 1 de la. or bable) is a Romance language of the West Iberian group, Astur-Leonese subgroup, spoken in Asturias (Spain).
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Asturias (Asturies), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
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The Atapuerca Mountains (Sierra de Atapuerca in Spanish) is an ancient karstic region of Spain, in the province of Burgos, Castile and Leon and near Atapuerca and Ibeas de Juarros.
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The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceanic divisions, following the Pacific Ocean.
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The Aurignacian culture is an archaeological culture of the Upper Palaeolithic, located in Europe and southwest Asia.
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In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidego, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that comprise the Spanish nation.
Alta Velocidad Española (AVE) is a service of high-speed rail in Spain operated by Renfe Operadora, the Spanish national railway company, at speeds of up to.
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Averroës (April 14, 1126 – December 10, 1198) is the Latinized form of Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد), full name (أبو الوليد محمد ابن احمد ابن رشد), a medieval Andalusian polymath.
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Avilés is a city in Asturias, Spain.
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The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.
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Ávila (Latin: Abila and Obila) is a Spanish town located in the autonomous community of Castile and León, and is the capital of the Province of Ávila.
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Úbeda (from Arabic Ubbada al-`Arab and this from iberic Ibiut) is a town in the province of Jaén in Spain's autonomous community of Andalusia, with some 36,025 inhabitants.
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Badajoz (formerly written Badajos in English; Baajós) is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
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The Baetic System (Sistema Bético) is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
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Baeza is a town of approximately 16,200 inhabitants in Andalusia, southern Spain, in the province of Jaén, perched on a cliff in the "Loma de Úbeda", a mountain range between the great river Guadalquivir on the south and its tributary the Guadalimar on the north.
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The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Bank of Spain (Banco de España), is the national central bank of Spain.
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The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
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Barcelona is the capital city of the autonomous community of Catalonia in Spain and Spain's second most populated city, with a population of 1.6 million within its administrative limits.
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The Barcelona Symphony and Catalonia National Orchestra (Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona i Nacional de Catalunya, OBC) is a symphony orchestra based in Barcelona, Spain.
Barcelona–El Prat Airport (Catalan: Aeroport de Barcelona – el Prat, Spanish: Aeropuerto de Barcelona-El Prat), simply known as Barcelona Airport, is an international airport located southwest.
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The Baroque is often thought of as a period of artistic style that used exaggerated motion and clear, easily interpreted detail to produce drama, tension, exuberance, and grandeur in sculpture, painting, architecture, literature, dance, theater, and music.
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Basketball is a sport played by two teams of five players on a rectangular court.
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The Basque conflict, also known as the Spain–ETA conflict, was an armed and political conflict between the Spanish state, France and the Basque National Liberation Movement, a group of social and political Basque organizations which sought independence from Spain and France.
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The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque) is an autonomous community of northern Spain.
Basque cuisine, the cuisine of the Basque people, includes meats and fish grilled over hot coals, marmitako and lamb stews, cod, Tolosa bean dishes, paprikas from Lekeitio, pintxos (Basque tapas), Idiazabal sheep's cheese, txakoli sparkling wine, and Basque cider.
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Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.
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Basque nationalism is a form of nationalism that asserts that Basques are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Basques.
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Basque pelota (pilota in the original Basque language also pelota vasca in Spanish, pelote basque in French) is the name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using one's hand, a racket, a wooden bat or a basket, against a wall (frontis or Fronton) or, more traditionally, with two teams face to face separated by a line on the ground or a net.
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The Basques (euskaldunak; vascos; basques) are an indigenous ethnic group who primarily inhabit an area traditionally known as the Basque Country (Euskal Herria), a region that is located around the western end of the Pyrenees on the coast of the Bay of Biscay and straddles parts of north-central Spain and south-western France.
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The Battle of Covadonga was the first significant victory by a Christian military force in Iberia following the Muslim Moors' conquest of that region in 711.
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The Battle of Tours (October 732), also called the Battle of Poitiers and in معركة بلاط الشهداء (ma'arakat Balâṭ ash-Shuhadâ – Battle of the Palace of Martyrs) was fought in an area between the cities of Poitiers and Tours, in north-central France, near the village of Moussais-la-Bataille, about northeast of Poitiers.
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The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815).
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The Bay of Biscay (Golfo de Vizcaya, Golfe de Gascogne) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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Belgium (België; Belgique; Belgien), officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a sovereign state in Western Europe.
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Friar Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 1676 – 26 September 1764) was a spanish monk and scholar who led the Age of Enlightenment in Spain.
Benito Pérez Galdós (May 10, 1843 – January 4, 1920) was a Spanish realist novelist.
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The Great Berber Revolt of 739/740–743 AD (122–125 AH in the Muslim calendar) took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the Arab caliphate (ruled from Damascus).
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The Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ Imaziɣen/imazighen/, singular: ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖ Amaziɣ/Amazigh) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa.
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The BESCAM, an initialism for Brigadas Especiales de Seguridad de la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid (Special Security Brigades for the Autonomous Community of Madrid), is a police body created by the government of the Community of Madrid in Spain.
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A bicameral legislature is one in which the legislators are divided into two separate assemblies, chambers or houses.
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The Bidasoa (Bidassoa) is a river in the Basque Country of northern Spain and southern France that runs largely south to north.
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Bilbao (Bilbo) is a municipality and city in Spain, the capital of the province of Biscay in the autonomous community of the Basque Country.
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Bilbao Airport is a public airport located north of Bilbao, in the municipality of Loiu, in Biscay.
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Biotic components are the living things that shape an ecosystem.
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Biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals.
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The Black Death was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people and peaking in Europe in the years 1346–53.
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A black market or underground economy is a market in which goods or services are traded illegally.
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The Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE) (Official State Gazette) is the official gazette of the Government of Spain and is published every day except Sunday.
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Bolivians (Bolivianos) are the people that inhabit the Plurinational State of Bolivia.
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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.
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The fourteen British Overseas Territories (BOT) are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom; they do not, however, form part of it.
Buddhism is a nontheistic religion or philosophy (Sanskrit: dharma; Pali: धम्म dhamma) that encompasses a variety of traditions, beliefs and spiritual practices largely based on teachings attributed to Gautama Buddha, commonly known as the Buddha ("the awakened one").
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The Bulgarians (българи) are a South Slavic people who speak Bulgarian and are native to Bulgaria and neighbouring regions.
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Burgos Cathedral (Catedral de Burgos) is a Gothic-style Roman Catholic cathedral in Burgos, Spain.
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The Byzantine Empire, or Eastern Roman Empire, was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the eastern part of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages.
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Caldo gallego in Spanish (or simply caldo in Galician), literally Galician broth, is a traditional soup dish from Galicia (Spain).
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California is a state located on the West Coast of the United States.
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A caliphate (خِلافة khilāfa) is a form of Islamic government led by a caliph (خَليفة)—a person considered a political and religious successor to the prophet Muhammad and a leader of the entire Muslim community.
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Camilo José Cela y Trulock, 1st Marquis of Iria Flavia (11 May 1916 – 17 January 2002) was a Spanish novelist, short story writer and essayist associated with the Generation of '36 movement.
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The Camino de Santiago, also known by the English names Way of St.
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Canal de Isabel II (CYII) is the public company that manages the water supplies for Madrid, Spain.
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The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias), also known as the Canaries (Canarias), are a Spanish archipelago located just off the southern coast of Morocco, west of its southern border.
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Cantabria is a Spanish historical community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.
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Cantabrian cuisine comprises a select list of ingredients: fish and seafood from the sea; salmon and trout from the upper basins of the rivers; vegetables, legumes and cow milk from the valleys; or veal and game from the mountains.
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The Cantabrian Mountains or Cantabrian Range (Cordillera Cantábrica) are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
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The Cantabrians (Cantrabrian and cántabros) are the inhabitants living in the region of Cantabria, in northern Spain.
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El Cantar de mio Cid (or El Poema de mio Cid, literally "The Song of my Cid"), also known in English as The Poem of the Cid, is the oldest preserved Castilian epic poem (epopeya).
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Capitalism is an economic system in which trade, industry, and the means of production are privately owned and operated via profit and loss calculation (price signals) through the price system.
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Carlism (Karlismo; Carlisme) is a traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon dynasty on the Spanish throne.
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The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century.
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Don Carlos Arias Navarro, 1st Marquis of Arias-Navarro, Grandee of Spain (11 December 1908 – 27 November 1989) was one of the best known Spanish politicians during the dictatorship of General Francisco Franco.
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Carlos Saura Atarés (born 4 January 1932, Huesca) is a Spanish film director and photographer from Aragon.
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Castile and León (Castilla y León; Leonese: Castiella y Llión; Castela e León; Castela e Leão) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.
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The Castilian people (Spanish: castellanos) are certain inhabitants in regions of central Spain including at least Castile-La Mancha, Madrid, and the central and eastern parts of Castile and León who are the source of the Spanish language (Castilian) among other aspects of cultural identity.
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The Catalan independence movement or the Catalan separatist movement (independentisme català) is a political movement, derived from Catalan nationalism, which supports the independence of Catalonia or the Catalan countries from Spain and France.
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Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.
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The Churches of the Vall de Boí are a set of nine Early Romanesque churches declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO and located in the Vall de Boí, in the Catalan comarque of Alta Ribagorça (Province of Lleida).
The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalani; catalanes) are a Romance ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia, who form a historic nationality chiefly located in northern Spain.
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Catalonia (Catalunya; Catalonha; Cataluña) is an autonomous community of Spain and designated a "historical nationality" by its Statute of Autonomy.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is, the largest Christian church, with more than 1.25 billion members worldwide.
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The Catholic Monarchs (Reyes Católicos) is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
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Catholicism (from Greek καθολικισμός, katholikismos, "universal doctrine") and its adjectival form Catholic are used as broad terms for describing specific traditions in the Christian churches in theology, doctrine, liturgy, ethics, and spirituality.
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The Cave of Altamira is a cave in Spain famous for its Upper Paleolithic cave paintings featuring drawings and polychrome rock paintings of wild mammals and human hands.
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Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain is the name under which are grouped 18 caves located in different regions of northern Spain, which together represent the apogee of Paleolithic cave art in Europe between 35,000 and 11,000 B.C. They have been collectively designated a World Heritage Site.
The Cueva de El Castillo, or the Cave of the Castle, is an archaeological site within the complex of the Caves of Monte Castillo, and is located in Puente Viesgo, in the province of Cantabria, Spain.
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Cáceres is the capital of Cáceres province, in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
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Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
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The Cádiz Cortes was the first national assembly to claim sovereignty in Spain.
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Córdoba, also called Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
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Celedonio Calatayud Costa Pedreguer, October 29, 1880 – Madrid, January 24, 1931) was a Spanish scientist and radiologist, remembered for his achievements on radiology, radiotherapy, and electrology. He pioneered the use of radiology and electrology in Europe for both diagnostics and therapeutical purposes, introducing radiotherapy in Spain in 1906. He founded the Spanish Medical Electrology and Radiology Society (Sociedad Española de Radiología y Electrología Médicas), promoted the doctoral chair of Electro-radiology and was elected as the first professor to chair it at the Universidad Central (later renamed Complutense University of Madrid). He also was the driving force behind and creator of the First National Medical Congress that took place in Madrid in 1919, precursor of the use of diathermy in gynecologic therapy, founder of the Spanish Journal of Medical Electrology and Radiology (Revista Española de Radiología y Electrología Médicas) and Tribuna Médica, as well as author of many papers on electrodiagnosis, electrotherapy, roentgenology, and radiotherapy.
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The Celts (occasionally, see pronunciation of ''Celtic'') were people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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Central European Summer Time (CEST) is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC + one hour) during the rest of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of the European Union, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
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Ceuta (assimilated pronunciation, also;; سبتة, Sabtah; Sebta) is an Spanish city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a western border with Morocco.
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The Chafarinas Islands (Islas Chafarinas, Berber: Igumamen Iceffaren or Takfarinas, Arabic: جزر الشفارين or الجزر الجعفرية), also spelled Zafarin, Djaferin or Zafarani, are a group of three small islets located in the Alboran Sea off the coast of Morocco with an aggregate area of, to the east of Nador and off the Moroccan town of Ras Kebdana.
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Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster which began transmission on 2 November 1982.
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Charles I (Carlos I) (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558), of the Spanish Empire from 1516, and as Charles V (Charles Quint; Karl V.) was ruler of the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 until his voluntary abdication in favor of his younger brother Ferdinand I as Holy Roman Emperor and his son Philip II as King of Spain in 1556.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia (as Charles III), and King of Serbia, Archduke of Austria, etc., in 1711.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a sovereign state in East Asia.
