454 relations: ABC countries, Adolf Hitler, Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez, Aerial bombing of cities, Albacete, Alejandro Lerroux, Alexander Calder, Alexander Orlov (Soviet defector), Alfonsism, Alfonso Beorlegui Canet, Alfonso XIII of Spain, Almería, Amadeo I of Spain, Amparo Poch y Gascón, Anarchism, Anarchism in Spain, Andalusian nationalism, André Malraux, André Marty, Andrés García La Calle, Andrés Nin Pérez, António de Oliveira Salazar, Anti-aircraft warfare, Anti-clericalism, Anti-communism, Anti-Stalinist left, Antony Beevor, Aragon, Aragon Offensive, Army of Africa (Spain), Art and culture in Francoist Spain, Asturian miners' strike of 1934, Asturias, Asturias Offensive, Aviazione Legionaria, Žikica Jovanović Španac, Badajoz, Balearic Islands, Baltasar Garzón, Bank of Spain, Barcelona, Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque nationalism, Basque Nationalist Party, Battle of Anghiari, Battle of Belchite (1937), Battle of Bilbao, Battle of Brunete, Battle of Guadalajara, Battle of Irún, ..., Battle of Jarama, Battle of Málaga (1937), Battle of Santander, Battle of Teruel, Battle of the Ebro, BBC Radio 4, Benito Mussolini, Bilbao, Biscay Campaign, Blitzkrieg, Blockade, Bolsheviks, Bombing of Barcelona, Bombing of Durango, Bombing of Guernica, Brunete, BT tank, Buenaventura Durruti, Burgos, Burning of convents in Spain, Camp Vernet, Campaign of Gipuzkoa, Canada, Canary Islands, Cantabria, Carlism, Carlos Romero Giménez, Casas Viejas incident, Catalan nationalism, Catalonia, Catalonia Offensive, Catholic Church, Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic, Caudillo, Cádiz, Córdoba, Spain, Cecil Bebb, Cerro de los Ángeles, Chile, Christy Moore, Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration, Civil Guard (Spain), Clericalism, Collective farming, Communism, Communist International, Communist Party of Spain, Condor Legion, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, Confiscation, Connecticut, Connolly Column, Conscientious objector, Conscription, Corpo Truppe Volontarie, Coup d'état, Dámaso Berenguer, De Havilland Dragon Rapide, Democracy, Dewoitine, Dezső Révai, Diego Martínez Barrio, Dolores Ibárruri, Drancy internment camp, Duce, Egon Kisch, Eight-hour day, Electoral Carlism (Restoration), Emilio Mola, Ernest Hemingway, Espoir: Sierra de Teruel, Estado Novo (Portugal), Ettore Bastico, European Civil War, Euzko Gudarostea, Falange Española de las JONS, Falangism, False flag, Fascism, Führer, Federación Anarquista Ibérica, Federal State of Austria, Federico García Lorca, Fellowship of Reconciliation, Ferdinand VII of Spain, Ferrol, Galicia, FET y de las JONS, Fifth Regiment, Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War, Finnish Civil War, First Spanish Republic, Foreign Enlistment Act 1870, Foreign involvement in the Spanish Civil War, Forensic geophysics, France, Francisco Franco, Francisco Largo Caballero, Francoist Spain, French Resistance, French Third Republic, Gabriel Jackson (hispanist), Galicia (Spain), Galicianism, Garibaldi Battalion, General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, Generalissimo, Generalitat de Catalunya, George Mason University, George Orwell, German Army (Wehrmacht), Gibraltar, Gijón, Gipuzkoa, Girona, Gonzalo Queipo de Llano, Great Depression, Guardia de Asalto, Guernica (Picasso), Guerrilla warfare, Gurs internment camp, Head of state, Helen Graham (historian), HMS Royal Oak (08), Homage to Catalonia, House of Bourbon, House of Savoy, Huesca Offensive, Hugh Pollard (intelligence officer), Hugh Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton, Hugo Sperrle, Hungarian Soviet Republic, Iberian Peninsula, In Our Time (radio series), Indalecio Prieto, Industry, Inspector general, International Brigades, International Committee of the Red Cross, Internment camps in France, Interwar period, Ion Moța, Iosif Grigulevich, Ireland, Irish Brigade (Spanish Civil War), Iron Guard, Irun, Isabella II of Spain, Jaén, Spain, Jarama, Jewish Military Museum, Jewish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War, Joan Miró, John Dos 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foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War, List of foreign ships wrecked or lost in the Spanish Civil War, List of Prime Ministers of Spain, List of surviving veterans of the Spanish Civil War, Lluís Companys, Loire 46, Luftwaffe, Luis Buñuel, Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion, Madrid, Magnum Photos, Manuel Azaña, Manuel Fal Conde, Manuel Goded Llopis, Manuel Hedilla, Mario Roatta, Mark Rein (journalist), Martha Gellhorn, Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War, Marxism, Mass grave, Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex, May Days, Málaga, Mediterranean Sea, Mercenary, Messerschmitt Bf 109, Mexico, Mexico City, Miguel Cabanellas, Miguel Hernández, Miguel Primo de Rivera, Mikhail Koltsov, Miranda de Ebro, Mixed brigade, Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick, Mohamed Meziane, Monarchism, Monarchy of Spain, Morale, Morelia, Moscow gold, Munich Agreement, National Defence Council (Spain), National syndicalism, Nationalism, Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War), Navarre, Nazi Germany, Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, NKVD, Non-combatant, Non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War, Norman Bethune, Old Castile, Oviedo, Pablo Casals, Pablo Neruda, Pablo Picasso, Pacifism, Pacifism in Spain, Pamplona, Paracuellos de Jarama, Paracuellos massacres, Paul Preston, PDF, Pedro Muñoz Seca, Peru, Petre Borilă, Philippe Pétain, Polish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War, Political alliance, Political climate, Popular front, Popular Front (Spain), Potez 540, POUM, President, Pronunciamiento, Propaganda, Proscription, Purge, Radical Republican Party, Rafael Alberti, Ramón Serrano Suñer, Red Terror (Spain), Regia Aeronautica, Regia Marina, Regulares, Renovación Española, Republican faction (Spanish Civil War), Republicanism, Requetés, Restoration (Spain), Revisionism (Spain), Revolution, Right-wing politics, Robert Capa, Romanian Communist Party, Ronda, Roy Campbell (poet), Russian Civil War, Sacred Heart, Salamanca, San Sebastián, Santiago Carrillo, Santiago Casares Quiroga, Santoña Agreement, Santurtzi, Sealift, Second Battle of the Corunna Road, Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Second Polish Republic, Second Spanish Republic, Secret Intelligence Service, Secularity, Secularization, Segismundo Casado, Segovia, Segovia Offensive, Seville, Siege of Cuartel de la Montaña, Siege of Madrid, Siege of the Alcázar, Simone Weil, Slovak Soviet Republic, Social revolution, Socialism, Society of Jesus, Southampton, Southern France, Soviet Union, Spain, Spain during World War II, Spanish Army, Spanish Bombs, Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups, Spanish Constitution of 1812, Spanish Constitution of 1931, Spanish cruiser Baleares, Spanish cruiser Canarias, Spanish general election, 1933, Spanish general election, 