343 relations: Abolitionism, Absolute monarchy, Acapulco, Act of Independence of Central America, Admirable Campaign, Age of Enlightenment, Agustín Agualongo, Agustín de Iturbide, Alhóndiga de Granaditas, American Revolution, Americas, Ancón District, Ancien Régime, Andalusia, Andes, Andrés de Santa Cruz, Antonio de Quintanilla, Antonio González de Balcarce, Antonio José de Sucre, Antonio Nariño, Antonio Valero de Bernabé, Argentine Declaration of Independence, Argentine War of Independence, Army of the Andes, Army of the North, Army of the Three Guarantees, Atlantic Revolutions, Bajío, Balkanization, Banda Oriental, Basilio García, Battle of Ayacucho, Battle of Boyacá, Battle of Calderón Bridge, Battle of Carabobo, Battle of Chacabuco, Battle of Junín, Battle of Las Piedras (1811), Battle of Maipú, Battle of Ocaña, Battle of Pichincha, Battle of Rancagua, Battle of Salta, Battle of San Lorenzo, Battle of Tucumán, Bernardo de Velasco, Bernardo O'Higgins, Body politic, Bogotá, Bolívar's 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Taylor (historian), William Brown (admiral), 1811 Independence Movement, 1815, 1819. Expand index (293 more) » « Shrink index
Abolitionism is a general term which describes the movement to end slavery.
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Acapulco de Juárez, commonly called Acapulco, is a city, municipality and major seaport in the state of Guerrero on the Pacific coast of Mexico, south of Mexico City.
The Act of Independence of Central America, also known as the Act of Independence of Guatemala, is the legal document by which the Provincial Council of the Province of Guatemala proclaimed the independence of Central America from the Spanish Empire and invited the other provinces of the Captaincy General of Guatemala to send envoys to a congress to decide the form of the region's independence.
The Admirable Campaign was a military action led by Simón Bolívar in which the provinces of Mérida, Barinas, Trujillo and Caracas were conquered by the independentists.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Agustín Agualongo (1780–1824) was a commander on the royalist side in the wars for Colombian independence.
Agustín Cosme Damián de Iturbide y Arámburu (27 September 178319 July 1824), also known as Augustine of Mexico, was a Mexican army general and politician.
The Alhóndiga de Granaditas (Regional Museum of Guanajuato) (public grain exchange) is an old grain storage building in Guanajuato City, Mexico.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Ancón is a district of northern Lima Province in Peru.
The Ancien Régime (French for "old regime") was the political and social system of the Kingdom of France from the Late Middle Ages (circa 15th century) until 1789, when hereditary monarchy and the feudal system of French nobility were abolished by the.
Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.
The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.
Andrés de Santa Cruz y Calahumana (December 5, 1792 in Huarina, Bolivia – September 25, 1865 in Beauvoir, France) served as the seventh President of Peru during 1827, the Interim President of Peru from 1836 to 1838 and President of Bolivia (1829–39).
Antonio Quintanilla (Pámanes, Spain; 1787 - † Almería, Spain; 1863) was a Spanish brigadier and Governor of Chiloé from 1820-1826.
Antonio González de Balcarce (June 24, 1774 – August 15, 1819) was an Argentine military commander in the early 19th century.
Antonio José de Sucre y Alcalá (1795–1830), known as the "Gran Mariscal de Ayacucho" ("Grand Marshal of Ayacucho"), was a Venezuelan independence leader who served as the fourth President of Peru and the second President of Bolivia.
Antonio Amador José de Nariño Bernardo del Casal (Santa Fé de Bogotá, Colombia 1765 – 1824 Villa de Leyva, Colombia)Hector, M., and A. Ardila.
Antonio Valero de Bernabé Pacheco (October 26, 1790 – June 7, 1863), a.k.a. The Liberator from Puerto Rico, was a Puerto Rican military leader.
What today is commonly referred as the Independence of Argentina was declared on July 9, 1816 by the Congress of Tucumán.
The Argentine War of Independence was fought from 1810 to 1818 by Argentine patriotic forces under Manuel Belgrano, Juan José Castelli and José de San Martín against royalist forces loyal to the Spanish crown.
The Army of the Andes (Ejército de los Andes) was a military force created by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Argentina) and mustered by general José de San Martín in his campaign to free Chile from the Spanish Empire.
The Army of the North (Ejército del Norte), contemporaneously called Army of Peru, was one of the armies deployed by the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in the Spanish American wars of independence.
At the end of the Mexican War of Independence, the Army of the Three Guarantees (Ejército Trigarante or Ejército de las Tres Garantías) was the name given to the army after the unification of the Spanish troops led by Agustín de Iturbide and the Mexican insurgent troops of Vicente Guerrero, consolidating Mexico's independence from Spain.
The Atlantic Revolutions were a revolutionary wave in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.
The Bajío (lowlands) is a region of West North-Central Mexico that includes parts of the states of Aguascalientes, Jalisco (Centro-Los Altos), Guanajuato, and Querétaro.
Balkanization, or Balkanisation, is a geopolitical term used to describe the process of fragmentation or division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or uncooperative with one another.
Banda Oriental, or more fully Banda Oriental del Uruguay (Eastern Bank), was the name of the South American territories east of the Uruguay River and north of Río de la Plata that comprise the modern nation of Uruguay; the modern state of Brazil Rio Grande do Sul; and some of Santa Catarina, Brazil.
Basilio Antonio García y Velasco (Logroño, 1791 - Toulon, 1844), known as "Don Basilio de Logroño" in the newspapers of that time, was a Spanish soldier and Carlist military commander.
The Battle of Ayacucho (Batalla de Ayacucho) was a decisive military encounter during the Peruvian War of Independence. It was the battle that secured the independence of Peru and ensured independence for the rest of South America. In Peru it is considered the end of the Spanish American wars of independence, although the campaign of the victor Antonio José de Sucre, continued through 1825 in Upper Peru and the siege of the fortresses Chiloé and Callao finally ended in 1826. As of late 1824, Royalists still had control of most of the south of Peru as well as of Real Felipe Fort in the port of Callao. On 9 December 1824, the Battle of Ayacucho (Battle of La Quinua) took place at Pampa de Ayacucho (or Quinua), a few kilometers away from Ayacucho, near the town of Quinua between Royalist and Independentist forces. Independentist forces were led by Simón Bolívar's lieutenant Sucre. Viceroy José de la Serna was wounded, and after the battle second commander-in-chief José de Canterac signed the final capitulation of the Royalist army. The modern Peruvian Army celebrates the anniversary of this battle.
The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle which ensured success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.
The Battle of Calderón Bridge (Batalla del Puente de Calderón) was a decisive battle in the Mexican War of Independence.
The Battle of Carabobo, on 24 June 1821, was fought between independence fighters, led by Venezuelan General Simón Bolívar, and the Royalist forces, led by Spanish Field Marshal Miguel de la Torre.
The Battle of Chacabuco, fought during the Chilean War of Independence, occurred on February 12, 1817.