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ChristianityFrom the Ancient Greek word Χριστός, Christos, a translation of the Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", together with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
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Christopher Columbus (Cristoforo Colombo; Cristóbal Colón; Cristóvão Colombo; born between 31 October 1450 and 30 October 1451, Genoa; died 20 May 1506, Valladolid) was an Italian explorer, navigator, colonizer and citizen of the Republic of Genoa.
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Citrus is a common term and genus (Citrus) of flowering plants in the rue family, Rutaceae.
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Classical Arabic (CA), also known as Quranic Arabic, is the form of the Arabic language used in literary texts from Umayyad and Abbasid times (7th to 9th centuries).
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Classical music is art music produced or rooted in the traditions of Western music, including both liturgical (religious) and secular music.
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Cocido madrileño ("Madrilenian stew") is a traditional chickpea-based stew from Madrid, Spain.
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Cod is the common name for the genus Gadus of demersal fishes, belonging to the family Gadidae.
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The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).
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The College of Europe (Collège d'Europe) is an independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with the main campus in Bruges, Belgium.
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Colombians (Colombianos) are the people of the Republic of Colombia, a multiethnic country in South America, and those who identify with the Colombian cultural and/or national identity.
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Colonialism is the establishment, exploitation, maintenance, acquisition, and expansion of colony in one territory by a political power from another territory.
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Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
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A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.
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Common Era (also Current Era or Christian Era), abbreviated as CE, is an alternative naming of the calendar era Anno Domini ("in the year of the/our Lord", abbreviated AD).
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The Community of Madrid (Comunidad de Madrid) is one of the seventeen autonomous communities (regions) of Spain.
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In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which two or more sovereign powers formally agree to share equally dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it up into 'national' zones.
The Congress of Deputies of Spain, commonly referred to as simply the Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
Conquistadors (from Portuguese or Spanish conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
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Constituent Cortes (Cortes constituyentes) is the description of Spain's parliament, the Cortes, when convened as a constituent assembly.
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A constitutional monarchy, limited monarchy or parliamentary monarchy (also called a crowned republic) is a form of government in which governing powers of the monarch are restricted by a constitution.
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Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (CAF) (literally "Construction & Auxiliary of Railways") is a Spanish private company which manufactures railway vehicles and equipment.
Contemporary architecture is, in broad terms, the architecture of the present day.
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A converso (convers,; "a convert", from Latin, "converted, turned around") and its feminine form conversa was a Jew or Muslim who converted to Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendents.
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The Cortes Generales (General Courts) is the legislature of Spain.
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The Cortes of León from year 1188 was a parliamentary body in the medieval Kingdom of León.
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Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the family of Malvaceae.
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The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe), founded in 1949, is a regional intergovernmental organisation which promotes human rights, democracy and the rule of law in its 47 member states, covering 820 million citizens.
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The Council of Ministers (Consejo de Ministros) is a collegiate body composed of the President of the Government (Prime Minister), Vice presidents when existing and the Ministers, and any other member required by law, and in some cases Secretaries of State (Junior Ministers).
Councils of Toledo (Concilia toletana).
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The Counter-Reformation (also the Catholic Revival or Catholic Reformation) was the period of Catholic resurgence beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648), and was initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation.
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A neutral country in a particular war is a sovereign state which officially declares itself to be neutral towards the belligerents.
The Criollo (or "creole" people) were a social class in the caste system of the overseas colonies established by Spain in the 16th century, especially in Hispanic America, comprising the locally born people of confirmed Spanish ancestry.
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Cro-Magnon is a common name that has been used to describe the first early modern humans (early Homo sapiens sapiens) that lived in the European Upper Paleolithic.
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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a sovereign state at the crossroads of Central Europe, Southeast Europe, and the Mediterranean.
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The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona Aragonum, Corona de Aragón)Corona d'AragónCorona d'AragóCorona Aragonum (Corona de Aragón was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederacy of cultures rather than as a single country. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
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The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne.
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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country in the Caribbean comprising the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos.
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Cuenca is a city in the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha in central Spain.
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The culture of Greece has evolved over thousands of years, beginning in Mycenaean Greece, continuing most notably into Classical Greece, through the influence of the Roman Empire and its successor the Byzantine Empire.
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Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, exercise or sport.
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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.
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A dairy product or milk product is food produced from the milk of mammals.
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David Trueba (born 10 September 1969 in Madrid) is a Spanish novelist, film director and screenwriter.
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Dámaso Alonso y Fernández de las Redondas (22 October 1898 – 25 January 1990) was a Spanish poet, philologist and literary critic.
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De facto is a Latin expression that means "in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact" (literally "from fact").
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De jure (Classical Latin: de iúre) is an expression that means "of right, by right, according to law" (literally "from law"), as contrasted with de facto, which means "in fact, in reality" (literally "from fact").
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Decentralization or decentralisation is the process of redistributing or dispersing functions, powers, people or things away from a central location or authority.
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Democracy, or democratic government, is "a system of government in which all the people of a state or polity...
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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Senegal, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
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The Deputy Prime Minister of Spain (Vicepresidente primero del Gobierno de España, strictly First Vice President of the Government of Spain) is the second in command to the Prime Minister of Spain, filling in for him when he is absent or incapable of exercising his power.
Desalination, desalinization, or desalinisation is a process that removes minerals from saline water.
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Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate that does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate, and in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub.
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A developed country, industrialized country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
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Devolution is the statutory granting of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional, local, or state level.
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A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslim citizens of an Islamic state.
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Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (also and US /vəˈlɑːskʷɛs/;; baptized on June 6, 1599 – August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter who was the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.
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Diplomacy (from the Greek δίπλωμα, meaning making a deal with other countries) is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
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Discrimination is treatment or consideration of, or making a distinction in favor of or against, a person or thing based on the group, class, or category to which that person or thing is perceived to belong to rather than on individual merit.
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Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory, near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the subject of a disputed irredentist claim by Spain.
The Gibraltar territory currently contains an long section of the isthmus that links the Rock with mainland Spain.
Doñana National Park is a natural reserve in Andalusia, southern Spain, in the provinces of Huelva and Seville.
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Don Juan Tenorio: Drama religioso-fantástico en dos partes (Don Juan Tenorio: Religious-Fantasy Drama in Two Parts), is a play written in 1844 by José Zorrilla.
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Don Quixote, fully titled The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha (El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.
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The Dos de Mayo of 1808, was a rebellion by the people of Madrid against the occupation of the city by French troops, provoking a brutal repression by the French Imperial forces and triggering the Peninsular War.
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The Douro (Douro; Duero; Durius) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.
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The Dutch Revolt (1566 or 1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.
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A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.
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Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
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The Ebro (Spanish and Basque) or Ebre is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is an independent business within The Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
Ecuadorian people consist of a diverse collection of ethnic groups, almost all related to another group in one way or another.
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Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.
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The Royal Site of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Monasterio y Sitio de El Escorial en Madrid), commonly known as El Escorial, is a historical residence of the King of Spain, in the town of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, about northwest of the capital, Madrid, in Spain.
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Doménikos Theotokópoulos (Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος, 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco (Spanish for "The Greek"), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
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El Lazarillo de Tormes is a 1959 Spanish film directed by César Fernández Ardavín.
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Elche, or Elx, is a city located in the comarca of Baix Vinalopó, Spain.
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An electric car is an automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using electrical energy stored in rechargeable batteries or another energy storage device.
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The Roman colony of Emerita Augusta (present day Mérida) was founded in 25 BC by Augustus, to resettle emeritus soldiers discharged from the Roman army from two veteran legions of the Cantabrian Wars: Legio V Alaudae and Legio X Gemina.
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Emilia Pardo Bazán (16 September 1851 – 12 May 1921) was a Galician (Spanish) novelist, journalist, essayist, critic and scholar from Galicia.
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An enclave is any portion of a state that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
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English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
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The process of expanding the European Union (EU) through the accession of new member states began with the Inner Six, who founded the European Economic Community (the EU's predecessor) in 1958, when the Treaty of Rome came into force.
Bourbon Spain is the period in the early modern History of Spain from the end of Habsburg rule and the ensuing War of the Spanish Succession over the ascension of a relation of Louis XIV of France to the throne of Spain (1700–1715) until the Napoleonic Wars of 1808–1813, which led to the establishment of Spain as a constitutional monarchy The Age of Enlightenment (in Spanish, Ilustración) came to Spain in the eighteenth century with a new Bourbon dynasty after the decay of the Spanish economy, bureaucracy, and empire in the latter years of the former Habsburg dynasty.
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Enrique Granados Campiña (27 July 186724 March 1916) was a Spanish pianist and composer of classical music.
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Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.
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Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.
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The Ertzaintza (Public Guard or People's Guard), is the police force for the Basque Country.
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ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ("Basque Country and Freedom") is an armed Basque nationalist and separatist organization in northern Spain and southwestern France.
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Eugeni d’Ors i Rovira (Barcelona, 1881 – Vilanova i la Geltrú, 1954) was a Spanish writer, essayist, journalist, philosopher and art critic.
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Eurasia is the combined continental landmass of Asia and Europe.
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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the eurozone, which consists of 19 of the 28 member states of the European Union: Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, and Spain.
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The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).
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Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.
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The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration between its member states.
The European Green Capital Award is an award for a European city based on its environmental record.
The European Movement International is a lobbying association that coordinates the efforts of associations and national councils with the goal of promoting European integration, and disseminating information about it.
The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
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Eurozone (euro area).
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Extremadura (Estremaura; Estremadura and Estremadura) is an autonomous community of western Spain whose capital city is Mérida.
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Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) was the sole legal party of the Francoist dictatorship in Spain.
Falangism (Falangismo) is the political ideology of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista ("Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries.
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The Falles (sing. Falla), or Fallas, is a traditional celebration held in commemoration of Saint Joseph in the city of Valencia, in Spain.
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Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian nationalism that came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
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Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
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Futbol Club Barcelona, also known as Barcelona and familiarly as Barça, is a professional football club, based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, known as Federico García Lorca (5 June 1898 – 19 August 1936) was a Spanish poet, playwright, and theatre director.
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Felipe VI (born 30 January 1968) is the King of Spain.
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Ferdinand II (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
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Ferdinand VII (Fernando VII de Borbón; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
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Fernando Trueba (born 18 January 1955) is a book editor, screenwriter, film director and producer.
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Ferrol, is a city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia, located on the Atlantic coast in north-western Spain.
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Ferrovial, S.A., previously Grupo Ferrovial, is a Spanish multinational company involved in the design, construction, financing, operation (DBFO) and maintenance of transport, urban and services infrastructure.
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The Festival Internacional de Benicàssim, commonly abbreviated to simply FIB, is an annual music festival which takes place in the town of Benicàssim, Spain.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
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The Fiesta Nacional de España (Festa Nacional d'Espanya in Catalan/Valencian/Balearic; Festa Nacional de España in Galician; Espainiako Jai Nazionala in Basque) is the national day of Spain.
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The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
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A film director is a person who directs the making of a film.
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The First Spanish Republic (Primera República Española) was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain.
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Flamenco is a genre of music and dance native to the southern Spanish regions of Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia.
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Florián Rey (born Antonio Martínez del Castillo) was a Spanish director, actor, and screenwriter.
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Fodder or animal feed is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, goats, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.
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Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
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Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas, S.A., or FCC, is a leading Spanish construction company based in Barcelona.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
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Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seat auto racing that is sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA).
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A fossil-fuel power station is a power station which burns fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas or petroleum to produce electricity.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.
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Francia or Frankia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), Frankish Kingdom, Frankish Empire, Frankish Realm or occasionally Frankland, was the territory inhabited and ruled by the Franks, a confederation of Germanic tribes, during Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages.
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Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Santibáñez Villegas (14 September 1580 – 8 September 1645) was a Spanish nobleman, politician and writer of the Baroque era.
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Francisco de Zurbarán (baptized November 7, 1598 – August 27, 1664) was a Spanish painter.
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Francisco Franco Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 – November 20, 1975) was a Spanish general and the dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975.
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Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker regarded both as the last of the Old Masters and the first of the moderns.
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Francisco Pizarro González (circa 1471 or 1476 – 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who conquered the Incan Empire.
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Francization or Francisation (in Canadian English and American English), Frenchification (in British and also in American English), or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced or desired by the concerned population.
