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Abd ar-Rahman III (′Abd ar-Rahmān ibn Muhammad ibn ′Abd Allāh ibn Muhammad ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ibn al-Hakam ar-Rabdi ibn Hisham ibn ′abd ar-Rahman ad-Dakhil; عبد الرحمن الثالث; 11 January 889/9115 October 961) was the Emir and Caliph of Córdoba (912–961) of the Umayyad dynasty in al-Andalus.
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Abengoa S.A. is a Spanish multinational corporation, which includes companies in the domains of energy, telecommunications, transportation, and the environment.
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Abraham Cresques (1325–1387), whose real name was Cresques (son of) Abraham, was a 14th-century Jewish cartographer from Palma, Majorca (then part of the Crown of Aragon).
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Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
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The Academy Awards, also known as the Oscars, are a set of 24 awards for artistic and technical merit in the American film industry, given annually by the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS), to recognize excellence in cinematic achievements as assessed by the Academy's voting membership.
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Acciona, S.A. is a Spanish conglomerate group dedicated to the development and management of infrastructure (construction, water, industrial and services) and renewable energy.
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ACS, Actividades de Construcción y Servicios, S.A. is a Spanish company dedicated to civil and engineering construction, all types services and telecommunications.
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Adela Cortina is a Spanish philosopher born in Valencia, Spain.
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Adolfo Suárez González, 1st Duke of Suárez, GE, KOGF, OCIII (25 September 1932 – 23 March 2014) was a Spanish lawyer and politician.
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Adolfo Suárez Madrid–Barajas Airport (Aeropuerto Adolfo Suárez Madrid-Barajas), commonly known as Madrid–Barajas Airport, is the main international airport serving Madrid in Spain.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
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The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
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Al-Andalus (الأنْدَلُس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus), also known as Muslim Spain, Muslim Iberia, or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim territory and cultural domain occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.
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Al-Qaeda (القاعدة,, translation: "The Base", "The Foundation" or "The Fundament" and alternatively spelled al-Qaida, al-Qæda and sometimes al-Qa'ida) is a militant Sunni Islamist multi-national organization founded in 1988.
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The Alans (or Alani) were an Iranian nomadic pastoral people of antiquity.
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The albacore (Thunnus alalunga), known also as the longfin tuna, is a species of tuna of the order Perciformes.
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The Albaicín or Albayzín (ٱلْبَيّازِينْ) as it was known under Muslim rule, is a district of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
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Alboran Island (Isla de Alborán) is a small islet in the Alboran Sea, part of the western Mediterranean, about 50 km (31 mi) north of the Moroccan coast and 90 kilometres (56 miles) south of the Spanish province of Almería.
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The Alboran Sea is the westernmost portion of the Mediterranean Sea, lying between the Iberian Peninsula and the north of Africa (Spain on the north and Morocco and Algeria on the south).
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Alcalá de Henares, meaning Castle on the Henares (river), in Arabic قلعة النار, is a Spanish city located northeast of the country's capital, Madrid.
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The Alcázar of Seville (Reales Alcázares de Sevilla or "Royal Alcazars of Seville") is a royal palace in Seville, Spain, built for the Christian king Peter of Castile.
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Alejandro Fernando Amenábar Cantos (born March 31, 1972), commonly known as Alejandro Amenábar, is a Spanish and Chilean film director, screenwriter and composer.
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The Alentejo is a geographical, historical and cultural region of south-central and southern Portugal.
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Alfonso X (also occasionally Alphonso, Alphonse, or Alfons, 23 November 1221 – 4 April 1284), called the Wise (el Sabio), was the King of Castile, León and Galicia from 30 May 1252 until his death in 1284.
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Alfredo Kraus Trujillo (24 November 192710 September 1999) was a distinguished Spanish tenor from the Canary islands (known professionally as Alfredo Kraus), particularly known for the artistry he brought to opera's bel canto roles.
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The Alhambra (الْحَمْرَاء, Al-Ḥamrā, lit. "The Red One",The "Al-" in "Alhambra" means "the" in Arabic, but this is ignored in general usage in both English and Spanish, where the name is normally given the definite articleالْحَمْرَاء, trans.; literally "the red one", feminine; in colloquial Arabic: the complete Arabic form of which was Qalat Al-Hamra)الْقَلْعَةُ ٱلْحَمْرَاءُ, trans.
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The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
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The Alhucemas Islands is a group of islands and one of the Spanish plazas de soberanía just off the Moroccan coast in the Alboran Sea.
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Alicante, or Alacant, both the Spanish and Valencian being official names, is a city and port in Spain on the Costa Blanca, the capital of the province of Alicante and of the comarca of Alacantí, in the south of the Valencian Community.
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Alicante–Elche Airport (Aeropuerto de Alicante-Elche,, originally named El Altet, is —as of 2017— the fifth-busiest airport in Spain based on passenger numbers, and the main airport serving the Valencian Community and the Region of Murcia. The airport is located in the municipality of Elche, about east of this city and about southwest of Alicante. Its influence area spans other cities in the Valencia province—the city of Valencia is located about north of the airport—and in the Region of Murcia. The airport is located about north of Murcia. The airport is a base for Air Nostrum, Evelop Airlines, Norwegian Air Shuttle, Ryanair and Vueling. Passenger traffic has increased significantly in the last decade, beating its own yearly record since 2013 to date; in particular, in 2015, it handled 10,574,484 passengers. Then, in 2016 it set its new record with almost 12,350,000 passengers,; in 2017 it set its new consecutive record at 13.7 million passengers. Altogether it is one of the 50 busiest in Europe. Up to 80% of all passenger flights are international. The largest numbers of passengers arrive from the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Norway, Belgium and Sweden. Popular domestic destinations are Madrid, Palma de Mallorca and Barcelona.
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Alicia de Larrocha y de la Calle (23 May 192325 September 2009) was a Spanish pianist and composer.
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An alluvial plain is a largely flat landform created by the deposition of sediment over a long period of time by one or more rivers coming from highland regions, from which alluvial soil forms.
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Almadén is a town and municipality in the Spanish province of Ciudad Real, within the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha.
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Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of the same name.
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The Almohad Caliphate (British English:, U.S. English:; ⵉⵎⵡⴻⵃⵃⴷⴻⵏ (Imweḥḥden), from Arabic الموحدون, "the monotheists" or "the unifiers") was a Moroccan Berber Muslim movement and empire founded in the 12th century.
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The Almoravid dynasty (Imṛabḍen, ⵉⵎⵕⴰⴱⴹⴻⵏ; المرابطون, Al-Murābiṭūn) was an imperial Berber Muslim dynasty centered in Morocco.
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Alonso González de Berruguete (Alonso Berruguete) (c. 1488 – 1561) was a Spanish painter, sculptor and architect.
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Alonzo Cano or Alonso Cano (19 March 16013 September 1667) was a Spanish painter, architect and sculptor born in Granada.
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Alpine climate is the average weather (climate) for the regions above the tree line.
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Alvarado I is a large solar thermal power station in Alvarado, province of Badajoz, in Extremadura, Spain.
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The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
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Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
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Ana María Matute Ausejo (1925 – 2014) was an internationally acclaimed Spanish writer and member of the Real Academia Española.
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Ana María Pastor Julián (born 11 November 1957) is a Spanish politician for the People's Party who has been President of the Congress of Deputies since 19 July 2016.
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An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
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Ancient and Primeval Beech Forests of the Carpathians and Other Regions of Europe is a transnational composite nature UNESCO World Heritage Site, encompassing forests in 12 countries of Europe.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the Phoenician state, including, during the 7th–3rd centuries BC, its wider sphere of influence, known as the Carthaginian Empire.
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Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
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The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
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In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
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Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
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The Andalusians (andaluces) are a Spanish ethnic group that live in the southern region in Spain approximated by what is now called Andalusia.
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Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate on the Iberian Peninsula, in the eastern Pyrenees, bordered by France in the north and Spain in the south.
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The Anglo-Spanish War (1585–1604) was an intermittent conflict between the kingdoms of Spain and England that was never formally declared.
The Antequera Dolmens Site is a cultural heritage ensemble comprising 3 cultural monuments (the Dolmen of Menga, Dolmen of Viera and Tholos of El Romeral) and 2 natural mountain features (the Peña de los Enamorados and El Torcal) in and near the city of Antequera in Andalusia, Spain.
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The anti-austerity movement in Spain, also referred to as the 15-M Movement (Spanish: Movimiento 15-M), the Indignados Movement, and Take the Square, had origins in social networks such as Real Democracy NOW (Democracia Real YA) or Youth Without a Future (Juventud Sin Futuro).
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
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Pedro Martínez de Luna y Pérez de Gotor (25 November 1328 – 23 May 1423), known as el Papa Luna in Spanish and Pope Luna in English, was an Aragonese nobleman, who as Benedict XIII, is considered an antipope (see Western Schism) by the Catholic Church.
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Antoni Gaudí i Cornet (25 June 1852 – 10 June 1926) was a Spanish architect from Catalonia.
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José Antonio Domínguez Bandera (born 10 August 1960), known professionally as Antonio Banderas, is a Spanish actor, singer, and producer.
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Antonio de Nebrija (14415 July 1522), also known as Antonio de Lebrija, Elio Antonio de Lebrija, Antonius Nebrissensis, and Antonio of Lebrixa, was a Spanish Renaissance scholar.
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Antonio Gamoneda (born 30 May 1931) is a Spanish poet, winner of the Cervantes Prize in 2006.
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Antonio Machado, in full Antonio Cipriano José María y Francisco de Santa Ana Machado y Ruiz (26 July 1875 – 22 February 1939), was a Spanish poet and one of the leading figures of the Spanish literary movement known as the Generation of '98.
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The aporophobia (from the Spanish aporofobia, and this from the Ancient Greek άπορος (á-poros), without resources, indigent, poor, and φόβος (phobos), fear) refers to the fear towards poverty and towards the poor people.
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The Aqueduct of Segovia (or more precisely, the aqueduct bridge) is a Roman aqueduct in Segovia, Spain.
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Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
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Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken in several dialects by 10,000 to 30,000 people in the Pyrenees valleys of Aragon, Spain, primarily in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza/Ribagorça.
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Aranese (Aranés) is a standardized form of the Pyrenean Gascon variety of the Occitan language spoken in the Val d'Aran, in northwestern Catalonia close to the Spanish border with France, where it is one of the three official languages beside Catalan and Spanish.
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Aranjuez, also called the Royal Estate of Aranjuez, is a city and municipality, capital of the Las Vegas district, in the southern part of the Community of Madrid, Spain.
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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
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This is a list of countries and territories in Europe by population density.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
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Arianism is a nontrinitarian Christological doctrine which asserts the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God who was begotten by God the Father at a point in time, a creature distinct from the Father and is therefore subordinate to him, but the Son is also God (i.e. God the Son).
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Arròs negre (arroz negro) is a Valencian and Catalan dish made with cuttlefish (or squid) and rice, somewhat similar to seafood paella.
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An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, (usually a few months, years or decades) or, at least, with the heyday of the movement defined within a number of years.
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Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington, (1 May 1769 – 14 September 1852) was an Anglo-Irish soldier and statesman who was one of the leading military and political figures of 19th-century Britain, serving twice as Prime Minister.
Astur-Leonese is a group of closely related Romance languages of the West Iberian branch, including.
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Pre-Romanesque architecture in Asturias is framed between the years 711 and 910, the period of the creation and expansion of the kingdom of Asturias.
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Asturian cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients found in the cuisine of the Asturias region of Spain.
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Asturian (asturianu,Art. 1 de la formerly also known as bable) is a West Iberian Romance language spoken in Principality of Asturias, Spain.
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Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
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The Atapuerca Mountains (Sierra de Atapuerca) is a karstic hill formation near the village of Atapuerca in Castile and León, northern Spain.
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Atheism is, in the broadest sense, the absence of belief in the existence of deities.
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The ATP World Tour Masters 1000 (previously known as the ATP Championship Series, Single-Week, ATP Mercedes-Benz Super 9, Tennis Masters Series, and ATP Masters Series) is the third highest tier of annual men's tennis tournament after the four Grand Slam tournaments and the ATP Finals.
The Aurignacian is an archaeological tradition of the Upper Palaeolithic associated with European early modern humans (EEMH).
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In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidegoa, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma, comunautat autonòma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that make up Spain.
Alta Velocidad Española (AVE) is a service of high-speed rail in Spain operated by Renfe, the Spanish national railway company, at speeds of up to.
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Ibn Rushd (ابن رشد; full name; 1126 – 11 December 1198), often Latinized as Averroes, was an Andalusian philosopher and thinker who wrote about many subjects, including philosophy, theology, medicine, astronomy, physics, Islamic jurisprudence and law, and linguistics.
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Avilés is a city in Asturias, Spain.
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The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
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Ávila (Latin: Abula) is a Spanish town located in the autonomous community of Castile and León, and is the capital of the Province of Ávila.
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Úbeda (from Arabic Ubbada al-`Arab and this from Iberian Ibiut) is a town in the province of Jaén in Spain's autonomous community of Andalusia, with some 36,025 inhabitants.
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Badajoz (formerly written Badajos in English) is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
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Badminton is a racquet sport played using racquets to hit a shuttlecock across a net.
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The Baetic System (Sistema Bético) is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
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Baeza, formerly also written as Baéza, is an Andalusian town in the province of Jaén in southern Spain.
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The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Bank of Spain (Banco de España), is the central bank of Spain.
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The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
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Barcelona is a city in Spain.
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The Barcelona Symphony and Catalonia National Orchestra (Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona i Nacional de Catalunya, OBC) is a symphony orchestra based in Barcelona, Spain.
Barcelona–El Prat Airport (Catalan: Aeroport de Barcelona – el Prat, Spanish: Aeropuerto de Barcelona-El Prat), also known as El Prat Airport, is an international airport located southwest.
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The Baroque is a highly ornate and often extravagant style of architecture, art and music that flourished in Europe from the early 17th until the late 18th century.
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Bartolomé de las Casas (1484 – 18 July 1566) was a 16th-century Spanish historian, social reformer and Dominican friar.
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Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (born late December 1617, baptized January 1, 1618April 3, 1682) was a Spanish Baroque painter.
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Bartolomé Ordóñez (c. 1480 – 6 December 1520) was a Spanish Renaissance sculptor.
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Basketball is a team sport played on a rectangular court.
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The Basque conflict, also known as the Spain–ETA conflict, was an armed and political conflict from 1959 to 2011 between Spain and the Basque National Liberation Movement, a group of social and political Basque organizations which sought independence from Spain and France.
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The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
The Basque Country (Euskal Herria; Pays basque; Vasconia, País Vasco) is the name given to the home of the Basque people.
Basque cuisine refers to the cuisine of the Basque Country and includes meats and fish grilled over hot coals, marmitako and lamb stews, cod, Tolosa bean dishes, paprikas from Lekeitio, pintxos (Basque tapas), Idiazabal sheep's cheese, txakoli sparkling wine, and Basque cider.
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Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
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Basque nationalism (eusko abertzaletasuna) is a form of nationalism that asserts that Basques, an ethnic group indigenous to the western Pyrenees, are a nation, and promotes the political unity of the Basques.
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Basque pelota (pilota in the original Basque language also pelota vasca in Spanish, pelote basque in French) is the name for a variety of court sports played with a ball using one's hand, a racket, a wooden bat or a basket, against a wall (frontis or Fronton) or, more traditionally, with two teams face to face separated by a line on the ground or a net.
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The Battle of Covadonga was the first victory by Christian military forces in Iberia since the Islamic conquest of Hispania in 711–718.
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The Battle of Tours (10 October 732) – also called the Battle of Poitiers and, by Arab sources, the Battle of the Palace of the Martyrs (Ma'arakat Balāṭ ash-Shuhadā’) – was fought by Frankish and Burgundian forces under Charles Martel against an army of the Umayyad Caliphate led by Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi, Governor-General of al-Andalus.
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The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
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The Bay of Biscay (Golfe de Gascogne, Golfo de Vizcaya, Pleg-mor Gwaskogn, Bizkaiko Golkoa) is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea.
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The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
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BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
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Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
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Friar Benito Jerónimo Feijóo y Montenegro (8 October 167626 September 1764) was a Spanish monk and scholar who led the Age of Enlightenment in Spain.
Benito Pérez Galdós (May 10, 1843 – January 4, 1920) was a Spanish realist novelist.
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The Great Berber Revolt of 739/740–743 AD (122–125 AH in the Muslim calendar) took place during the reign of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik and marked the first successful secession from the Arab caliphate (ruled from Damascus).
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Berbers or Amazighs (Berber: Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗⴻⵏ; singular: Amaziɣ, ⴰⵎⴰⵣⵉⵗ) are an ethnic group indigenous to North Africa, primarily inhabiting Algeria, northern Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, northern Niger, Tunisia, Libya, and a part of western Egypt.
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The BESCAM, an acronym for Brigadas Especiales de Seguridad de la Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid (Special Security Brigades for the Autonomous Community of Madrid), is a police body created by the government of the Community of Madrid in Spain.
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Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
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A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
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The Bidasoa (Bidassoa) is a river in the Basque Country of northern Spain and southern France that runs largely south to north.
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Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.
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Bilbao Airport is a public airport located north of Bilbao, in the municipality of Loiu, in Biscay.
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Biotic components or biotic factors, can be described as any living component that affects another organism, or shapes the ecosystem.
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A biotope is an area of uniform environmental conditions providing a living place for a specific assemblage of plants and animals.