The Battle of Junín was a military engagement of the Peruvian War of Independence, fought in the highlands of the Junín Region on August 6, 1824.
The Battle of Las Piedras was fought on May 18, 1811 as part of the Uruguayan struggle for independence.
The Battle of Maipú (Batalla de Maipú) was a battle fought near Santiago, Chile on April 5, 1818 between South American rebels and Spanish royalists, during the Chilean War of Independence.
The Battle of Ocaña was fought on 19 November 1809 between French forces under Marshal Nicolas Jean de Dieu Soult, Duke of Dalmatia and King Joseph Bonaparte and the Spanish army under Juan Carlos de Aréizaga, which suffered its greatest single defeat in the Peninsular War.
The Battle of Pichincha took place on 24 May 1822, on the slopes of the Pichincha volcano, 3,500 meters above sea-level, right next to the city of Quito, in modern Ecuador.
The Battle of Rancagua also known as the Disaster of Rancagua occurred on October 1, 1814, to October 2, 1814, when the Spanish Army under the command of Mariano Osorio defeated the rebel Chilean forces led by Bernardo O’Higgins.
The Battle of Salta took place on February 20, 1813 on the plains of Castañares, north of the present-day Argentina city of Salta, during the Argentine War of Independence.
The Battle of San Lorenzo was fought on February 3, 1813 in San Lorenzo, Argentina, then part of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata.
The Battle of Tucumán was a battle fought on 24 and 25 September 1812 near the Argentine city of San Miguel de Tucumán, during the Argentine War of Independence.
Bernardo Luis de Velasco y Huidobro (20 August 1742 –) was a figure in the Spanish American wars of independence, the last Spanish governor of Paraguay and a commander of royalist military forces in the war.
Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme (1778–1842) was a Chilean independence leader who freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence.
The body politic is a medieval metaphor that likens a nation to a corporation which had serious historical repercussions throughout recent history and therefore giving the Crown: "As a legal entity today the Crown as executive is regarded as a corporation sole or aggregate", a corporate entity.
Bogotá, officially Bogotá, Distrito Capital, abbreviated Bogotá, D.C., and formerly known as Santafé de Bogotá between 1991 and 2000, is the capital and largest city of Colombia, administered as the Capital District, although often thought of as part of Cundinamarca.
Bolívar's campaign to liberate New Granada of 1819-1820 was part of the Colombian and Venezuelan wars of independence and was one of the many military campaigns fought by Simón Bolívar.
The Bolivian war of independence began in 1809 with the establishment of government juntas in Sucre and La Paz, after the Chuquisaca Revolution and La Paz revolution.
The Bourbon Reforms (Castilian: Reformas Borbónicas) were a set of economic and political legislation promulgated by the Spanish Crown under various kings of the House of Bourbon, mainly in the 18th century.
The British intervention in the Spanish-American emancipation are all the military, political and diplomatic aid measures that start from the United Kingdom and its colonies, in favor of the insurgents or revolutionaries, against the Spanish dominions in America.
The British Legion or British Legions were foreign volunteer units that fought under Simón Bolívar against Spain for the independence of Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador and José de San Martín for the independence of Peru in the Spanish American wars of independence.
A cabildo or ayuntamiento was a Spanish colonial, and early post-colonial, administrative council which governed a municipality.
El Callao is a city in Peru.
Camilo Torres Tenorio (November 22, 1766 – October 5, 1816) was a Colombian politician.
The General Captaincy of Chile (Capitanía General de Chile) or Gobernación de Chile, was a territory of the Spanish Empire, from 1541 to 1818.
The Captaincy General of Cuba (Capitanía General de Cuba) was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire created in 1607 as part of Habsburg Spain's attempt to better defend the Caribbean against foreign powers, which also involved creating captaincies general in Puerto Rico, Guatemala and Yucatán.
The Captaincy General of Guatemala (Capitanía General de Guatemala), also known as the Kingdom of Guatemala (Spanish: Reino de Guatemala), was an administrative division of the Spanish Empire, under the viceroyalty of New Spain in Central America, including the present-day nations of Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, El Salvador, Belize and Guatemala, and the Mexican state of Chiapas.
The Captaincy General of Puerto Rico (Capitanía General de Puerto Rico) was an administrative district of the Spanish Empire, created in 1580 to provide better military management of the island of Puerto Rico, previously under the direct rule of a simple governor and the jurisdiction of Audiencia of Santo Domingo.
The Captaincy General of Venezuela (Capitanía General de Venezuela) was an administrative district of colonial Spain, created on September 8, 1777, through the Royal Decree of Graces of 1777, to provide more autonomy for the provinces of Venezuela, previously under the jurisdiction of the Viceroyalty of New Granada and the Audiencia of Santo Domingo.
The Capture of Valdivia was a battle in the Chilean War of Independence between Spanish forces commanded by Colonel Manuel Montoya and the Chilean forces under the command of Lord Cochrane, held on 3 and 4 February 1820.
Carlos María de Alvear (October 25, 1789 in Santo Ángel, Rio Grande do Sul – November 3, 1852 in New York), was an Argentine soldier and statesman, Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata in 1815.
Carlos Soublette (15 December 1789 – 11 February 1870) was the President of Venezuela from 1837 to 1839 and 1843 to 1847 and a hero of the Venezuelan War of Independence.
A casta was a term to describe mixed-race individuals in Spanish America, resulting from unions of European whites (españoles), Amerinds (indios), and Africans (negros).
A caudillo (Old Spanish: cabdillo, from Latin capitellum, diminutive of caput "head") was a type of personalist leader wielding military and political power.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
A ceasefire (or truce), also called cease fire, is a temporary stoppage of a war in which each side agrees with the other to suspend aggressive actions.
A centralized government (also centralised government (Oxford spelling)) is one in which power or legal authority is exerted or coordinated by a de facto political executive to which '''federal states''', local authorities, and smaller units are considered subject.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Chilean War of Independence was a war between pro-independence Chilean criollos seeking political and economic independence from Spain and royalist criollos supporting continued allegiance to the Captaincy General of Chile and membership of the Spanish Empire.
The Chiloé Archipelago (Archipiélago de Chiloé) is a group of islands lying off the coast of Chile, in the Los Lagos Region.
The Chuquisaca Revolution was a popular uprising on 25 May 1809 against the governor and intendant of Chuquisaca (today Sucre), Ramón García León de Pizarro.
Cisplatina Province or Cisplatine Province (Província Cisplatina) was a Brazilian province in existence from 1821 to 1828 created by the Luso-Brazilian annexation of the Oriental Province.
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
Compensated emancipation was a method of ending slavery in countries where slavery was legal.
The Congress of Angostura was summoned by Simón Bolívar and took place in Angostura (today Ciudad Bolívar) during the wars of Independence of Colombia and Venezuela.
The Congress of Cúcuta was a constituent assembly where Gran Colombia was created.
Conservatism is a political and social philosophy promoting traditional social institutions in the context of culture and civilization.
The Constitution of Argentina is the basic governing document of Argentina, and the primary source of existing law in Argentina.