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Francoist Spain (also historically known as Nationalist Spain during the Spanish Civil War) refers to the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain from the government of the Second Spanish Republic after winning the Civil War, and 1978, when the Spanish Constitution of 1978 went into effect.
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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) are historically first known as a group of Germanic tribes that roamed the land between the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, and second as the people of Gaul who merged with the Gallo-Roman populations during succeeding centuries, passing on their name to modern-day France and becoming part of the heritage of the modern day French people.
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In the history of France, the First Republic, officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
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The French Invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года; Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
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A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds.
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Fuero, Fur, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept.
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Fuerteventura (loosely translated as "Strong Winds" or a corruption of the French term for "Great Adventure") is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of Africa, politically part of Spain.
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Fuerteventura Airport, also known as El Matorral Airport, is an airport serving the Spanish island of Fuerteventura.
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Futsal is a variant of association football that is played on a smaller field and mainly played indoors.
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Gaita may refer to: Musical instruments.
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Galicia (or;; Galician and Portuguese: Galiza,, or) is an autonomous community in northwest Spain, with the official status of a historic nationality.
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Galician cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients found in the cuisine of the autonomous community of Galicia, Spain.
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Galician (or; galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
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Galician people or Galicians (galegos, gallegos) are a national, cultural and ethnolinguistic group whose historic homeland is Galicia, in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula.
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Galician-Portuguese (galego-portugués or galaico-portugués) (galego-português or galaico-português, also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician), was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula.
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Gallaecia or Callaecia, also known as Hispania Gallaecia, was the name of a Roman province that comprised a territory in the north-west of Hispania, approximately present-day Galicia, northern Portugal, Asturias and Leon and the later Suebic Kingdom of Gallaecia.
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Garajonay National Park (Parque nacional de Garajonay) is located in the center and north of the island of La Gomera, one of the Canary Islands (Spain).
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Gasification is a process that converts organic or fossil fuel based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
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Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (born Gaspar Melchor de Xove y Llanos, 5 January 1744 – 27 November 1811) was a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain.
GATEPAC (Grupo de Artistas y Técnicos Españoles Para la Arquitectura Contemporánea) was a group of architects assembled during the Second Spanish Republic.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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Gazpacho is a soup made of raw vegetables and served cold, usually with a tomato base, originating in the southern Spanish region of Andalusia.
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The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is an index designed to measure of gender equality.
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The Archivo General de Indias ("General Archive of the Indies"), housed in the ancient merchants' exchange of Seville, Spain, the Casa Lonja de Mercaderes, is the repository of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and the Philippines.
The Palacio de Generalife (جَنَّة الْعَرِيف Jannat al-‘Arīf, literally, "Architect's Garden") was the summer palace and country estate of the Nasrid Emirs (Kings) of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus, now beside the city of Granada in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
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The Generation of '98 (also called Generation of 1898 or (in Spanish) Generación del 98 or Generación de 1898) was a group of novelists, poets, essayists, and philosophers active in Spain at the time of the Spanish–American War (1898).
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Spain is a country located in southwestern Europe, occupying most (about 85 percent) of the Iberian Peninsula and includes a small exclave inside France called Llívia as well as the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Western Atlantic Ocean off northwest Africa, and five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberanía) on and off the coast of North Africa: Ceuta, Melilla, Islas Chafarinas, Peñón de Alhucemas, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera.
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German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin, identified by their use of the Germanic languages which diversified out of Proto-Germanic starting during the Pre-Roman Iron Age.
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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history, and speak the German language as their native language.
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Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean.
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The Gibraltarians (colloquially Llanitos) are a cultural group native to Gibraltar, a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.
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Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.
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Girona (Gerona) is a city in the northeast of the Autonomous Community of Catalonia in Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants, and Güell and has an official population of 96,722 as of January 2011.
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The Glorious Revolution (La Gloriosa) took place in Spain in 1868, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II.
The Glosas Emilianenses (Spanish for "glosses of Millán/Emilianus") are glosses written in a Latin codex.
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Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79.
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The term Golden Age (Chryson Genos) comes from Greek mythology and legend and refers to the first in a sequence of four or five (or more) Ages of Man, in which the Golden Age is first, followed in sequence, by the Silver, Bronze, Heroic, and then the present (Iron), which is a period of decline, sometimes followed by the Leaden Age.
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Golf is a club and ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
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Gothic architecture is a style of architecture that flourished during the high and late medieval period.
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The Goths (*Gut-þiuda,Most commonly translated as "Gothic people".; Gutar/Gotar; Gothi; Γότθοι, Gótthoi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the emergence of Medieval Europe.
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Spain is a constitutional monarchy whose government is defined by the Constitution of Spain.
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Gran Canaria (originally meaning "Great of Dogs") is the second most populous island of the Canary Islands, a Spanish archipelago, with a population of 838,397 which constitutes approximately 40% of the population of the archipelago.
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Gran Canaria Airport, (sometimes also known as Gando Airport and frequently, but incorrectly, referred to as "Las Palmas Airport"), (Aeropuerto de Gran Canaria) is a passenger and freight airport on the island of Gran Canaria.
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Granada is a city and the capital of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
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A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus Vitis.
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The Great Plague of Seville (1647–1652) was a massive outbreak of disease in Spain that killed up to a quarter of Seville's population.
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Greek or Hellenic (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to the southern Balkans, the Aegean Islands, western Asia Minor, parts of northern and Eastern Anatolia and the South Caucasus, southern Italy, Albania and Cyprus.
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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Albania, Anatolia, Southern Italy, and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered around the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
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Gregorio Marañón y Posadillo (19 May 1887 in Madrid – 27 March 1960 in Madrid) was a Spanish physician, scientist, historian, writer and philosopher.
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Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is a measure of the size of an economy.
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ACS, Actividades de Construcción y Servicios, S.A. is a Spanish company dedicated to civil and engineering construction, all types services and telecommunications.
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Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona, S.A. (Agbar) is a Spanish company dedicated to services, distribution or treatment of water.
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The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian peninsula and the second longest river with its entire length in Spain.
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The Guadiana River, or Odiana, is an international river defining a long stretch of the Portuguese–Spanish border, separating Extremadura and Andalucia (Spain) from Alentejo and Algarve (Portugal).
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The district of Guarda (Distrito de Guarda) is located in the Centro Region of Portugal, except Vila Nova de Foz Côa, which is in the Norte Region.
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Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants such as armed civilians or irregulars use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
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The guitar is a popular musical instrument classified as a string instrument with anywhere from 4 to 18 strings, usually having 6.
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Gustavo Adolfo Claudio Domínguez Bastida, better known as Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer, (February 17, 1836, Seville - December 22, 1870) was a Spanish post-romanticist poet and writer (mostly short stories), also a playwright, literary columnist, and talented in drawing.
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The Habsburg Monarchy or Empire (occasionally also styled as the Austrian Monarchy and Danubian Monarchy) is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg until 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
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Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when Spain was ruled by the major branch of the Habsburg dynasty (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
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Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus;In Classical Latin, Hadrian's name would be inscribed as PVBLIVS AELIVS HADRIANVS AVGVSTVS.As emperor his name was Imperator Caesar Divi Traiani filius Traianus Hadrianus Augustus. 24 January, 76 AD – 10 July, 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. He rebuilt the Pantheon and constructed the Temple of Venus and Roma. He is also known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of Britannia. Hadrian was regarded by some as a humanist and was philhellene in most of his tastes. He is regarded as one of the Five Good Emperors. Hadrian was born Publius Aelius Hadrianus into a Hispano-Roman family. Although Italica near Santiponce (in modern-day Spain) is often considered his birthplace, his place of birth remains uncertain. However, it is generally accepted that he comes of a family with centuries-old roots in Hispania. His predecessor Trajan was a maternal cousin of Hadrian's father. Trajan never officially designated an heir, but according to his wife Pompeia Plotina, Trajan named Hadrian emperor immediately before his death. Trajan's wife and his friend Licinius Sura were well-disposed towards Hadrian, and he may well have owed his succession to them. During his reign, Hadrian traveled to nearly every province of the Empire. An ardent admirer of Greece, he sought to make Athens the cultural capital of the Empire and ordered the construction of many opulent temples in the city. He used his relationship with his Greek lover Antinous to underline his philhellenism and led to the creation of one of the most popular cults of ancient times. He spent extensive amounts of his time with the military; he usually wore military attire and even dined and slept amongst the soldiers. He ordered military training and drilling to be more rigorous and even made use of false reports of attack to keep the army alert. Upon his accession to the throne, Hadrian withdrew from Trajan's conquests in Mesopotamia and Armenia, and even considered abandoning Dacia. Late in his reign he suppressed the Bar Kokhba revolt in Judaea, renaming the province Syria Palaestina. In 136 an ailing Hadrian adopted Lucius Aelius as his heir, but the latter died suddenly two years later. In 138, Hadrian resolved to adopt Antoninus Pius if he would in turn adopt Marcus Aurelius and Aelius' son Lucius Verus as his own eventual successors. Antoninus agreed, and soon afterward Hadrian died at Baiae.
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Handball (also known as team handball, Olympic handball, European team handball, European handball, or Borden ball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
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The Hasdingi were the southern tribes of the Vandals, an East Germanic tribe.
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A head of state is the highest-ranking constitutional position in a sovereign state and is vested with powers to act as the chief public representative of that state.
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Heritage of Mercury.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro, 1st Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
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Hindu has historically referred to geographical, religious or cultural identifier for people indigenous to the Indian subcontinent.
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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
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Hispanic America or Spanish America (Hispanoamérica, América española, or América hispana) is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
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The Hispanidad (Hispanicity) are the community formed by all the people and countries that share a common Hispanic heritage and cultural pattern.
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Hispaniola (Spanish: Española; French: Hispaniola; Taíno: Ayiti) is the 22nd-largest island in the world, located in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
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Hispanism (sometimes referred to as Hispanic Studies or Spanish Studies) is the study of the literature and culture of the Spanish-speaking world, principally that of Spain and Latin America.
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Hispanophone (hispanohablantes, hispanoparlantes or hispanófono; also castellanohablantes, castellanoparlantes, or castellanófonos) or Hispanosphere denotes Spanish language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world.
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The historic centre of Córdoba, Spain is one of the largest of its kind in Europe.
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The history of Spain dates back to the Early Middle Ages.
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Hollywood is a neighborhood in the central region of Los Angeles, California.
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The Holy Roman Empire (Latin: Sacrum Romanum Imperium, German: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, "Holy and Great Week") in Christianity is the week just before Easter.
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The Hominidae, also known as great apes"Great ape" is a common name rather than a taxonomic label, and there are differences in usage.
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The Hominini is a tribe of the subfamily Homininae; it comprises three subtribes: Hominina, with its one genus ''Homo''; Australopithecina, comprising several extinct genera (see taxobox); and Panina, with its one genus Pan, the chimpanzees (see the evolutionary tree below).
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Homo antecessor is an extinct human species (or subspecies) dating from 800,000 to 1.2 million years ago, that was discovered by Eudald Carbonell, Juan Luis Arsuaga and J. M. Bermúdez de Castro.
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The former Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Hospital of the Holy Cross and Saint Paul) in the neighborhood of El Guinardó, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, is a complex built between 1901 and 1930, designed by the Catalan modernist architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner.
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The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
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The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
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Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, Dec 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved Aug.
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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism, empiricism) over established doctrine or faith (fideism).
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Hydroelectricity is the term referring to electricity generated by hydropower; the production of electrical power through the use of the gravitational force of falling or flowing water.
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Iñaki Azkuna Urreta (14 February 1943 – 20 March 2014) was a Spanish politician of the Basque Nationalist Party.
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Iberdrola is a Spanish public multinational electric utility company based in Bilbao, Basque Country.
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Iberian Federalism, Pan-Iberism or simply Iberism (Spanish, Basque, Portuguese and Iberismo, Iberisme) is an ideology developed mainly during the beginning of the 20th century, supporting the federation into a single state of both countries in the Iberian Peninsula: Portugal and Spain.
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The Iberian language was the language of a people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.
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Iberian Union is the historical designation of the political union of the Crown of Portugal with the Spanish Crown - through a dynastic union, under the Spanish Habsburgs, after the War of the Portuguese Succession - that included all the Iberian Peninsula, the Spanish Empire and the Portuguese Empire, from 1580 to 1640.
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The Iberians were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.
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Ibero-America (Iberoamérica, Ibero-América) comprises the countries in the Americas that are former colonies of Portugal and Spain.
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Ibiza (Eivissa)p is an island in the Mediterranean Sea, off the coast of the city of Valencia, in eastern Spain.