1936, Spanish Guinea, Spanish Legion, Spanish Maquis, Spanish Navy, Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Spanish Republican Air Force, Spanish Republican Armed Forces, Spanish Republican Army, Spanish Republican Navy, Spanish Sahara, Spanish West Africa, Spartacus Educational, SS Cantabria (1919), SS Winnipeg, Stewart Farrar, Strike action, Summary execution, Suppression of Freemasonry, T-26, Tankette, Tarragona, Thälmann Battalion, The Clash, The Falling Soldier, The Spanish Earth, The Spanish Labyrinth, Time (magazine), Toledo, Spain, Trade union, Trades Union Congress, Tragic Week (Catalonia), Trienio Liberal, U-boat, Unfree labour, Unión General de Trabajadores, United Kingdom, United States, University of California, San Diego, University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign, Val d'Aran, Valencia, Valentín González, Valladolid, Valter Roman, Vicente Rojo Lluch, Vichy France, Viriatos, Vittorio Vidali, Viva la Quinta Brigada, W. H. Auden, War Resisters League, War Resisters' International, White Terror (Spain), Wilhelm Ritter von Thoma, Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen, Woody Guthrie, World War I, XI International Brigade, XV International Brigade, XYZ Line, Zaragoza. Expand index (404 more) » « Shrink index
ABC countries, or ABC powers, is a term sometimes used to describe the South American countries of Argentina, Brazil and Chile, which are seen as three of the most powerful, most influential and wealthiest countries in South America.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Adolfo Sánchez Vázquez (September 17, 1915 – July 8, 2011) was a Spanish-born Mexican philosopher, writer and professor born in Algeciras, Andalucia.
The aerial bombing of cities in warfare is an optional element of strategic bombing which became widespread during World War I. The bombing of cities grew to a vast scale in World War II, and is still practiced today.
Albacete (translit) is a city and municipality in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla–La Mancha, and capital of the province of Albacete.
Alejandro Lerroux García (La Rambla, Córdoba, 4 March 1864 – Madrid, 25 June 1949) was a Spanish politician who was the leader of the Radical Republican Party during the Second Spanish Republic.
Alexander Calder (July 22, 1898 – November 11, 1976) is widely considered to be one of the most important American sculptors of the 20th century.
Alexander Mikhailovich Orlov (Александр Михайлович Орлов) (born Leiba Lazarevich Feldbin; 21 August 1895 – 25 March 1973), was Major in the Soviet secret police and NKVD Rezident in the Second Spanish Republic.
The term Alfonsism refers to the movement in Spanish monarchism that supported the restoration of Alfonso XIII of Spain as King of Spain after the foundation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931.
Alfonso Beorlegui Canet (26 January 1888 in Estella-Lizarra – 29 September 1936 in Zaragoza) was a Colonel of Infantry in the Spanish Army.
Alfonso XIII (Spanish: Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena; 17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931.
Almería is a city in Andalusia, Spain, located in the southeast of Spain on the Mediterranean Sea, and is the capital of the province of the same name.
Amadeo I (Italian: Amedeo, sometimes anglicized as Amadeus; 30 May 184518 January 1890) was the only King of Spain from the House of Savoy.
Amparo Poch y Gascón (1902–1968) was a Spanish anarchist, pacifist, doctor, and activist in the years leading up to and during the Spanish Civil War.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarchism in Spain has historically gained more support and influence than anywhere else, especially before Francisco Franco's victory in the Spanish Civil War of 1936–39.
Andalusian nationalism is the nationalism which asserts that Andalusians are a nation and promotes the cultural unity of Andalusians.
André Malraux DSO (3 November 1901 – 23 November 1976) was a French novelist, art theorist and Minister of Cultural Affairs.
André Marty (6 November 1886 – 23 November 1956) was a leading figure in the French Communist Party (PCF) for nearly thirty years.
Andrés García La Calle (April 2, 1909 – 1973) (sometimes Lacalle, but his real name was Andrés García Calle) was the squadron leader of the 1st fighter squadron of the Spanish Republic and later Commander of all the fighter units of the Spanish Republican Air Force during the Spanish Civil War.
Andrés Nin Pérez (4 February 1892 – 20 June 1937), was a Spanish communist politician.
António de Oliveira Salazar (28 April 1889 – 27 July 1970) was a Portuguese statesman who served as Prime Minister of Portugal from 1932 to 1968.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Anti-clericalism is opposition to religious authority, typically in social or political matters.
Anti-communism is opposition to communism.
The anti-Stalinist left comprises various kinds of left-wing politics critical of Joseph Stalin, of Stalinism as a political philosophy, and of the actual system of governance Stalin implemented as dictator of the Soviet Union.
Sir Antony James Beevor, (born 14 December 1946) is an English military historian.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
The Aragon Offensive it was an important military campaign during the Spanish Civil War, which began after the Battle of Teruel.
The Army of Africa (Ejército de África, الجيش الإسباني في أفريقيا, Al-Jaysh al-Isbānī fī Afriqā) or "Moroccan Army Corps" (Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí') was a field army of the Spanish Army that garrisoned the Spanish protectorate in Morocco from the late 19th century until Morocco's independence in 1956. At the start of the 20th century, the Spanish Empire's colonial possessions in Africa comprised Morocco, Spanish Sahara, Ifni, Cape Juby and Spanish Guinea.
Art and culture in Francoist Spain is a historiographic term, with little use beyond the chronological placement of artists and cultural events, or political identification.
The Asturian miners' strike of 1934 was a major strike action, against the entry of the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA) into the Spanish government on October 6, which took place in Asturias in northern Spain, that developed into a revolutionary uprising.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
The Asturias Offensive (Ofensiva de Asturias) was an offensive in Asturias during the Spanish Civil War which lasted from 1 September to 21 October 1937.
The Legionary Air Force (Aviazione Legionaria, Aviación Legionaria) was an expeditionary corps from the Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica Italiana).
Živorad "Žikica" Jovanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Живорад „Жикица" Јовановић; 17 March 1914 – 13 March 1942), better known as Španac (Шпанац; "The Spaniard") was a Yugoslav partisan, Spanish-trained commando and republican volunteer in the Spanish Civil War and is credited for initiating the anti-fascist struggle in Yugoslavia during World War II.