Conventional warfare is a form of warfare conducted by using conventional weapons and battlefield tactics between two or more states in open confrontation.
The Cortes Generales (General Courts) are the bicameral legislature of the Kingdom of Spain, consisting of two chambers: the Congress of Deputies (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house).
The Cádiz Cortes was the first national assembly to claim sovereignty in Spain.
The Council of Castile (Real y Supremo Consejo de Castilla), known earlier as the Royal Council (Consejo Real), was a ruling body and key part of the domestic government of the Crown of Castile, second only to the monarch himself.
The Criollo is a term which, in modern times, has diverse meanings, but is most commonly associated with Latin Americans who are of full or near full Spanish descent, distinguishing them from both multi-racial Latin Americans and Latin Americans of post-colonial (and not necessarily Spanish) European immigrant origin.
Cristina Elisabet Fernández de Kirchner (born 19 February 1953), sometimes referred to by her initials CFK, is an Argentine lawyer and politician, who served as President of Argentina from 2007 to 2015.
The Crossing of the Andes (Cruce de los Andes) was one of the most important feats in the Argentine and Chilean wars of independence, in which a combined army of Argentine soldiers and Chilean exiles invaded Chile leading to Chile's liberation from Spanish rule.
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
Cusco (Cuzco,; Qusqu or Qosqo), often spelled Cuzco, is a city in southeastern Peru, near the Urubamba Valley of the Andes mountain range.
The Province of Cuyo was a historical Province of Argentina.
David Bushnell (August 30, 1740 – 1824 or 1826), of Westbrook, Connecticut, was an American inventor, a patriot, a scholar, and a veteran of the Revolutionary War.
The Decree of War to the Death, in Spanish Decreto de Guerra a Muerte, was a decree issued by the South American independentist leader, Simón Bolívar, which permitted murder and any atrocities whatsoever to be committed against civilians born in Spain (or the Canary Islands), other than those actively assisting South American independence, and furthermore exonerated Latin Americans who had already committed such murders and atrocities.
A deputy is a legislator in many countries, particularly those with legislatures styled as a 'Chamber of Deputies' or 'National Assembly'.
Diplomatic recognition in international law is a unilateral political act with domestic and international legal consequences, whereby a state acknowledges an act or status of another state or government in control of a state (may be also a recognized state).
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
The Ecuadorian War of Independence was fought from 1820 to 1822 between several South American armies and Spain over control of the lands of the Royal Audience of Quito, a Spanish colonial administrative jurisdiction from which would eventually emerge the modern Republic of Ecuador.
Ediciones Akal is a Spanish publisher founded in Madrid in 1972 by Ramón Akal González.
The ideas of the Age of Enlightenment (in Spanish, Ilustración) came to Spain in the eighteenth century with the new Bourbon dynasty, following the death of the last Habsburg monarch, Charles II, in 1700.
An entrepôt or transshipment port is a port, city, or trading post where merchandise may be imported, stored or traded, usually to be exported again.
Francisco Javier Eugenio de Santa Cruz y Espejo (Royal Audiencia of Quito, 1747–95) was a medical pioneer, writer and lawyer of mestizo origin in colonial Ecuador.
Fatherland is the nation of one's "fathers", "forefathers" or "ancestors".
Félix María Calleja del Rey Bruder Losada Campaño y Montero de Espinosa (Félix María Calleja del Rey, primer conde de Calderón) (November 1, 1753, Medina del Campo, Spain – July 24, 1828, Valencia, Spain) was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of New Spain from March 4, 1813, to September 20, 1816, during Mexico's War of Independence.
The Federal Republic of Central America (República Federal de Centroamérica), also called the United Provinces of Central America (Provincias Unidas del Centro de América) in its first year of creation, was a sovereign state in Central America consisting of the territories of the former Captaincy General of Guatemala of New Spain.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
Fernando Miyares y Gonzales (sometimes, Fernando Miyares Pérez y Bernal) was a Cuban Captain General, born in Santiago de Cuba, in 1749.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
The Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) was a short-lived monarchy and the first independent post-colonial state in Mexico.
The First Republic of Venezuela (Primera República de Venezuela in Spanish) was the first independent government of Venezuela, lasting from July 5, 1811, to July 25, 1812.
The first Upper Peru campaign was a military campaign of the Argentine War of Independence, which took place in 1810.
The period between 1810 and 1816 in the Viceroyalty of New Granada (which included present-day Colombia) was marked by such intense conflicts over the nature of the new government or governments that it became known as la Patria Boba (the Foolish Fatherland).
Francisco Ballesteros (1770 in Zaragoza – June 29, 1832 in Paris) emerged as a career Spanish General during the Peninsular War.
Sebastián Francisco de Miranda y Rodríguez de Espinoza (March 28, 1750 – July 14, 1816), commonly known as Francisco de Miranda, was a Venezuelan military leader and revolutionary.
Francisco José de Paula Santander y Omaña (Villa del Rosario de Cúcuta, Colombia, April 2, 1792 – Santafé de Bogotá, Colombia, May 6, 1840), was a Colombian military and political leader during the 1810–1819 independence war of the United Provinces of New Granada (present-day Colombia).
Francisco Javier de Elío (Pamplona, 1767 – Valencia, 1822), was a Spanish soldier, governor of Montevideo and the last Viceroy of the Río de la Plata.
Francisco Javier Venegas de Saavedra y Ramínez de Arenzana, 1st Marquess of Reunión and New Spain (1754 in Zafra, Badajoz, Spain – 1838 in Zafra, Spain) was a Spanish general in the Spanish War of Independence and later viceroy of New Spain from September 14, 1810 to March 4, 1813, during the first phase of the Mexican War of Independence.
Francisco Casimiro Marcó del Pont Ángel Díaz y Méndez (1770 – May 19, 1819) was a Spanish soldier and the last Governor of Chile.
Francisco José Montalvo y Ambulodi Arriola y Casabant Valdespino (1754 in Havana – 1822 in Madrid) was a Spanish soldier, colonial administrator and politician.
Francisco Tomás Morales (Agüimes Carrizal, Canary Islands, December 20, 1781 or 1783 – Las Palmas, Canary Islands, October 5, 1845), was a Spanish military, and the last of that country to hold the post of Captain General of Venezuela, reaching the rank of field marshal during the Venezuelan War of Independence.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The French Revolutionary Wars were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution.
A frigate is any of several types of warship, the term having been used for ships of various sizes and roles over the last few centuries.
Fuero, Fur, Foro or Foru is a Spanish legal term and concept.
Fulgencio Yegros y Franco de Torres (born 1780 in Quyquyhó, died 1821) was Paraguayan soldier and first head of state of independent Paraguay.
Gabino or Gavino Gaínza y Fernández de Medrano (October 20, 1753 or 1760, depending on the source, Guipúzcoa, País Vasco, Spain – c. 1829, México City) was a Spanish military officer and politician in Spain's American colonies.
Gabriel J. de Yermo (1757 Sodupe, near Bilbao, Spain – 1813, Mexico City) was a wealthy landowner in New Spain, leader of the anti-independence party, and leader of the coup that overthrew Viceroy José de Iturrigaray in 1808.