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Ibiza Airport (Catalan: Aeroport d'Eivissa, Spanish: Aeropuerto de Ibiza) is the airport serving the Balearic Islands of Ibiza and Formentera in Spain, used by 95% of all people who arrive at or depart from these two islands.
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Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibnʿArabī al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī (أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن محمد بن عربي الحاتمي الطائي) ‎(25 July 1165 – 8 November 1240) was an Andalusian Sufi mystic, poet, and philosopher.
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Icíar Bollaín Pérez-Mínguez (born June 12, 1967 in Madrid, Spain) is a Spanish actress, director and screenwriter.
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Idrija (Italian and German: Idria) is a town in western Slovenia.
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Ignatius of Loyola (Ignazio Loiolakoa, Ignacio de Loyola) (– July 31, 1556) was a Spanish knight from a local Basque noble family, hermit, priest since 1537, and theologian, who founded the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and, on 19 April 1541, became its first Superior General.
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An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
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Industria de Diseño Textil, S.A. (Inditex) (Textile Design Industries) is a Spanish multinational clothing company headquartered in Arteixo, Galicia.
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Indra Sistemas, S.A. is a Spanish information technology and defense systems company.
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The National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE) is the official organisation in Spain that collects statistics about demography, economy, and Spanish society.
Intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is promoted by UNESCO as a counterpart to the World Heritage focusing mainly on intangible aspects of culture.
The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were military units, made up of volunteers from different countries, who travelled to Spain, in order to fight for the Second Spanish Republic, in the Spanish Civil War, between 1936 and 1939.
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International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
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International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
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The International Style is the name of a major architectural style that is said to have emerged in the 1920s and 1930s, the formative decades of modern architecture, as first defined by Americans Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson in 1932, with an emphasis more on architectural style, form and aesthetics than the social aspects of the modern movement as emphasised in Europe.
Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence of religion, an indifference towards religion, a rejection of religion, or hostility towards religion.
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Isaac ben Judah Abravanel (1437–1508) אברבנאל, יצחק בן יהודה, commonly referred to just as Abravanel, was a Portuguese Jewish statesman, philosopher, Bible commentator, and financier.
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Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz y Pascual (29 May 1860 – 18 May 1909) was a Spanish pianist and composer best known for his piano works based on folk music idioms.
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Isabel Coixet Castillo (born 9 April 1960) is a Spanish film director.
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Isabella I (Isabel I, Old Spanish: Ysabel I; Madrigal de las Altas Torres, 22 April 1451–Medina del Campo, 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castille.
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Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636) served as Archbishop of Seville for more than three decades and is considered, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world".
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Islam (There are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster). The most common are (Oxford English Dictionary, Random House) and (American Heritage Dictionary). الإسلام,: Arabic pronunciation varies regionally. The first vowel ranges from ~~. The second vowel ranges from ~~~. In Northwestern Africa, they do not have stress or lengthened vowels.) is a monotheistic, Abrahamic religion articulated by the Qur'an, a religious text considered by its adherents to be the verbatim word of God, and, for the vast majority of adherents, by the teachings and normative example (called the sunnah, composed of accounts called hadith) of Muhammad (circa 570–8 June 632 CE), considered by most of them to be the last prophet of God.
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From the 11th to 13th centuries, medieval Europe absorbed knowledge from Islamic civilization, which was then at its cultural peak.
Islamism (اسلام پرستی; إسلاموية), also known as Political Islam, is a set of ideologies holding that "Islam should guide social and political as well as personal life." Islamism is a controversial concept not just because it posits a political role for Islam but also because its most extreme advocates believe their Islamic views are superior to all others', and that the contrary idea that Islam is, or can be, apolitical is an error.
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An islet is a very small island.
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The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.
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Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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Jacinto Benavente y Martínez (12 August 1866 – 14 July 1954) was one of the foremost Spanish dramatists of the 20th century.
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Jamón ibérico ("Iberian ham", also called pata negra; "black hoof") is a type of cured ham produced mostly in Spain, but also in some Portuguese regions where it is called presunto ibérico.
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Francisco Javier de Burgos y del Olmo (October 22, 1778, Motril—January 22, 1848, Madrid) was a Spanish jurist, politician, journalist, and translator.
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left The Júcar or Xúquer is a river on the Iberian Peninsula of Spain.
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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
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The Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation), also known as the Jewish people, are an ethnoreligious and ethno-cultural group descended from the Israelites of the Ancient Near East and originating from the historical kingdoms of Israel and Judah.
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Joan Miró i Ferrà (20 April 1893 – 25 December 1983) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramicist born in Barcelona.
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Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (27 February 1863 – 10 August 1923) was a Spanish painter.
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Saint John of the Cross, O.C.D. (San Juan de la Cruz; 1542 – 14 December 1591), was a major figure of the Counter-Reformation, a Spanish mystic, a Roman Catholic saint, a Carmelite friar and a priest who was born at Fontiveros, Old Castile.
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Jordi Savall i Bernadet (born August 1, 1941) is a Catalan conductor, viol player, and composer.
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Jorge Guillén y Álvarez (18 January 1893 – 6 February 1984) was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of '27, as well as a university teacher, scholar and literary critic.
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Jorge Manrique (Paredes de Nava, Palencia c. 1440 Santa María del Campo, Cuenca – 1479) was a major Castilian poet, whose main work, the Coplas a la muerte de su padre (Verses on the death of Don Rodrigo Manrique, his Father), is still read today.
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Josep Maria Carreras i Coll (born 5 December 1946), better known as José Carreras, is a Spanish tenor who is particularly known for his performances in the operas of Verdi and Puccini.
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José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnación de Espronceda y Delgado (25 March 1808 — 23 May 1842) was a Romantic Spanish poet.
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José Echegaray y Eizaguirre (April 19, 1832 – September 14, 1916) was a Spanish civil engineer, mathematician, statesman, and one of the leading Spanish dramatists of the last quarter of the 19th century.
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José Iturbi Báguena (28 November 189528 June 1980) was a Spanish conductor, pianist and harpsichordist.
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José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born 4 August 1960) is a member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
José María Alfredo Aznar López ((born 25 February 1953) served as the Prime Minister of Spain from 1996 to 2004. He is on the board of directors of News Corporation.
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José Augusto Trinidad Martínez Ruiz, better known by his pseudonym Azorín (June 8, 1873, Monòver – March 2, 1967, Madrid), was a Spanish novelist, essayist and literary critic.
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José Ortega y Gasset (9 May 1883 – 18 October 1955) was a Spanish liberal philosopher and essayist working during the first half of the 20th century while Spain oscillated between monarchy, republicanism and dictatorship.
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José de Sousa Saramago, GColSE (16 November 1922 – 18 June 2010), was a Portuguese writer and recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Literature.
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José Zorrilla y Moral (21 February 1817 – 23 January 1893) was a Spanish Romantic poet and dramatist.
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Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte (7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I).
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Juan Carlos (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 to 2014, when he abdicated in favour of his son, Felipe VI.
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Juan de la Cierva y Codorníu, 1st Count of De La Cierva (21 September 1895 in Murcia, Spain – 9 December 1936 in Croydon, United Kingdom) was a Spanish civil engineer, pilot and aeronautical engineer.
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José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (March 23, 1887 – May 11, 1927), better known as Juan Gris, was a Spanish painter and sculptor born in Madrid who lived and worked in France most of his life.
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Juan Ramón Jiménez Mantecón (24 December 1881 – 29 May 1958) was a Spanish poet, a prolific writer who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1956 "for his lyrical poetry, which in the Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity".
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Judaism (from Iudaismus, derived from Greek Ἰουδαϊσμός, originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; in Hebrew:, Yahadut, the distinctive characteristics of the Judean ethnos) encompasses the religion, philosophy, culture and way of life of the Jewish people.
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Julio Medem Lafont Sanjuán Mendizabal (born 21 October 1958) is a Spanish writer and film director.
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José de Ribera (January 12, 1591 – September 2, 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, better known as Jusepe de Ribera or Giuseppe Ribera.
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Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
A kharja or kharjah (خرجة tr. kharjah, meaning "final"; jarcha; kharja; kharja), also known as markaz, is the final refrain of a muwashshah, a lyric genre of Al-Andalus (the Islamic Iberian Peninsula) written in Arabic or Ibero-Romance.
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The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias (Pelayo).
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The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
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The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.
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The Kingdom of León (Leonese:Reinu de Llión, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
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La Celestina (as it is usually called after the leading character, though actually the Tragicomedia de Calisto y Melibea or in English the Tragicomedy of Calisto and Melibea), is a work entirely in dialogue published in 1499.
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La Movida Madrileña (The Madrilenian scene) was a countercultural movement that took place mainly in Madrid during the Spanish transition after Francisco Franco's death in 1975.
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La Palma, also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly of the Canary Islands, Spain.
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Lacón gallego ("Galician-style Lacón ") is a dried ham product from Galicia, Spain with PGI status under European law.
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Language politics in Francoist Spain centered on attempts in Spain under Franco to increase the dominance of the Spanish language (Castilian) over the other languages of Spain.
The languages of Spain (lenguas de España), or Spanish languages (lenguas españolas or lenguas hispánicas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain.
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Lanzarote, a Spanish island, is the easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean, approximately off the coast of Africa and from the Iberian Peninsula.
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Lanzarote Airport (Aeropuerto de Lanzarote), also known as Arrecife Airport, is the airport serving the island of Lanzarote in the Canary Islands.
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Las Hilanderas ("The Spinners") is a painting by the Spanish painter Diego Velázquez, housed in the Museo del Prado of Madrid, Spain.
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Las Médulas (As Médulas or As Meduas in Galician language; corresponding to The Cores or The Hearts in English) is a historic mining site near the town of Ponferrada in the region of El Bierzo (province of León, Castile and León, Spain), which used to be the most important gold mine in the Roman Empire.
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Las Meninas (Spanish for The Maids of Honour) is a 1656 painting by Diego Velázquez, the leading artist of the Spanish Golden Age, in the Museo del Prado in Madrid.
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A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land.
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Latin America is a region of the Americas that comprises countries where Romance languages are predominant; primarily Spanish and Portuguese, but also French.
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In geography, latitude (φ) is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north-south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
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Leandro Fernández de Moratín (March 10, 1760 – June 21, 1828) was a Spanish dramatist, translator and neoclassical poet.
León is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain.
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A legislature is the law-making body of a political unit, usually a national government, that has power to enact, amend, and repeal public policy.
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A legume is a plant in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae), or the fruit or seed of such a plant.
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Leonardo Torres y Quevedo (28 December 1852 – 18 December 1936) was a Spanish civil engineer and mathematician of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
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Leonese (llionés), in the narrow sense of this article, is a set of certain vernacular Romance dialects that are spoken in northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca), and in a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
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Leopoldo García-Alas y Ureña (25 April 1852 – 13 June 1901), also known as Clarín, was an Spanish realist novelist born in Zamora.
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LGBT or GLBT is an initialism that stands for '''l'''esbian, '''g'''ay, '''b'''isexual, and '''t'''ransgender.
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Liberal International (LI) is a political international federation for liberal political parties.
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Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
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The Gran Teatre del Liceu, or simply Liceu in Catalan and Liceo in Spanish, is an opera house on La Rambla in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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A lingua franca (plural lingua francas), also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language or vehicular language, is a language or dialect systematically (as opposed to occasionally, or casually) used to make communication possible between persons not sharing a native language or dialect, in particular when it is a third language, distinct from both native languages.
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This is a list of the world's sovereign states and their dependent territories by area, ranked by its total area.
This is a list of countries and territories by land borders.
Countries are sorted by nominal GDP estimates from financial and statistical institutions, which are calculated at market or government official exchange rates.
This article includes a list of countries in the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
Antoni Gaudí was an architect from Catalonia, Spain, who belonged to the Modernisme (Art Nouveau) movement and was famous for his unique style and highly individualistic designs.
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This article ranks human languages by their number of speakers.
An empire involves the extension of a state's sovereignty over external territories and variety of different ethnic groups.
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This is an incomplete list of rivers that are at least partially in Spain.
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This is a list of all countries and dependent territories by total fertility rate (TFR): the expected number of children born per woman in her child-bearing years.
This is a sortable list of all European countries by their gross domestic product in USD at market or official government exchange rates (nominal GDP).
The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by total passengers (data from Airports Council International (ACI)), defined as passengers enplaned plus passengers deplaned plus direct-transit passengers.
There are a large number of sports that involve water.
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This is a list of Lists of composers grouped by various criteria.