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The Black Death, also known as the Great Plague, the Black Plague, or simply the Plague, was one of the most devastating pandemics in human history, resulting in the deaths of an estimated people in Eurasia and peaking in Europe from 1347 to 1351.
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The Boletín Oficial del Estado (BOE) (Official State Gazette) is the official gazette of the Government of Spain and is published every day except Sunday.
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Saint Braulio or Braulius (Braulius Caesaraugustanus; 590 – 651 AD) was bishop of Zaragoza and a learned cleric living in the Kingdom of the Visigoths.
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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
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The British Overseas Territories (BOT) or United Kingdom Overseas Territories (UKOTs) are 14 territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
Buñol (Valencian: Bunyol) is a town and municipality in the province of Valencia, Spain.
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Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
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Bulgarians (българи, Bǎlgari) are a South Slavic ethnic group who are native to Bulgaria and its neighboring regions.
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The Cathedral of Saint Mary of Burgos (Catedral de Santa María de Burgos) is a Catholic church dedicated to the Virgin Mary located in the Spanish city of Burgos.
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The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).
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Caldo galego or simply caldo (in Galician), also known as caldo gallego (in Spanish), meaning literally Galician broth, is a traditional soup dish from Galicia.
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Camilo José Cela y Trulock, 1st Marquess of Iria Flavia (11 May 1916 – 17 January 2002) was a Spanish novelist, poet, story writer and essayist associated with the Generation of '36 movement.
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The Camino de Santiago (Peregrinatio Compostellana, "Pilgrimage of Compostela"; O Camiño de Santiago), known in English as the Way of Saint James among other names, is a network of pilgrims' ways serving pilgrimage to the shrine of the apostle Saint James the Great in the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela in Galicia in northwestern Spain, where tradition has it that the remains of the saint are buried.
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Canal de Isabel II (CYII) is the company that manages the water supplies for Madrid, Spain.
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The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
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Cantabrian cuisine includes seafood from the Cantabrian Sea; salmon and trout from the upper basins of the rivers; vegetables and dairy products from the valleys; and veal and game from the Cantabrian mountains.
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The Cantabrian Mountains or Cantabrian Range (Cordillera Cantábrica) are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
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El Cantar de mio Cid, literally "The Song of my Cid" (or El Poema de mio Cid), also known in English as The Poem of the Cid, is the oldest preserved Castilian epic poem (epopeya).
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Carlism (Karlismo; Carlisme) is a Traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon dynasty on the Spanish throne.
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The Carlist Wars were a series of civil wars that took place in Spain during the 19th century.
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Don Carlos Arias Navarro, 1st Marquis of Arias-Navarro, Grandee of Spain (11 December 1908 – 27 November 1989) was one of the best known Spanish politicians during the reign of Generalissimo Francisco Franco.
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Carlos Lesmes Serrano (born 10 June 1958 in Madrid) is a Spanish judge.
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Carlos Saura Atarés (born 4 January 1932) is a Spanish film director, photographer and writer.
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The Order of the Brothers of the Blessed Virgin Mary of Mount Carmel or Carmelites (sometimes simply Carmel by synecdoche; Ordo Fratrum Beatissimæ Virginis Mariæ de Monte Carmelo) is a Roman Catholic religious order founded, probably in the 12th century, on Mount Carmel in the Crusader States, hence the name Carmelites.
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Carmen Martín Gaite (8 December 1925 – 23 July 2000) was a Spanish author.
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Carolina María Marín Martín (born 15 June 1993) is a professional badminton player from Spain.
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The Carthaginian presence in Iberia lasted from 575 BC to 206 BC when the Carthaginians were defeated by the Roman Republic at the Battle of Ilipa in the Second Punic War.
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Castile is a vaguely defined historical region of Spain.
Castile and León (Castilla y León; Leonese: Castiella y Llión; Castela e León) is an autonomous community in north-western Spain.
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The Kingdom of Toledo (Spanish: Reino de Toledo) was a realm in the Iberian Peninsula, created after Alfonso VI of León's capture of Toledo in 1085.
Castilla–La Mancha (or Castile–La Mancha) is an autonomous community of Spain.
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The Catalan Countries (Els Països Catalans),, refers to those territories where the Catalan language, or a variant of it, is spoken.
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The Catalan declaration of independence (Declaració d'independència de Catalunya; Declaración de independencia de Cataluña) was a resolution that was passed by the Parliament of Catalonia on 27 October 2017, which declared the independence of Catalonia from Spain and the founding of an independent Catalan Republic.
The Catalan independence movement (independentisme català; Spanish: independentismo catalán) is a political movement historically derived from Catalan nationalism, which seeks independence of Catalonia from Spain.
The Catalan independence referendum of 2017, also known by the numeronym 1-O (for "1 October") in Spanish media, was an independence referendum held on 1 October 2017 in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia, passed by the Parliament of Catalonia as the Law on the Referendum on Self-determination of Catalonia and called by the Generalitat de Catalunya.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
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The Churches of the Vall de Boí are a set of nine Early Romanesque churches declared World Heritage Site by UNESCO and located in the Vall de Boí, in the Catalan comarque of Alta Ribagorça (Province of Lleida).
The Catalans (Catalan, French and Occitan: catalans; catalanes, Italian: catalani) are a Pyrenean/Latin European ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia (Spain), in the northeast of the Iberian Peninsula.
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Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
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The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
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The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
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The Cave of Altamira (Cueva de Altamira) located near the historic town Santillana del Mar in Cantabria, Spain, is renowned for its numerous parietal cave paintings featuring charcoal drawings and polychrome paintings of contemporary local fauna and human hands, created during the Upper Paleolithic.
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Cave of Altamira and Paleolithic Cave Art of Northern Spain is the name under which are grouped 18 caves located in different regions of northern Spain, which together represent the apogee of Paleolithic cave art in Europe between 35,000 and 11,000 B.C. They have been collectively designated a World Heritage Site.
The Cueva de El Castillo, or Cave of the Castle, is an archaeological site within the complex of the Caves of Monte Castillo, in Puente Viesgo, Cantabria, Spain.
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Cáceres is the capital of Cáceres province, in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
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Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
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Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
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Celedonio Calatayud Costa (October 29, 1880 in Pedreguer – January 24, 1931 in Madrid) was a Spanish scientist and radiologist, remembered for his achievements on radiology, radiotherapy, and electrology.
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The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
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Central European Summer Time (CEST), sometime referred also as Central European Daylight Time (CEDT), is the standard clock time observed during the period of summer daylight-saving in those European countries which observe Central European Time (UTC+1) during the other part of the year.
Central European Time (CET), used in most parts of Europe and a few North African countries, is a standard time which is 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).
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Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
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The Chafarinas Islands (Islas Chafarinas, Berber: Igumamen Iceffaren or Takfarinas, Arabic: جزر الشفارين or الجزر الجعفرية), also spelled Zafarin, Djaferin or Zafarani, are a group of three small islets located in the Alboran Sea off the coast of Morocco with an aggregate area of, to the east of Nador and off the Moroccan town of Ras Kebdana.
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Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
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Charles V (Carlos; Karl; Carlo; Karel; Carolus; 24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was ruler of both the Holy Roman Empire from 1519 and the Spanish Empire (as Charles I of Spain) from 1516, as well as of the lands of the former Duchy of Burgundy from 1506.
Charles VI (1 October 1685 – 20 October 1740; Karl VI.) succeeded his elder brother, Joseph I, as Holy Roman Emperor, King of Bohemia (as Charles II), King of Hungary and Croatia, Serbia and Archduke of Austria (as Charles III) in 1711.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
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Backstage at Cibeles Madrid Fashion Week. Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Madrid 2017. Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Madrid, was known as Pasarela Cibeles until 2008 or Cibeles Madrid Fashion week up until 2012, is the principal platform to promote fashion in Spain.
The cinema of the United States, often metonymously referred to as Hollywood, has had a profound effect on the film industry in general since the early 20th century.
Citrus is a genus of flowering trees and shrubs in the rue family, Rutaceae.
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The City of Arts and Sciences (Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències; Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias) is an entertainment-based cultural and architectural complex in the city of Valencia, Spain.
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Clara Campoamor (Madrid, 12 February, 1888–Lausanne, 30 April, 1972) was a Spanish politician and feminist best known for her advocacy for women's rights and suffrage during the writing of the Spanish constitution of 1931.
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Classical Arabic is the form of the Arabic language used in Umayyad and Abbasid literary texts from the 7th century AD to the 9th century AD.
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Cocido madrileño ("Madrilenian stew") is a traditional chickpea-based stew from Madrid, Spain.
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Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
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The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
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The Colegio de San Gregorio is an Isabelline style building located in the city of Valladolid, in Castile and León, Spain, it was formerly a college and now is housing the Museo Nacional de Escultura museum.
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The College of Europe (Collège d'Europe) is an elite, independent university institute of postgraduate European studies with the main campus in Bruges, Belgium and a smaller campus in Warsaw, Poland.
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Colonialism is the policy of a polity seeking to extend or retain its authority over other people or territories, generally with the aim of developing or exploiting them to the benefit of the colonizing country and of helping the colonies modernize in terms defined by the colonizers, especially in economics, religion and health.
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Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
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A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
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Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.
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The Community of Madrid (Comunidad de Madrid) is one of the seventeen autonomous communities of Spain.
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Concepción Arenal Ponte (Ferrol, 31 January 1820 – Vigo, 4 February 1893) was a Spanish feminist writer and activist.
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In international law, a condominium (plural either condominia, as in Latin, or condominiums) is a political territory (state or border area) in or over which multiple sovereign powers formally agree to share equal dominium (in the sense of sovereignty) and exercise their rights jointly, without dividing it into "national" zones.
The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
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Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.
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The Constituent Cortes (Las Cortes Constituyentes) is the description of Spain's parliament, the Cortes, when convened as a constituent assembly.
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The Spanish Constitution (Constitución Española; Espainiako Konstituzioa; Constitució Espanyola; Constitución Española; Constitucion espanhòla) is the democratic law that is supreme in the Kingdom of Spain.
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A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
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Construcciones y Auxiliar de Ferrocarriles (Grupo CAF) (literally "Construction & Other Railway Services") is a Spanish publicly-listed company which manufactures railway vehicles and equipment. It is based in Beasain in the Basque Country. Equipment manufactured by Grupo CAF includes light rail vehicles, rapid transit trains, railroad cars and locomotives, as well as variable gauge axles that can be fitted on any existing truck or bogie. Over the 20 years from the early 1990s, CAF benefitted from the rail investment boom in its home market in Spain to become a world player with a broad technical capability, able to manufacture almost any type of rail vehicle. CAF has supplied railway rolling stock to a number of major urban transit operators around Europe, the US, South America, East Asia, India and North Africa.
Contemporary architecture is the architecture of the 21st century.
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Continental climates are defined in the Köppen climate classification as having the coldest month with the temperature never rising above 0.0° C (32°F) all month long.
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A converso (feminine form conversa), "a convert", (from Latin, "converted, turned around") was a Jew who converted to Roman Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendants.
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The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
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The Cádiz Cortes was the first national assembly to claim sovereignty in Spain.
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The Cortes of León from year 1188 was a parliamentary body in the medieval Kingdom of León.
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The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
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The Council of Ministers (Consejo de Ministros) is a collegiate body composed of the President of the Government (Prime Minister), Vice presidents when existing and the Ministers, and any other member required by law, and in some cases Secretaries of State (Junior Ministers).
Councils of Toledo (Concilia toletana).
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The Counter-Reformation, also called the Catholic Reformation or the Catholic Revival, was the period of Catholic resurgence initiated in response to the Protestant Reformation, beginning with the Council of Trent (1545–1563) and ending at the close of the Thirty Years' War (1648).
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The County of Barcelona (Comitatus Barcinonensis) was originally a frontier region under the rule of the Carolingian dynasty.
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The Criollo is a term which, in modern times, has diverse meanings, but is most commonly associated with Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial (and not necessarily Spanish) European immigrant origin.
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Cristóbal Balenciaga Eizaguirre (January 21, 1895 – March 23, 1972) was a Spanish Basque fashion designer and the founder of the Balenciaga fashion house.
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Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
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The Crown of Aragon (Corona d'Aragón, Corona d'Aragó, Corona de Aragón),Corona d'AragónCorona AragonumCorona de Aragón) also referred by some modern historians as Catalanoaragonese Crown (Corona catalanoaragonesa) or Catalan-Aragonese Confederation (Confederació catalanoaragonesa) was a composite monarchy, also nowadays referred to as a confederation of individual polities or kingdoms ruled by one king, with a personal and dynastic union of the Kingdom of Aragon and the County of Barcelona. At the height of its power in the 14th and 15th centuries, the Crown of Aragon was a thalassocracy (a state with primarily maritime realms) controlling a large portion of present-day eastern Spain, parts of what is now southern France, and a Mediterranean "empire" which included the Balearic Islands, Sicily, Corsica, Sardinia, Malta, Southern Italy (from 1442) and parts of Greece (until 1388). The component realms of the Crown were not united politically except at the level of the king, who ruled over each autonomous polity according to its own laws, raising funds under each tax structure, dealing separately with each Corts or Cortes. Put in contemporary terms, it has sometimes been considered that the different lands of the Crown of Aragon (mainly the Kingdom of Aragon, the Principality of Catalonia and the Kingdom of Valencia) functioned more as a confederation than as a single kingdom. In this sense, the larger Crown of Aragon must not be confused with one of its constituent parts, the Kingdom of Aragon, from which it takes its name. In 1469, a new dynastic familial union of the Crown of Aragon with the Crown of Castile by the Catholic Monarchs, joining what contemporaries referred to as "the Spains" led to what would become the Kingdom of Spain under King Philip II. The Crown existed until it was abolished by the Nueva Planta decrees issued by King Philip V in 1716 as a consequence of the defeat of Archduke Charles (as Charles III of Aragon) in the War of the Spanish Succession.
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The Crown of Castile was a medieval state in the Iberian Peninsula that formed in 1230 as a result of the third and definitive union of the crowns and, some decades later, the parliaments of the kingdoms of Castile and León upon the accession of the then Castilian king, Ferdinand III, to the vacant Leonese throne. It continued to exist as a separate entity after the personal union in 1469 of the crowns of Castile and Aragon with the marriage of the Catholic Monarchs up to the promulgation of the Nueva Planta decrees by Philip V in 1715. The Indies, Islands and Mainland of the Ocean Sea were also a part of the Crown of Castile when transformed from lordships to kingdoms of the heirs of Castile in 1506, with the Treaty of Villafáfila, and upon the death of Ferdinand the Catholic. The title of "King of Castile" remained in use by the Habsburg rulers during the 16th and 17th centuries. Charles I was King of Aragon, Majorca, Valencia, and Sicily, and Count of Barcelona, Roussillon and Cerdagne, as well as King of Castile and León, 1516–1556. In the early 18th century, Philip of Bourbon won the War of the Spanish Succession and imposed unification policies over the Crown of Aragon, supporters of their enemies. This unified the Crown of Aragon and the Crown of Castile into the kingdom of Spain. Even though the Nueva Planta decrees did not formally abolish the Crown of Castile, the country of (Castile and Aragon) was called "Spain" by both contemporaries and historians. "King of Castile" also remains part of the full title of Felipe VI of Spain, the current King of Spain according to the Spanish constitution of 1978, in the sense of titles, not of states.
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Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
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The Cuban War of Independence (1895–98) was the last of three liberation wars that Cuba fought against Spain, the other two being the Ten Years' War (1868–1878) and the Little War (1879–1880).
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Cuenca is a city in the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha in central Spain.
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Curro Jiménez was a successful Spanish television drama series that was first broadcast on La Primera Cadena of Televisión Española from December 22, 1976 to 1979.
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Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
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Dairy products, milk products or lacticinia are a type of food produced from or containing the milk of mammals, primarily cattle, water buffaloes, goats, sheep, camels, and humans.
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Damián Forment (1480–1540) was a Spanish architect and sculptor, considered the most important Spanish sculptor of the 16th century.
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David Rodríguez Trueba (born 10 September 1969 in Madrid) is a Spanish novelist, film director and screenwriter.
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Dámaso Alonso y Fernández de las Redondas (22 October 1898 – 25 January 1990) was a Spanish poet, philologist and literary critic.
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Decentralization is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, are distributed or delegated away from a central, authoritative location or group.
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The Democracy Index is an index compiled by the UK-based company the Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) that intends to measure the state of democracy in 167 countries, of which 166 are sovereign states and 165 are UN member states.
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This article is about the demographic features of the population of Senegal, including population density, ethnicity, education level, health of the populace, economic status, religious affiliations and other aspects of the population.
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The Deputy Prime Minister of Spain, officially Vice President of the Government, (Vicepresidente del Gobierno de España) is the second in command to the Prime Minister of Spain, filling in for when the Prime Minister is absent or incapable of exercising power.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
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The Desert climate (in the Köppen climate classification BWh and BWk, sometimes also BWn), also known as an arid climate, is a climate in which precipitation is too low to sustain any vegetation at all, or at most a very scanty shrub, and does not meet the criteria to be classified as a polar climate.
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A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
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Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
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A (ذمي,, collectively أهل الذمة / "the people of the dhimma") is a historical term referring to non-Muslims living in an Islamic state with legal protection.
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Diego Siloe (anglicized) or Diego de Siloé (c. 1495–1563) was a Spanish Renaissance architect and sculptor, progenitor of the Granadan school of sculpture.
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Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized on June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.
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Diplomacy is the art and practice of conducting negotiations between representatives of states.
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Gibraltar, a British Overseas Territory, located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula, is the subject of an irredentist territorial claim by Spain.
The Gibraltar territory currently contains an long section of the isthmus that links the Rock with mainland Spain.