Badajoz (formerly written Badajos in English) is the capital of the Province of Badajoz in the autonomous community of Extremadura, Spain.
The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears,; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.
Baltasar Garzón Real (born 26 October 1955) is a Spanish jurist.
The Bank of Spain (Banco de España), is the central bank of Spain.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
Basque nationalism (eusko abertzaletasuna) is a form of nationalism that asserts that Basques, an ethnic group indigenous to the western Pyrenees, are a nation, and promotes the political unity of the Basques.
The Basque Nationalist Party (EAJ; Partido Nacionalista Vasco, PNV; Parti Nationaliste Basque, PNB; EAJ-PNV) is a Christian democratic and Basque nationalist party.
The Battle of Anghiari was fought on 29 June 1440, between the forces of Milan and those of the Italian League led by the Republic of Florence in the course of the Wars in Lombardy. The battle was a victory for the Florentines, securing Florentine domination of central Italy. The battle is well known for its depiction in a now-lost painting by Leonardo da Vinci. It is also remarkable for the fact that though the battle lasted all day, involving several thousand troops, it was said that only one soldier was killed. According to Niccolò Machiavelli after four hours of skirmishing the single death occurred "when a soldier fell off his horse".
The Battle of Belchite refers to a series of military operations that took place between 24 August and 7 September 1937, in and around the small town of Belchite, in Aragon during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Bilbao was part of the War in the North, during the Spanish Civil War where the Nationalist Army captured the city of Bilbao and the remaining parts of the Basque Country still held by the Republic.
The Battle of Brunete (6–25 July 1937), fought west of Madrid, was a Republican attempt to alleviate the pressure exerted by the Nationalists on the capital and on the north during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Guadalajara (March 8–23, 1937) saw the People's Republican Army (Ejército Popular Republicano, or EPR) defeat Italian and Nationalist forces attempting to encircle Madrid during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Irún was the critical battle of the Campaign of Gipuzkoa prior to the War in the North, during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Jarama (February 6–27, 1937) was an attempt by General Francisco Franco's Nationalists to dislodge the Republican lines along the river Jarama, just east of Madrid, during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Málaga was the culmination of an offensive in early 1937 by the combined Nationalist and Italian forces to eliminate Republican control of the province of Málaga during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Santander was fought over the summer of 1937 in the War in the North campaign in the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of Teruel was fought in and around the city of Teruel during the Spanish Civil War.
The Battle of the Ebro (Batalla del Ebro, Batalla de l'Ebre) was the longest and largest battle of the Spanish Civil War.
BBC Radio 4 is a radio station owned and operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) that broadcasts a wide variety of spoken-word programmes including news, drama, comedy, science and history.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Bilbao (Bilbo) is a city in northern Spain, the largest city in the province of Biscay and in the Basque Country as a whole.
The Biscay Campaign (Campaña de Vizcaya) was an offensive of the Spanish Civil War which lasted from 31 March to 1 July 1937.
Blitzkrieg (German, "lightning war") is a method of warfare whereby an attacking force, spearheaded by a dense concentration of armoured and motorised or mechanised infantry formations with close air support, breaks through the opponent's line of defence by short, fast, powerful attacks and then dislocates the defenders, using speed and surprise to encircle them with the help of air superiority.
A blockade is an effort to cut off supplies, war material or communications from a particular area by force, either in part or totally.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The Bombing of Barcelona was a series of Nationalist airstrikes which took place from 16 to 18 March 1938, during the Spanish Civil War.
The Bombing of Durango took place on 31 March 1937, during the Spanish Civil War.
The bombing of Guernica (26 April 1937) was an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
Brunete is a town located on the outskirts of Madrid, Spain with a population of 10,730 people.
The BT tanks (translit, lit. "fast moving tank" or "high-speed tank") were a series of Soviet light tanks produced in large numbers between 1932 and 1941.
José Buenaventura Durruti Dumange (14 July 1896 – 20 November 1936) was a Spanish insurrectionary, anarcho-syndicalist militant involved with the CNT, FAI and other anarchist organisations during the period leading up to and including the Spanish Civil War.
Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile.
The following is a list of events in which convents in Spain were burned.
Le Vernet Internment Camp, or Camp Vernet, was a concentration camp in Le Vernet, Ariège, near Pamiers, in the French Pyrenees.
The Campaign of Gipuzkoa was part of the Spanish Civil War, where the Nationalist Army conquered the northern province of Gipuzkoa, held by the Republic.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Cantabria is a historic Spanish community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.
Carlism (Karlismo; Carlisme) is a Traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon dynasty on the Spanish throne.
Carlos Romero Giménez, sometimes misspelled Jiménez, (7 November 1890 – 11 September 1978) was a Spanish soldier loyal to the Spanish Republic, and one of the most prominent figures in the Siege of Madrid during the Spanish Civil War.
The Casas Viejas incident, also known as the Casas Viejas events, took place in 1933 in the poor village of Casas Viejas, in Cádiz province, Andalusia.
Catalan nationalism is the ideology asserting that the Catalans are a nation.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catalonia Offensive (La Ofensiva de Cataluña) was part of the Spanish Civil War.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic was an important area of dispute, and tensions between the Catholic hierarchy and the Republic were apparent from the beginning - the establishment of the Republic began 'the most dramatic phase in the contemporary history of both Spain and the Church.' The dispute over the role of the Catholic Church and the rights of Catholics were one of the major issues which worked against the securing of a broad democratic majority and "left the body politic divided almost from the start." The historian Mary Vincent has argued that the Catholic Church was an active element in the polarising politics of the years preceding the Spanish Civil War.
A caudillo (Old Spanish: cabdillo, from Latin capitellum, diminutive of caput "head") was a type of personalist leader wielding military and political power.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Córdoba, also called Cordoba or Cordova in English, is a city in Andalusia, southern Spain, and the capital of the province of Córdoba.
Captain Charles William Henry "Cecil" Bebb (27 September 1905 – 2002) was a British commercial pilot and later airline executive, notable for flying General Francisco Franco from the Canary Islands to Spanish Morocco in 1936, a journey which was to trigger the onset of the Spanish Civil War.
The Cerro de los Ángeles (Hill of the Angels) is a famous hill located in Getafe, Spain, about south of Madrid.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christopher Andrew "Christy" Moore (born 7 May 1945) is an Irish folk singer, songwriter and guitarist.
The Cité nationale de l'histoire de l'immigration is a museum of immigration history located in the 12th arrondissement of Paris at 293, avenue Daumesnil.
The Civil Guard (Guardia Civil) is the oldest law enforcement agency in Spain.
Clericalism is the application of the formal, church-based, leadership or opinion of ordained clergy in matters of either the church or broader political and sociocultural import.