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Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce commodities such as food, fiber and labor.
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Llívia is a town in the comarca of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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The Llotja de la Seda (Lonja de la Seda, English "Silk Exchange") is a late Valencian Gothic style civil building in Valencia, Spain, built between 1482 and 1548, and one of the principal tourist attractions in the city.
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Félix Lope de Vega y Carpio (25 November 1562 – 27 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright, poet and novelist.
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A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
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Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, born in Corduba (modern-day Córdoba), in the Hispania Baetica.
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Luis Buñuel Portolés (22 February 1900 – 29 July 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.
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Luis Ponce de León, O.E.S.A. (Belmonte, Cuenca, 1527 – Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Castile, Spain, 23 August 1591), was a Spanish lyric poet, Augustinian friar, theologian and academic, active during the Spanish Golden Age.
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Luis García Berlanga Martí (12 June 1921 Valencia, Spain– 13 November 2010) was a Spanish film director and screenwriter.
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The Lusitanians (or Lusitani in Latin) were an Indo-European people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania (most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca).
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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
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Madrid is a south-western European city and the capital and largest municipality of Spain.
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The Madrid Spain Temple is the 56th operating temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
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Moshe ben Maimon (משה בן-מימון), or Mūsā ibn Maymūn (موسى بن ميمون), acronymed Rambam (רמב"ם – for "Rabbeinu Moshe Ben Maimon", "Our Rabbi/Teacher Moses Son of Maimon"), and Latinized Moses Maimonides, a preeminent medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher and astronomer, became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars and physicians of the Middle Ages.
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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), known in some English-speaking countries as corn, is a large grain plant domesticated by indigenous peoples in Mesoamerica in prehistoric times.
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Majorca or Mallorca (or; Mallorca, Mallorca) is the largest island in the Balearic Islands archipelago, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean Sea.
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Manchego (officially queso manchego) is a cheese made in the La Mancha region of Spain from the milk of sheep of the manchega breed.
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Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
Manuel Azaña Díaz (January 10, 1880 – November 3, 1940) was the first Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1933), and later served again as Prime Minister (1936), and then as the second and last President of the Republic (1936–1939).
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Manuel de Falla y Matheu (23 November 187614 November 1946) was a Spanish composer.
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Manuel Godoy y Álvarez de Faria (May 12, 1767 – October 4, 1851), was Prime Minister of Spain from 1792 to 1797 and from 1801 to 1808.
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María Zambrano Alarcón (22 April 1904, Vélez-Málaga – 6 February 1991, Madrid) was a Spanish essayist and philosopher associated with the Generation of '36 movement.
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The Marca Hispanica (Marca Hispánica, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese and Marca Hispanica, Hispaniako Marka, Marche Hispanique), also known as Spanish March or March of Barcelona was a buffer zone beyond the former province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Carolingian Empire (Duchy of Gascony, the Duchy of Aquitaine and Carolingian Septimania).
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Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo (3 November 1856 – 19 May 1912) was a Spanish scholar, historian and literary critic.
The Marcha Real ("Royal March") is the national anthem of Spain.
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Mariano José de Larra (24 March 1809 – 13 February 1837) was a Spanish romantic writer best known for his numerous essays and his infamous suicide.
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Mariano Rajoy Brey (born 27 March 1955) is a Spanish politician who has been the Prime Minister of Spain, since 2011 and leader of the People's Party since 2004.
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Marine energy or marine power (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy, ocean power, or marine and hydrokinetic energy) refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences.
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The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, Arabic: Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
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Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March, between 38 and 41 AD – between 102 and 104 AD), was a Roman poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan.
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Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
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Málaga Airport, officially Málaga–Costa del Sol Airport (Aeropuerto de Málaga-Costa del Sol) since June 2011, is the fourth busiest airport in Spain after Madrid–Barajas, Barcelona and Palma de Mallorca.
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Meat is animal flesh that is eaten as food.
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The term Mediterranean climate is one typical of the Mediterranean Basin and is a particular variety of subtropical climate.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean surrounded by the Mediterranean region and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa, and on the east by the Levant.
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Melilla (Mřič; مليلية, Maliliyyah) is a Spanish city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco with an area of.
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Mester de Clerecía ("Ministry of Clergy") is a Castilian literature genre that can be understood as an opposition and surpassing of Mester de Juglaría.
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Mester de juglaría ("Ministry of jongleury") is a Castilian-language literature genre from the 12th and 13th centuries, transmitted orally by "juglares" who made their living by telling and singing these stories in public places and palaces while performing short theatrical scenes, acrobatics or other amusements.
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Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.
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Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto Conesa), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
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In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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The Middle EastArabic: الشرق الأوسط,; Armenian: Միջին Արևելք, Merdzavor Arevelk’; Azerbaijani: Orta Şərq; French: Moyen-Orient; Georgian: ახლო აღმოსავლეთი, akhlo aghmosavleti; Greek: Μέση Ανατολή, Mési Anatolí; Hebrew: המזרח התיכון, Ha'Mizrah Ha'Tihon; Kurdish: Rojhilata Navîn; Persian: خاورمیانه, khāvar-miyāneh; Somali: Bariga Dhexe; Soranî Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, rrojhellatî nayn; Turkish: Orta Doğu; Urdu: مشرق وسطی, hashrq vsty (also called the Mid East) is a eurocentric description of a region centered on Western Asia and Egypt.
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In international relations, a middle power is a sovereign state that is not a superpower or a great power, but still has large or moderate influence and international recognition.
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Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (or;; 29 September 1547 (assumed)22 April 1616), often simply called Cervantes, was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright.
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Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (29 September 1864 in Bilbao – 31 December 1936 in Salamanca) was a Spanish essayist, novelist, poet, playwright, philosopher, and Greek professor, and later rector at the University of Salamanca.
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Miguel Delibes Setién (17 October 1920 – 12 March 2010) was a Spanish novelist, journalist and newspaper editor associated with the Generation of '36 movement.
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Don Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquis of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte, Knight of Calatrava (January 8, 1870 – March 16, 1930) was a dictator, aristocrat, and military officer who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930 during Spain's Restoration era.
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Miguel Sebastián Gascón (Madrid, 1957) is a Spanish politician and economist.
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Minho or Miño is the longest river in Galicia, Spain, with a length of.
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The Ministry of Public Works and Transport (Ministerio de Fomento) is the government ministry in Spain responsible for preparation and implementation of government policy on land transport infrastructure, air and maritime jurisdiction of state and control, management and regulation of administrative services transport, management and direction of all postal and telegraph services, the momentum and direction of state services related to astronomy, geodesy, geophysics and mapping and planning and programming of investments related to the services mentioned above.
The Ministry of the Presidency is the ministerial department of the Government of Spain which assures the link between the different Ministries and with the President of the Government.
Minorca or Menorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
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A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
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Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
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A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system consisting of a mixture of either markets and economic planning, public ownership and private ownership, or free markets and economic interventionism.
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Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
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Modernisme (Catalan for "modernism"), also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement.
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A monarch is the sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
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A monarchy is a form of government in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in one or several individual(s) reigning until death or abdication.
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The King of Spain (Rey de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (la Corona) and commonly referred to as the Monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España) or Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica), is a constitutional institution and a historic office of Spain.
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The monasteries of San Millán de Suso (6th century) and San Millán de Yuso (11th century) are two monasteries situated in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, La Rioja, Spain.
The Royal Monastery of Santa Maria de Guadalupe (Real Monasterio de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe) is a Roman Catholic monastic establishment in Guadalupe, Cáceres, a province of the Extremadura autonomous community of Spain.
The MONDRAGON Corporation is a corporation and federation of worker cooperatives based in the Basque region of Spain.
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Monte Perdido (in Spanish; Mont Perdu in French; Mont Perdito in Aragonese; Mont Perdut in Catalan, all four meaning lost mountain) is the third highest mountain in the Pyrenees.
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The Montes de Toledo are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in the Iberian Peninsula.
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Montserrat Caballé (born 12 April 1933) is a Spanish operatic soprano.
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The Moors were Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
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Moratalaz is a district of Madrid, Spain.
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Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Mudejar population in the early 16th century.
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In southern Spain, following the conquest of Granada city in 1492 by the "Catholic Monarchs" - Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabel of Castile - the Moorish inhabitants of the city and province twice revolted against Christian rule.
The Moroccan people (Arabic:, Berber) are a people that share a common Moroccan culture and ancestry.
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Morocco (المغرب; ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ or Muṛṛakuc, ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ; Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.
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The Mossos d'Esquadra; in English: Troopers (literally "Squad Lads", "Squadies") are the police force of Catalonia.
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Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle.
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A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
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The Movimiento Nacional (National Movement) was the name given to the nationalist inspired mechanism during Francoist rule in Spain, which purported to be the only channel of participation to Spanish public life.
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Movistar is the major Spanish mobile phone operator owned by Telefónica S.A. operating in Spain and in many Latin American countries.
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Mudéjar (Mudèjar, مدجن trans. Mudajjan, "tamed; domesticated") is the name given to individual Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not converted to Christianity, unlike Moriscos who had converted.
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Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon is an aesthetic trend in the Mudéjar style, which is centered in Aragon (Spain) and has been recognized in some representative buildings as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
The Muladi (mulaˈði, pl. muladíes; mulɐˈði, pl. muladis; muɫəˈðitə or muladí, pl. muladites or muladís; مولدون trans. mūwallad, pl. mūwalladūn or mūwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Berber, Arab and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages.
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Mulhacén is the highest mountain in continental Spain and in the Iberian Peninsula.
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Munich (also in UK English; München,, Minga) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
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The municipalities of Spain (municipios,, municipi, concellos, udalerriak; sing. municipio)In other languages of Spain.
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Murcia is a city in south-eastern Spain, the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, and the seventh largest city in the country, with a population of 442,573 inhabitants in 2009 (about one third of the total population of the Region).
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A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
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A Muslim, sometimes spelled Moslem, relates to a person who follows the religion of Islam, a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the Quran.
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According to traditional accounts, the Muslim conquests (الغزوات, al-Ġazawāt or الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Islamic conquests or Arab conquests, began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
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There are two names given in Spanish to the Spanish language: español ("Spanish") and castellano ("Castilian").
Napoléon Bonaparte (born Napoleone di Buonaparte; 15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the Revolutionary Wars.
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Narciso Monturiol i Estarriol, also Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol (28 September 1819 – 6 September 1885) was a Spanish intellectual, artist and engineer.
The Nasrid dynasty (بنو نصر banū Naṣr) was the last Muslim dynasty in Spain, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1238 until 1492.
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National Catholicism (Spanish: Nacionalcatolicismo) was part of the ideological identity of Francoism, the dictatorial regime with which Francisco Franco governed Spain between 1936 and 1975.
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Nationalism is essentially a shared group feeling in the significance of a geographical and sometimes demographic region seeking independence for its culture and/or ethnicity that holds that group together, this can be expressed as a belief or political ideology that involves an individual identifying with, or becoming attached to, one's nation.
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Spain is a diverse country integrated by different contrasting regions that show varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical, political and cultural traditions.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance based on the North Atlantic Treaty which was signed on 4 April 1949.
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Navarre (Navarra; Nafarroa; Navarre), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Country, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Aquitaine in France.
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Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos and κλασσικός klassikòs classicus) is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of Ancient Greece or Ancient Rome.
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The Netherlands (Nederland) is the main "constituent country" (land) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
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The New Monarchs was a concept developed by European historians during the first half of the 20th century to characterize 15th-century European rulers who unified their respective nations, creating stable and centralized governments.
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The New World is one of the names used for the Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
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Nigerians or Nigerian people are citizens and/or people with ancestry from Nigeria.
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Since 1901, the Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) has been awarded annually to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning).
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Nonintervention or non-interventionism is a foreign policy which holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations, but still retain diplomacy, and avoid all wars not related to direct self-defense.
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North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of Africa.
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A nuclear power plant is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
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A nuclear reactor, formerly known as atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a sustained nuclear chain reaction.
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The Nueva Planta decrees (Decretos de Nueva Planta, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon king of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht.
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Obrascón Huarte Lain, S.A., or OHL, is a Spanish-based multinational construction and civil engineering company.
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Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
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An oceanic climate (also known as marine, west coast and maritime) is the climate typical of the west coasts at the middle latitudes of most continents, and generally features warm (but not hot) summers and cool (but not cold) winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range.
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Old Catalan (catala, romanz; Modern Catalan català antic) was the Romance language spoken in territories that spanned roughly the territories of the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and the city of Alghero in Sardinia; all of them then part of the Crown of Aragon.