Doñana National Park is a natural reserve in Andalusia, southern Spain, in the provinces of Huelva (most of its territory), Cádiz and Seville.
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Doctor of the Church (Latin doctor "teacher") is a title given by the Catholic Church to saints whom they recognize as having been of particular importance, particularly regarding their contribution to theology or doctrine.
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Don Juan Tenorio: Drama religioso-fantástico en dos partes (Don Juan Tenorio: Religious-Fantasy Drama in Two Parts), is a play written in 1844 by José Zorrilla.
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The Ingenious Nobleman Sir Quixote of La Mancha (El Ingenioso Hidalgo Don Quijote de la Mancha), or just Don Quixote (Oxford English Dictionary, ""), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes.
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The Dos de Mayo of 1808, was a rebellion by the people of Madrid against the occupation of the city by French troops, provoking the repression by the French Imperial forces and triggering the Peninsular War.
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The Douro (Douro; Duero; translation) is one of the major rivers of the Iberian Peninsula, flowing from its source near Duruelo de la Sierra in Soria Province across northern-central Spain and Portugal to its outlet at Porto.
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The Dutch Revolt (1568–1648)This article adopts 1568 as the starting date of the war, as this was the year of the first battles between armies.
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The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
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The Ebro in English (also in Spanish, Aragonese and Basque: 'Ebre') is one of the most important rivers on the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU) is a British business within the Economist Group providing forecasting and advisory services through research and analysis, such as monthly country reports, five-year country economic forecasts, country risk service reports, and industry reports.
Ecuadorians are the citizens of the Republic of Ecuador, or their descendants abroad who identify with the Ecuadorian culture and descent.
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Ediciones Akal is a Spanish publisher founded in Madrid in 1972 by Ramón Akal González.
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Eduardo Chillida Juantegui, or Eduardo Txillida Juantegi in Basque, (10 January 1924 – 19 August 2002) was a Spanish Basque sculptor notable for his monumental abstract works.
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Efficient energy use, sometimes simply called energy efficiency, is the goal to reduce the amount of energy required to provide products and services.
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The Royal Site of San Lorenzo de El Escorial (Monasterio y Sitio de El Escorial en Madrid), commonly known as El Escorial, is a historical residence of the King of Spain, in the town of San Lorenzo de El Escorial, about northwest of the capital, Madrid, in Spain.
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Doménikos Theotokópoulos (Δομήνικος Θεοτοκόπουλος; October 1541 7 April 1614), most widely known as El Greco ("The Greek"), was a painter, sculptor and architect of the Spanish Renaissance.
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El Lazarillo de Tormes is a 1959 Spanish-Italian film directed by César Fernández Ardavín.
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El País (literally The Country) is the most read newspaper (231,140 printed copies) in Spain and the most circulated daily newspaper (180,765 circulation average), according to data certified by the Office of Justification of Dissemination (OJD) and referring to the period of January 2017 to December 2017.
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Elche, or Elx, is a town located in the comarca of Baix Vinalopó, Spain.
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An electric car is a plug-in electric automobile that is propelled by one or more electric motors, using energy typically stored in rechargeable batteries.
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The Roman colony of Emerita Augusta (present day Mérida) was founded in 25 BC by Augustus, to resettle emeriti soldiers discharged from the Roman army from two veteran legions of the Cantabrian Wars: Legio V Alaudae and Legio X Gemina.
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Emilia Pardo Bazán (16 September 1851 – 12 May 1921), countess of Pardo Bazán, was a Spanish novelist, journalist, literary critic, poet, playwright, translator, editor and professor.
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The Emirate of Granada (إمارة غرﻧﺎﻃﺔ, trans. Imarat Gharnāṭah), also known as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada (Reino Nazarí de Granada), was an emirate established in 1230 by Muhammad ibn al-Ahmar.
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An enclave is a territory, or a part of a territory, that is entirely surrounded by the territory of one other state.
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The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment (in Spanish, Ilustración) came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700.
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Enrique Granados Campiña (27 July 1867 – 24 March 1916) was a Spanish pianist and composer of classical music.
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Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.
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Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.
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The Ertzaintza (Public Guard or People's Guard), is the police force for the Basque Country.
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ETA, an acronym for Euskadi Ta Askatasuna ("Basque Homeland and Liberty"), was an armed leftist Basque nationalist and separatist organization in the Basque Country (in northern Spain and southwestern France).
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Etymologiae (Latin for "The Etymologies"), also known as the Origines ("Origins") and usually abbreviated Orig., is an etymological encyclopedia compiled by Isidore of Seville (c. 560–636) towards the end of his life.
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Eugeni d’Ors i Rovira (Barcelona, 28 September 1881 – Vilanova i la Geltrú, 25 September 1954) was a Spanish writer, essayist, journalist, philosopher and art critic.
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Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
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The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
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The euro sign (€) is the currency sign used for the euro, the official currency of the Eurozone in the European Union (EU).
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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
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The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
European early modern humans (EEMH) in the context of the Upper Paleolithic in Europe refers to the early presence of anatomically modern humans in Europe.
The European Economic Community (EEC) was a regional organisation which aimed to bring about economic integration among its member states.
The European Green Capital Award is an award for a European city based on its environmental record.
The European Movement International is a lobbying association that coordinates the efforts of associations and national councils with the goal of promoting European integration, and disseminating information about it.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
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Eurostat is a Directorate-General of the European Commission located in Luxembourg.
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The exploration of North America by non-indigenous people was a continuing effort to map and explore the continent of North America.
Falangism (falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries.
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The Fall of the Western Roman Empire (also called Fall of the Roman Empire or Fall of Rome) was the process of decline in the Western Roman Empire in which it failed to enforce its rule, and its vast territory was divided into several successor polities.
The Falles (Falles, sing. Falla; Fallas) is a traditional celebration held in commemoration of Saint Joseph in the city of Valencia, Spain.
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Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
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Futbol Club Barcelona, commonly known as Barcelona and familiarly as Barça, is a professional football club based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
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Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, known as Federico García Lorca (5 June 1898 – 19 August 1936) was a Spanish poet, playwright, and theatre director.
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Felipe González Márquez (born 5 March 1942) is a Spanish lawyer, professor, and politician, who was the Secretary-General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) from 1974 to 1997, and the 3rd Prime Minister of Spain since the restoration of democracy, from 1982 to 1996.
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Felipe VI (Felipe Juan Pablo Alfonso de Todos los Santos de Borbón y de Grecia; born 30 January 1968) is the King of Spain.
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Feminism is a range of political movements, ideologies, and social movements that share a common goal: to define, establish, and achieve political, economic, personal, and social equality of sexes.
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Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
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Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
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Fernando Fernández-Savater Martín (born 21 June 1947 at Basque city of San Sebastián) is one of Spain's most popular living philosophers, as well as an essayist and celebrated author.
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Fernando Rodríguez Trueba, known as Fernando Trueba, (born 18 January 1955) is a book editor, screenwriter, film director and producer.
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Ferrol (In the neighbourhood of Strabo's Cape Nerium, modern day Cape Prior), is a city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia, on the Atlantic coast in north-western Spain.
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Ferrovial, S.A., previously Grupo Ferrovial, is a Spanish multinational company involved in the design, construction, financing, operation (DBFO) and maintenance of transport, urban and services infrastructure.
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The Festival Internacional de Benicàssim, commonly abbreviated to simply FIB, is an annual music festival which takes place in the town of Benicàssim, in the Valencian Community (Spain).
The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) (English: Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx and of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive) was the sole legal party of the Francoist State in Spain.
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Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
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The Fiesta Nacional de España (Festa Nacional d'Espanya in Catalan/Valencian/Balearic; Festa Nacional de España in Galician; Espainiako Jai Nazionala in Basque) is the national day of Spain.
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The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
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The Republic of Spain (officially in Spanish República de España), commonly known as the First Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the Spanish Republic of 1931–39, was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain.
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Flamenco, in its strictest sense, is a professionalized art-form based on the various folkloric music traditions of Southern Spain in the autonomous communities of Andalusia, Extremadura and Murcia.
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Florián Rey (born Antonio Martínez del Castillo) was a Spanish director, actor, and screenwriter.
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Fodder, a type of animal feed, is any agricultural foodstuff used specifically to feed domesticated livestock, such as cattle, rabbits, sheep, horses, chickens and pigs.
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Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
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Fomento de Construcciones y Contratas, S.A., or FCC, is a leading Spanish construction company based in Barcelona.
A country's foreign policy, also called foreign relations or foreign affairs policy, consists of self-interest strategies chosen by the state to safeguard its national interests and to achieve goals within its international relations milieu.
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Formula One (also Formula 1 or F1) is the highest class of single-seater auto racing sanctioned by the Fédération Internationale de l'Automobile (FIA) and owned by the Formula One Group.
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A fossil fuel power station is a power station which burns a fossil fuel such as coal, natural gas, or petroleum to produce electricity.
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France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
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Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia (Francisco Ferrer Guardia; 10 January 1859 – 13 October 1909) commonly known as Francisco Ferrer, was a Spanish educator and advocate of free thinking from Catalonia.
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Francesc Pi i Margall (Francisco Pi y Margall) (29 April 1824 – 29 November 1901) was a Spanish politician, Catalan federalist and libertarian socialist statesman, historian, and political philosopher and romanticist writer.
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Francia, also called the Kingdom of the Franks (Regnum Francorum), or Frankish Empire was the largest post-Roman Barbarian kingdom in Western Europe.
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Francis Xavier, S.J. (born Francisco de Jasso y Azpilicueta, in Latin Franciscus Xaverius, Basque: Frantzisko Xabierkoa, Spanish: Francisco Javier; 7 April 15063 December 1552), was a Navarrese Basque Roman Catholic missionary, born in Javier (Xavier in Navarro-Aragonese or Xabier in Basque), Kingdom of Navarre (present day Spain), and a co-founder of the Society of Jesus.
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Francisco Gómez de Quevedo y Santibáñez Villegas (14 September 1580 – 8 September 1645) was a Spanish nobleman, politician and writer of the Baroque era.
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Francisco de Vitoria (– 12 August 1546; also known as Francisco de Victoria) was a Roman Catholic philosopher, theologian, and jurist of Renaissance Spain.
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Francisco de Zurbarán (baptized November 7, 1598 – August 27, 1664) was a Spanish painter.
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Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
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Francisco Giner de los Ríos (10 October 1839 in Ronda, Spain – 18 February 1915 in Madrid) was a philosopher, educator and one of the most influential Spanish intellectuals at the end of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century.
Francisco José de Goya y Lucientes (30 March 1746 – 16 April 1828) was a Spanish romantic painter and printmaker.
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Francisco Maldonado (1480, Salamanca – April 24, 1521) was a leader of the rebel Comuneros from Salamanca in the Revolt of the Comuneros.
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Francisco Pizarro González (– 26 June 1541) was a Spanish conquistador who led an expedition that conquered the Inca Empire.
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Francization or Francisation (in Canadian English and American English), Frenchification (in British and also in American English), or Gallicization designates the extension of the French language by its adoption as a first language or not, adoption that can be forced upon or desired by the concerned population.
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Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
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The Franks (Franci or gens Francorum) were a collection of Germanic peoples, whose name was first mentioned in 3rd century Roman sources, associated with tribes on the Lower and Middle Rhine in the 3rd century AD, on the edge of the Roman Empire.
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In the history of France, the First Republic (French: Première République), officially the French Republic (République française), was founded on 22 September 1792 during the French Revolution.
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The French invasion of Russia, known in Russia as the Patriotic War of 1812 (Отечественная война 1812 года Otechestvennaya Voyna 1812 Goda) and in France as the Russian Campaign (Campagne de Russie), began on 24 June 1812 when Napoleon's Grande Armée crossed the Neman River in an attempt to engage and defeat the Russian army.
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A fruit tree is a tree which bears fruit that is consumed or used by humans and some animals — all trees that are flowering plants produce fruit, which are the ripened ovaries of flowers containing one or more seeds.
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Fuero, Fur, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept.
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Fuerteventura (literally meaning "strong fortune" but translated by some as "Strong Winds" or a corruption of the French term for "Great Adventure") is one of the Canary Islands, in the Atlantic Ocean and is part of the North Africa region, politically part of Spain.
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Fuerteventura Airport, also known as El Matorral Airport, is an airport serving the Spanish island of Fuerteventura.
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The G20 (or Group of Twenty) is an international forum for the governments and central bank governors from Argentina, Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Mexico, Russia, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, South Korea, Turkey, the United Kingdom, the United States and the European Union.
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Gabriel Celaya (full name: Rafael Gabriel Juan Múgica Celaya Leceta) was a Spanish poet.
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GAL (an acronym for Grupos Antiterroristas de Liberación, "Antiterrorist Liberation Groups") were death squads established illegally by officials of the Spanish government to fight ETA, the principal Basque separatist militant group.
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Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
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Galician cuisine refers to the typical dishes and ingredients found in the cuisine of the autonomous community of Galicia, Spain.
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Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
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Galician-Portuguese (galego-portugués or galaico-portugués, galego-português or galaico-português), also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician, was a West Iberian Romance language spoken in the Middle Ages, in the northwest area of the Iberian Peninsula.
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Galicians (galegos, gallegos) are a national, cultural and ethnic group whose historic homeland is Galicia, in the north-west of the Iberian Peninsula.
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Garajonay National Park (Parque nacional de Garajonay) is located in the center and north of the island of La Gomera, one of the Canary Islands (Spain).
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Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.
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Gaspar Melchor de Jovellanos (born Gaspar Melchor de Jove y Llanos, 5 January 1744 – 27 November 1811) was a Spanish neoclassical statesman, author, philosopher and a major figure of the Age of Enlightenment in Spain.
GATEPAC (Grupo de Artistas y Técnicos Españoles Para la Arquitectura Contemporánea) was a group of architects assembled during the Second Spanish Republic.
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Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
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Gazpacho Andalusian gazpacho or Gabacho is a cold soup made of raw blended vegetables.
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The Gender Empowerment Measure (GEM) is an index designed to measure of gender equality.
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Gender equality, also known as sexual equality, is the state of equal ease of access to resources and opportunities regardless of gender, including economic participation and decision-making; and the state of valuing different behaviors, aspirations and needs equally, regardless of gender.
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The Archivo General de Indias ("General Archive of the Indies"), housed in the ancient merchants' exchange of Seville, Spain, the Casa Lonja de Mercaderes, is the repository of extremely valuable archival documents illustrating the history of the Spanish Empire in the Americas and the Philippines.
The Palacio de Generalife (جَنَّة الْعَرِيف Jannat al-‘Arīf, literally, "Architect's Garden") was the summer palace and country estate of the Nasrid rulers of the Emirate of Granada in Al-Andalus, now beside the city of Granada in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
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The Generation of '36 (Generación del 36) is the name given to a group of Spanish artists, poets and playwrights who were working about the time of the Spanish Civil War (1936 and 1939).
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The Generation of '50 (Generación del 50) relates to a Spanish literary movement of the mid-20th century, also known as the children of the civil war, and relates to writers born around the 1920s and published around the 1950s.
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The Generation of '98 (also called Generation of 1898 or (in Spanish) Generación del 98 or Generación de 1898) was a group of novelists, poets, essayists, and philosophers active in Spain at the time of the Spanish–American War (1898).
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Spain is a country located in southwestern Europe occupying most (about 85 percent) of the Iberian Peninsula and includes a small exclave inside France called Llívia as well as the Balearic Islands in the Mediterranean, the Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean off northwest Africa, and five places of sovereignty (plazas de soberanía) on and off the coast of North Africa: Ceuta, Melilla, Islas Chafarinas, Peñón de Alhucemas, and Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera.
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George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 43rd President of the United States from 2001 to 2009.
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Germaine of Foix (Germana de Foix; Germaine de Foix;1488 – 15 October 1536) was queen consort of Aragon as the second wife of Ferdinand II of Aragon, whom she married in 1505 after the death of his first wife, Isabella I of Castile.
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The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
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Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Gibraltarians (colloquially Llanitos) are a cultural group native to Gibraltar, a British overseas territory located near the southernmost tip of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance to the Mediterranean Sea.
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Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.
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Girona (Gerona; Gérone) is a city in Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants, and Güell and has an official population of 99,013 as of January 2017.
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Gloria Fuertes García (28 July 1917 – 27 November 1998) was a Spanish poet and author of children's literature, linked to the first Spanish literary movement after the Civil War, 50’s Generation or postism.
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The Glorious Revolution (La Gloriosa or Sexenio Democrático) took place in Spain in 1868, resulting in the deposition of Queen Isabella II.
The Glosas Emilianenses (Spanish for "glosses of Millán/Emilianus") are glosses written in a Latin codex.
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The term Golden Age comes from Greek mythology, particularly the Works and Days of Hesiod, and is part of the description of temporal decline of the state of peoples through five Ages, Gold being the first and the one during which the Golden Race of humanity (chrýseon génos) lived.
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Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
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Gothic architecture is an architectural style that flourished in Europe during the High and Late Middle Ages.
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The Government of Spain (Gobierno de España) is the central government which leads the executive branch and the General State Administration of Spain.