Collective farming and communal farming are various types of "agricultural production in which multiple farmers run their holdings as a joint enterprise." That type of collective is often an agricultural cooperative in which member-owners jointly engage in farming activities.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Communist International (Comintern), known also as the Third International (1919–1943), was an international communist organization that advocated world communism.
The Communist Party of Spain (Partido Comunista de España; PCE) is a historically Marxist-Leninist party that, since 1986, is part of the United Left coalition.
The Condor Legion (Legion Condor) was a unit composed of military personnel from the air force and army of Nazi Germany, which served with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War of July 1936 to March 1939.
The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour; CNT) is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions, which was long affiliated with the International Workers' Association (AIT).
Confiscation (from the Latin confiscare "to consign to the fiscus, i.e. transfer to the treasury") is a legal form of seizure by a government or other public authority.
Connecticut is the southernmost state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
The Connolly Column is a phrase retroactively applied to a group of Irish republican socialist volunteers who fought for the Second Spanish Republic in the International Brigades during the Spanish Civil War.
A conscientious objector is an "individual who has claimed the right to refuse to perform military service" on the grounds of freedom of thought, conscience, or religion.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
The Corps of Volunteer Troops (Corpo Truppe Volontarie, CTV) was a Fascist Italian expeditionary force which was sent to Spain to support the Nationalist forces under General Francisco Franco against the Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, 1936–39.
A coup d'état, also known simply as a coup, a putsch, golpe de estado, or an overthrow, is a type of revolution, where the illegal and overt seizure of a state by the military or other elites within the state apparatus occurs.
Dámaso Berenguer y Fusté (4 August 1873 – 19 May 1953) was a Spanish soldier and politician, who served 122nd Prime Minister of Spain.
The de Havilland DH.89 Dragon Rapide was a 1930s short-haul biplane airliner developed and produced by British aircraft company de Havilland.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Constructions Aéronautiques Émile Dewoitine was a French aircraft manufacturer established by Émile Dewoitine at Toulouse in October 1920.
Dezső Révai (1903 - 1996) was a Hungarian photographer and photo journalist who is mainly known for his photographs taken during the Spanish Civil War.
Diego Martínez Barrio (25 November 1883, Seville – 1 January 1962) was a Spanish politician during the Second Spanish Republic, Prime Minister of Spain between 9 October 1933 and 26 December 1933 and was briefly appointed again by Manuel Azaña on 19 July 1936 - two days after the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.
Isidora Dolores Ibárruri Gómez (9 December 189512 November 1989) – known as "La Pasionaria" (English: "the Passionflower") – was a Spanish Republican heroine of the Spanish Civil War and communist politician of Basque origin, known for her famous slogan ¡No Pasarán! ("They shall not pass") during the Battle for Madrid in November 1936.
The Drancy internment camp was an assembly and detention camp for confining Jews who were later deported to the extermination camps during the German military administration of Occupied France during World War II.
Duce ("leader") is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and cognate with duke.
Egon Erwin Kisch (29 April 1885, Prague – 31 March 1948, Prague) was an Austrian and Czechoslovak writer and journalist, who wrote in German.
The eight-hour day movement or 40-hour week movement, also known as the short-time movement, was a social movement to regulate the length of a working day, preventing excesses and abuses.
Electoral Carlism of Restoration was vital to sustain Traditionalism in the period between the Third Carlist War and the Primo de Rivera dictatorship.
Emilio Mola y Vidal, 1st Duke of Mola, Grandee of Spain (9 July 1887 – 3 June 1937) was a Spanish Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War.
Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 – July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short story writer, and journalist.
Espoir: Sierra de Teruel (English title: Days of Hope or Man's Hope) is a 1938-39 Spanish-French black and white war film, directed by Boris Peskine and André Malraux. It was not commercially released until 1945. Malraux wrote the novel L'Espoir, or Man's Hope, published in 1937, which was basis for the film. The director won the 1945 Prix Louis Delluc award. The crash of a Spanish Republican Air Force Potez 540 plane near Valdelinares inspired André Malraux to write the novel. Different years are given for the film's completion. The novel was published in French in 1937 and in English in 1938. The film uses war footage from 1938 and was edited, and other scenes shot, during 1938-1939. It was finished in July 1939 and shown twice in Paris, but Francoist Spain applied pressure to censor it. All known copies were destroyed during World War II. A copy was found and the film was released again in 1945. In Spain, it was banned and was not screened until 1977, after the death of Franco.
The Estado Novo ("New State"), or the Second Republic, was the corporatist authoritarian regime installed in Portugal in 1933, which was considered fascist.
Ettore Bastico (9 April 1876 – 2 December 1972) was an Italian military officer before and during World War II.
The European Civil War is a concept meant to describe a series of 19th and 20th century conflicts in Europe as segments of an overarching civil war within a supposed European society.
Euzko Gudarostea (modern spelling: Eusko Gudarostea, "Basque army") was the name of the army commanded by the Basque Government during the Spanish civil war.
Falange Española de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (Spanish for "Spanish Phalanx of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive"; FE de las JONS for short), or simply called the Falange, was a fascist and national syndicalist political party founded in 1934 in the Spain Republic as merger of the Falange Española (founded in October 1933) and the Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (founded in October 1931).
Falangism (falangismo) was the political ideology of the Falange Española de las JONS and afterwards of the Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional Sindicalista (both known simply as the "Falange") as well as derivatives of it in other countries.
A false flag is a covert operation designed to deceive; the deception creates the appearance of a particular party, group, or nation being responsible for some activity, disguising the actual source of responsibility.
Fascism is a form of radical authoritarian ultranationalism, characterized by dictatorial power, forcible suppression of opposition and control of industry and commerce, which came to prominence in early 20th-century Europe.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
The Iberian Anarchist Federation (Federación Anarquista Ibérica, FAI) is a Spanish organization of anarchist (anarcho-syndicalist and anarchist-communist) militants active within affinity groups inside the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (CNT) anarcho-syndicalist union.
The Federal State of Austria (Austrian German: Bundesstaat Österreich ; colloquially known as the Ständestaat, "Corporate State") was a continuation of the First Austrian Republic between 1934 and 1938 when it was a one-party state led by the clerico-fascist Fatherland Front.
Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, known as Federico García Lorca (5 June 1898 – 19 August 1936) was a Spanish poet, playwright, and theatre director.
The Fellowship of Reconciliation (FoR or FOR) is the name used by a number of religious nonviolent organizations, particularly in English-speaking countries.
Ferdinand VII (Fernando; 14 October 1784 – 29 September 1833) was twice King of Spain: in 1808 and again from 1813 to his death.
Ferrol (In the neighbourhood of Strabo's Cape Nerium, modern day Cape Prior), is a city in the Province of A Coruña in Galicia, on the Atlantic coast in north-western Spain.