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Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo, romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), is an early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.
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The olive or, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "european olive", (syn. Olea sylvestrishttp://www.theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/kew-355062) is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in much of Africa, the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands, Mauritius and Réunion.
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Olive oil is a fat obtained from the olive (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
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Olivenza or Olivença is a town situated on a disputed section of the border between Portugal and Spain.
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An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.
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In politics, the opposition comprises one or more political parties or other organized groups that are opposed to the government (or, in American English, the administration), party or group in political control of a city, region, state or country.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) (Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an international economic organisation of 34 countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
The Orient means the East.
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Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.
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The Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid (unofficial English name, Madrid Symphony Orchestra), founded in 1903, is the oldest existing Spanish symphony orchestra in Spain not linked to an opera house.
The Ottoman Empire (دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti) which is also known as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was an empire founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia.
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The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg (later Austrian) Empire, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary and Habsburg Spain.
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Our Lady of the Pillar (Nuestra Señora del Pilar) is the name given to the Blessed Virgin Mary for her miraculous appearance in Zaragoza, Spain at the time of the emergence of Christianity.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Spain: Spain – sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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Oviedo (Asturian: Uviéu) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region.
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The term Catalan Countries (Països Catalans,,; Países Catalanes; Pays catalans; Paesi catalani) is a direct translation into English of the Catalan term Països Catalans, which refers to the territories where the Catalan language is spoken.
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Pau Casals i Defilló (December 29, 1876October 22, 1973), known during his professional career as Pablo Casals,, The New York Times, 1911-04-09, retrieved 2009-08-01 was a Spanish Catalan cellist and conductor.
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Pablo Martín Melitón de Sarasate y Navascués (10 March 1844 – 20 September 1908) was a Spanish violinist and composer of the Romantic period.
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Pablo Ruiz y Picasso, also known as Pablo Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973), was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
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Paella (or,; English approximation: or) is a Valencian rice dish with ancient roots that originated in its modern form in the mid-19th century near the Albufera lagoon, a coastal lagoon in Valencia, on the east coast of Spain.
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The Palau de la Música Catalana (Palace of Catalan Music) is a concert hall in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia (Palacio de las Artes Reina Sofía; anglicised as "Reina (Queen) Sofía Palace of the Arts") is an opera house and cultural centre in Valencia, Spain.
Palma de Mallorca Airport (Aeroport de Palma de Mallorca, Aeropuerto de Palma de Mallorca) is an airport located east of Palma, Majorca, adjacent to the village of Can Pastilla.
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The Palmeral or Palm Grove of Elche (Spanish: Palmeral de Elche, Valencian: Palmerar d'Elx) is the generic name used to designate a system of date palm orchards in the city of Elche (Spain).
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Pamplona (Pampelune; Pampeluna) or Iruña (alternative spelling: Iruñea) is the historical capital city of Navarre, in Spain, and of the former Kingdom of Navarre.
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Pan's Labyrinth, originally known in Spanish as El laberinto del fauno (The Labyrinth of the Faun), is a 2006 Spanish-Mexican dark fantasy film written and directed by Mexican Guillermo del Toro.
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A parliament is a legislature.
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state in which the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from, and is held accountable to, the legislature (parliament); the executive and legislative branches are thus interconnected.
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Pío Baroja y Nessi (28 December 1872 – 30 October 1956) was a Spanish writer, one of the key novelists of the Generation of '98.
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The Peace of Basel of 1795 consists of three peace treaties involving France during the French Revolution (represented by François de Barthélemy).
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A peñón ("rock", pl. peñones) is a term for certain offshore island forts established by the Spanish Empire (especially in Africa).
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Peñón de Alhucemas ("Lavender Rock") is one of the Spanish plazas de soberanía just off the Moroccan coast in the Alboran Sea.
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Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera, in ancient times Badis or Bades, is a Spanish rock (plaza de soberanía) in North Africa off the Moroccan coast.
Pedro Almodóvar Caballero (born 25 September 1949) is a Spanish film director, screenwriter, producer and former actor.
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Pedro Calderón de la Barca y Barreda González de Henao Ruiz de Blasco y Riaño, usually referred as Pedro Calderón de la Barca (17 January 160025 May 1681), was a dramatist, poet and writer of the Spanish Golden Age.
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Pelagius (c. 685 – 737) was a Visigothic nobleman who founded the Kingdom of Asturias, ruling it from 718 until his death.
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Penélope Cruz Sánchez (born April 28, 1974) is a Spanish actress and model.
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Peninsular Spain refers to that part of Spanish territory located within the Iberian peninsula, thus excluding other parts of Spain: the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla, and a number of islets and crags off the coast of Morocco known collectively as plazas de soberanía (places of sovereignty).
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The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire and the allied powers of Spain, Britain and Portugal for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
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In the colonial caste system of Spanish America and Spanish Philippines, a peninsular (pl. peninsulares) was a Spanish-born Spaniard residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies, as opposed to those of full Spanish descent born in overseas Spanish possessions, who were known as criollos.
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People of the Book (أهل الكتاب ′Ahl al-Kitāb) are adherents of Abrahamic religions.
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The People's Party (Partido Popular; known mostly by its acronym, PP) is a conservative, and Christian democratic political party in Spain.
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Perejil Island (Berber: Tura, جزيرة تورة Jazīrat Tūra, Isla de Perejil) is a small, uninhabited rocky islet located in Morocco, just, 200 metres from the mainland coast.
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A personal union is the combination of two or more states who have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
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Peru (Perú; Piruw; Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
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The peseta was the currency of Spain between 1869 and 2002.
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The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American think tank based in Washington, D.C., that provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
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Pheasant Island (Isla de los Faisanes, Île des Faisans, Konpantzia) is a river island in the Bidasoa river.
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Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 and of Portugal from 1581 (as Philip I, Filipe I).
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Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to 15 January 1724, when he abdicated in favour of his son Louis, and from 6 September 1724, when he assumed the throne again upon his son's death, to his own death 9 July 1746.
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The Philippine Revolution (called the Tagalog War by the Spanish) (Filipino: Himagsikang Pilipino) was fought between the people of the Philippines and the Spanish colonial authorities.
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The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.
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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη,; فينيقية) was an ancient Semitic thalassocratic civilization situated on the western, coastal part of the Fertile Crescent and centered on the coastline of modern Lebanon.
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Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Arabic, Greek, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in Ancient Egyptian.
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Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
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In geology and earth science, a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux), also called a high plain or tableland, is an area of highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
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The plazas de soberanía (literally "places of sovereignty") are the Spanish sovereign territories in continental North Africa bordering Morocco.
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José Plácido Domingo Embil (KBE; born 21 January 1941), known as Plácido Domingo, is a Spanish tenor, conductor and arts administrator.
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In North American English, plurality, also called relative majority in the context of voting, is the largest number of votes received by one candidate (or any proposal in a referendum) out of the entire group of candidates.
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Plus ultra (Latin meaning "further beyond"; in Spanish, más allá) is the national motto of Spain.
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The Royal Abbey of Santa Maria de Poblet (Reial Monestir de Santa Maria de Poblet) is a Cistercian monastery, founded in 1151, located at the feet of the Prades Mountains, in the comarca of Conca de Barberà, in Catalonia (Spain).
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Polbo á feira (Galician name literally meaning "fair style octopus") alternatively known as polbo estilo feira and polbo á galega is a traditional Spanish Galician dish.
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The Policía Canaria are the police force of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands, Spain.
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The Chartered Police of Navarre (Policía Foral de Navarra, Nafarroako Foruzaingoa) is the regional police force for the chartered autonomous community of Navarre in Spain.
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The Pope (papa; from πάππας pappas, a child's word for father) is the Bishop of Rome and the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
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Pope Alexander VI, born Roderic Llançol i de Borja (Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death.
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Pope Callixtus III or Callistus III (31 December 1378 – 6 August 1458), born Alfons de Borja, was Pope from 8 April 1455 to his death in 1458.
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Pope Damasus I (c. 305 – 11 December 384) was Pope from October 366 to his death in 384.
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The Popular Front (Frente Popular) in Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organisations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that year's election.
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In biology, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa), is a country on the Iberian Peninsula, in southwestern Europe.
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The Portuguese Restoration War (Guerra da Restauração; Guerra de Restauración portuguesa) was the name given by nineteenth-century 'romantic' historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon (1668).
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The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum L. The word "potato" may refer either to the plant itself or to the edible tuber.
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Poultry are domesticated birds kept by humans for the eggs they produce, their meat, their feathers, or sometimes as pets.
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Pre-Romanesque art and architecture is the period in European art from either the emergence of the Merovingian kingdom in about 500 CE or from the Carolingian Renaissance in the late 8th century, to the beginning of the 11th century Romanesque period.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
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The Prehistoric Rock-Art Sites of the Côa Valley are open-air Paleolithic archaeological sites located in a region of northeastern Portugal, along the Portuguese-Spanish border.
Prescription, in international law, is sovereignty transfer of a territory by the open encroachment by the new sovereign upon the territory for a prolonged period of time, acting as the sovereign, without protest or other contest by the original sovereign.
The President of the Government of Spain The English Style Guide (Fifth edition: 2005 Revised: March 2009) published by the European Commission Directorate-General for Translation states the following: 19.29 Spain.
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A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
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Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body.
The Protestant Reformation, often referred to simply as the Reformation, was the schism within Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther, John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and other early Protestant Reformers.
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Protestantism is a form of Christian faith and practice which originated with the Protestant Reformation, a movement against what its followers considered to be errors in the Roman Catholic Church.
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Almería is a province of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
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Girona (Gerona; Gérone) is a province of Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia.
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Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces (provincias,; sing. provincia).
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A public holiday, national holiday or legal holiday is a holiday generally established by law and is usually a non-working day during the year.
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Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally the "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico"), is a United States territory located in the northeastern Caribbean.
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A puppet monarch is a majority figurehead who is installed or patronized by an imperial power in order to provide the appearance of local authority, while allowing political and economic control to remain among the dominating nation.
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Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a component of some economic theories and is a technique used to determine the relative value of different currencies.
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The Pyrénées – Mont Perdu World Heritage Site (also known as UNESCO Patrimonio Mundial Pirineos – Monte Perdido in Spanish) is a world heritage site straddling the border between Spain and France in the Pyrenees mountain chain.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak or Auñamendiak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between France and Spain.
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Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies.
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Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Pleistocene glaciation or the current ice age, refers to a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
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Quinqui jargon is associated with quincalleros (tinkers), a semi-nomadic group who live mainly in the northern half of Spain.
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Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (c. 35 – c. 100 CE) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing.
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Rabbits are small mammals in the family Leporidae of the order Lagomorpha, found in several parts of the world.
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José Rafael Moneo Vallés (born 9 May 1937) is a Spanish architect.
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Rafael "Rafa" Nadal Parera (born 3 June 1986) is a Spanish professional tennis player currently ranked world No.
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Ramón María del Valle-Inclán y de la Peña (in the village András, in the comarca of Vilanova de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 28 October 1866 – Santiago de Compostela, 5 January 1936), Spanish dramatist, novelist and member of the Spanish Generation of 98, is considered perhaps the most noteworthy and certainly the most radical dramatist working to subvert the traditionalism of the Spanish theatrical establishment in the early part of the 20th century.
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Ramón Gómez de la Serna Puig (July 3, 1888 in Madrid – January 13, 1963 in Buenos Aires) was a Spanish writer, dramatist and avant-garde agitator.
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Ramón Menéndez Pidal (13 March 1869 - 14 November 1968) was a Spanish philologist and historian.
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Ramón Pérez de Ayala (9 August 1880, in Oviedo – 5 August 1962, in Madrid) was a Spanish writer.
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Ramiro de Maeztu y Whitney (May 4, 1875 – October 29, 1936) was a Spanish political theorist, journalist, literary critic, occasional diplomat and member of the Generation of '98.
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Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a Majorcan writer and philosopher, logician and a Franciscan tertiary.
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Real Madrid Club de Fútbol (Royal Madrid Football Club), commonly known as Real Madrid, or simply as Real, is a professional football club based in Madrid, Spain.
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Realism (or naturalism) in the arts is the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, implausible, exotic and supernatural elements.
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The Reconquista ("reconquest") is a historical period of approximately 770 years in the history of the Iberian Peninsula, beginning after the Islamic conquest 711-718, to the fall of Granada, the last Islamic state on the peninsula, in 1492.
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In colonial Spanish America, the Reconquista refers to the period following the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 during which royalist armies were able to gain the upper hand in the Spanish American wars of independence.