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Gran Canaria (whose original name Canaria was due to the Canarii inhabitants, was later given the epithet of "great". It is the third island in size of the Canary Islands, an African archipelago which is part of Spain, with a population of (in 2015) that constitutes approximately 40% of the population of the archipelago. Located in the Atlantic Ocean about off the northwestern coast of Africa and about from Europe. With an area of km2 (sq. mi) and an altitude of at the Pico de las Nieves, Gran Canaria is the third largest island of the archipelago in both area and altitude. Gran Canaria was populated by the Canarii, who may have arrived as early as 500 BC. The Canarii called the island Tamarán or Land of the Brave. After over a century of European incursions and attempts at conquest, the island was conquered on April 29, 1483, after a campaign that lasted five years, by the Crown of Castile, with the support of Queen Isabella I, a conquest which turned out to be an important step towards the expansion of the unified Spain. The capital city of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria was founded on June 24, 1478, under the name "Real de Las Palmas", by Juan Rejón, head of the invading Castilian army. In 1492, Christopher Columbus anchored in the Port of Las Palmas (and spent some time on the island) on his first trip to the Americas. Las Palmas de Gran Canaria is, jointly with Santa Cruz de Tenerife, the capital of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands.
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Granada is the capital city of the province of Granada, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain.
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The Granadan school of sculpture or Granadine school of sculpture—the tradition of Christian religious sculpture in Granada, Andalusia, Spain—began in the 16th century and constituted a clear tradition of its own by the 17th century.
The Great Plague of Seville (1647–1652) was a massive outbreak of disease in Spain that killed up to a quarter of Seville's population.
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The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
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Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
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The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
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Gregorio Marañón y Posadillo (19 May 1887 in Madrid – 27 March 1960 in Madrid) was a Spanish physician, scientist, historian, writer and philosopher.
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Gregorio Peces-Barba (13 January 1938 – 24 July 2012) was a Spanish politician and jurist.
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Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
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Sociedad General de Aguas de Barcelona, SA.
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The Guadalquivir is the fifth longest river in the Iberian Peninsula and the second longest river with its entire length in Spain.
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The Guadiana River, or Odiana, is an international river defining a long stretch of the Portugal-Spain border, separating Extremadura and Andalucia (Spain) from Alentejo and Algarve (Portugal).
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The district of Guarda (Distrito de Guarda) is located in the Centro Region of Portugal, except Vila Nova de Foz Côa, which is in the Norte Region.
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Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
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Gumersindo de Azcárate (1840, León - 1917, Madrid) was a Spanish philosopher, jurist and politician.
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Gustavo Adolfo Claudio Domínguez Bastida, better known as Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer (February 17, 1836, Seville – December 22, 1870) was a Spanish post-romanticist poet and writer (mostly short stories), also a playwright, literary columnist, and talented in drawing.
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The Habsburg Monarchy (Habsburgermonarchie) or Empire is an unofficial appellation among historians for the countries and provinces that were ruled by the junior Austrian branch of the House of Habsburg between 1521 and 1780 and then by the successor branch of Habsburg-Lorraine until 1918.
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Habsburg Spain refers to the history of Spain over the 16th and 17th centuries (1516–1700), when it was ruled by kings from the House of Habsburg (also associated with its role in the history of Central Europe).
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Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus Augustus; 24 January 76 – 10 July 138 AD) was Roman emperor from 117 to 138.
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Handball (also known as team handball, fieldball, European handball or Olympic handball) is a team sport in which two teams of seven players each (six outfield players and a goalkeeper) pass a ball using their hands with the aim of throwing it into the goal of the other team.
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The Casas Colgadas (Hanged Houses) is a complex of houses located in Cuenca, Spain.
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A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
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Heritage of Mercury.
Hernán Cortés de Monroy y Pizarro Altamirano, Marquis of the Valley of Oaxaca (1485 – December 2, 1547) was a Spanish Conquistador who led an expedition that caused the fall of the Aztec Empire and brought large portions of what is now mainland Mexico under the rule of the King of Castile in the early 16th century.
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The Herrerian (Herreriano, Arquitectura herreriana) was developed in Spain during the last third of the 16th century under the reign of Philip II (1556-1598), and continued in force in the 17th century, but transformed by the Baroque current of the time.
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Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
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Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
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Hispania Baetica, often abbreviated Baetica, was one of three Roman provinces in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula).
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Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
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Hispanidad ("Hispanicity") is an expression with several meanings, loosely alluding to the group of people, countries and communities sharing the Spanish language and displaying a Spanish-related culture.
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Hispaniola (Spanish: La Española; Latin and French: Hispaniola; Haitian Creole: Ispayola; Taíno: Haiti) is an island in the Caribbean island group, the Greater Antilles.
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Hispanism (sometimes referred to as Hispanic Studies or Spanish Studies) is the study of the literature and culture of the Spanish-speaking world, principally that of Spain and Hispanic America.
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Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively.
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Hispasat is the operating company for a number of Spanish communications satellites that cover the Americas, Europe and North Africa from orbital positions 30° west and 61° west.
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The historic centre of Córdoba, Spain is one of the largest of its kind in Europe.
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The history of Spain dates back to the Middle Ages.
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The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
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Holy Week (Latin: Hebdomas Sancta or Hebdomas Maior, "Greater Week"; Greek: Ἁγία καὶ Μεγάλη Ἑβδομάς, Hagia kai Megale Hebdomas, "Holy and Great Week") in Christianity is the week just before Easter.
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The Hominidae, whose members are known as great apes or hominids, are a taxonomic family of primates that includes eight extant species in four genera: Pongo, the Bornean, Sumatran and Tapanuli orangutan; Gorilla, the eastern and western gorilla; Pan, the common chimpanzee and the bonobo; and Homo, which includes modern humans and its extinct relatives (e.g., the Neanderthal), and ancestors, such as Homo erectus.
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The Hominini, or hominins, form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae ("hominines").
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Homo antecessor is an extinct archaic human species (or subspecies) of the Lower Paleolithic, known to have been present in Western Europe (Spain, England and France) between about 1.2 million and 0.8 million years ago (Mya).
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Homo sapiens is the systematic name used in taxonomy (also known as binomial nomenclature) for the only extant human species.
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The former Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau (Hospital of the Holy Cross and Saint Paul) in the neighborhood of El Guinardó, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, is a complex built between 1901 and 1930, designed by the Catalan modernisme architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner.
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The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
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The Human Development Report (HDR) is an annual milestone published by the Human Development Report Office of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP).
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Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
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A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and mild to cool winters.
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Hydroelectricity is electricity produced from hydropower.
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Iñaki Azkuna Urreta (14 February 1943 – 20 March 2014) was a Spanish politician of the Basque Nationalist Party.
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Iberdrola is a Spanish public multinational electric utility company based in Bilbao, Basque Country.
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Iberian federalism, Pan-Iberism or simply Iberism (Spanish and Iberismo, Iberisme) are the names for the pan-nationalist ideology supporting the federation of all the territories of the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Iberian language was the language of an indigenous pre-Migration Period people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
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The Iberian Union was the dynastic union of the Crown of Portugal and the Spanish Crown between 1580 and 1640, bringing the entire Iberian Peninsula, as well as Spanish and Portuguese overseas possessions, under the Spanish Habsburg kings Philip II, Philip III and Philip IV of Spain.
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The Iberians (Hibērī, from Ίβηρες, Iberes) were a set of peoples that Greek and Roman sources (among others, Hecataeus of Miletus, Avienus, Herodotus and Strabo) identified with that name in the eastern and southern coasts of the Iberian peninsula, at least from the 6th century BC.
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Ibero-America (Iberoamérica, Ibero-América) or Iberian America is a region in the Americas comprising countries or territories where Spanish or Portuguese are predominant languages, usually former territories of Portugal or Spain.
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Ibiza (Eivissa) is an island in the Mediterranean Sea off the east coast of Spain.
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Ibiza Airport (Catalan: Aeroport d'Eivissa, Spanish: Aeropuerto de Ibiza) is the international airport serving the Balearic Islands of Ibiza and Formentera in Spain located southwest of Ibiza Town.
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Ibn ʿArabi (full name Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn ʿAlī ibn Muḥammad ibnʿArabī al-Ḥātimī aṭ-Ṭāʾī أبو عبد الله محمد بن علي بن محمد بن عربي الحاتمي الطائي ‎ 26 July 1165 – 16 November 1240), was an Arab Andalusian Sufi scholar of Islam, mystic, poet, and philosopher.
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Icíar Bollaín Pérez-Mínguez (born 12 June 1967 in Madrid, Spain) is a Spanish actress, director and screenwriter.
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Idrija (Italian and German: IdriaLeksikon občin kraljestev in dežel zastopanih v državnem zboru, vol. 6: Kranjsko. 1906. Vienna: C. Kr. Dvorna in Državna Tiskarna, p. 124.) is a town in western Slovenia.
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Ignacio Aldecoa (24 July 1925 – 15 November 1969) was a Spanish author.
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Ignacio Ellacuría, S.J. (Portugalete, Biscay, Spain, November 9, 1930 – San Salvador, November 16, 1989) was a Jesuit priest, philosopher, and theologian who did important work as a professor and rector at the Universidad Centroamericana "José Simeón Cañas" (UCA), a Jesuit university in El Salvador founded in 1965.
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Saint Ignatius of Loyola (Ignazio Loiolakoa, Ignacio de Loyola; – 31 July 1556) was a Spanish Basque priest and theologian, who founded the religious order called the Society of Jesus (Jesuits) and became its first Superior General.
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An indigenous language or autochthonous language is a language that is native to a region and spoken by indigenous people, often reduced to the status of a minority language.
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Industria de Diseño Textil, S.A. (Inditex;,; Textile Design Industry) is a Spanish multinational clothing company headquartered in Arteixo (A Coruña) in Galicia.
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Indra Sistemas, S.A. is a Spanish information technology and defense systems company.
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The informal sector, informal economy, or grey economy is the part of an economy that is neither taxed nor monitored by any form of government.
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La Institución Libre de Enseñanza (ILE) or The Free Educational Institution was an educational project that developed in Spain for the half a century of about 1876–1936.
The National Institute of Statistics (Instituto Nacional de Estadística, INE) is the official organisation in Spain that collects statistics about demography, economy, and Spanish society.
An intangible cultural heritage (ICH) is a practice, representation, expression, knowledge, or skill, as well as the instruments, objects, artefacts, and cultural spaces that are considered by UNESCO to be part of a place's cultural heritage.
The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War.
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International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
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International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
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The International Style is the name of a major architectural style that developed in the 1920s and 1930s and strongly related to Modernism and Modern architecture.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
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Irreligion (adjective form: non-religious or irreligious) is the absence, indifference, rejection of, or hostility towards religion.
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Isaac ben Judah Abarbanel (Hebrew: יצחק בן יהודה אברבנאל;‎ 1437–1508), commonly referred to as Abarbanel (אַבַּרבְּנְאֵל), also spelled Abravanel, Avravanel or Abrabanel, was a Portuguese Jewish statesman, philosopher, Bible commentator, and financier.
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Isaac Manuel Francisco Albéniz y Pascual (29 May 186018 May 1909) was a Spanish virtuoso pianist, composer, and conductor.
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Isabel Coixet Castillo (born 9 April 1960) is a Spanish film director.
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Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
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The Isabelline style, also called the Isabelline Gothic (in Spanish, Gótico Isabelino), or Castilian late Gothic, was the dominant architectural style of the Crown of Castile during the reign of the Catholic Monarchs, Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon in the late-15th century to early-16th century.
Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.
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IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
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During the high medieval period, the Islamic world was at its cultural peak, supplying information and ideas to Europe, via Andalusia, Sicily and the Crusader kingdoms in the Levant.
Islamism is a concept whose meaning has been debated in both public and academic contexts.
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An islet is a very small island.
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The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Italian Wars or the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars or the Renaissance Wars, were a series of conflicts from 1494 to 1559 that involved, at various times, most of the city-states of Italy, the Papal States, the Republic of Venice, most of the major states of Western Europe (France, Spain, the Holy Roman Empire, England, and Scotland) as well as the Ottoman Empire.
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Jacinto Benavente y Martínez (12 August 1866 – 14 July 1954) was one of the foremost Spanish dramatists of the 20th century.
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Jaime Gil de Biedma y Alba (November 13, 1929 – January 8, 1990) was a Spanish post-Civil War poet.
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Jamón ibérico (presunto ibérico), "Iberian ham", is a type of cured ham produced in Spain and Portugal.
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Francisco Javier de Burgos y del Olmo (October 22, 1778, Motril—January 22, 1848, Madrid) was a Spanish jurist, politician, journalist, and translator.
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left The Júcar or Xúquer is a river on the Iberian Peninsula of Spain.
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Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
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Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
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Joan Miró i Ferrà (20 April 1893 – 25 December 1983) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramicist born in Barcelona.
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Joaquín Sorolla y Bastida (27 February 1863 – 10 August 1923) was a Spanish painter.
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John of the Cross (San Juan de la Cruz; 1542 – 14 December 1591) was a major figure of the Counter-Reformation, a Spanish mystic, a Roman Catholic saint, a Carmelite friar and a priest, who was born at Fontiveros, Old Castile.
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Jordi Savall i Bernadet (born August 1, 1941) is a Spanish conductor and viol player.
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Jorge Guillén y Álvarez (18 January 18936 February 1984) was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of '27, as well as a university teacher, scholar and literary critic.
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Jorge Manrique (Paredes de Nava, Palencia, or Segura de la Sierra, Jaén, c. 1440 Santa María del Campo, Cuenca – 24 April 1479) was a major Castilian poet, whose main work, the Coplas a la muerte de su padre (Verses on the death of Don Rodrigo Manrique, his Father), is still read today.
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José Carreras, is the stage name of Josep Maria Carreras i Coll (born 5 December 1946), a tenor who is particularly known for his performances in the operas of Verdi and Puccini.
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José Ignacio Javier Oriol Encarnación de Espronceda y Delgado (25 March 1808 – 23 May 1842) was a Romantic Spanish poet, one of the most representative authors of the XIX century.
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José Echegaray y Eizaguirre (19 April 1832 – 4 September 1916) was a Spanish civil engineer, mathematician, statesman, and one of the leading Spanish dramatists of the last quarter of the 19th century.
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José Iturbi Báguena (28 November 189528 June 1980) was a Spanish conductor, pianist and harpsichordist.
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José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero (born 4 August 1960) is a Spanish politician and member of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
José María Alfredo Aznar López (born 25 February 1953) is a Spanish politician who served as the Prime Minister of Spain from 1996 to 2004.
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José Augusto Trinidad Martínez Ruiz, better known by his pseudonym Azorín (June 8, 1873, Monòver – March 2, 1967, Madrid), was a Spanish novelist, essayist and literary critic.
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José Ortega y Gasset (9 May 1883 – 18 October 1955) was a Spanish philosopher, and essayist.
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José de Sousa Saramago, GColSE (16 November 1922 – 18 June 2010), was a Portuguese writer and recipient of the 1998 Nobel Prize in Literature.
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José Zorrilla y Moral (21 February 181723 January 1893) was a Spanish Romantic poet and dramatist.
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Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe Buonaparte (7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808, as Giuseppe I), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I).
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Juan Bravo (c. 1483, Atienza–24 April 1521, Villalar de los Comuneros) was a leader of the rebel Comuneros in the Castilian Revolt of the Comuneros.
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Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014.
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Juan de Juni (Fr. Jean de Joigny; c. 1507–1577) was a French–Spanish sculptor, who also worked as a painter and architect.
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Juan de la Cierva y Codorníu, 1st Count of De La Cierva (21 September 1895 in Murcia, Spain – 9 December 1936 in Croydon, United Kingdom) was a Spanish civil engineer, pilot and aeronautical engineer.
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Juan de Mesa y Velasco (1583–1627) was a Spanish Baroque sculptor.
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Juan Goytisolo Gay (5 January 1931 – 4 June 2017) was a Spanish poet, essayist, and novelist.
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José Victoriano (Carmelo Carlos) González-Pérez (March 23, 1887 – May 11, 1927), better known as Juan Gris, was a Spanish painter and sculptor born in Madrid who lived and worked in France most of his life.
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Juan López de Padilla (1490 – April 24, 1521) was an insurrectionary leader in the Castilian War of the Communities, where the people of Castile made a stand against policies of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V and his Flemish ministers.
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Juan Luis Vives (Ioannes Lodovicus Vives; Joan Lluís Vives i March; Jan Ludovicus Vives; 6 March 6 May 1540) was a Spanish (Valencian) scholar and Renaissance humanist who spent most of his adult life in the Southern Netherlands.
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Juan Marsé Carbó (born 8 January 1933 in Barcelona) is a Spanish novelist, journalist and screenwriter.
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Juan Martínez Montañés (March 16, 1568 – June 18, 1649), known as el Dios de la Madera (the God of Wood), was a Spanish sculptor, born at Alcalá la Real, in the province of Jaén.
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Juan Ramón Jiménez Mantecón (23 December 1881 – 29 May 1958) was a Spanish poet, a prolific writer who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1956 "for his lyrical poetry, which in the Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity".
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Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
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Julio González i Pellicer (21 September 1876 - 27 March 1942) was a Spanish sculptor and painter who developed the expressive use of iron as a medium for modern sculpture.
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Julio Medem Lafont Sanjuán Mendizabal (born 21 October 1958) is a Spanish screenwriter and film director.
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Jusepe de Ribera (baptized February 17, 1591; died September 2, 1652) was a Spanish Tenebrist painter and printmaker, also known as José de Ribera and Josep de Ribera.
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The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems.
A kharja or kharjah (خرجة tr. kharjah, meaning "final"; jarcha; carja; also known as markaz, is the final refrain of a muwashshah, a lyric genre of Al-Andalus (the Islamic Iberian Peninsula) written in Arabic or Ibero-Romance. The muwashshah consists of five stanzas (bait) of four to six lines, alternating with five or six refrains (qufl); each refrain has the same rhyme and metre, whereas each stanza has only the same metre. The kharja appears often to have been composed independently of the muwashshah in which it is found.