The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) (English: Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx and of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive) was the sole legal party of the Francoist State in Spain.
The Fifth Regiment (Quinto Regimiento, full name Quinto Regimiento de Milicias Populares), was an elite corps loyal to the Spanish Republic at the onset of the Spanish Civil War.
The final offensive of the Spanish Civil War took place between 26 March and 1 April 1939, towards the end of the Spanish Civil War.
The Finnish Civil War was a conflict for the leadership and control of Finland during the country's transition from a Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire to an independent state.
The Republic of Spain (officially in Spanish República de España), commonly known as the First Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the Spanish Republic of 1931–39, was the short-lived political regime that existed in Spain between the parliamentary proclamation on 11 February 1873 and 29 December 1874 when General Arsenio Martínez-Campos's pronunciamento marked the beginning of the Bourbon Restoration in Spain.
The Foreign Enlistment Act 1870 (33 & 34 Vict. c.90) is an Act of Parliament of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that seeks to regulate mercenary activities of British citizens.
The Spanish Civil War had large numbers of non-Spanish citizens participating in combat and advisory positions.
Forensic geophysics is a branch of forensic science and is the study, the search, the localization and the mapping of buried objects or elements beneath the soil or the water, using geophysics tools for legal purposes.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francisco Largo Caballero (15 October 1869 – 23 March 1946) was a Spanish politician and trade unionist.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
The French Resistance (La Résistance) was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and against the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Gabriel Jackson (born March 10, 1921) is an American Hispanist, historian and journalist.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galicianism is a nationalist political movement in Galicia.
The Garibaldi Battalion (Garibaldi Brigade after April 1937) was a largely-Italian volunteer unit of the International Brigades that fought on the Republican side of the Spanish Civil War from October 1936 to 1938.
General Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was an office of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) that by the late 1920s had evolved into the most powerful of the Central Committee's various secretaries.
Generalissimo is a military rank of the highest degree, superior to field marshal and other five-star ranks in the countries where they are used.
The Government of Catalonia or the Generalitat de Catalunya (Catalan;,; Generalidad de Cataluña) is the institution under which the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia is politically organised.
George Mason University (GMU, Mason, or George Mason) is a public research university in Fairfax County, Virginia.
Eric Arthur Blair (25 June 1903 – 21 January 1950), better known by his pen name George Orwell, was an English novelist, essayist, journalist and critic whose work is marked by lucid prose, awareness of social injustice, opposition to totalitarianism and outspoken support of democratic socialism.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.
Gipuzkoa (in Guipúzcoa) is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the autonomous community of the Basque Country.
Girona (Gerona; Gérone) is a city in Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants, and Güell and has an official population of 99,013 as of January 2017.
Gonzalo Queipo de Llano y Sierra, 1st Marquis of Queipo de Llano for one year, (5 February 1875 – 9 March 1951) was a Spanish military leader who rose to prominence during Francisco Franco's coup d'état and the subsequent Spanish Civil War and Spanish White Terror.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
The Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard) was the heavy reserve force of the blue-uniformed urban police force of Spain during the Spanish Second Republic.
Guernica is a mural-sized oil painting on canvas by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso completed in June 1937,Richardson (2016) at his home on Rue des Grands Augustins, in Paris.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Gurs Internment Camp was a internment camp and prisoner of war camp constructed in 1939 in Gurs, a site in southwestern France, not far from Pau.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
Helen Graham (DPhil, Oxford) is an English historian, the Professor of Modern Spanish History at the Department of History, Royal Holloway University of London.
HMS Royal Oak was one of five s built for the Royal Navy during the First World War.
Homage to Catalonia is George Orwell's personal account of his experiences and observations in the Spanish Civil War.
The House of Bourbon is a European royal house of French origin, a branch of the Capetian dynasty.
The House of Savoy (Casa Savoia) is a royal family that was established in 1003 in the historical Savoy region. Through gradual expansion, the family grew in power from ruling a small county in the Alps of northern Italy to absolute rule of the kingdom of Sicily in 1713 to 1720 (exchanged for Sardinia). Through its junior branch, the House of Savoy-Carignano, it led the unification of Italy in 1861 and ruled the Kingdom of Italy from 1861 until 1946 and, briefly, the Kingdom of Spain in the 19th century. The Savoyard kings of Italy were Victor Emmanuel II, Umberto I, Victor Emmanuel III, and Umberto II. The last monarch ruled for a few weeks before being deposed following the Constitutional Referendum of 1946, after which the Italian Republic was proclaimed.
The Huesca Offensive was an ill-fated Republican army thrust toward Huesca between 12 and 19 June 1937, during the Spanish Civil War.
Major Hugh Bertie Campbell Pollard (born London 6 January 1888: died Midhurst district March, 1966) was an author, firearms expert, and a British SOE officer.
Hugh Swynnerton Thomas, Baron Thomas of Swynnerton (21 October 1931 – 7 May 2017) was an English historian, writer and life peer in the House of Lords.
Hugo Sperrle (7 February 1885 – 2 April 1953) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe during World War II.
The Hungarian Soviet Republic or literally Republic of Councils in Hungary (Magyarországi Tanácsköztársaság or Magyarországi Szocialista Szövetséges Tanácsköztársaság) was a short-lived (133 days) communist rump state.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
In Our Time is a live BBC radio discussion series exploring the history of ideas, presented by Melvyn Bragg since 15 October 1998.
Indalecio Prieto Tuero (30 April 1883 – 11 February 1962) was a Spanish politician, a minister and one of the leading figures of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) in the years before and during the Second Spanish Republic.
Industry is the production of goods or related services within an economy.
An inspector general is an investigative official in a civil or military organization.
The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
There were internment camps and concentration camps in France before, during and after World War II.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Ion I. Moța (5 July 1902, Orăștie, Austria-Hungary—13 January 1937, Majadahonda, Spain) was the Romanian nationalist deputy leader of the Iron Guard killed in battle during the Spanish Civil War.
Iosif Romualdovich Grigulevich (Иосиф Ромуальдович Григулевич; May 5, 1913 – June 2, 1988) was a Soviet NKVD Operative between 1937 and 1953, when he took a leading role in assassinating Communist and Bolshevik individuals who were not loyal to Joseph Stalin.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
The Irish Brigade ("Irish Brigade") fought on the Nationalist side of Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War.
The Iron Guard (Garda de fier) is the name most commonly given to a far-right movement and political party in Romania in the period from 1927 into the early part of World War II.
Irun (Irún, Irun) is a town of the Bidasoaldea region in the province of Gipuzkoa in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
Isabella II (Isabel; 10 October 1830 – 9 April 1904) was Queen of Spain from 1833 until 1868.