Gabriel Salazar Vergara, (Santiago 31 January 1936) is a Chilean historian.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Gaspar de Vigodet (also called Gaspar de Bigodé) (1747–1834) was a Spanish military officer with French roots who served as last Royalist Governor of Montevideo.
Government Assembly of the Kingdom of Chile (September 18, 1810 – July 4, 1811), also known as the First Government Junta, was the organization established to rule Chile following the deposition and imprisonment of King Ferdinand VII by Napoleon Bonaparte.
Gran Colombia ("Great Colombia") is a name used today for the state that encompassed much of northern South America and part of southern Central America from 1819 to 1831.
General Gregor MacGregor (24 December 1786 – 4 December 1845) was a Scottish soldier, adventurer and confidence trickster who attempted from 1821 to 1837 to draw British and French investors and settlers to "Poyais", a fictional Central American territory that he claimed to rule as "Cazique".
Guadalupe Victoria (29 September 1786 – 21 March 1843), born José Miguel Ramón Adaucto Fernández y Félix, was a Mexican general and political leader who fought for independence against the Spanish Empire in the Mexican War of Independence. He was a deputy in the Mexican Chamber of Deputies for Durango and a member of the Supreme Executive Power following the downfall of the First Mexican Empire. After the adoption of the Constitution of 1824, Victoria was elected as the first President of the United Mexican States. As President he established diplomatic relations with the United Kingdom, the United States, the Federal Republic of Central America, and Gran Colombia. He also abolished slavery, founded the National Museum, promoted education, and ratified the border with the United States of America. He decreed the expulsion of the Spaniards remaining in the country and defeated the last Spanish stronghold in the castle of San Juan de Ulúa. Victoria was the only president who completed his full term in more than 30 years of an independent Mexico. He died in 1843 at the age of 56 from epilepsy in the fortress of Perote, where he was receiving medical treatment. On 8 April of the same year, it was decreed that his name would be written in golden letters in the session hall of the Chamber of Deputies.
Guayaquil, officially Santiago de Guayaquil (St.), is the largest and the most populous city in Ecuador, with around 2 million people in the metropolitan area, as well as the nation's main port.
Guerra a muerte (lit. English: War to the death) is a term coined by Benjamín Vicuña Mackenna and used in Chilean historiography to describe the irregular, no-quarter warfare that broke out from 1819 to 1821 during the Chilean War of Independence.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
An hacienda (or; or), in the colonies of the Spanish Empire, is an estate, similar in form to a Roman villa.
Haiti (Haïti; Ayiti), officially the Republic of Haiti and formerly called Hayti, is a sovereign state located on the island of Hispaniola in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean Sea.
Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
Historia is a peer-reviewed academic journal specialising in the history of the Americas and Chile.
The history of Mexico, a country in the southern portion of North America, covers a period of more than three millennia.
The history of South America is the study of the past, particularly the written record, oral histories, and traditions, passed down from generation to generation on the continent of South America.
Spain in the 19th century was a country in turmoil.
The history of transport is largely one of technological innovation.
The Holy Alliance (Heilige Allianz; Священный союз, Svyashchennyy soyuz; also called the Grand Alliance) was a coalition created by the monarchist great powers of Russia, Austria and Prussia.
Huacho is a city in Peru, capital of the Huaura Province and capital of the Lima Region.
Ignacio José de Allende y Unzaga (January 21, 1769 – June 26, 1811), born Ignacio Allende y Unzaga, was a captain of the Spanish Army in Mexico who came to sympathize with the Mexican independence movement.
Ignacio López Rayón (July 31, 1773 in Tlalpujahua, Intendancy of Valladolid (present-day Michoacán), New Spain – February 2, 1832 in Mexico City) was a general that led the insurgent forces of his country after Miguel Hidalgo's death, during the first years of the Mexican War of Independence.
The Independence of Brazil comprised a series of political and military events that occurred in 1821–1824, most of which involved disputes between Brazil and Portugal regarding the call for independence presented by the Brazilian Empire.
Indigenous peoples of Mexico (pueblos indígenas de México), Native Mexicans (nativos mexicanos), or Mexican Native Americans (Mexicanos nativo americanos), are those who are part of communities that trace their roots back to populations and communities that existed in what is now Mexico prior to the arrival of Europeans.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.
The insurgent privateers (Spanish: corsarios insurgentes) were private armed vessels recruited by the insurgent governments during the Spanish American wars of independence to destroy Spanish trade and capture Spanish merchant vessels.
Irregular warfare is defined in US joint doctrine as “A violent struggle among state and non-state actors for legitimacy and influence over the relevant populations.” Irregular warfare favors indirect and asymmetric warfare approaches, though it may employ the full range of military and other capabilities, in order to erode the adversary’s power, influence, and will.
Isidro Barradas Valdés was a Spanish general sent to Mexico in 1829, eight years after Mexican independence in an ultimately unsuccessful attempt to reconquer the country for the Spanish Crown.
Jerónimo Valdés (1784–1855) was a Spanish military figure and administrator.
Jeremy Adelman (born 1960) is the Henry Charles Lea Professor of History at Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA, where he is also the director of the Global History Lab.
Joaquín de la Pezuela y Sánchez, 1st Marquess of Viluma, OIC, LCSF, LH (1761–1830) was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of Peru during the War of Independence.
Brigadier José Antonio de Pareja y Mariscal (December 7, 1757 in Cabra, Spain – May 21, 1813 in Chillán, Chile) was a senior Spanish naval officer.
José Antonio Páez Herrera (13 June 1790 – 6 May 1873), commonly known as José Antonio Páez, was a Venezuelan leader who fought against the Spanish Crown for Simón Bolívar during the Venezuelan War of Independence.
Jose Antonio Arizabalo Orobio was a Spanish military, born in Guipúzcoa, still a child at the age of seven he moved with his family to Venezuela, and played an important role in the Spanish American wars of independence.
José Bernardo de Tagle y Portocarrero, the Marquis of Torre Tagle (21 March 1779, Lima – 26 September 1825 El Callao), was a Peruvian soldier and politician who served as the Interim President of Peru in 1823 as well as the fifth President of Peru from 1823 to 1824.
José de Bustamante y Guerra (1 April 1759 in Corvera de Toranzo, Cantabria´, Spain – 10 March 1825 in Madrid, Spain), sometimes referred to simply as Bustamante, was a Spanish naval officer, explorer, and politician.
José de Canterac (1779 – Casteljaloux, Lot-et-Garone, France, April 13, 1835) was a Spanish general of French origin who fought in the Spanish American wars of independence.
José de Iturrigaray (in full, José Joaquín Vicente de Iturrigaray y Aróstegui) (1742, Cádiz, Spain – 1815, Madrid) was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of New Spain, from January 4, 1803 to September 16, 1808, during a period of turbulence.
José Mariano de la Cruz de la Riva Agüero y Sánchez Boquete Marquess De Montealegre de Aulestia (3 May 1783, Lima, Peru – 21 May 1858, Lima) was a Peruvian soldier, politician, and historian who served as the 1st President of Peru and 2nd President of North Peru.