The Region of Murcia (Región de Murcia) is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean coast.
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A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
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Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years.
Repsol S.A., El Nuevo Herald, 2012-05-31Originally an initialism for Refinería de Petróleos de Escombreras adding the word Sol (Sun) is an integrated global energy company based in Madrid, Spain.
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The Restoration (Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
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The Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people, which challenged the legitimacy of the colonial authorities, was the principle underlying the Spanish American Independence processes.
The Revolt of the Comuneros (Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, "War of the Communities of Castile") was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V and his administration between 1520 and 1521.
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--> The Rhine is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Austrian, Swiss- Liechtenstein border, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the Rhineland and eventually empties into the North Sea in the Netherlands.
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Ricardo Bofill Leví (born December 5, 1939), is a Spanish (Catalan) architect, who, since 1963, continues to lead the international architectural and urban design practice Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura.
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Ricardo Viñes y Roda (Ricard Viñes i Roda; 5 February 1875 – 29 April 1943) was a Spanish pianist.
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The Rif War, also called the Second Moroccan War, was fought in the early 1920s between the colonial power Spain (later assisted by France) and the Berbers of the Rif mountainous region. Led by Abd al-Karim, the Rifs at first defeated the Spanish forces by using guerrilla tactics and captured European weapons. After France's entry into the conflict and the massive landing of Spanish troops at Al Hoceima, el-Krim surrendered to the French and went to exile. Despite victory, controversy in Spain over the conduct of the war led to a military coup by General Miguel Primo de Rivera in 1923 and foreshadowed the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39.
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Riffian, Rif Berber or Riffian Berber is a Northern Zenata variety of the Berber language spoken by about 2.5 million Moroccans, mainly in the Rif provinces Tangiers, Oujda, and Tetouan, and among Riffian migrant communities in western Europe.
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The group of over 700 sites of prehistoric Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin, also known as Levantine art, were collectively declared a World Heritage Site by Unesco in 1998.
The Roman conquest of Hispania was a historical period that began with the Roman landing at Empúries in 218 BC and ended with the Roman conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, then Hispania, by Caesar Augustus after the Cantabrian wars in 19 BC.
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The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including Roman Military Jurisdiction and the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the 12 Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman emperor Justinian I. The historical importance of Roman defication is reflected by the continued use of Latin legal terminology in legal systems influenced by it.
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The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
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Roman roads (Latin: viae; singular: via) were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 500 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
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The Roman Walls of Lugo (Spanish, Galician: Muralla Romana de Lugo) were constructed in the 3rd century and are still largely intact today, stretching over 2 kilometers around the historic centre of Lugo in Galicia (Spain).
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The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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Latin Europe or Romance-speaking Europe is the area of Europe where Romance languages (those derived from Latin) are either official, co-official, or significantly used.
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Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
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The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group living mostly in Europe and the Americas, who originate from the northwestern regions of the Indian subcontinent.
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The Romani people in Spain are generally known as gitanos.
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Romanians (dated: Rumanians or Roumanians; in români or — historically, but now a seldom-used regionalism — rumâni; dated exonym: Vlachs) are a nation and ethnic group native to Romania that share a common Romanian culture, ancestry, and speak the Romanian language as a mother tongue, as well as by citizenship or by being subjects to the same country.
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Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation: see spelling differences)—in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms—indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
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Romanticism (also the Romantic era or the Romantic period) was an artistic, literary, and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
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María Rosalía Rita de Castro (24 February 1837 – 15 July 1885), was a Galician romanticist writer and poet.
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The Running of the Bulls (in Spanish: encierro, from the verb encerrar, to corral, to enclose) is a practice that involves running in front of a small group of cattle, typically six, of the ''toro bravo'' breed that have been let loose on a course of a sectioned-off subset of a town's streets.
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Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain that is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León.
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Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, Marqués de Dalí de Pubol (11 May 190423 January 1989), known as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist painter born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.
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Salvador de Madariaga y Rojo (23 July 1886, in A Coruña, Spain – 14 December 1978, in Locarno, Switzerland) was a Spanish diplomat, writer, historian and pacifist.
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Same-sex marriage has been legally recognized in Spain since 3 July 2005.
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San Cristóbal de La Laguna (commonly known as La Laguna) is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands, (Spain).
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The festival of San Fermín in the city of Pamplona (Navarre, Spain) is a deeply rooted celebration held annually from 12:00, 6 July, when the opening of the party is marked by setting off the pyrotechnic chupinazo, to midnight 14 July, with the singing of the Pobre de Mí.
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San Millán de la Cogolla is a sparsely populated municipality in La Rioja, (Spain).
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San Sebastián (Saint-Sébastien) or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
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Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes as well as the treatment and proper disposal of sewage or wastewater.
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Santa Cruz de Tenerife, commonly abbreviated as Santa Cruz, is a city and capital (jointly with Las Palmas) of the Canary Islands, the capital of Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, and of the island of Tenerife.
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Santiago Calatrava Valls born 28 July 1951 is a Spanish neofuturistic architect, structural engineer, sculptor and painter.
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Santiago de Compostela, commonly known as Santiago, is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia in northwestern Spain.
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Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 18 October 1934) was a Spanish pathologist, histologist, neuroscientist, and Nobel laureate.
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Sara Montiel (also Sarita Montiel or Saritísima; 10 March 1928 – 8 April 2013) was a Spanish singer and actress.
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The Sarmatians (Latin: Sarmatæ or Sauromatæ, Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large confederation of Iranian people during classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
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The Savage Islands (Ilhas Selvagens) are a small Portuguese archipelago in the North Atlantic, nearly midway between Madeira and the Canary Islands.
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Sónar is a three-day electronic and advanced music festival.
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The School of Salamanca (Escuela de Salamanca) is the Renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish and Portuguese theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria.
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The "Scramble for Africa" was the invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
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The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.
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The Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española) was the republican regime that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939, preceded by the Restoration and followed by Francoist Spain after the Spanish Civil War.
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Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.
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Segundo Víctor Aurelio Chomón y Ruiz (also Chomont or Chaumont,; 17 October 1871 – 2 May 1929) was a pioneering Spanish-French film director.
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Segura (Latin: Thader, Arabic: شقورة, War-Alabiat) is a medium-sized river in southeastern Spain.
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A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not extremely.
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The Senate (Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales.
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Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known as Seneca the Younger or simply Seneca; c. 4 BC – AD 65) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
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Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or simply Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּי, Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddi, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddî, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced in the Iberian Peninsula around the start of the 2nd millennium (i.e., about the year 1000).
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The Serra de Tramuntana (Sierra de Tramontana) is a mountain range running southwest–northeast which forms the northern backbone of the Spanish island of Mallorca.
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Severo Ochoa de Albornoz (24 September 1905 – 1 November 1993) was a Spanish physician and biochemist, and joint winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arthur Kornberg.
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Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
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Seville Airport (Aeropuerto de Sevilla) is the sixth busiest inland airport in Spain.
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The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See (Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as Seville Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Seville (Andalusia, Spain).
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Sharia or sharia law (شريعة, is the Islamic legal system derived from the religious precepts of Islam, particularly the Quran and the Hadith. The term sharia comes from the Arabic language term sharīʿah, which means a body of moral and religious law derived from religious prophecy, as opposed to human legislation. Sharia deals with many topics, including crime, politics, and economics, as well as personal matters such as sexual intercourse, hygiene, diet, prayer, everyday etiquette and fasting. Adherence to sharia has served as one of the distinguishing characteristics of the Muslim faith historically. In its strictest and most historically coherent definition, sharia is considered in Islam as the infallible law of God.Coulson, N. J. (2011), A history of Islamic law, Aldine, ISBN 978-1412818551 There are two primary sources of sharia: the Quran, and the Hadiths (opinions and life example of Muhammad).Esposito, John (2001), Women in Muslim family law, Syracuse University Press, ISBN 978-0815629085 For topics and issues not directly addressed in these primary sources, sharia is derived. The derivation differs between the various sects of Islam (Sunni and Shia), and various jurisprudence schools such as Hanafi, Maliki, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Jafari. The sharia in these schools is derived hierarchically using one or more of the following guidelines: Ijma (usually the consensus of Muhammad's companions), Qiyas (analogy derived from the primary sources), Istihsan (ruling that serves the interest of Islam in the discretion of Islamic jurists) and Urf (customs). Sharia is a significant source of legislation in various Muslim countries. Some apply all or a majority of the sharia code, and these include Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Brunei, United Arab Emirates, Qatar, Yemen and Mauritania. In these countries, sharia prescribed punishments such as beheading, flogging and stoning continue to be practiced judicially or extra-judicially. The introduction of sharia is a longstanding goal for Islamist movements globally, including in Western countries, but attempts to impose sharia have been accompanied by controversy, violence, and even warfare. Most countries do not recognize sharia; however, some countries in Asia, Africa and Europe recognize parts of sharia and accept it as the law on divorce, inheritance and other personal affairs of their Islamic population. In Britain, the Muslim Arbitration Tribunal makes use of sharia family law to settle disputes, and this limited adoption of sharia is controversial. The concept of crime, judicial process, justice and punishment embodied in sharia is different from that of secular law. The differences between sharia and secular laws have led to an ongoing controversy as to whether sharia is compatible with secular forms of government, human rights, freedom of thought, and women's rights.
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The is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan operated by four Japan Railways Group companies.
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Sicily (Sicilia, Old Norse: Sikiley) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea; along with surrounding minor islands, it constitutes an autonomous region of Italy officially referred to as Regione Sicilia.
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Siega Verde is an archaeological site in the municipality of Villar de la Yegua, in the province of Salamanca, Spain.
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The Sierra Morena is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
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The Sierra Nevada (meaning "snowy range" in Spanish) is a mountain range in the region of Andalucia, provinces of Granada and Almería in Spain.
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The Siete Partidas ("Seven-Part Code") or simply Partidas was a Castilian statutory code first compiled during the reign of Alfonso X of Castile (1252–1284), with the intent of establishing a uniform body of normative rules for the kingdom.
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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a follower of Sikhism, a monotheistic dharma which originated during the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia.
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The Silings or Silingi (Latin: Silingae, Ancient Greek Σιλίγγαι – Silingai) were a Germanic tribe, part of the larger Vandal group.
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The Central System, Spanish and Sistema Central, is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Iberian System, Sistema Ibérico, is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
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Skiing is a mode of transport, recreational activity and competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
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Slavery is a legal or economic system in which principles of property law can apply to humans so that people can be treated as property, and can be owned, bought and sold accordingly, and cannot withdraw unilaterally from the arrangement.
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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a nation state in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
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The Society of Jesus (Societas Iesu, S.J., SJ or SI) is a male religious congregation of the Catholic Church.
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Spain is one of the most advanced countries in the development of solar energy, and it is one of the European countries with the most hours of sunshine.
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Solomon ibn Verga (or Salomón ben Verga, c. 1460 – 1554) (Hebrew: שלמה אבן וירגה) was a Spanish historian and physician, and author of the Shevet Yehudah (Hebrew:שבט יהודה - "Scepter of Judah").
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Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría Antón (born 10 June 1971, Valladolid) is a Spanish People's Party politician who has been Deputy Prime Minister of Spain since 2011.
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South Asia or Southern Asia is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
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Most definitions of Southern Europe include the countries of the Iberian peninsula (Spain and Portugal), the Italian peninsula, France (only Southern France) and Greece.
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In international law, a sovereign state is a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
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The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (a) abbreviated to USSR (r) or shortened to the Soviet Union (p), was a Marxist–Leninist state on the Eurasian continent that existed between 1922 and 1991.
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The Spanish State under General Franco was officially non-belligerent during World War II.
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Spain remained neutral throughout World War I between 28 July 1914 and 11 November 1918, but despite domestic economic difficulties, it was considered "one of the most important neutral countries in Europe by 1915".
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The Spain national football team (Selección de fútbol de España) represents Spain in International association football and is controlled by the Royal Spanish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Spain.
Spania (Provincia Spaniae) was a province of the Byzantine Empire from 552 until 624 in the south of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.
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Spaniards (españoles.) are a nation and ethnic group native to Spain that share a common Spanish culture and speak the Spanish language as a mother tongue.
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The Spanish Air Force (SPAF) (Ejército del Aire; literally, "Army of the Air") is the aerial branch of the Spanish Armed Forces.
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The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
The Spanish Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas Españolas, FFAA) are the military forces of the Kingdom of Spain.
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The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra; lit, "ground army") is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.