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The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
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The Kingdom of Asturias (Regnum Asturorum) was a kingdom in the Iberian Peninsula founded in 718 by the Visigothic nobleman Pelagius of Asturias (Asturian: Pelayu, Spanish: Pelayo).
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The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
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The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
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The Kingdom of León (Astur-Leonese: Reinu de Llïón, Reino de León, Reino de León, Reino de Leão, Regnum Legionense) was an independent kingdom situated in the northwest region of the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Kingdom of Navarre (Nafarroako Erresuma, Reino de Navarra, Royaume de Navarre, Regnum Navarrae), originally the Kingdom of Pamplona (Iruñeko Erresuma), was a Basque-based kingdom that occupied lands on either side of the western Pyrenees, alongside the Atlantic Ocean between present-day Spain and France.
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Krausism is a doctrine named after the German philosopher Karl Christian Friedrich Krause (1781-1832) that advocates doctrinal tolerance and academic freedom from dogma.
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The Comedy of Calisto and Melibea (Comedia de Calisto y Melibea.), known in Spain as La Celestina is a work entirely in dialogue published in 1499.
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La Movida Madrileña (The Madrid Scene) was a countercultural movement that took place mainly in Madrid during the Spanish transition after Francisco Franco's death in 1975.
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La Palma, also San Miguel de La Palma, is the most north-westerly island of the Canary Islands, Spain.
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La Tomatina is a festival that is held in the Valencian town of Buñol, a town located in the East of Spain from the Mediterranean, in which participants throw tomatoes and get involved in this tomato fight purely for entertainment purposes.
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Lacón gallego ("Galician-style Lacón ") is a dried ham product from Galicia, Spain with PGI status under European law.
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Language politics in Francoist Spain centered on attempts in Spain under Franco to increase the dominance of the Spanish language (Castilian) over the other languages of Spain.
Most languages of Europe belong to the Indo-European language family.
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The languages of Spain (lenguas de España), or Spanish languages (lenguas españolas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain.
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Lanzarote is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands in the Atlantic Ocean.
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Lanzarote Airport (Aeropuerto de Lanzarote), also known as Arrecife Airport, is the airport serving the island of Lanzarote in the Canary Islands.
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Las Hilanderas ("The Spinners") is a painting by the Spanish painter Diego Velázquez, housed in the Museo del Prado of Madrid, Spain.
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Las Médulas is a historic gold-mining site near the town of Ponferrada in the comarca of El Bierzo (province of León, Castile and León, Spain).
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Las Meninas (Spanish for The Ladies-in-waiting) is a 1656 painting in the Museo del Prado in Madrid, by Diego Velázquez, the leading artist of the Spanish Golden Age.
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A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land.
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In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
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Leandro Fernández de Moratín (March 10, 1760 – June 21, 1828) was a Spanish dramatist, translator and neoclassical poet.
León is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain.
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A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
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A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
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Leonardo Torres y Quevedo (28 December 1852 – 18 December 1936) was a Spanish civil engineer and mathematician of the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
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Leonese is a set of vernacular Romance dialects spoken in the northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (the modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca) and a few adjoining areas in Portugal.
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Leopoldo García-Alas y Ureña (25 April 1852 – 13 June 1901), also known as Clarín, was a Spanish realist novelist born in Zamora.
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Les Demoiselles d'Avignon (The Young Ladies of Avignon, and originally titled The Brothel of Avignon) is a large oil painting created in 1907 by the Spanish artist Pablo Picasso (1881–1973) and now on exhibit in New York's Museum of Modern Art.
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LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
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Liberal International (LI) is a political international federation for liberal political parties.
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Liberation theology is a synthesis of Christian theology and Marxist socio-economic analyses that emphasizes social concern for the poor and the political liberation for oppressed peoples.
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The Gran Teatre del Liceu, or simply Liceu in Catalan, is an opera house on La Rambla in Barcelona, Catalonia.
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Limited voting (also known as the limited vote method) is a voting system in which electors have fewer votes than there are positions available.
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A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
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Grand Prix motorcycle racing is the premier championship of motorcycle road racing, which has been divided into three classes since 1997: 125cc, 250cc and MotoGP.
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The world's busiest airports by passenger traffic are measured by total passengers (data from Airports Council International), defined as passengers enplaned plus passengers deplaned plus direct-transit passengers.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of countries and territories by land borders.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is the market value of all final goods and services from a nation in a given year.
This article includes a list of countries by their forecasted estimated gross domestic product based on purchasing power parity, abbreviated GDP (PPP).
List of European countries by population present the list of countries, territories and dependencies located in Europe.
Antoni Gaudí was an architect from Catalonia, Spain, who belonged to the Modernisme (Art Nouveau) movement and was famous for his unique style and highly individualistic designs.
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This article details the list of men's singles Grand Slam tournaments tennis champions.
This article ranks human languages by their number of native speakers.
This is a list of the largest metropolitan areas in Spain by population.
This is an incomplete list of rivers that are at least partially in Spain.
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This is a list of all sovereign states and dependencies by total fertility rate (TFR): the expected number of children born per woman in her child-bearing years.
Map of European countries by Nominal GDP in billions USD.
This is a list of countries located on more than one continent, known as transcontinental states or intercontinental states.
There are dozens of commonly played sports that involve water.
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Llívia (Llivia) is a town in the comarca of Cerdanya, province of Girona, Catalonia, Spain.
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The Llotja de la Seda (Lonja de la Seda, English "Silk Exchange") is a late Valencian Gothic-style civil building in Valencia, Spain.
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Lope Félix de Vega y Carpio (25 November 156227 August 1635) was a Spanish playwright, poet, novelist and marine.
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A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house.
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Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, 39 AD – April 30, 65 AD), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, born in Corduba (modern-day Córdoba), in Hispania Baetica.
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Luis Buñuel Portolés (22 February 1900 – 29 July 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.
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Luis de León, O.E.S.A. (Belmonte, Cuenca, 1527 – Madrigal de las Altas Torres, Castile, Spain, 23 August 1591), was a Spanish lyric poet, Augustinian friar, theologian and academic, active during the Spanish Golden Age.
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Luis García-Berlanga Martí (12 June 1921 – 13 November 2010) was a Spanish film director and screenwriter.
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Luisa Ignacia Roldán (8 September 1652 – 10 January 1706), called La Roldana, was a Spanish female sculptor of the Baroque Era.
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The Lusitanians (or Lusitani) were an Indo-European people living in the west of the Iberian Peninsula prior to its conquest by the Roman Republic and the subsequent incorporation of the territory into the Roman province of Lusitania (most of modern Portugal, Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca).
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Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
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Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
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The Madrid Spain Temple is the 56th operating temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church).
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The Magellan–Elcano circumnavigation was the first voyage around the world in human history.
Moses ben Maimon (Mōšeh bēn-Maymūn; موسى بن ميمون Mūsā bin Maymūn), commonly known as Maimonides (Μαϊμωνίδης Maïmōnídēs; Moses Maimonides), and also referred to by the acronym Rambam (for Rabbeinu Mōšeh bēn Maimun, "Our Rabbi Moses son of Maimon"), was a medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.
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Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
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Mallorca, or Majorca, is the largest island in the Balearic Islands, which are part of Spain and located in the Mediterranean.
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Manchego (officially queso manchego) is a cheese made in the La Mancha region of Spain from the milk of sheep of the manchega breed.
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Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
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Manuel Azaña Díaz (10 January 1880 – 3 November 1940) was the second Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1933), and later served again as Prime Minister (1936), and then as the second and last President of the Republic (1936–1939).
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Manuel de Falla y Matheu (23 November 187614 November 1946) was a Spanish composer.
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Manuel Fraga Iribarne (23 November 1922 – 15 January 2012) was a Spanish professor and politician in Francoist Spain, who was also the founder of the People's Party.
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Manuel Godoy y Álvarez de Faria, Prince of the Peace (May 12, 1767October 4, 1851) was Prime Minister of Spain from 1792 to 1797 and from 1801 to 1808.
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María Pacheco (c.1496 – March 1531) was a 16th-century Spanish warrior of the House of Mendoza.
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María Zambrano Alarcón (22 April 1904, in Vélez-Málaga – 6 February 1991, in Madrid) was a Spanish essayist and philosopher associated with the Generation of '36 movement.
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Marc Márquez Alentà (born 17 February 1993) is a Spanish Grand Prix motorcycle road racer and one of the most successful motorcycle racers of all time with six Grand Prix world championships to his name - four of which are in the premier MotoGP class.
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The Marca Hispanica (Marca Hispánica, Marca Hispànica, Aragonese and Marca Hispanica, Hispaniako Marka, Marche d'Espagne), also known as the March of Barcelona, was a military buffer zone beyond the former province of Septimania, created by Charlemagne in 795 as a defensive barrier between the Umayyad Moors of Al-Andalus and the Frankish Carolingian Empire (Duchy of Gascony, the Duchy of Aquitaine and Carolingian Septimania).
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Marcelino Menéndez y Pelayo (3 November 1856 – 19 May 1912) was a Spanish scholar, historian and literary critic.
The "Marcha Real" ("Royal March") is the national anthem of Spain.
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Margarita Salas Falgueras, 1st Marquise of Canero (born 30 November 1938), commonly known as Margarita Salas, is a well-known Spanish scientist in the fields of Biochemistry, and Molecular genetics.
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Mariano José de Larra (24 March 1809 – 13 February 1837) was a Spanish romantic writer best known for his numerous essays and his infamous suicide.
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Mariano Rajoy Brey (born 27 March 1955) is a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 2011 to 2018, when a vote of no confidence ousted his government.
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Marine energy or marine power (also sometimes referred to as ocean energy, ocean power, or marine and hydrokinetic energy) refers to the energy carried by ocean waves, tides, salinity, and ocean temperature differences.
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The Marinid dynasty (Berber: Imrinen, المرينيون Marīniyūn) or Banu abd al-Haqq was a Sunni Muslim dynasty of Zenata Berber descent that ruled Morocco from the 13th to the 15th century.
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Mario Camus (Santander, 20 April 1935) is a Spanish screenwriter and film director.
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Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March, between 38 and 41 AD – between 102 and 104 AD) was a Roman poet from Hispania (modern Spain) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan.
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Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
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Málaga Airport, officially Málaga–Costa del Sol Airport (Aeropuerto de Málaga-Costa del Sol) since June 2011, is the fourth busiest airport in Spain after Madrid–Barajas, Barcelona and Palma de Mallorca.
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A Mediterranean climate or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers.
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The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
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Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.
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Menorca or Minorca (Menorca; Menorca; from Latin: Insula Minor, later Minorica "smaller island") is one of the Balearic Islands located in the Mediterranean Sea belonging to Spain.
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Mercè Rodoreda i Gurguí (10 October 1908 – 13 April 1983) was a Catalan novelist, who wrote in Catalan.
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Mester de Clerecía ("Ministry of Clergy") is a Castilian literature genre that can be understood as an opposition and surpassing of Mester de Juglaría.
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Mester de juglaría ("Ministry of jongleury") is a Castilian-language literature genre from the 12th and 13th centuries, transmitted orally by "juglares" who made their living by telling and singing these stories in public places and palaces while performing short theatrical scenes, acrobatics or other amusements.
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Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
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Michael Servetus (Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet), also known as Miguel Servet, Miguel Serveto, Michel Servet, Revés, or Michel de Villeneuve (29 September 1509 or 1511 – 27 October 1553), was a Spanish (then French) theologian, physician, cartographer, and Renaissance humanist.
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In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
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Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (29 September 1547 (assumed)23 April 1616 NS) was a Spanish writer who is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the Spanish language and one of the world's pre-eminent novelists.
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The Miguel de Cervantes Prize (Premio de Literatura en Lengua Castellana Miguel de Cervantes) is awarded annually to honour the lifetime achievement of an outstanding writer in the Spanish language.
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Miguel de Unamuno y Jugo (29 September 1864 – 31 December 1936) was a Spanish Basque essayist, novelist, poet, playwright, philosopher, professor of Greek and Classics, and later rector at the University of Salamanca.
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Miguel Delibes Setién MML (17 October 1920 – 12 March 2010) was a Spanish novelist, journalist and newspaper editor associated with the Generation of '36 movement.
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Miguel Induráin Larraya (born 16 July 1964) is a retired Spanish road racing cyclist.
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Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquess of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte, GE, OIC, OSH, LCSF, OMC, OTS, KOC (8 January 1870 – 16 March 1930) was a dictator, aristocrat, and military officer who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930 during Spain's Restoration era.
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Miguel Sebastián Gascón (Madrid, 13 May 1957) is a Spanish politician and economist.
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Minho (Miniu) or Miño is the longest river in Galicia, sharing the border with Portugal, with a length of.
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The Ministry of Development (Ministerio de Fomento) is the government ministry in Spain responsible for preparation and implementation of government policy on land transport infrastructure, air and maritime jurisdiction of state and control, management and regulation of administrative services transport, management and direction of all postal and telegraph services, the momentum and direction of state services related to astronomy, geodesy, geophysics and mapping and planning and programming of investments related to the services mentioned above.
The Ministry of the Presidency, Relations with the Cortes and Equality, 'Ministerio de la Presidencia, Relaciones con las Cortes e Igualdad', is the ministerial department of the Government of Spain which assures the link between the different Ministries and with the President of the Government.
A minority language is a language spoken by a minority of the population of a territory.
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Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
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A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
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The GSMA Mobile World Congress is the world's largest exhibition for the mobile industry, incorporating a thought-leadership conference that features prominent executives representing mobile operators, device manufacturers, technology providers, vendors and content owners from across the world.
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Modernism is a philosophical movement that, along with cultural trends and changes, arose from wide-scale and far-reaching transformations in Western society during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
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Modernisme (Catalan for "modernism"), also known as Catalan modernism, is the historiographic denomination given to an art and literature movement associated with the search of a new entitlement of Catalan culture, one of the most predominant cultures within Spain.
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The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
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The monasteries of San Millán de Suso (6th century) and San Millán de Yuso (11th century) are two monasteries situated in the village of San Millán de la Cogolla, La Rioja, Spain.
The Royal Monastery of Santa María of Guadalupe (Real Monasterio de Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe) is a Roman Catholic monastic establishment in Guadalupe, in Extremadura, Spain.
The Mondragon Corporation is a corporation and federation of worker cooperatives based in the Basque region of Spain.
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Monte Perdido (in Spanish; Mont Perdu in French; Mont Perdito in Aragonese; Mont Perdut in Catalan, all four meaning lost mountain) is the third highest mountain in the Pyrenees.
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The Montes de Toledo are one of the main systems of mountain ranges in the Iberian Peninsula.
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Montserrat Caballé (born 12 April 1933) is a Spanish operatic soprano.
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The term "Moors" refers primarily to the Muslim inhabitants of the Maghreb, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica, and Malta during the Middle Ages.
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Moratalaz is a district of Madrid, Spain.
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Moriscos (mouriscos,; meaning "Moorish") were former Muslims who converted or were coerced into converting to Christianity, after Spain finally outlawed the open practice of Islam by its sizeable Muslim population (termed mudéjar) in the early 16th century.
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Moroccans (Berber: ⵉⵎⵖⵕⴰⴱⵉⵢⵏ, Imɣṛabiyen) are people inhabiting or originating from Morocco that share a common Moroccan culture and Maghrebi ancestry.
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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
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The Mossos d'Esquadra (in English: Troopers, literally "Squad Lads", "Squaddies") are the police force of Catalonia, largely replacing the Policía Nacional of other regions of Spain.
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Motorcycling is riding a motorcycle.
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A mountain is a large landform that stretches above the surrounding land in a limited area, usually in the form of a peak.
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The Movimiento Nacional (National Movement) was the name given to the nationalist inspired mechanism during Francoist rule in Spain, which purported to be the only channel of participation to Spanish public life.
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Movistar is a major telecommunications brand owned by Telefónica, operating in Spain and in many Hispanic American countries.
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Mudéjar (Mudèjar, مدجن trans. Mudajjan, "tamed; domesticated") is also the name given to Moors or Muslims of Al-Andalus who remained in Iberia after the Christian Reconquista but were not initially forcibly converted to Christianity.
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Mudéjar Architecture of Aragon is an aesthetic trend in the Mudéjar style, which is centered in Aragon (Spain) and has been recognized in some representative buildings as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.
Abu `Abdallah Muhammad XII (أبو عبد الله محمد الثاني عشر Abū ‘Abdi-llāh Muḥammad ath-thānī ‘ashar) (c. 1460 – 1533), known to the Castilians as Boabdil (a Spanish rendering of the name Abu Abdillah), was the 22nd and last Nasrid ruler of the Emirate of Granada in Iberia.
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The Muladi (mulaˈði, pl. muladíes; mulɐˈði, pl. muladis; muɫəˈðitə or muladí, pl. muladites or muladís; مولد trans. muwallad, pl. مولدون muwalladūn or مولدين muwalladīn) were Muslims of local descent or of mixed Arab, Berber, and Iberian origin, who lived in Al-Andalus during the Middle Ages.
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Mulhacén is the highest mountain in continental Spain and in the Iberian Peninsula.
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The municipalities of Spain (municipios,, municipis, concellos, udalerriak; sing. municipio)In other languages of Spain.
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Murcia is a city in south-eastern Spain, the capital and most populous city of the Autonomous Community of the Region of Murcia, and the seventh largest city in the country, with a population of 442,573 inhabitants in 2009 (about one third of the total population of the Region).
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A musical instrument is an instrument created or adapted to make musical sounds.