José de la Serna e Hinojosa, 1st Count of los Andes (José de la Serna e Hinojosa, primer conde de los Andes) (1770 – 1832) was a Spanish general and colonial official.
José Francisco de San Martín y Matorras (25 February 1778 – 17 August 1850), known simply as José de San Martín or El Libertador of Argentina, Chile and Peru, was an Argentine general and the prime leader of the southern part of South America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire who served as the Protector of Peru.
José Félix Ribas (Caracas, 19 September 1775 – Tucupido, 31 January 1815), was a Venezuelan independence leader and hero of the Venezuelan War of Independence.
José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, 1st Marquis of La Concordia (José Fernando de Abascal y Sousa, primer Marqués de la Concordia), (sometimes spelled Souza) (June 3, 1743, Oviedo, Asturias, Spain – June 30, 1821, Madrid) was a Spanish military officer and colonial administrator in America.
José Gervasio Artigas Arnal (June 19, 1764 – September 23, 1850) was a national hero of Uruguay, sometimes called "the father of Uruguayan nationhood".
José Joaquín de Olmedo y Maruri (March 20, 1780 – February 19, 1847) was President of Ecuador from March 6, 1845 to December 8, 1845.
José Manuel de Goyeneche y Barreda (Arequipa, Viceroyalty of Peru, June 12, 1776 - Madrid, October 10, 1846) was a Spanish soldier and diplomat.
José María Teclo Morelos Pérez y Pavón (September 30, 1765, City of Valladolid, now Morelia, Michoacán – December 22, 1815, San Cristóbal Ecatepec, State of México) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel leader who led the Mexican War of Independence movement, assuming its leadership after the execution of Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla in 1811.
José Miguel Carrera Verdugo (October 15, 1785 – September 4, 1821) was a Chilean general, member of the prominent Carrera family, and considered one of the founders of independent Chile.
Admiral José Prudencio Padilla López (19 March 1784, in Riohacha, Colombia – 2 February 1828) was a Colombian military leader who fought in the Spanish American wars of independence.
Don José Ramón Rodil y Campillo, 1st Marquis of Rodil and 3rd Viscount of Trobo (February 5, 1789 in Santa María de Trobo, Lugo Province – February 20, 1853 in Madrid) was a Spanish general and statesman, born in Santa María del Trovo, Galicia region.
José Casimiro Rondeau Pereyra (March 4, 1773 – November 18, 1844) was a general and politician in Argentina and Uruguay in the early 19th century.
José Tadeo Monagas Burgos (28 October 1784 – 18 November 1868) was President of Venezuela 1847–1851 and 1855–1858, and a hero of the Venezuelan War of Independence.
José Tomás Boves (Oviedo, Asturias, September 18, 1782 – Urica, Venezuela, December 5, 1814), was a royalist caudillo of the llanos during the Venezuelan War of Independence, particularly remembered for his use of brutality and atrocities against those who supported Venezuelan independence.
Joseph-Napoléon Bonaparte, born Giuseppe Buonaparte (7 January 1768 – 28 July 1844) was a French diplomat and nobleman, the elder brother of Napoleon Bonaparte, who made him King of Naples and Sicily (1806–1808, as Giuseppe I), and later King of Spain (1808–1813, as José I).
Juan Aldama (January 3, 1774 in San Miguel el Grande, Guanajuato – June 26, 1811 in Chihuahua) was a Mexican revolutionary rebel soldier during the Mexican War of Independence in 1810.
Juan Domingo de Monteverde y Rivas (born Juan Domingo de Monteverde; 2 April 1773 in San Cristóbal de La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain15 September 1832 in San Fernando, Cádiz, Spain), commonly known as Domingo de Monteverde, was a Spanish soldier, governor and Captain General of Venezuela from June 1812 to 8 August 1813.
Grand Marshal Juan Gregorio de Las Heras (July 11, 1780 – February 15, 1866) was an Argentine soldier who took part in the Spanish American wars of independence and was also a governor of the province of Buenos Aires.
Juan José Castelli (July 19, 1764 – October 12, 1812) was an Argentine lawyer.
Juan José Francisco de Sámano y Uribarri de Rebollar y Mazorra (1753 in Selaya, Cantabria – July 1821 in Panama), was a Spanish military officer and viceroy of New Granada from 1818 to 1819, during the war of independence.
Juan Manuel Cajigal y Niño (sometimes, Juan Manuel Cagigal y Niño in the orthography of the period) was a Spanish Captain General, born in Cádiz, in 1754.
Juan Martín de Pueyrredón y O'Dogan (December 18, 1777 – March 13, 1850) was an Argentine general and politician of the early 19th century.
Juan de O'Donojú y O'Ryan ((born 1762, Seville, Spain – died 8 October 1821, Mexico City) was a Spanish military officer and "Jefe Político Superior" ("viceroy") of New Spain from July 21, 1821 to September 28, 1821 during the Mexican War of Independence. He was the last Spanish ruler of New Spain.
Juan José Ruiz de Apodaca y Eliza Gastón de Iriarte López de Letona y Lasqueti, count of Venadito (3 February 1754, Cadiz, Spain – 11 January 1835, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish naval officer and viceroy of New Spain from 20 September 1816 to 5 July 1821, during Mexico's War of Independence.
Juana Azurduy Llanos (July 12, 1780 – May 25, 1862) was a Bolivian guerrilla military leader from Chuquisaca, Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (now Sucre, Bolivia).
The Jujuy Exodus (in Spanish, Éxodo Jujeño) was an episode of the Argentine War of Independence.
The French Revolution of 1830, also known as the July Revolution (révolution de Juillet), Third French Revolution or Trois Glorieuses in French ("Three Glorious "), led to the overthrow of King Charles X, the French Bourbon monarch, and the ascent of his cousin Louis Philippe, Duke of Orléans, who himself, after 18 precarious years on the throne, would be overthrown in 1848.
In the Napoleonic era, junta was the name chosen by several local administrations formed in Spain during the Peninsular War as a patriotic alternative to the official administration toppled by the French invaders.
The ius gentium or jus gentium (Latin for "law of nations") is a concept of international law within the ancient Roman legal system and Western law traditions based on or influenced by it.
The Latin American wars of independence were the revolutions that took place during the late 18th and early 19th centuries and resulted in the creation of a number of independent countries in Latin America.
Liberalism and conservatism in Latin America have unique historical roots as Latin American independence began to occur in 1808 after the French Revolution and the subsequent Napoleonic Wars that eventually engulfed all of Europe.
The Expedición Libertadora del Perú (Liberating Expedition of Peru) was organized in 1820 by the government of Chile, with elements belonging to the Liberating Army of the Andes and to recently restored Army of Chile, whose target was to free the Viceroyalty of Perú from Spanish rule.
Libertadores ("Liberators") refers to the principal leaders of the Latin American wars of independence from Spain and Portugal.