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The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
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The Spanish Constitution of 1812 was established on 19 March 1812 by the Cádiz Cortes, Spain's first national sovereign assembly, the Cortes Generales ("General Courts"), in refuge in Cádiz during the Peninsular War.
The Spanish Constitution of 1978 (Constitución Española) is the current supreme law of the Kingdom of Spain.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio español) was one of the largest empires in world history and one of the first of global extent.
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The Spanish general election of 1977 took place on 15 June 1977.
The 2004 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 14 March, to elect the 8th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain.
The Spanish Golden Age (Siglo de Oro, Golden Century) is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise and decline of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty.
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The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
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Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers.
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The Spanish miracle (el milagro español) was the name given to a broadly based economic boom in Spain from 1959 to 1974.
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The Orquesta Nacional de España (Spanish National Orchestra) is a symphonic orchestra that is based in Madrid, Spain.
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The Spanish Navy (Armada Española), or Spanish Armada, is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world.
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The Spanish property bubble refers to the collapsed overshooting part of a long-term price increase of Spanish real estate prices.
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The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence into a formal protectorate.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; better known by its initials, PSOE), is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
The Spanish transition to democracy (Transición española a la democracia), or simply the Transition (La Transición) refers to the restoration of democracy in Spain after the death of Francisco Franco in 1975.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-estadounidense) was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, the result of U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence.
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Status quo is a Latin phrase meaning the existing state of affairs, particularly with regards to social or political issues.
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Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy (Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatut d'Autonomia, Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatutu d' Autonomía, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws).
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Strabo (Στράβων Strabōn; 64/63 BC – c. AD 24), was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian.
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The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
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The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria (collectively known as the strawberries).
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Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara Desert.
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The subtropics are geographic and climate zones located roughly between the tropic circle of latitude (the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn) and the 38th parallel in each hemisphere.
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The Suevi, then Suebi and in the 6th century also Suavi (Jordanes, Procopius) were a large group of people who lived in Germania and were first mentioned by Julius Caesar in connection with Ariovistus' campaign in Gaul, c. 58 BC.
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Sugar beet, cultivated Beta vulgaris, is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose.
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Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil compressed from sunflower (Helianthus annuus) seeds.
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The Tagus (Tajo; Tejo; Tagus; Ancient Greek: Τάγος Tagos) is the longest river on the Iberian Peninsula.
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In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, usually an emirate or petty kingdom, though there was one oligarchy, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
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Talgo is a Spanish manufacturer of intercity, standard, and high speed passenger trains.
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Tarraco is the ancient name of the current city of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).
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Tartessos (Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River.
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The Teatro Arriaga is an opera house in Bilbao, Spain.
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Teatro Real (Royal Theatre) or simply El Real, as it is known colloquially, is a major opera house located in Madrid, Spain.
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Mount Teide (Pico del Teide,, "Teide Peak") is a volcano on Tenerife in the Canary Islands.
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Teide National Park (Parque nacional del Teide) is a national park located in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain).
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Telecommuting, remote work, or telework is a work arrangement in which employees do not commute to a central place of work.
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Telefónica, S.A. is a Spanish broadband and telecommunications provider with operations in Europe, Asia, North America and South America.
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The Spanish telephone numbering plan is the allocation of telephone numbers in Spain.
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Tenerife is the largest and most populous island of the seven Canary Islands; it is also the most populated island of Spain, with a land area of and 898,680 inhabitants, 43 percent of the total population of the Canary Islands.
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Tenerife South Airport, previously known as Tenerife South-Reina Sofia Airport, is one of two international airports located on the island of Tenerife (the other being Tenerife North Airport) and the largest of the Canary Islands.
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Tennis is a racquet sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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Teresa Berganza Vargas (born on 16 March 1935) is a Spanish mezzo-soprano.
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Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada (28 March 15154 October 1582), was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun, author during the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer.
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The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's high-speed rail service, operated by SNCF Voyages, the long-distance rail branch of SNCF, the national rail operator.
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The Book of Good Love (El Libro de Buen Amor), considered to be one of the masterpieces of Spanish poetry, is a semi-biographical account of romantic adventures by Juan Ruiz, the Archpriest of Hita, dating initially 1330 which he completed with revisions and expansions in 1343.
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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS Church or, informally, the Mormon Church) is a Christian restorationist church that is considered by its followers to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" has been used with variations to describe certain global empires that were so extensive that there was always at least one part of their territory that was in daylight.
The Portugal News is a national weekly newspaper in English published in Portugal.
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The Renaissance is a period in Europe, from the 14th to the 17th century, considered the bridge between the Middle Ages and modern history.
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Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from 379 to 395. Theodosius was the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the Empire; he failed to kill, expel, or entirely subjugate them, and after the Gothic War they established a homeland south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He fought two destructive civil wars, in which he defeated the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius at great cost to the power of the Empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made orthodox Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessolonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. It was not until the end of the 19th century, in 1896, that Olympics were held again. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the East and West halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united.
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The Thirty Years' War was a series of wars in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
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The Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation was the first voyage around the world in human history.
This is a timeline of notable events during the period of Muslim presence in Iberia, starting with the Umayyad conquest in the 8th century.
Tirso de Molina (24 March 1579 – 12 March 1648) was a Spanish Baroque dramatist, a poet and a Roman Catholic monk.
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The Toledo School of Translators (Escuela de Traductores de Toledo) is the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from classical Arabic, classical Greek, and ancient Hebrew.
Toledo is a municipality located in central Spain, 70 km south of Madrid.
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The tomato (see pronunciation) is the edible, often red berry-type fruit of the nightshade Solanum lycopersicum, commonly known as a tomato plant.
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The Tour de France is an annual multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
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The Tower of Hercules (Galician and Torre de Hércules) is an ancient Roman lighthouse on a peninsula about from the centre of A Coruña, Galicia, in north-western Spain.
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A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
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Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Traianus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; September 18, 53 – August 8, 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 AD until his death in 117 AD.
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The introduction of Greek philosophy and science into the culture of the Latin West in the Middle Ages was an event that transformed the intellectual life of Western Europe.
The Treaty of Granada was signed and ratified on November 25, 1491 between Boabdil, the sultan of Granada, and Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Castile, León, Aragon and Sicily.
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The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
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A tribute (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that one party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
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Tuna pot, marmitako in Basque Country and marmita, marmite or sorropotún in Cantabria is a fish stew that was eaten on tuna fishing boats in the Cantabrian Sea.
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The Turia or Túria (Riu Túria; Río Turia; Turia) is a Spanish river which has its source in the Montes Universales in the mountain ranges of the northwesternmost end of the Sistema Ibérico, Teruel province.
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The UEFA European Championship, or simply, The Euros, is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.
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The Umayyad Caliphate (الخلافة الأموية, trans. Al-Khilāfat al-ʾumawiyya) was the second of the four major Islamic caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
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The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
Unemployment occurs when people are without work and actively seeking work.
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Though unemployment is a general problem for the whole world, the degree of unemployment in Spain is especially high in respect to the other countries in the region at the same economic level.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN).
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UNESCO established its lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring the better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.
The Union of Islamic Communities of Spain (UCIDE) is a religious organization with a centered in Madrid.
A unitary state is a state governed as one single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (subnational units) exercise only powers that their central government chooses to delegate.
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The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.
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Universal suffrage (also universal adult suffrage, general suffrage or common suffrage) consists of the extension of the right to vote to adult citizens (or subjects), though it may also mean extending that right to minors (Demeny voting) and non-citizens.
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The University of Palencia was founded by Alfonso VIII at the request of Bishop Tello Téllez de Meneses and was the first university of Spain.
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The University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the town of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León.
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The Val d'Aran (Vall d'Aran; Valle de Arán), sometimes referred to as the Aran Valley in English, is a valley, in area, in the Pyrenees mountains and a ''comarca'' (county) in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida, in Catalonia, northern Spain.
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Valencia, or València, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
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Valencia Airport in Manises, also known as Manises Airport, is the 8th busiest Spanish airport in terms of passengers and second in the region after Alicante.
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Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, valenciano, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is the variety of Catalan as spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain.
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The Valencian Community (Comunitat Valenciana, Comunidad Valenciana), or the Valencian Country (País Valencià), is an autonomous community of Spain.
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Valladolid is a city in Spain and the de facto capital of the autonomous region of Castile and Leon.
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The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe, or group of tribes, who were first heard of in southern Poland, but later moved around Europe establishing kingdoms in Spain and later North Africa in the 5th century.
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In everyday usage, a vegetable is any part of a plant that is consumed by humans as food as part of a savoury meal.
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The Vettones (Greek: Ouettones) were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.
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Vicente Pío Marcelino Cirilo Aleixandre y Merlo (April 26, 1898 – December 14, 1984) was a Spanish poet who was born in Seville.
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Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (29 January 1867 – 28 January 1928) was a journalist, politician and best-selling Spanish novelist in various genres whose most widespread and lasting fame in the English-speaking world is from Hollywood films adapted from his works.
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Vigo is a city on the Atlantic Ocean in Galicia, north-west Spain.
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The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
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The Visigoths (UK:; US:, Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, or Wisi) were branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
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Vitoria-Gasteiz (Vitoria, Gasteiz) is the capital city of the Basque Autonomous Community and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain.
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The Vizcaya Bridge (Bizkaiko Zubia in Basque, Puente de Vizcaya in Spanish), is a transporter bridge that links the towns of Portugalete and Las Arenas (part of Getxo) in the Biscay province of Spain, crossing the mouth of the Nervion River.
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A volcano is a rupture on the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
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Volver (meaning "to go back") is a 2006 Spanish drama film written and directed by Pedro Almodóvar.
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In his 1492 transatlantic maritime expedition, Christopher Columbus became the first Christian European to make landfall in the Americas.
Vulgar Latin is a generic term for the nonstandard (as opposed to classical) sociolects of Latin from which the Romance languages developed.
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The War of the First Coalition (1792–1797) was the first major effort of multiple European monarchies to defeat Revolutionary France.
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The War of the Pyrenees, also known as War of Roussillon or War of the Convention, was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war against the First French Republic.
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The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a major European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death in 1700 of the last Habsburg King of Spain, the infirm and childless Charles II.
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806.
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Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities, commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
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Wendell Cox is an American urban planner and academic, known as leading proponent of the use of the private car over rail projects.
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Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe.
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The Western Sahara (الصحراء المغربية; Sahara Occidental; Berber: Taneẓroft Tutrimt) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
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The Western world, also known as the West and the Occident (from Latin: occidens "sunset, West"; as contrasted with the Orient), is a term referring to different nations depending on the context.
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White Latin Americans are the people of Latin America who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases, Levantine descent.
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Wine (from Latin vinum) is an alcoholic beverage made from fermented grapes or other fruits.
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Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and certain other animals, including cashmere from goats, mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
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The World Bank Group (WBG) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
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The World Cities Summit is an international conference series on public governance and the sustainable development of cities.
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A World Heritage Site is a place (such as a building, city, complex, desert, forest, island, lake, monument, or mountain) that is listed by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as being of special cultural or physical significance.
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World Mayor is a biennial award organized by The City Mayors Foundation since 2004.
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.
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Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
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Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
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.cat is a sponsored top-level domain intended to be used to highlight the Catalan language and culture.
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.es is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Spain.
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.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
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The 1833 territorial division of Spain divided Spain into provinces, classified into "historic regions" (regiones históricas).
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, were an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992, and which 10 years before, 1982 FIFA World Cup were celebrated in Spain for 13 June to 11 July 1982.
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The meridian 19° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known in Spain as 11-M) were nearly simultaneous, coordinated bombings against the Cercanías commuter train system of Madrid, Spain, on the morning of 11 March 2004 – three days before Spain's general elections and two and a half years after the September 11 attacks in the United States.
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The 2008–15 Spanish financial crisis, also known as the Great Recession in Spain or the Great Spanish Depression began in 2008 during the world financial crisis of 2007–08.
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
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23-F is the name given to an attempted coup d'état in Spain that began on 23 February 1981 and ended on the following day.
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The 26th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 26 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The 44th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 44 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The meridian 5° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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El Reino de Espana, El Reino de España, Espagna, Espainia, Espainiako Erresuma, Espana, Espanya, España, Espańa, Etymology of Spain, ISO 3166-1:ES, Islands of Spain, Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of the Spains, Mountains of Spain, Name of Spain, Regne d'Espanha, Regne d'Espanya, Reino de Espana, Reino de España, SPAIN, Spane, Spanish Kingdom, The Spanish Society, The kingdom of Spain.