Jaén is a city in south-central Spain.
Jarama is a river in central Spain.
The Jewish Military Museum was a museum located in Hendon, Barnet, North London, which featured exhibits about Jews serving in the British armed forces from the 18th century to the present day.
Jewish volunteers in the Spanish Civil War refers to Jews who joined International Brigades and fought in the Spanish Civil War, which erupted on July 17, 1936 and ended on April 1, 1939.
Joan Miró i Ferrà (20 April 1893 – 25 December 1983) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, and ceramicist born in Barcelona.
John Roderigo Dos Passos (January 14, 1896 – September 28, 1970) was an American novelist and artist active in the first half of the twentieth century.
Georg Henri Anton "Joris" Ivens (18 November 1898 – 28 June 1989) was a Dutch documentary filmmaker.
José Antonio Aguirre y Lecube (6 March 1904 – 22 March 1960) was a Spanish politician and activist in the Basque Nationalist Party.
José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia, 1st Duke of Primo de Rivera, 3rd Marquis of Estella, GdE (April 24, 1903 – November 20, 1936), often referred to as José Antonio, was a Spanish lawyer, nobleman, politician, and founder of the Falange Española ("Spanish Phalanx"), later Falange Española de las JONS.
José Brocca (Professor José Brocca Ramón), 1891–1950, was a pacifist and humanitarian of the Spanish Civil War, who allied himself with the Republicans but sought nonviolent ways of resisting the Nationalist rebels.
José Calvo Sotelo (6 May 1893 – 13 July 1936) was a Spanish politician, minister of Finance during the Dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera and a leading figure of the anti-republican radical right during the Second Republic.
José del Castillo Sáez de Tejada or José Castillo (29 June 1901, Alcalá la Real – 12 July 1936, Madrid) was a Spanish Police Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard) lieutenant during the Second Spanish Republic.
José Giral y Pereira (22 October 1879 – 23 December 1962) was a Spanish politician, who served 65th Prime Minister of Spain during the Second Spanish Republic.
José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones de León (Salamanca, 27 November 1898 – Madrid, 13 September 1980) was a Spanish politician, leader of the CEDA and a prominent figure in the period leading up to the Spanish Civil War.
José María Gironella Pous (31 December 1917 in Darnius – 3 January 2003 in Arenys de Mar) was a Spanish author best known for his fictional work The Cypresses Believe in God (Los cipreses creen en Dios), which was published in Spain in 1953 and translated into English in 1955 by Harriet de Onís (1899-1969), a translator who usually specialized in Latin-American fiction.
José Miaja Menant (20 April 1878 in Oviedo, Asturias – 14 January 1958 in Mexico) was an army officer of the Second Spanish Republic.
José Millán-Astray y Terreros (July 5, 1879 – January 1, 1954) was a Spanish soldier, the founder and first commander of the Spanish Foreign Legion, and a major early figure of Francisco Franco's Regime in Spain.
José Moscardó e Ituarte, 1st Count of the Alcázar of Toledo, Grandee of Spain (26 October 1878 – 12 April 1956) was the military Governor of Toledo Province during the Spanish Civil War.
José Robles Pazos (Santiago de Compostela, 1897–1937) was a Spanish academic and independent left-wing activist.
General José Sanjurjo y Sacanell, 1st Marquess of the Rif (28 March 1872 – 20 July 1936), was a General in the Spanish Army who was one of the chief conspirators in the military uprising that led to the Spanish Civil War.
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Admiral Juan Bautista Aznar Cabañas, KOGF (Cádiz, 1860–Madrid, 1933) was the Prime Minister of Spain from the resignation of Dámaso Berenguer y Fusté on to the deposition of King Alfonso XIII and the proclamation of the Spanish Second Republic on April 14, 1931.
Juan Carlos I (Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón-Dos Sicilias, born 5 January 1938) reigned as King of Spain from 1975 until his abdication in 2014.
Juan Hernández Saravia (24 July 1880 – 3 May 1962) was a high-ranking Spanish military officer of the Republican government forces during the Spanish Civil War.
Juan Guilloto León, usually referred to as Modesto or Juan Modesto (24 September 1906 – 16 April 1969), was a Republican army officer during the Spanish Civil War.
Juan Negrín y López (3 February 1892 – 12 November 1956) was a Spanish politician and physician.
Juan Prim y Prats, 1st Marquis of Los Castillejos, 1st Count of Reus, 1st Viscount of El Bruch, Grandee of Spain, (Joan Prim i Prats; 12 December 1814 – 30 December 1870) was a Spanish general and statesman who was briefly Prime Minister of Spain until his assassination.
Juan Yagüe y Blanco, 1st Marquis of San Leonardo de Yagüe (19 November 1891 – 21 October 1952) was a Spanish army officer during the Spanish Civil War, one of the most important in the National side.
Julián Besteiro Fernández (21 September 1870 – 27 September 1940) was a Spanish socialist politician, elected to the Cortes Generales and in 1931 as Speaker of the Constituent Cortes of the Spanish Republic.
Julio Álvarez del Vayo (1890 in Villaviciosa de Odón, Community of Madrid – 1975 in Geneva, Switzerland) was a Spanish Socialist politician, journalist and writer.
Julio González i Pellicer (21 September 1876 - 27 March 1942) was a Spanish sculptor and painter who developed the expressive use of iron as a medium for modern sculpture.
The July 1936 military uprising in Barcelona was a military uprising in Barcelona, the capital and greatest city of Catalonia, Spain on 19 July 1936 which contributed to the start of the Spanish Civil War.
The July 1936 military uprising in Seville was a military uprising in Seville, Spain on 18 July 1936, which contributed to the start of the Spanish Civil War.
A kangaroo court is a court that ignores recognized standards of law or justice, and often carries little or no official standing in the territory within which it resides.
The Kingdom of Hungary (Hungarian: Magyar Királyság), also known as the Regency, existed from 1920 to 1946 as a de facto country under Regent Miklós Horthy.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
The Kingdom of Yugoslavia (Serbo-Croatian, Slovene: Kraljevina Jugoslavija, Краљевина Југославија; Кралство Југославија) was a state in Southeast Europe and Central Europe, that existed from 1918 until 1941, during the interwar period and beginning of World War II.
The Kriegsmarine (literally "War Navy") was the navy of Germany from 1935 to 1945.
Laïcité, literally "secularity", is a French concept of secularism.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Land law is the form of law that deals with the rights to use, alienate, or exclude others from land.
In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land.
A latifundium is a very extensive parcel of privately owned land.
Laurence Edward Alan "Laurie" Lee, MBE (26 June 1914 – 13 May 1997) was an English poet, novelist and screenwriter, who was brought up in the small village of Slad in Gloucestershire.