The Federal League or League of Free Peoples (Spanish: Liga Federal or Liga de los Pueblos Libres) was an alliance of provinces in what is now Uruguay, Argentina and Brazil that aimed to establish a confederal organization for the state that was emerging from the May Revolution in the war of independence against the Spanish Empire.
Lima (Quechua:, Aymara) is the capital and the largest city of Peru.
The armed forces of many nations have, at one time or another, used foreign volunteers who are motivated by political, ideological or other considerations to join a foreign army.
A llanero (plainsman) is a Latino herder.
LOM Ediciones («Lom», means in yaghan language: «sun») is Chilean press based in Santiago.
Pedro Luis Brión (July 6, 1782, Curaçao – September 27, 1821, Curaçao) was a military officer who fought in the Venezuelan War of Independence.
The Manila Galleons (Galeón de Manila; Kalakalang Galyon ng Maynila at Acapulco) were Spanish trading ships which for two and a half centuries linked the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean, making one or two round-trip voyages per year between the ports of Acapulco and Manila, which were both part of New Spain.
Manuel José Joaquín del Corazón de Jesús Belgrano y González (3 June 1770 – 20 June 1820), usually referred to as Manuel Belgrano, was an Argentine economist, lawyer, politician, and military leader.
Manuel Carlos Piar (April 28, 1774 – October 16, 1817) was General-in-Chief of the army fighting Spain during the Venezuelan War of Independence.
Doña Manuela Sáenz y Aizpuru (December 27, 1797 – November 23, 1856) was a revolutionary hero of South America who supported the revolutionary cause by gathering information, distributing leaflets, and protesting for women's rights.
The Mapuche are a group of indigenous inhabitants of south-central Chile and southwestern Argentina, including parts of present-day Patagonia.
Maracaibo is a city and municipality in northwestern Venezuela, on the western shore of the strait that connects Lake Maracaibo to the Gulf of Venezuela.
Mariano Matamoros y Guridi (August 14, 1770 – February 3, 1814) was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and revolutionary rebel soldier of the Mexican War of Independence, who fought for independence against Spain in the early 19th century.
Mariano Moreno (September 23, 1778 – March 4, 1811) was an Argentine lawyer, journalist, and politician.
Mariano de Osorio (1777–1819) was a Spanish general and Governor of Chile, from 1814 to 1815.
General Martín Francisco Javier Mina y Larrea (July 1, 1789 – November 11, 1817), nicknamed El Mozo or El Estudiante (Student), was a Spanish lawyer and army officer, who later became a Mexican revolutionary figure.
Martín Miguel de Güemes (8 February 1785 – 17 June 1821) was a military leader and popular caudillo who defended northwestern Argentina from the Spanish during the Argentine War of Independence.
The May Revolution (Revolución de Mayo) was a week-long series of events that took place from May 18 to 25, 1810, in Buenos Aires, capital of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.
Melchor Aymerich (1754 in Ceuta – 1836 in Cuba) was a Spanish general and provincial administrator, serving as the last president of the Royal Audience of Quito from April until May 1822.
Mestizo is a term traditionally used in Spain, Latin America, and the Philippines that originally referred a person of combined European and Native American descent, regardless of where the person was born.
The metropole (from the Greek metropolis for "mother city") is the homeland or central territory of a colonial empire.
The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain.
Miguel de la Torre y Pando, conde de Torrepando (13 December 1786, in Bernales – 1843, in Madrid) was a Spanish General, Governor and Captain General, who served in Spain, Venezuela, Colombia and Puerto Rico during the Spanish American wars of independence and after.
Don Miguel Gregorio Antonio Ignacio Hidalgo-Costilla y Gallaga Mandarte Villaseñor (8 May 1753 – 30 July 1811), more commonly known as Don Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla or simply Miguel Hidalgo, was a Mexican Roman Catholic priest and a leader of the Mexican War of Independence.
The military and political career of Simón Bolívar, (July 24, 1783 – December 17, 1830), which included both formal service in the armies of various revolutionary regimes and actions organized by himself or in collaboration with other exiled patriot leaders during the years from 1811 to 1830, was an important element in the success of the independence wars in South America.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
Nancy Marguerite Farriss is an American historian.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Neomercantilism is a policy regime that encourages exports, discourages imports, controls capital movement, and centralizes currency decisions in the hands of a central government.
The Viceroyalty of New Spain (Virreinato de la Nueva España) was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire, established by Habsburg Spain during the Spanish colonization of the Americas.
Nor Chichas is a province in the Eastern parts of the Bolivian Potosí Department.
The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at.
Pablo Morillo y Morillo, Count of Cartagena and Marquess of La Puerta, a.k.a. El Pacificador (The Pacifier) (5 May 1775 in Fuentesecas, Zamora, Spain – 27 July 1837 in Barèges, France) was a Spanish general.
Paracas Bay, with its southern end lying within the Paracas National Reservation is well known for its abundant wildlife.
The Paraguay campaign (1810–11) was the attempt by a Buenos Aires-sponsored militia, commanded by Manuel Belgrano, to win the royalist Intendency of Paraguay for the cause of May Revolution.
Patria Nueva (New Fatherland) was a period in the history of Chile that began with the victory of Ejército de los Andes in the Battle of Chacabuco on 12 February 1817 and ended with the resignation of Bernardo O'Higgins as Supreme Director in 1823.
Patria Vieja (Old Fatherland) refers to a time period in the History of Chile occurring between the First Junta of the Government (September 18, 1810) and the Disaster of Rancagua (October 1, 1814).
Patriots (Patriotas) was the name that the people of the Spanish America who rebelled against Spanish control during the Spanish American wars of independence called themselves.
The term "patriot" is used to refer to supporters of Spanish American independence and of their governments that emerged during the revolution between 1808-1825.
Juan Pío de Tristán y Moscoso (July 11, 1773, Arequipa Peru – August 24, 1860, Lima) was a Peruvian general and politician who served as the second President of South Peru from October 12, 1838 to February 23, 1839.
Pedro Antonio Olañeta (1770 in Elgueta, Gipuzkoa, Spain – April 2, 1825 in Tumusla (Potosí Department), Bolivia) was a Royalist commander in the army of the Spanish Empire who fought the against the South American insurgency led by Simón Bolívar.
Pedro Juan Caballero (1786–1821) was a leading figure of Paraguayan independence.
The Peninsular War (1807–1814) was a military conflict between Napoleon's empire (as well as the allied powers of the Spanish Empire), the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Portugal, for control of the Iberian Peninsula during the Napoleonic Wars.
In the context of the Spanish colonial caste system, a peninsular (pl. peninsulares) was a Spanish-born Spaniard residing in the New World or the Spanish East Indies.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
The Peruvian War of Independence was composed of a series of military conflicts in Peru beginning with viceroy Abascal military reconquest in 1811 in the battle of Guaqui, going with the definitive defeat of the Spanish Army in 1824 in the battle of Ayacucho, and culminated in 1826, with the Siege of Callao.