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A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
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There are two names given in Spanish to the Spanish language: español ("Spanish") and castellano ("Castilian").
Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French statesman and military leader who rose to prominence during the French Revolution and led several successful campaigns during the French Revolutionary Wars.
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Narcís Monturiol i Estarriol (28 September 1819 – 6 September 1885) was a Spanish artist and engineer.
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The Nasrid dynasty (بنو نصر banū Naṣr or banū al-Aḥmar) was the last Arab Muslim dynasty in Iberia, ruling the Emirate of Granada from 1230 until 1492.
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The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
National Catholicism (Spanish: Nacionalcatolicismo) was part of the ideological identity of Francoism, the political system with which dictator Francisco Franco governed Spain between 1936 and 1975.
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The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
Spain is a diverse country integrated by different contrasting entities that show varying economic and social structures, as well as different languages and historical, political and cultural traditions.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO; Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord; OTAN), also called the North Atlantic Alliance, is an intergovernmental military alliance between 29 North American and European countries.
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Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
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Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
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Neoclassicism (from Greek νέος nèos, "new" and Latin classicus, "of the highest rank") is the name given to Western movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture that draw inspiration from the "classical" art and culture of classical antiquity.
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The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
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A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
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The New Monarchs was a concept developed by European historians during the first half of the 20th century to characterize 15th-century European rulers who unified their respective nations, creating stable and centralized governments.
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The New World is one of the names used for the majority of Earth's Western Hemisphere, specifically the Americas (including nearby islands such as those of the Caribbean and Bermuda).
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Nigerians or Nigerian people are citizens of Nigeria or people with ancestry from Nigeria.
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The Nobel Prize in Literature (Nobelpriset i litteratur) is a Swedish literature prize that has been awarded annually, since 1901, to an author from any country who has, in the words of the will of Swedish industrialist Alfred Nobel, produced "in the field of literature the most outstanding work in an ideal direction" (original Swedish: "den som inom litteraturen har producerat det mest framstående verket i en idealisk riktning").
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Non-interventionism or non-intervention is a foreign policy that holds that political rulers should avoid alliances with other nations but still retain diplomacy and avoid all wars unless related to direct self-defense.
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A nuclear power plant or nuclear power station is a thermal power station in which the heat source is a nuclear reactor.
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A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
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The Nueva Planta decrees (Decretos de Nueva Planta, Decrets de Nova Planta) were a number of decrees signed between 1707 and 1716 by Philip V—the first Bourbon King of Spain—during and shortly after the end of the War of the Spanish Succession by the Treaty of Utrecht.
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Obrascón Huarte Lain, S.A., or OHL, is a Spanish-based multinational construction and civil engineering company.
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Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.
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An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
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The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD; Organisation de coopération et de développement économiques, OCDE) is an intergovernmental economic organisation with 35 member countries, founded in 1961 to stimulate economic progress and world trade.
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Old Catalan was the Romance variety spoken in territories that spanned roughly the territories of the Principality of Catalonia, the Kingdom of Valencia, the Balearic Islands, and the island of Sardinia; all of them then part of the Crown of Aragon.
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Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo; romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), originally a colloquial Latin spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.
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The olive, known by the botanical name Olea europaea, meaning "European olive", is a species of small tree in the family Oleaceae, found in the Mediterranean Basin from Portugal to the Levant, the Arabian Peninsula, and southern Asia as far east as China, as well as the Canary Islands and Réunion.
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Olive oil is a liquid fat obtained from olives (the fruit of Olea europaea; family Oleaceae), a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin.
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Olivenza or Olivença is a town situated on a disputed section of the Portugal–Spain border.
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An opera house is a theatre building used for opera performances that consists of a stage, an orchestra pit, audience seating, and backstage facilities for costumes and set building.
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The Order of Friars Minor (also called the Franciscans, the Franciscan Order, or the Seraphic Order; postnominal abbreviation O.F.M.) is a mendicant Catholic religious order, founded in 1209 by Francis of Assisi.
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The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is the world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization.
The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.
The Orient is the East, traditionally comprising anything that belongs to the Eastern world, in relation to Europe.
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Orography (from the Greek όρος, hill, γραφία, to write) is the study of the topographic relief of mountains, and can more broadly include hills, and any part of a region's elevated terrain.
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The Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid (unofficial English name, Madrid Symphony Orchestra), founded in 1903, is the oldest existing Spanish symphony orchestra in Spain not linked to an opera house.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
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The Ottoman–Habsburg wars were fought from the 16th through the 18th centuries between the Ottoman Empire and the Habsburg (later Austrian) Empire, which was at times supported by the Holy Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, and Habsburg Spain.
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Our Lady of the Pillar (Nuestra Señora del Pilar) is the name given to the Blessed Virgin Mary associated with the claim of Marian apparition to Apostle James the Greater as he was praying by the banks of the Ebro at Caesaraugusta (Zaragoza), Hispania, in AD 40.
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The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Spain: Spain – sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.
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Oviedo or Uviéu (officially in Asturian) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region.
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Pau Casals i Defilló (Catalan:; 29 December 187622 October 1973), usually known in English as Pablo Casals,, The New York Times, 1911-04-09, retrieved 2009-08-01 was a cellist, composer, and conductor from Catalonia, Spain.
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Martín Melitón Pablo de Sarasate y Navascués (10 March 1844 – 20 September 1908) was a Spanish violinist and composer of the Romantic period.
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Pablo Emilio Gargallo Catalán (5 January 1881 – 28 December 1934) was a Spanish sculptor and painter.
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Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
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Pablo Serrano Aguilar, (8 March 1908, Crivillén, Teruel Province - 26 November 1985, Madrid) was a Spanish abstract sculptor.
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Paella is a Valencian rice dish that has ancient roots but its modern form originated in the mid-19th century in the area around Albufera lagoon on the east coast of Spain adjacent to the city of Valencia.
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The Palau de la Música Catalana (Palacio de la Música Catalana, Palace of Catalan Music) is a concert hall in Barcelona, Spain.
Palau de les Arts Reina Sofia (Palacio de las Artes Reina Sofía; anglicised as "Reina (Queen) Sofía Palace of the Arts") is an opera house and cultural centre in Valencia, Spain.
Palma de Mallorca Airport (Aeroport de Palma de Mallorca, Aeropuerto de Palma de Mallorca) is an international airport located east of Palma, Majorca, Spain, adjacent to the village of Can Pastilla.
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The Palmeral or Palm Grove of Elche (Spanish: Palmeral de Elche, Valencian: Palmerar d'Elx) is the generic name used to designate a system of date palm orchards in the city of Elche (Spain).
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Pamplona (Pampelune) or Iruña (alternative spelling: Iruñea) is the historical capital city of Navarre, in Spain, and of the former Kingdom of Navarre.
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Pan's Labyrinth (lit) is a 2006 dark fantasy drama film written and directed by Guillermo del Toro.
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The Parliament of Catalonia (Parlament de Catalunya) is the unicameral regional legislature of Catalonia.
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A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
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Pau Gasol Sáez (born July 6, 1980) is a Spanish professional basketball player for the San Antonio Spurs of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
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Pío Baroja y Nessi (28 December 1872 – 30 October 1956) was a Spanish writer, one of the key novelists of the Generation of '98.
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Pío García-Escudero Márquez, 4th Count of Badarán (born 28 October 1952) is a Spanish architect and politician who has been the President of the Senate of Spain since 2011.
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The Peace of Basel of 1795 consists of three peace treaties involving France during the French Revolution (represented by François de Barthélemy).
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Peñón de Vélez de la Gomera (Berber language: Badis; Arabic: جزيرة غمارة jazīrat ghumara), in ancient times Badis or Bades, is a Spanish rock (plaza de soberanía) in the west of the Mediterranean Sea, connected to the Moroccan shore by a sandy isthmus.
Pedro Almodóvar Caballero (born 25 September 1949), credited professionally as Pedro Almodóvar, is a Spanish filmmaker, director, screenwriter, producer, and former actor.
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Pedro Arrupe (14 November 1907 – 5 February 1991) was a Spanish Basque Jesuit priest who served as the twenty-eighth Superior General of the Society of Jesus (1965–83).
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Pedro Calderón de la Barca y Barreda González de Henao Ruiz de Blasco y Riaño, usually referred as Pedro Calderón de la Barca (17 January 160025 May 1681), was a dramatist, poet and writer of the Spanish Golden Age.
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Pedro de Mena y Medrano (August 1628 - 13 October 1688) was a Spanish sculptor.
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Pedro Duque y Cornejo (1677–1757) was a Spanish Baroque painter and sculptor of the Sevillian school of sculpture, a disciple of his grandfather Pedro Roldán.
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Pedro Roldán (1624–1699) was a Baroque sculptor from Seville, Andalusia, Spain.
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Pedro Sánchez Pérez-Castejón (born 29 February 1972) is a Spanish economist and politician serving as Prime Minister of Spain since 2 June 2018.
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Pelagius (c. 685 – 737) was a Visigothic nobleman who founded the Kingdom of Asturias, ruling it from 718 until his death.
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Penélope Cruz Sánchez (born 28 April 1974) is a Spanish actress and model.
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Peninsular Spain refers to that part of Spanish territory located within the Iberian peninsula, thus excluding other parts of Spain: the Canary Islands, the Balearic Islands, Ceuta, Melilla, and a number of islets and crags off the coast of Morocco known collectively as plazas de soberanía (places of sovereignty).
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The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
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In the context of the Spanish colonial caste system, a peninsular (pl. peninsulares) was a Spanish-born Spaniard residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies.
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People of the Book/Scripture (أهل الكتاب ′Ahl al-Kitāb) is an Islamic term referring to Jews, Christians, and Sabians and sometimes applied to members of other religions such as Zoroastrians.
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The People's Party (Partido Popular; known mostly by its acronym, PP) is a conservative and Christian democratic political party in Spain.
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Perejil Island (Isla de Perejil, Berber: Tura, translit) is a small, uninhabited rocky islet located off the coast of Morocco, just 200 metres from the mainland coast.
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A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.
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Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
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The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
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Pheasant Island (Isla de los Faisanes, Île des Faisans, Konpantzia) is an uninhabited river island in the Bidasoa river, between France and Spain.
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Philip II (Felipe II; 21 May 1527 – 13 September 1598), called "the Prudent" (el Prudente), was King of Spain (1556–98), King of Portugal (1581–98, as Philip I, Filipe I), King of Naples and Sicily (both from 1554), and jure uxoris King of England and Ireland (during his marriage to Queen Mary I from 1554–58).
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Philip V (Felipe V, Philippe, Filippo; 19 December 1683 – 9 July 1746) was King of Spain from 1 November 1700 to his abdication in favour of his son Louis on 15 January 1724, and from his reascendancy of the throne upon his son's death on 6 September 1724 to his own death on 9 July 1746.
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The Philippine Revolution (Filipino: Himagsikang Pilipino; Spanish: Revolución Filipina), also called the Tagalog War (Spanish: Guerra Tagalog, Filipino: Digmaang Tagalog) by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Spain with its Spanish Empire and Spanish colonial authorities in the Spanish East Indies.
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The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
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Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
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Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic, "Phoenicia" in Greek and Latin, and "Pūt" in the Egyptian language.
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Phytogeography (from Greek φυτό, phyto.
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Pilar Mercedes Miró Romero (20 April 1940 in Madrid – 19 October 1997 in Madrid) was a Spanish screenwriter and film director.
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In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.
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The plazas de soberanía (literally "places of sovereignty") are the Spanish sovereign territories in North Africa.
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José Plácido Domingo Embil, (born 21 January 1941), known as Plácido Domingo, is a Spanish tenor, conductor and arts administrator.
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Plurinationality, plurinational, or plurinationalism is defined as the coexistence of two or more sealed or preserved national groups within a polity (an organized community or body of peoples).
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Plus ultra ("Further beyond") is a Latin motto and the national motto of Spain.
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The Royal Abbey of Santa Maria de Poblet (Reial Monestir de Santa Maria de Poblet) is a Cistercian monastery, founded in 1151, located at the foot of the Prades Mountains, in the comarca of Conca de Barberà, in Catalonia (Spain).
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Polbo á feira (Pulpo a feira in Spanish) (Galician name literally meaning "fair-style octopus") alternatively known as pulpo estilo feira is a traditional Galician dish.
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The Policía Canaria are the police force of the autonomous community of the Canary Islands, Spain.
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The Chartered Police of Navarre (Policía Foral de Navarra, Nafarroako Foruzaingoa) is the regional police force for the chartered autonomous community of Navarre in Spain.
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A polity is any kind of political entity.
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Pope Alexander VI, born Rodrigo de Borja (de Borja, Rodrigo Lanzol y de Borja; 1 January 1431 – 18 August 1503), was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death.
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Pope Callixtus III (31 December 1378 – 6 August 1458), born Alfons de Borja, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 8 April 1455 to his death in 1458.
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Pope Damasus I (c. 305 – 11 December 384) was Pope of the Catholic Church, from October 366 to his death in 384.
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In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
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Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
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The Portugal–Spain border is the international boundary between Portugal and Spain.
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The Portuguese Restoration War (Guerra da Restauração; Guerra de Restauración portuguesa) was the name given by nineteenth-century Romantic historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668.
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Pre-Romanesque art and architecture is the period in European art from either the emergence of the Merovingian kingdom in about 500 CE or from the Carolingian Renaissance in the late 8th century, to the beginning of the 11th century Romanesque period.
A precious metal is a rare, naturally occurring metallic chemical element of high economic value.
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The Prehistoric Rock-Art Site of the Côa Valley is an open-air Paleolithic archaeological site located in a region of northeastern Portugal, near the border with Spain.
The Premio Planeta de Novela is a Spanish literary prize, awarded since 1952 by the Spanish publisher Grupo Planeta to an original novel written in Spanish (Castilian).
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Prescription, in international law, is sovereignty transfer of a territory by the open encroachment by the new sovereign upon the territory for a prolonged period of time, acting as the sovereign, without protest or other contest by the original sovereign.
The President of the Congress of Deputies (Presidente del Congreso de los Diputados) is the presiding officer of the Congress of Deputies, the lower house of Spain's Cortes Generales.
The President of the Spanish Senate (Presidente del Senado de España) is the speaker of the Spanish Senate, the upper house of Spain's Cortes Generales.
The President of the Supreme Court and also President of the General Council of the Judiciary, is the first judicial authority of the Nation and holds the representation of the Judicial Power and its governing body (CGPJ), corresponding to the treatment and honors inherent to that condition.
The Prestige oil spill was an oil spill in Galicia, Spain, caused by the sinking of the 26 year old structurally deficient oil tanker MV Prestige in November 2002, carrying 77,000 tonnes of heavy fuel oil.
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The Prime Minister of Spain, officially the President of the Government of Spain (Presidente del Gobierno de España), is the head of the government of Spain.
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A principality (or princedom) can either be a monarchical feudatory or a sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a monarch with the title of prince or by a monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince.
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Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
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Almería is a province of the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
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Girona (Gerona) is a province of Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Catalonia.
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Spain and its autonomous communities are divided into fifty provinces (provincias,; sing. provincia).
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The Public Administration of Spain is the governmental apparatus that manages the Spanish public interests.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
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The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
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The Punics (from Latin punicus, pl. punici), also known as Carthaginians, were a people from Ancient Carthage (now in Tunisia, North Africa) who traced their origins to the Phoenicians.
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A puppet monarch is a majority figurehead who is installed or patronized by an imperial power in order to provide the appearance of local authority, while allowing political and economic control to remain among the dominating nation.
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Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
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The Pyrénées – Mont Perdu World Heritage Site (also known as UNESCO Patrimonio Mundial Pirineos – Monte Perdido in Spanish mcu.es, retrieved 2013-08-20 (in Spanish)) is a world heritage site straddling the border between Spain and France in the Pyrenees mountain chain.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
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Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.
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The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
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Quinqui jargon is associated with quincalleros (tinkers), a semi-nomadic group who live mainly in the northern half of Spain.
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Marcus Fabius Quintilianus (35 – 100 AD) was a Roman rhetorician from Hispania, widely referred to in medieval schools of rhetoric and in Renaissance writing.
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José Rafael Moneo Vallés (born 9 May 1937) is a Spanish architect.
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Rafael Nadal Parera (born 3 June 1986) is a Spanish professional tennis player, currently world No. 1 in men's singles tennis by the Association of Tennis Professionals (ATP).
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Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio (born in Rome, 4 December 1927) is a Spanish writer.
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Ramón María del Valle-Inclán y de la Peña (in Vilanova de Arousa, Galicia, Spain, 28 October 1866 – Santiago de Compostela, 5 January 1936) was a Spanish dramatist, novelist and member of the Spanish Generation of 98.
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Ramón Gómez de la Serna Puig (3 July 1888 in Madrid – 13 January 1963 in Buenos Aires) was a Spanish writer, dramatist and avant-garde agitator.
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Ramón Menéndez Pidal (13 March 1869 - 14 November 1968) was a Spanish philologist and historian.
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Ramón Pérez de Ayala (9 August 1880, in Oviedo – 5 August 1962, in Madrid) was a Spanish writer.
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Ramiro de Maeztu y Whitney (May 4, 1875 – October 29, 1936) was a Spanish political theorist, essayist, journalist, literary critic, occasional diplomat and member of the Generation of '98.
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Ramon Llull, T.O.S.F. (c. 1232 – c. 1315; Anglicised Raymond Lully, Raymond Lull; in Latin Raimundus or Raymundus Lullus or Lullius) was a philosopher, logician, Franciscan tertiary and Spanish writer.