The Law of Political Responsibilities (Ley de Responsabilidades Políticas) was a law issued by the Francoist dictatorship on 13 February 1939 two months before the end of the Spanish Civil War.
André Léon Blum (9 April 1872 – 30 March 1950) was a French politician, identified with the moderate left, and three times Prime Minister of France.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
The region of León or Leonese region (Leonese: rexón de Llïón, región de León and rexón de Llión) is a historic territory defined by the 1833 Spanish administrative organisation.
Left-wing politics supports social equality and egalitarianism, often in opposition to social hierarchy.
Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (15 April 14522 May 1519), more commonly Leonardo da Vinci or simply Leonardo, was an Italian polymath of the Renaissance, whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music, mathematics, engineering, literature, anatomy, geology, astronomy, botany, writing, history, and cartography.
The Levante Offensive, launched near the end of March 1938, was an attempt by Nationalist forces under Francisco Franco to capture the Republican held city of Valencia during the Spanish Civil War.
Liberal democracy is a liberal political ideology and a form of government in which representative democracy operates under the principles of classical liberalism.
Lillian Florence Hellman (June 20, 1905 – June 30, 1984) was an American dramatist and screenwriter known for her success as a playwright on Broadway, as well as her left-wing sympathies and political activism.
The following list of foreign correspondents in the Spanish Civil War is an alphabetical list of the large number of journalists and photographers who were in Spain at some stage of the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939).
The following is a list of foreign ships wrecked or lost during the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939).
The Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Spain is the head of the Government of Spain.
The following is a list of known surviving veterans of the Spanish Civil War (17 July 1936 – 1 April 1939).
Lluís Companys i Jover (June 21, 1882 – October 15, 1940) was a Spanish politician from Catalonia.
The Loire 46 was a French single-seater fighter aircraft of the 1930s.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Luis Buñuel Portolés (22 February 1900 – 29 July 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.
The Mackenzie–Papineau Battalion or Mac-Paps were a battalion of Canadians who fought as part of the XV International Brigade on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Magnum Photos is an international photographic cooperative owned by its photographer-members, with offices in New York City, Paris, London and Tokyo.
Manuel Azaña Díaz (10 January 1880 – 3 November 1940) was the second Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1933), and later served again as Prime Minister (1936), and then as the second and last President of the Republic (1936–1939).
Manuel Fal Conde, 1st Duke of Quintillo (1894–1975) was a Spanish Catholic activist and a Carlist politician.
General of the Army Manuel Goded Llopis (15 October 1882 – 12 August 1936) was a Spanish Army general who was one of the key figures in the July 1936 revolt against the democratically elected Second Spanish Republic.
Manuel Hedilla Larrey (born July 18, 1902 in Ambrosero, Cantabria – died February 4, 1970 in Madrid) was a Spanish political figure who was a leading member of the Falange and an early rival for power towards Francisco Franco.
Mario Roatta (2 February 1887 – 7 January 1968) was an Italian general, best known for his role in Italian Second Army's repression against civilians, that matched the German one in the Slovene- and Croatian-inhabited areas of the Italian-occupied Yugoslavia during World War II.
Mark Rafailovich Rein (1909–1937?) was a socialist journalist.
Martha Ellis Gellhorn (November 8, 1908 – February 15, 1998) was an American novelist, travel writer, and journalist who is considered one of the great war correspondents of the 20th century.
Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War is the name given by the Catholic Church to the people who were killed by Republicans during the war because of their faith.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
A mass grave is a grave containing multiple human corpses, which may or may not be identified prior to burial.
The Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp complex consisted of the Mauthausen concentration camp on a hill above the market town of Mauthausen (roughly east of Linz, Upper Austria) plus a group of nearly 100 further subcamps located throughout Austria and southern Germany.
The May Days of 1937, sometimes also called May Events, referring to a series of clashes between 3 and 8 May 1937, were a period of civil violence in Catalonia, when factions of the Republican side engaged each other in street battles in various parts of Catalonia, in particular in the city of Barcelona, during the Spanish Civil War.
Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.
The Messerschmitt Bf 109 is a German World War II fighter aircraft that was the backbone of the Luftwaffe's fighter force.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Miguel Cabanellas Ferrer (1 January 1872 in Cartagena – 14 May 1938) was a Spanish Army officer during the Spanish Civil War.
Miguel Hernández Gilabert (30 October 1910 – 28 March 1942) was a 20th-century Spanish language poet and playwright associated with the Generation of '27 movement and the Generation of '36 movement.
Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquess of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte, GE, OIC, OSH, LCSF, OMC, OTS, KOC (8 January 1870 – 16 March 1930) was a dictator, aristocrat, and military officer who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930 during Spain's Restoration era.
Mikhail Efimovich Koltsov (Михаил Ефимович Кольцов) (– February 2, 1940), born Moisey Efimovich Fridlyand (Friedland) (Моисей Ефимович Фридлянд), was a Soviet Journalist, Bolshevik Revolutionary and a NKVD Agent.
Miranda de Ebro is a city on the Ebro river in the province of Burgos in the autonomous community of Castile and León, Spain.
A mixed brigade (brigada mixta) was a tactical military formation of the Spanish Republican Army following the coup of July 1936 and the onset of the Spanish Civil War.
The Modern Records Centre (MRC) is the specialist archive service of the University of Warwick in Coventry, England, located adjacent to the Central Campus Library.
Mohammed Meziane or Mohamed ben Mizzian (محمد أمزيان Full name: Mohamed Belkacem Zahraoui Meziane; 1 February 1897 – 1 May 1975), known by the Spaniards as Ben Mizzian, was a Moroccan general from Beni Ensar (near Nador).
Monarchism is the advocacy of a monarch or monarchical rule.
The monarchy of Spain (Monarquía de España), constitutionally referred to as the Crown (La Corona), is a constitutional institution and historic office of Spain.
Morale, also known as esprit de corps, is the capacity of a group's members to maintain belief in an institution or goal, particularly in the face of opposition or hardship.
Morelia (from 1545 to 1828 known as Valladolid) is a city and municipality in the north central part of the state of Michoacán in central Mexico.
The Moscow Gold (Oro de Moscú), or alternatively Gold of the Republic (Oro de la República), was 510 tonnes of gold, corresponding to 72.6% of the total gold reserves of the Bank of Spain, that were transferred from their original location in Madrid to the Soviet Union a few months after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
The National Defence Council (Consejo Nacional de Defensa) was the governing body in Republican Spain at the end of the Spanish Civil War (1936–39).