The Philippine Revolution (Filipino: Himagsikang Pilipino; Spanish: Revolución Filipina), also called the Tagalog War (Spanish: Guerra Tagalog, Filipino: Digmaang Tagalog) by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippines and the Kingdom of Spain with its Spanish Empire and Spanish colonial authorities in the Spanish East Indies.
Physiocracy (from the Greek for "government of nature") is an economic theory developed by a group of 18th century Enlightenment French economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development" and that agricultural products should be highly priced.
The pincer movement, or double envelopment, is a military maneuver in which forces simultaneously attack both flanks (sides) of an enemy formation.
The Pincheira brothers (Spanish: Hermanos Pincheira) was an infamous royalist outlaw group in Chile and Argentina active from 1818 to 1832.
Pisco is a colorless or yellowish-to-amber colored brandy produced in winemaking regions of Peru and Chile.
The Plan of Iguala, also known as The Plan of the Three Guarantees ("Plan Trigarante"), was a revolutionary proclamation promulgated on 24 February 1821, in the final stage of the Mexican War of Independence from Spain.
The pope (papa from πάππας pappas, a child's word for "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff (from Latin pontifex maximus "greatest priest"), is the Bishop of Rome and therefore ex officio the leader of the worldwide Catholic Church.
The Portuguese invasion of the Banda Oriental was a short-lived and failed attempt, beginning in 1811 and ending the following year, by the Portuguese Empire to annex the remaining territory of the Spanish Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.
The Primera Junta or First Assembly is the most common name given to the first independent government of Argentina.
Protectionism is the economic policy of restricting imports from other countries through methods such as tariffs on imported goods, import quotas, and a variety of other government regulations.
Puerto Cabello is a city on the north coast of Venezuela.
The Quechua people are the indigenous peoples of South America who speak any of the Quechua languages.
Santiago de Querétaro, known simply as Querétaro, is the capital and largest city of the state of Querétaro, located in central Mexico.
Quito (Kitu; Kitu), formally San Francisco de Quito, is the capital city of Ecuador, and at an elevation of above sea level, it is the second-highest official capital city in the world, after La Paz, and the one which is closest to the equator.
Rafael del Riego y Flórez (9 April 1784 – 7 November 1823) was a Spanish general and liberal politician, who played a key role in the outbreak of the Liberal Triennium (Trienio liberal in Spanish).
Rafael Maroto Yserns (October 15, 1783 – August 25, 1853) was a Spanish general, known both for his involvement on the Spanish side in the wars of independence in South America and on the Carlist side in the First Carlist War.
Rafael José Urdaneta y Faría (October 24, 1788 – August 23, 1845) was a Venezuelan General and hero of the Spanish American wars of independence.
Ramón Castilla y Marquesado (31 August 1797 – 30 May 1867) was a Peruvian caudillo who served as President of Peru three times as well as the Interim President of Peru (Revolution Self-proclaimed President) in 1863.
Ramón Freire Serrano (November 29, 1787 – December 9, 1851) was a Chilean political figure.
The Real Audiencia, or simply Audiencia (Reial Audiència, Audiència Reial, or Audiència), was an appellate court in Spain and its empire.
The Real Audiencia of Charcas (Audiencia y Cancillería Real de La Plata de los Charcas) was a Spanish audiencia with its seat in what is today Bolivia.
The Real Audiencia of Quito (sometimes referred to as la Presidencia de Quito or el Reino de Quito) was an administrative unit in the Spanish Empire which had political, military, and religious jurisdiction over territories that today include Ecuador, parts of northern Peru, parts of southern Colombia and parts of northern Brazil.
The Rebellion of Túpac Amaru II (1780–c. 1782) was an uprising of native and mestizo peasants against the Bourbon reforms in the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru.
Representative democracy (also indirect democracy, representative republic or psephocracy) is a type of democracy founded on the principle of elected officials representing a group of people, as opposed to direct democracy.
In Latin American history, republiquetas were independence-seeking guerrilla groups in the period 1811-1825 in Upper Peru (present-day Bolivia).
The Restoration (Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
The Retroversion of the sovereignty to the people, which challenged the legitimacy of the colonial authorities, was the principle underlying the Spanish American Independence processes.
The Revolt of the Comuneros was a popular uprising in the Viceroyalty of New Granada (now Colombia and parts of Venezuela) against the Spanish authorities from March through October 1781.
Robert Arthur (Robin) Humphreys OBE (6 June 1907 – 2 May 1999) was an historian, the first professor of Latin American studies in the United Kingdom and the founder of the Institute of Latin American Studies at University College London.
Rosendo Porlier y Asteguieta (1771–1819) was a Spanish admiral, Brigadier of the Royal Spanish Navy.
A royalist supports a particular monarch as head of state for a particular kingdom, or of a particular dynastic claim.
The royalists were the Latin American and European supporters of the various governing bodies of the Spanish Monarchy, during the Spanish American wars of independence, which lasted from 1808 until the king's death in 1833.
Rules of engagement (ROE) are the internal rules or directives among military forces (including individuals) that define the circumstances, conditions, degree, and manner in which the use of force, or actions which might be construed as provocative, may be applied.
Jacques de Liniers (July 25, 1753 – August 26, 1810) was a French officer in the Spanish military service, and a viceroy of the Spanish colonies of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata.
Santiago Mariño Carige Fitzgerald (25 July 1788 in Valle Espíritu Santo, Margarita – 4 September 1854 in La Victoria, Aragua), was a nineteenth-century Venezuelan revolutionary leader and hero in the Venezuelan War of Independence (1811–1823).
The Second Banda Oriental campaign was a military campaign of the Argentine War of Independence, that besieged and captured the Banda Oriental (present-day Uruguay) with joint operations against Montevideo by José Rondeau on land and William Brown on water.
The Second Republic of Venezuela (Segunda República de Venezuela in Spanish) is the name used to refer to the reestablished Venezuelan Republic declared by Simón Bolívar on August 7, 1813.
Second Alto Perú campaign (1812–1813): Manuel Belgrano led the Northern Army to victory in the Battles of Tucuman and Salta in the north of present-day Argentina.
The Siege of Cádiz was a siege of the large Spanish naval base of Cádiz by a French army from 5 February 1810 to 24 August 1812Fremont-Barnes 2002, p. 12–13.
Simón José Antonio de la Santísima Trinidad Bolívar Palacios Ponte y Blanco (24 July 1783 – 17 December 1830), generally known as Simón Bolívar and also colloquially as El Libertador, was a Venezuelan military and political leader who played a leading role in the establishment of Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, and Panama as sovereign states, independent of Spanish rule.
The Solemn Act of Northern America's Declaration of Independence (Acta Solemne de la Declaración de Independencia de la América Septentrional) is the first Mexican legal historical document which established the separation of Mexico from Spanish rule.
The Southern Cone (Cono Sur, Cone Sul) is a geographic and cultural region composed of the southernmost areas of South America, south of and around the Tropic of Capricorn.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The ideas of the Spanish Enlightenment, which emphasized reason, science, practicality, clarity rather than obscurantism, and secularism, were transmitted from France to the New World in the eighteenth century, following the establishment of the Bourbon monarchy in Spain.