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Real Madrid Club de Fútbol ("Royal Madrid Football Club"), commonly known as Real Madrid, or simply as Real, is a professional football club based in Madrid, Spain.
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Realism, sometimes called naturalism, in the arts is generally the attempt to represent subject matter truthfully, without artificiality and avoiding artistic conventions, or implausible, exotic, and supernatural elements.
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The rebellion of the Alpujarras of 1568–71, sometimes called the War of the Alpujarras or the Morisco Revolt, was the second such revolt against the Castilian Crown in the mountainous Alpujarra region.
The Reconquista (Spanish and Portuguese for the "reconquest") is a name used to describe the period in the history of the Iberian Peninsula of about 780 years between the Umayyad conquest of Hispania in 711 and the fall of the Nasrid kingdom of Granada to the expanding Christian kingdoms in 1492.
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In colonial Spanish America, the Reconquista refers to the period following the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 during which royalist armies were able to gain the upper hand in the Spanish American wars of independence.
The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.
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The Region of Murcia (Región de Murcia, Regió de Múrcia) is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean coast.
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A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
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The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
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Renewable energy commercialization involves the deployment of three generations of renewable energy technologies dating back more than 100 years.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
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Repsol S.A., El Nuevo Herald, 2012-05-31Originally an initialism for Refinería de Petróleos de Escombreras adding the word Sol (Sun) is an integrated global energy company based in Madrid, Spain.
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The Republican faction (Bando republicano), also known as the Loyalist faction (Bando leal or bando gubernamental), was the side in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939 that supported the established government of the Second Spanish Republic against the Nationalist or rebel faction of the military rebellion.
The Restoration (Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
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The Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people, which challenged the legitimacy of the colonial authorities, was the principle underlying the Spanish American Independence processes.
The Revolt of the Brotherhoods (Revolta de les Germanies, Rebelión de las Germanías) was a revolt by artisan guilds (Germanies) against the government of King Charles V in the Kingdom of Valencia, part of the Crown of Aragon.
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The Revolt of the Comuneros (Guerra de las Comunidades de Castilla, "War of the Communities of Castile") was an uprising by citizens of Castile against the rule of Charles V and his administration between 1520 and 1521.
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The Revolution of 1934, also known as the Revolution of October 1934, or the Revolutionary General Strike of 1934 was a revolutionary strike movement that took place between October 5 and October 19, 1934, during the black biennium of the Second Spanish Republic.
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--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
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Ricardo Bofill Leví (born 5 December 1939) is a Spanish architect, who, since 1963, continues to lead the international architectural and urban design practice Ricardo Bofill Taller de Arquitectura.
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Ricardo Mella Cea (April 13, 1861 – August 7, 1925) was one of the first writers, intellectuals and anarchist activists of the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Spain.
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Ricardo Viñes y Roda (Ricard Viñes i Roda,; 5 February 1875 – 29 April 1943) was a Spanish pianist.
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The Rif War was an armed conflict fought from 1920 to 1927 between the colonial power Spain (later joined by France) and the Berber tribes of the Rif mountainous region. Led by Abd el-Krim, the Riffians at first inflicted several defeats on the Spanish forces by using guerrilla tactics and captured European weapons. After France's military intervention against Abd el-Krim's forces and the major landing of Spanish troops at Al Hoceima, considered the first amphibious landing in history to involve the use of tanks and aircraft, Abd el-Krim surrendered to the French and was taken into exile. In 1909, Rifian tribes aggressively confronted Spanish workers of the iron mines of the Rif, near Melilla, which led to the intervention of the Spanish Army. The military operations in Jebala, in the Moroccan West, began in 1911 with the Larache Landing. Spain worked to pacify a large part of the most violent areas until 1914, a slow process of consolidation of frontiers that lasted until 1919 due to World War I. The following year, after the signing of the Treaty of Fez, the northern Moroccan area was adjudicated to Spain as a protectorate. The Riffian populations strongly resisted the Spanish, unleashing a conflict that would last for several years. In 1921, the Spanish troops suffered the catastrophic Disaster of Annual, the biggest defeat in the history of Spain, in addition to a rebellion led by Rifian leader Abd el-Krim. As a result, the Spanish retreated to a few fortified positions while Abd el-Krim ultimately created an entire independent state: the Republic of the Rif. The development of the conflict and its end coincided with the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera, who took on command of the campaign from 1924 to 1927. In addition, and after the Battle of Uarga in 1925, the French intervened in the conflict and established a joint collaboration with Spain that culminated in the notorious renowned Alhucemas landing. By 1926 the area had been pacified; Abd-el-Krim surrendered in July 1927; and the Spanish regained the previously lost territory. The Rif War is still considered controversial among historians. Some see in it a harbinger of the decolonization process in North Africa. Others consider it one of the last colonial wars, as it was the decision of the Spanish to conquer the Rif — nominally part of their Moroccan protectorate but de facto independent — that catalyzed the entry of France in 1924. The Rif War left a deep memory both in Spain and in Morocco. The Riffian insurgency of the 1920s can be interpreted as a precursor to the Algerian war of independence, which took place three decades later.
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Riffian, Rif Berber or Riffian Berber (native local name: Tmaziɣt; external name: Tarifit) is a Zenati Northern Berber language.
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The group of over 700 sites of prehistoric Rock art of the Iberian Mediterranean Basin, also known as Levantine art, were collectively declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO in 1998.
The Roman conquest of the Iberian peninsula was a process by which the Roman Republic seized territories in the Iberian peninsula that were previously under the control of native Celtiberian tribes and the Carthaginian Empire.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
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Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
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The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
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Roman roads (Latin: viae Romanae; singular: via Romana meaning "Roman way") were physical infrastructure vital to the maintenance and development of the Roman state, and were built from about 300 BC through the expansion and consolidation of the Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
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The Roman walls of Lugo (Spanish, Galician: Muralla Romana de Lugo) were constructed in the 3rd century and are still largely intact, stretching over 2 kilometers around the historic centre of Lugo in Galicia (Spain).
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The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.
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Romanesque architecture is an architectural style of medieval Europe characterized by semi-circular arches.
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The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
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The Gypsies in Spain, generally known as gitanos, belong to the Iberian Kale group, with smaller populations in Portugal (known as ciganos) and in southern France.
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Romanization or Latinization (or Romanisation or Latinisation), in the historical and cultural meanings of both terms, indicate different historical processes, such as acculturation, integration and assimilation of newly incorporated and peripheral populations by the Roman Republic and the later Roman Empire.
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Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
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Rosa Chacel (June 3, 1898 – July 27, 1994) was a famous and sometimes controversial writer from Spain.
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María Rosalía Rita de Castro (24 February 1837 – 15 July 1885), was a Galician romanticist writer and poet.
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A royal family is the immediate family of a king or queen regnant, and sometimes his or her extended family.
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The Running of the Bulls (in Spanish: encierro, from the verb encerrar, "to corral, to enclose") is a practice that involves running in front of a small group of cattle, typically six, of the ''toro bravo'' breed that have been let loose on a course of a sectioned-off subset of a town's streets.
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Rural tourism focuses on actively participating in a rural lifestyle.
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A saint (also historically known as a hallow) is a person who is recognized as having an exceptional degree of holiness or likeness or closeness to God.
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Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain that is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León.
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Salvador Domingo Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech, 1st Marquess of Dalí de Púbol (11 May 190423 January 1989), known professionally as Salvador Dalí, was a prominent Spanish surrealist born in Figueres, Catalonia, Spain.
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Salvador de Madariaga y Rojo (23 July 1886 – 14 December 1978) was a Spanish diplomat, writer, historian and pacifist.
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Same-sex marriage has been legal in Spain since 3 July 2005.
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San Cristóbal de La Laguna (commonly known as La Laguna) is a city and municipality in the northern part of the island of Tenerife in the Province of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, on the Canary Islands (Spain).
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The festival of San Fermín is a week-long, historically rooted celebration held annually in the city of Pamplona, Navarre, Spain.
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San Millán de la Cogolla is a sparsely populated municipality in La Rioja, (Spain).
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San Sebastián or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
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The San Sebastián International Film Festival (Festival de San Sebastián; Donostia Zinemaldia) is an annual FIAPF A category film festival held in the Spanish city of Donostia-San Sebastián in September, in the Basque Country.
Sanitation refers to public health conditions related to clean drinking water and adequate treatment and disposal of human excreta and sewage.
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Sanjurjada was a military coup, staged in Spain on August 10, 1932.
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Santiago Calatrava Valls (born 28 July 1951) is a Spanish architect, structural design and analyst engineer, sculptor and painter, particularly known for his bridges supported by single leaning pylons, and his railway stations, stadiums, and museums, whose sculptural forms often resemble living organisms.
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Santiago de Compostela is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia, in northwestern Spain.
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Santiago Ramón y Cajal (1 May 1852 – 17 October 1934) was a Spanish neuroscientist and pathologist, specializing in neuroanatomy, particularly the histology of the central nervous system.
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María Antonia Abad Fernández MML (10 March 1928 – 8 April 2013) known professionally as Sara Montiel (also Sarita Montiel or Saritísima) was a Spanish singer and actress.
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The Sarmatians (Sarmatae, Sauromatae; Greek: Σαρμάται, Σαυρομάται) were a large Iranian confederation that existed in classical antiquity, flourishing from about the 5th century BC to the 4th century AD.
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The Savage Islands or Selvagens Islands (Ilhas Selvagens) are a small Portuguese archipelago in the North Atlantic, south of Madeira, and north of the Canary Islands.
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Sónar is a three-day electronic and advanced music festival.
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The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
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The School of Salamanca (Escuela de Salamanca) is the Renaissance of thought in diverse intellectual areas by Spanish and Portuguese theologians, rooted in the intellectual and pedagogical work of Francisco de Vitoria.
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The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
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The Second Punic War (218 to 201 BC), also referred to as The Hannibalic War and by the Romans the War Against Hannibal, was the second major war between Carthage and the Roman Republic and its allied Italic socii, with the participation of Greek polities and Numidian and Iberian forces on both sides.
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The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
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A secular state is an idea pertaining to secularism, whereby a state is or purports to be officially neutral in matters of religion, supporting neither religion nor irreligion.
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Secularism is the principle of the separation of government institutions and persons mandated to represent the state from religious institution and religious dignitaries (the attainment of such is termed secularity).
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Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.
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Segundo Víctor Aurelio Chomón y Ruiz (also Chomont or Chaumont,; 17 October 1871 – 2 May 1929) was a pioneering Spanish film director, cinematographer and screenwriter.
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Segura (Latin: Thader, Arabic: شقورة, War-Alabiat) is a medium-sized river in southeastern Spain.
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A semi-arid climate or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate.
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Valladolid International Film Festival (also known as Seminci or Semana Internacional de Cine de Valladolid) is a film festival held annually in Valladolid, Spain since 1956.
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The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East.
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The Senate (Senado) is the upper house of Spain's parliament, the Cortes Generales.
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Lucius, or Marcus, Annaeus Seneca, known as Seneca the Elder and Seneca the Rhetorician (54 BC – c. 39 AD), was a Roman rhetorician and writer, born of a wealthy equestrian family of Cordoba, Hispania.
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Seneca the Younger AD65), fully Lucius Annaeus Seneca and also known simply as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and—in one work—satirist of the Silver Age of Latin literature.
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Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
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The Serra de Tramuntana (Sierra de Tramontana) is a mountain range running southwest–northeast which forms the northern backbone of the Spanish island of Mallorca.
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Severo Ochoa de Albornoz (24 September 1905 – 1 November 1993) was a Spanish-American physician and biochemist, and joint winner of the 1959 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine with Arthur Kornberg.
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Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
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Seville Airport (Aeropuerto de Sevilla) is the sixth busiest inland airport in Spain.
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The Cathedral of Saint Mary of the See (Catedral de Santa María de la Sede), better known as Seville Cathedral, is a Roman Catholic cathedral in Seville (Andalusia, Spain).
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The Sevillian school of sculpture—the tradition of Christian religious sculpture in Seville, Andalusia, Spain—began in the 13th century, formed a clear tradition of its own in the 16th century, and continues into the present.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
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The, colloquially known in English as the bullet train, is a network of high-speed railway lines in Japan.
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Sicily (Sicilia; Sicìlia) is the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea.
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Siega Verde is an archaeological site in Serranillo, Villar de la Yegua, province of Salamanca, in Castile and León, Spain.
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The Sierra Morena is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
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Sierra Nevada (meaning "mountain range covered in snow" in Spanish) is a mountain range in the region of Andalucia, in the province of Granada and, a little further, Málaga and Almería in Spain.
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The Siete Partidas ("Seven-Part Code") or simply Partidas was a Castilian statutory code first compiled during the reign of Alfonso X of Castile (1252–1284), with the intent of establishing a uniform body of normative rules for the kingdom.
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A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
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The Central System, Spanish and Sistema Central, is one of the main systems of mountain ranges in the Iberian Peninsula.
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The Iberian System (Sistema Ibérico), is one of the major systems of mountain ranges in Spain.
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Skiing can be a means of transport, a recreational activity or a competitive winter sport in which the participant uses skis to glide on snow.
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Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
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Slovenia (Slovenija), officially the Republic of Slovenia (Slovene:, abbr.: RS), is a country in southern Central Europe, located at the crossroads of main European cultural and trade routes.
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The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
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Spain is one of the top ten countries by solar photovoltaics installed capacity and the first country for concentrated solar power (CSP) in the world.
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Solomon ibn Verga (or Salomón ben Verga, c. 1460 – 1554) (שלמה אבן וירגה) was a Spanish historian and physician, and author of the Shevet Yehudah (Hebrew: - "Scepter of Judah").
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María Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría Antón (born 10 June 1971) is a Spanish People's Party politician who has served as Member of Parliament (MP) for Madrid since 2004.
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South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
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A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
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The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
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Spain remained neutral throughout World War I between 28 July 1914 and 11 November 1918, and despite domestic economic difficulties, it was considered "one of the most important neutral countries in Europe by 1915".
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The Spanish State under the dictatorship of General Franco did not officially join the Axis Powers during World War II.
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The Spain national football team (Selección de fútbol de España) represents Spain in men's International association football and is controlled by the Royal Spanish Football Federation, the governing body for football in Spain.
The Spain national futsal team represents Spain in international futsal competitions and is controlled by the Royal Spanish Football Federation.
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Spania (Provincia Spaniae) was a province of the Byzantine Empire from 552 until 624 in the south of the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands.
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Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.
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The Spanish 1977 Amnesty Law is a law promulgated by the Parliament of Spain in 1977, two years after caudillo Francisco Franco's death.
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The Spanish Air Force (SPAF) (Ejército del Aire; literally, "Army of the Air") is the aerial branch of the Spanish Armed Forces.
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The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
The Spanish Armed Forces are in charge of guaranteeing the sovereignty and independence of Spain, defender of its territorial integrity and the constitutional order, according to the functions entrusted in the Constitution of 1978.
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The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra; "Army of the Land/Ground") is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.
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The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
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The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy (Constitución Política de la Monarquía Española), also known as the Constitution of Cádiz (Constitución de Cádiz) and as La Pepa, was the first Constitution of Spain and one of the earliest constitutions in world history.
The Spanish coup of July 1936 (Golpe de Estado de España de julio de 1936) fractured the Spanish Republican Armed Forces and marked the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.
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The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
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The 1977 Spanish general election was held on Wednesday, 15 June 1977, to elect the Spanish Cortes of the Kingdom of Spain.
The 2004 Spanish general election was held on Sunday, 14 March 2004, to elect the 8th Cortes Generales of the Kingdom of Spain.
The Spanish Golden Age (Siglo de Oro, "Golden Century") is a period of flourishing in arts and literature in Spain, coinciding with the political rise of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty.
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The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
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Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
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The Spanish miracle (El Milagro español, literally "The Spanish Miracle") was the name given to a broadly based economic boom in Spain from 1959 to 1974.
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The Spanish National Health System (Sistema Nacional de Salud, SNS) is the agglomeration of public health services that has existed in Spain since it was established through and structured by the Ley General de Sanidad (the "General Health Law") of 1986.
The Orquesta Nacional de España (Spanish National Orchestra) is a symphonic orchestra that is based in Madrid, Spain.
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A Spanish NATO membership referendum was held on Wednesday, 12 March 1986, to gauge support for the country either remaining a member of, or leaving, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), which it had joined in 1982.
The Spanish Navy (Armada Española) is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world.
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Spanish North Africa may refer to.
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The peseta was the currency of Spain between 1869 and 2002.
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The Spanish property bubble is the collapsed overshooting part of a long-term price increase of Spanish real estate prices.
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The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
The Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Valencian Community.
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The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
The Spanish transition to democracy (Transición española a la democracia), known in Spain as the Transition (La Transición), or the Spanish transition (Transición española) is a period of modern Spanish history, that started on 20 November 1975, the date of death of Francisco Franco, who had established a military dictatorship after the victory of the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
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The Spiritual Exercises of Ignatius of Loyola (Latin original: Exercitia spiritualia), composed 1522–1524, are a set of Christian meditations, contemplations, and prayers written by Saint Ignatius of Loyola, a 16th-century Spanish priest, theologian, and founder of the Society of Jesus (Jesuits).
Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy (Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatut d'Autonomia, Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatutu d' Autonomía, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws).
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Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
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The Strait of Gibraltar (مضيق جبل طارق, Estrecho de Gibraltar) is a narrow strait that connects the Atlantic Ocean to the Mediterranean Sea and separates Gibraltar and Peninsular Spain in Europe from Morocco and Ceuta (Spain) in Africa.
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The garden strawberry (or simply strawberry; Fragaria × ananassa) is a widely grown hybrid species of the genus Fragaria, collectively known as the strawberries.
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Sub-Saharan Africa is, geographically, the area of the continent of Africa that lies south of the Sahara.
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The Suebi (or Suevi, Suavi, or Suevians) were a large group of Germanic tribes, which included the Marcomanni, Quadi, Hermunduri, Semnones, Lombards and others, sometimes including sub-groups simply referred to as Suebi.
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Sufism, or Taṣawwuf (personal noun: ṣūfiyy / ṣūfī, mutaṣawwuf), variously defined as "Islamic mysticism",Martin Lings, What is Sufism? (Lahore: Suhail Academy, 2005; first imp. 1983, second imp. 1999), p.15 "the inward dimension of Islam" or "the phenomenon of mysticism within Islam",Massington, L., Radtke, B., Chittick, W. C., Jong, F. de, Lewisohn, L., Zarcone, Th., Ernst, C, Aubin, Françoise and J.O. Hunwick, “Taṣawwuf”, in: Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, edited by: P. Bearman, Th.
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A sugar beet is a plant whose root contains a high concentration of sucrose and which is grown commercially for sugar production.
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Sunflower oil is the non-volatile oil pressed from the seeds of sunflower (Helianthus annuus).
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The Tagus (Tajo,; Tejo) is the longest river in the Iberian Peninsula.
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In the history of the Iberian Peninsula, a taifa (from طائفة ṭā'ifa, plural طوائف ṭawā'if) was an independent Muslim-ruled principality, of which a number were formed in Al-Andalus (Moorish Iberia) after the final collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate of Córdoba in 1031.
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Talgo is a Spanish manufacturer of intercity, standard, and high speed passenger trains.
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Tarraco is the ancient name of the current city of Tarragona (Catalonia, Spain).
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Tartessos (Ταρτησσός) or Tartessus, was a semi-mythical harbor city and the surrounding culture on the south coast of the Iberian Peninsula (in modern Andalusia, Spain), at the mouth of the Guadalquivir River.
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The Arriaga antzokia in basque or Teatro Arriaga in Spanish is an opera house in Bilbao, Spain.
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Teatro Real (Royal Theatre) or simply El Real, as it is known colloquially, is a major opera house located in Madrid, Spain.
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Mount Teide (Pico del Teide,, "Teide Peak") is a volcano on Tenerife in the Canary Islands, Spain.
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Teide National Park (Parque nacional del Teide) is a national park located in Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain).
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Telecommuting, also called telework, teleworking, working from home, mobile work, remote work, and flexible workplace, is a work arrangement in which employees do not commute or travel (e.g. by bus or car) to a central place of work, such as an office building, warehouse, or store.
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Telefónica, S.A. is a Spanish multinational broadband and telecommunications provider with operations in Europe, Asia, and North, Central and South America.
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The Spanish telephone numbering plan is the allocation of telephone numbers in Spain.
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Tenerife is the largest and most populated island of the seven Canary Islands.
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Tenerife South Airport (Aeropuerto de Tenerife Sur), previously known as Tenerife South–Reina Sofia Airport, is the larger of the two international airports located on the island of Tenerife (the other being Tenerife North Airport) and the second busiest in the Canary Islands (after Gran Canaria Airport).
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Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
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Teresa Berganza Vargas OAXS (born on 16 March 1935) is a Spanish mezzo-soprano.
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Saint Teresa of Ávila, also called Saint Teresa of Jesus, baptized as Teresa Sánchez de Cepeda y Ahumada (28 March 15154 October 1582), was a prominent Spanish mystic, Roman Catholic saint, Carmelite nun and author during the Counter Reformation, and theologian of contemplative life through mental prayer.
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The TGV (Train à Grande Vitesse, "high-speed train") is France's intercity high-speed rail service, operated by the SNCF, the state-owned national rail operator.
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The Book of Good Love (El libro de buen amor), considered to be one of the masterpieces of Spanish poetry, is a semi-biographical account of romantic adventures by Juan Ruiz, the Archpriest of Hita, the earliest version of which dates from 1330; the author completed it with revisions and expansions in 1343.
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The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), often informally known as the Mormon Church, is a nontrinitarian, Christian restorationist church that is considered by its members to be the restoration of the original church founded by Jesus Christ.
The phrase "the empire on which the sun never sets" has been used with variations to describe certain global empires that were so extensive that there was always at least one part of their territory that was in daylight.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
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The Portugal News is a national weekly newspaper in English published in Portugal.
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The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
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Theodosius I (Flavius Theodosius Augustus; Θεοδόσιος Αʹ; 11 January 347 – 17 January 395), also known as Theodosius the Great, was Roman Emperor from AD 379 to AD 395, as the last emperor to rule over both the eastern and the western halves of the Roman Empire. On accepting his elevation, he campaigned against Goths and other barbarians who had invaded the empire. His resources were not equal to destroy them, and by the treaty which followed his modified victory at the end of the Gothic War, they were established as Foederati, autonomous allies of the Empire, south of the Danube, in Illyricum, within the empire's borders. He was obliged to fight two destructive civil wars, successively defeating the usurpers Magnus Maximus and Eugenius, not without material cost to the power of the empire. He also issued decrees that effectively made Nicene Christianity the official state church of the Roman Empire."Edict of Thessalonica": See Codex Theodosianus XVI.1.2 He neither prevented nor punished the destruction of prominent Hellenistic temples of classical antiquity, including the Temple of Apollo in Delphi and the Serapeum in Alexandria. He dissolved the order of the Vestal Virgins in Rome. In 393, he banned the pagan rituals of the Olympics in Ancient Greece. After his death, Theodosius' young sons Arcadius and Honorius inherited the east and west halves respectively, and the Roman Empire was never again re-united, though Eastern Roman emperors after Zeno would claim the united title after Julius Nepos' death in 480 AD.
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The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648.
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This is a timeline of notable events during the period of Muslim presence in Iberia, starting with the Umayyad conquest in the 8th century.
Tirant lo Blanch (modern orthography: Tirant lo Blanc) is a chivalric romance written by the Valencian knight Joanot Martorell, finished posthumously by his friend Martí Joan de Galba and published in the city of Valencia in 1490 as an incunabulum edition.
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Tirso de Molina (24 March 1579 – 12 March 1648) was a Spanish Baroque dramatist, poet and Roman Catholic monk.
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The Primate Cathedral of Saint Mary of Toledo (Catedral Primada Santa María de Toledo) is a Roman Catholic church in Toledo, Spain.
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The Toledo School of Translators (Escuela de Traductores de Toledo) is the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
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The Tour de France is an annual male multiple stage bicycle race primarily held in France, while also occasionally making passes through nearby countries.
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The Tower of Hercules (Galician and Torre de Hércules) is an ancient Roman lighthouse on a peninsula about from the centre of A Coruña, Galicia, in north-western Spain.
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A trade route is a logistical network identified as a series of pathways and stoppages used for the commercial transport of cargo.
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Trajan (Imperator Caesar Nerva Trajanus Divi Nervae filius Augustus; 18 September 538August 117 AD) was Roman emperor from 98 to 117AD.
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The transmission of the Greek Classics to ''Latin'' Western Europe during the Middle Ages was a key factor in the development of intellectual life in Western Europe.
The Treaty of Granada was signed and ratified on November 25, 1491 between Boabdil, the sultan of Granada, and Ferdinand and Isabella, the King and Queen of Castile, León, Aragon and Sicily.
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The Treaty of Utrecht, which established the Peace of Utrecht, is a series of individual peace treaties, rather than a single document, signed by the belligerents in the War of the Spanish Succession, in the Dutch city of Utrecht in March and April 1713.
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A tribute (/ˈtrɪbjuːt/) (from Latin tributum, contribution) is wealth, often in kind, that a party gives to another as a sign of respect or, as was often the case in historical contexts, of submission or allegiance.
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A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.
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Tuna pot, marmitako in Basque Country and marmita, marmite or sorropotún in Cantabria is a fish stew that was eaten on tuna fishing boats in the Cantabrian Sea.
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The Turia or Túria (Riu Túria; Río Turia; Turia) is a Spanish river which has its source in the Montes Universales in the mountain ranges of the northwesternmost end of the Sistema Ibérico, Teruel province.
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The UEFA European Championship (known informally as the Euros) is the primary association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Union of European Football Associations (UEFA), determining the continental champion of Europe.
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The Umayyad Caliphate (ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلأُمَوِيَّة, trans. Al-Khilāfatu al-ʾUmawiyyah), also spelt, was the second of the four major caliphates established after the death of Muhammad.
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The Umayyad conquest of Hispania was the initial expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate over Hispania, largely extending from 711 to 788.
Unemployment is a worldwide problem but in Spain it is higher than in other Western European countries.
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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
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UNESCO established its Lists of Intangible Cultural Heritage with the aim of ensuring better protection of important intangible cultural heritages worldwide and the awareness of their significance.
The Union for the Mediterranean (UfM; Union pour la Méditerranée, الاتحاد من أجل المتوسط) is an intergovernmental organization of 43 member states from Europe and the Mediterranean Basin: the 28 EU member states and 15 Mediterranean partner countries from North Africa, Western Asia and Southern Europe.
The Union of Islamic Communities of Spain (UCIDE) is a religious organization with a centered in Madrid.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
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The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
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The University of Palencia was founded by Alfonso VIII at the request of Bishop Tello Téllez de Meneses and was the first university of Spain.
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The University of Salamanca (Universidad de Salamanca) is a Spanish higher education institution, located in the city of Salamanca, west of Madrid, in the autonomous community of Castile and León.
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Aran (previously officially called Val d'Aran) is an administrative entity in Catalonia, Spain, consisting of the Aran Valley, in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida.
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Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
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Valencia Airport in Manises, also known as Manises Airport, is the tenth-busiest Spanish airport in terms of passengers and second in the region after Alicante.
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Valencian (or; endonym: valencià, llengua valenciana, or idioma valencià) is a linguistic variety spoken in the Valencian Community, Spain. In the Valencian Community, Valencian is the traditional language and is co-official with Spanish. It is considered different from Catalan by a slight majority of the people of the Valencian Community (including non-speakers), but this is at odds with the broad academic view, which considers it a dialect of Catalan. A standardized form exists, based on the Southern Valencian dialect. Valencian belongs to the Western group of Catalan dialects. Under the Valencian Statute of Autonomy, the Valencian Academy of the Language (Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua, AVL) has been established as its regulator. The AVL considers Catalan and Valencian to be simply two names for the same language. Some of the most important works of Valencian literature experienced a golden age during the Late Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Important works include Joanot Martorell's chivalric romance Tirant lo Blanch, and Ausiàs March's poetry. The first book produced with movable type in the Iberian Peninsula was printed in the Valencian variety. The earliest recorded chess game with modern rules for moves of the queen and bishop was in the Valencian poem Scachs d'amor (1475).
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The Valencian Community, or the Valencian Country, is an autonomous community of Spain.
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Valencian pilota (pilota valenciana "Valencian ball") is a traditional handball sport played in the Valencian Community.
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Valencians (valencians, valencianos) are an indigenous Romance ethnic group whose homeland is the Valencian Community, which is recognised as an historical nation in eastern Spain.
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Valladolid is a city in Spain and the de facto capital of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
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The Vandals were a large East Germanic tribe or group of tribes that first appear in history inhabiting present-day southern Poland.
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The Vettones (Greek: Ouettones) were a pre-Roman people of the Iberian Peninsula of possibly Celtic ethnicity.
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Vicente Pío Marcelino Cirilo Aleixandre y Merlo (26 April 1898 – 14 December 1984) was a Spanish poet who was born in Seville in 1898.
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Vicente Blasco Ibáñez (29 January 1867 – 28 January 1928) was a journalist, politician and best-selling Spanish novelist in various genres whose most widespread and lasting fame in the English-speaking world is from Hollywood films adapted from his works.
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Vigo is a city and municipality in the province of Pontevedra, in Galicia, northwest Spain on the Atlantic Ocean.
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The Visigothic Kingdom or Kingdom of the Visigoths (Regnum Gothorum) was a kingdom that occupied what is now southwestern France and the Iberian Peninsula from the 5th to the 8th centuries.
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The Visigoths (Visigothi, Wisigothi, Vesi, Visi, Wesi, Wisi; Visigoti) were the western branches of the nomadic tribes of Germanic peoples referred to collectively as the Goths.
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The massacre of 3 March 1976 in Vitoria is the massacre that took place on March 3, 1976, in the Basque capital during the so-called Spanish Transition: in a day of strike, the Spanish armed police used tear gas to force the workers out of the parish where they were gathering in assembly.
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Vitoria-Gasteiz is the seat of government and the capital city of the Basque Autonomous Community and of the province of Araba/Álava in northern Spain.
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The Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival has been celebrated annually in July since 1977, in Vitoria-Gasteiz, Spain.
The Vizcaya Bridge (Bizkaiko Zubia in Basque, Puente de Vizcaya in Spanish) is a transporter bridge that links the towns of Portugalete and Las Arenas (part of Getxo) in the Biscay province of Spain, crossing the mouth of the Nervion River.
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A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
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Volver (meaning "to go back") is a 2006 Spanish drama film written and directed by Pedro Almodóvar.
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Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
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The War of the First Coalition (Guerre de la Première Coalition) is the traditional name of the wars that several European powers fought between 1792 and 1797 against the French First Republic.
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The War of the Pyrenees, also known as War of Roussillon or War of the Convention, was the Pyrenean front of the First Coalition's war against the First French Republic.
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The War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714) was a European conflict of the early 18th century, triggered by the death of the childless Charles II of Spain in November 1700.
The War of the Third Coalition was a European conflict spanning the years 1803 to 1806.
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Water supply is the provision of water by public utilities commercial organisations, community endeavors or by individuals, usually via a system of pumps and pipes.
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Wendell Cox is an American urban policy analyst and academic, known as a leading proponent of the use of the private car over rail projects.
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Western European Summer Time (WEST) is a summer daylight saving time scheme, 1 hour ahead of Coordinated Universal Time.
Western European Time (WET, UTC±00:00) is a time zone covering parts of western and northwestern Europe.
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Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
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The Western world refers to various nations depending on the context, most often including at least part of Europe and the Americas.
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White Latin Americans or European Latin Americans are Latin Americans who are considered white, typically due to European, or in some cases Levantine, descent.
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Women's suffrage (colloquial: female suffrage, woman suffrage or women's right to vote) --> is the right of women to vote in elections; a person who advocates the extension of suffrage, particularly to women, is called a suffragist.
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Wool is the textile fiber obtained from sheep and other animals, including cashmere and mohair from goats, qiviut from muskoxen, angora from rabbits, and other types of wool from camelids.
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The World Bank Group (WBG) (Groupe de la Banque mondiale) is a family of five international organizations that make leveraged loans to developing countries.
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The World Cities Summit is an international conference series on public governance and the sustainable development of cities.
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The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
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A World Heritage site is a landmark or area which is selected by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) as having cultural, historical, scientific or other form of significance, and is legally protected by international treaties.
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World Mayor is a biennial award organized by The City Mayors Foundation since 2004.
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The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization that regulates international trade.
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Yale University Press is a university press associated with Yale University.
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Youth unemployment in Spain is the unemployment of youth (generally ages 15–24) and is different from the general unemployment of Spain.
Zara is a Spanish fast fashion (clothing and accessories) retailer based in Arteixo (A Coruña) in Galicia.
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Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
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.cat is a sponsored top-level domain intended to be used to highlight the Catalan language and culture.
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.es is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Spain.
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.eu is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the European Union (EU).
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.eus is the top-level domain for the Basque language.
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.gal is a GeoTLD intended to highlight the Galician people, Galician language, and Galician culture.
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The 1833 territorial division of Spain divided Spain into provinces, classified into "historic regions" (regiones históricas).
The 1977 Atocha massacre, a part of neofascist terrorism in Spain, was an attack during the Spanish transition to democracy after the death of Franco in 1975, killing five and injuring four.
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The 1981 Spanish coup d'état attempt (Intento de Golpe de Estado de España de 1981), known in Spain by the numeronym 23-F and also known as the Tejerazo was an attempted coup d'état in Spain on 23 February 1981.
The 1992 Summer Olympic Games (Spanish: Juegos Olímpicos de Verano de 1992; Catalan: Jocs Olímpics d'estiu de 1992), officially known as the Games of the XXV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event celebrated in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain in 1992.
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The 19th century was a century that began on January 1, 1801, and ended on December 31, 1900.
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The meridian 19° west of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Greenland, Iceland, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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The 2004 Madrid train bombings (also known in Spain as 11-M) were nearly simultaneous, coordinated bombings against the Cercanías commuter train system of Madrid, Spain, on the morning of 11 March 2004 – three days before Spain's general elections.
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The 2008–present Spanish financial crisis, also known as the Great Recession in Spain or the Great Spanish Depression, began in 2008 during the world financial crisis of 2007–08.
The 2010 FIFA World Cup was the 19th FIFA World Cup, the world championship for men's national association football teams.
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The 26th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 26 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The 44th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 44 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
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The meridian 5° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Europe, Africa, the Atlantic Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
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Espagna, Espainia, Espainiako Erresuma, Espana, Espania, Espanya, España, Espańa, Etymology of Spain, ISO 3166-1:ES, Islands of Spain, Kingdom of Spain, Kingdom of the Spains, Mountains of Spain, Name of Spain, Regne d'Espanha, Regne d'Espanya, Reino de Espana, Reino de España, Republica de españa, SPAIN, Spaniens, Spanish Kingdom, Spein.