The attempted Spanish reconquest of Mexico (Intentos de Reconquista Española de México) was an effort by the Spanish government to regain possession of its former colony of Mexico, resulting in episodes of war comprised in clashes between the newly born Mexican nation and Spain.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy (Constitución Política de la Monarquía Española), also known as the Constitution of Cádiz (Constitución de Cádiz) and as La Pepa, was the first Constitution of Spain and one of the earliest constitutions in world history.
The Spanish East Indies (Spanish: Indias orientales españolas; Filipino: Silangang Indiyas ng Espanya) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1899.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
The Spanish Navy Marines (Infantería de Marina; lit, Naval infantry) is a corps within the Spanish Navy (Armada Española) responsible for conducting amphibious warfare by utilizing naval platforms and resources.
The Spanish Invasion of New Granada in 1815–1816 was part of the Spanish American wars of independence in South America.
The Spanish treasure fleet, or West Indies Fleet from Spanish Flota de Indias, also called silver fleet or plate fleet (from the Spanish plata meaning "silver"), was a convoy system adopted by the Spanish Empire from 1566 to 1790, linking Spain with its territories in America across the Atlantic.
The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.
Sucre is the constitutional capital of Bolivia, the capital of the Chuquisaca Department and the 6th most populated city in Bolivia.
The suppression of the Jesuits in the Portuguese Empire (1759), France (1764), the Two Sicilies, Malta, Parma, the Spanish Empire (1767) and Austria and Hungary (1782) is a complex topic.
The Supreme Central and Governing Junta of the Kingdom (also known as Supreme Central Junta, the Supreme Council, and Junta of Seville; Junta Suprema Central) formally was the Spanish organ that accumulated the executive and legislative powers during the Napoleonic occupation of Spain.
The Supreme Director of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Director Supremo de las Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata) was a title given to the executive officers of the United Provinces of the Río de la Plata according to the form of government established in 1814 by the Asamblea del Año XIII (Assembly of Year XIII).
The Supreme Junta (or Junta Suprema de Caracas) was the institution that governed the Captaincy General of Venezuela following the forced resignation of the Captain General Vicente Emparan on April 19, 1810, marking the beginning of the Venezuelan War of Independence.
The American Historical Review is the official publication of the American Historical Association.
Third Alto Perú campaign (1815): The Northern Army, unofficially commanded by José Rondeau, started another campaign, but this time without the authorization of Supreme Director Álvarez Thomas.
Admiral Thomas Cochrane, 10th Earl of Dundonald, Marquess of Maranhão, GCB, ODM, OSC (14 December 1775 – 31 October 1860), styled Lord Cochrane between 1778 and 1831, was a British naval flag officer of the Royal Navy, mercenary and radical politician.
This is a timeline of events related to the Spanish American wars of independence.
A trade block is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and others) are reduced or eliminated among the participating states.
The transfer of the Portuguese Court to Brazil occurred with the strategic retreat of Queen Maria I of Portugal, Prince Regent John, also referred to as Dom João or Dom João VI, and the Braganza royal family and its court of nearly 15,000 people from Lisbon on November 29, 1807.
The Treaty of Córdoba established Mexican independence from Spain at the conclusion of the Mexican War of Independence.
The Trienio Liberal ("Liberal Triennium") is a period of 3 years in the modern history of Spain between 1820 and 1823, when a liberal government ruled Spain after a military uprising in January 1820 by the lieutenant-colonel Rafael de Riego against the absolutist rule of King Ferdinand VII.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Provinces of New Granada was a country in South America from 1811 to 1816, a period known in Colombian history as the Patria Boba.
The United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (Provincias Unidas del Río de la Plata), earlier known as the United Provinces of South America (Provincias Unidas de Sudamérica), a union of provinces in the Río de la Plata region of South America, emerged from the May Revolution in 1810 and the Argentine War of Independence of 1810–1818.
An unrecognized state may be.
This article is about a historical region now in Bolivia.
Valdivia is a city and commune in southern Chile, administered by the Municipality of Valdivia.
Valparaíso is a major city, seaport, and educational center in the commune of Valparaíso, Chile.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
The Venezuela Province (or Province of Caracas) was a province of the Spanish Empire (from 1527), of Gran Colombia (1824-1830) and later of Venezuela (from 1830), apart from an interlude (1528 - 1546) when it was contracted as a concession by the King of Spain to the German Welser banking family, as Klein-Venedig.
The Venezuelan War of Independence (1810–1823) was one of the Spanish American wars of independence of the early nineteenth century, when independence movements in Latin America fought against rule by the Spanish Empire, emboldened by Spain's troubles in the Napoleonic Wars.
Veracruz, formally Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave,In isolation, Veracruz, de and Llave are pronounced, respectively,, and.
Veracruz, officially known as Heroica Veracruz, is a major port city and municipality on the Gulf of Mexico in the Mexican state of Veracruz.
Vicente Benavides Llanos (Quirihue, 1777 – Santiago, Chile, February 23, 1822) was a Chilean soldier who fought in the Chilean War of Independence.
Vicente Ramón Guerrero Saldaña (August 10, 1782 – February 14, 1831) was one of the leading revolutionary generals of the Mexican War of Independence.
Vicente Nieto (1769 Aranjuez - 1810 Potosí) was a Spanish general, a royalist of the Spanish American wars of independence.
The Viceroyalty of New Granada (Virreinato de la Nueva Granada) was the name given on 27 May 1717, to the jurisdiction of the Spanish Empire in northern South America, corresponding to modern Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela.
The Viceroyalty of Peru (Virreinato del Perú) was a Spanish colonial administrative district, created in 1542, that originally contained most of Spanish-ruled South America, governed from the capital of Lima.
The Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata (Virreinato del Río de la Plata, also called Viceroyalty of the River Plate in some scholarly writings) was the last to be organized and also the shortest-lived of the Viceroyalties of the Spanish Empire in America.
A war of independence or independence war is a conflict occurring over a territory that has declared independence.
Wars of national liberation or national liberation revolutions are conflicts fought by nations to gain independence.
Wayuu (also Wayu, Wayúu, Guajiro, Wahiro) is a Native American ethnic group of the Guajira Peninsula in northernmost part of Colombia and northwest Venezuela.
The monsoon season, is the time of year when most of a region's average annual rainfall occurs.
William B. Taylor is a historian of colonial Mexico, who held the Sonne Chair of History at University of California, Berkeley until his retirement.
William Brown (also known in Spanish as Guillermo Brown) (22 June 1777 – 3 March 1857) was an Irish-born Argentine admiral.
The 1811 Independence Movement known in El Salvador as the Primer grito de independencia (First Shout of Independence) was the first of a series of revolts in Central America in El Salvador against Spanish colonialism and dependency on the Captaincy General of Guatemala.
Hispanic American War of Independence, Hispanic American Wars of Independence, Hispanic American wars of independence, Independence wars of Hispanic America, South American independence, Spanish American Wars of Independence, Spanish American Wars of independence, Spanish American independence, Wars of independence from Spain in the Americas.