National syndicalism is an adaptation of syndicalism to suit the social agenda of integral nationalism.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
Navarre (Navarra, Nafarroa; Navarra), officially the Chartered Community of Navarre (Spanish: Comunidad Foral de Navarra; Basque: Nafarroako Foru Komunitatea), is an autonomous community and province in northern Spain, bordering the Basque Autonomous Community, La Rioja, and Aragon in Spain and Nouvelle-Aquitaine in France.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres (6 July 1877 – 18 February 1949) was a Spanish lawyer and politician who served, briefly, as the first prime minister of the Second Spanish Republic, and then—from 1931 to 1936—as its president.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
Non-combatant is a term of art in the law of war and international humanitarian law, describing civilians who are not taking a direct part in hostilities; persons—such as combat medics and military chaplains—who are members of the belligerent armed forces but are protected because of their specific duties (as currently described in Protocol I of the Geneva Conventions, adopted in June 1977); combatants who are placed hors de combat; and neutral nationals (including military personnel) who are not fighting for one of the belligerents involved in an armed conflict.
During the Spanish Civil War, several countries followed a principle of non-intervention, to avoid any potential escalation and possible expansion of the war to other nations, which would result in the signing of the Non-Intervention Agreement in August 1936 and the setting up of the Non-Intervention Committee, which first met in September.
Henry Norman Bethune (March 4, 1890 – November 12, 1939; p) was a Canadian physician, medical innovator, and noted communist. Bethune came to international prominence first for his service as a frontline surgeon supporting the democratically elected Republican government during the Spanish Civil War. But it was his service with the Communist Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War that would earn him enduring acclaim. Dr. Bethune effectively brought modern medicine to rural China and often treated sick villagers as much as wounded soldiers. His selfless commitment made a profound impression on the Chinese people, especially CPC's leader, Mao Zedong. Mao Zedong wrote a eulogy to him, which was memorized by generations of Chinese people. While Bethune was the man responsible for developing a mobile blood-transfusion service for frontline operations in the Spanish Civil War, he himself died of blood poisoning. A prominent communist and veteran of the First World War, he wrote that wars were motivated by profits, not principles. Statues in his honour can be found in cities throughout China.
Old Castile (Castilla la Vieja) is a historic region of Spain, which included territory that later corresponded to the provinces of Santander (now Cantabria), Burgos, Logroño (now La Rioja), Soria, Segovia, Ávila, Valladolid and Palencia.
Oviedo or Uviéu (officially in Asturian) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region.
Pau Casals i Defilló (Catalan:; 29 December 187622 October 1973), usually known in English as Pablo Casals,, The New York Times, 1911-04-09, retrieved 2009-08-01 was a cellist, composer, and conductor from Catalonia, Spain.
Ricardo Eliécer Neftalí Reyes Basoalto (12 July 1904 – 23 September 1973), better known by his pen name and, later, legal name Pablo Neruda, was a Chilean poet-diplomat and politician.
Pablo Ruiz Picasso (25 October 1881 – 8 April 1973) was a Spanish painter, sculptor, printmaker, ceramicist, stage designer, poet and playwright who spent most of his adult life in France.
Pacifism is opposition to war, militarism, or violence.
In the 1930s Spain became a focus for pacifist organizations including the Fellowship of Reconciliation and the War Resisters' International whose president was the British MP and Labour Party leader George Lansbury.
Pamplona (Pampelune) or Iruña (alternative spelling: Iruñea) is the historical capital city of Navarre, in Spain, and of the former Kingdom of Navarre.
Paracuellos del Jarama is a small town and municipality in the Community of Madrid, Spain.
The Paracuellos massacres (Matanzas de Paracuellos) were a series of mass killings of civilians and soldiers by the Republican faction of the Spanish Civil War.
Sir Paul Preston CBE (born 21 July 1946 in Liverpool) is an English historian and Hispanist, biographer of Franco, specialist in Spanish history, in particular the Spanish Civil War, which he has studied for more than 30 years.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Pedro Muñoz Seca (born February 20, 1879 in El Puerto de Santa María, Spain; died November 28, 1936 in Paracuellos de Jarama, Madrid, Spain) was a Spanish comic playwright.
Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.
Petre Borilă (born Iordan Dragan Rusev; Bulgarian: Йордан Драган Русев, Yordan Dragan Rusev; 13 February 1906 – 2 January 1973) was a Romanian communist politician who briefly served as Vice-Premier under the Communist regime.
Henri Philippe Benoni Omer Joseph Pétain (24 April 1856 – 23 July 1951), generally known as Philippe Pétain or Marshal Pétain (Maréchal Pétain), was a French general officer who attained the position of Marshal of France at the end of World War I, during which he became known as The Lion of Verdun, and in World War II served as the Chief of State of Vichy France from 1940 to 1944.
This article is about volunteers of Polish nationality or extraction who fought for the Spanish Second Republic in the Spanish Civil War.
A political alliance, also referred to as a political coalition, political bloc, is an agreement for cooperation between different political parties on common political agenda, often for purposes of contesting an election to mutually benefit by collectively clearing election thresholds, or otherwise benefiting from characteristics of the voting system or for government formation after elections.
The political climate is the aggregate mood and opinions of a political society at a particular time.
A popular front is a broad coalition of different political groupings, usually made up of leftists and centrists.
The Popular Front (Frente Popular) in Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organizations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that year's election.
The Potez 540 was a French multi-role aircraft of the 1930s.
The Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (Partido Obrero de Unificación Marxista, POUM; Partit Obrer d'Unificació Marxista) was a Spanish communist political party formed during the Second Republic and mainly active around the Spanish Civil War.
The president is a common title for the head of state in most republics.
A pronunciamiento (pronunciamento; "pronouncement, announcement or declaration") is a form of military rebellion or coup d'état particular to Spain, Portugal and Latin America, particularly in the 19th century.
Propaganda is information that is not objective and is used primarily to influence an audience and further an agenda, often by presenting facts selectively to encourage a particular synthesis or perception, or using loaded language to produce an emotional rather than a rational response to the information that is presented.
Proscription (proscriptio) is, in current usage, a "decree of condemnation to death or banishment" (OED) and can be used in a political context to refer to state-approved murder or banishment.
In history, religion and political science, a purge is a removal of people who are considered undesirable by those in power from a government, another organization, their team owners, or society as a whole.
The Radical Republican Party (Partido Republicano Radical), sometimes shortened to the Radical Party, was a Spanish political party founded in 1908 by Alejandro Lerroux in Santander, Cantabria by a split from the historical Republican Union party led by Nicolás Salmerón.
Rafael Alberti Merello (16 December 1902 – 28 October 1999) was a Spanish poet, a member of the Generation of '27.
Ramón Serrano Suñer (12 September 1901 – 1 September 2003), was a Spanish politician during the first stages of General Francisco Franco's Spanish State, between 1938 and 1942, when he held the posts of President of the Spanish Falange caucus (1936), and then Interior Minister and Foreign Affairs Minister.
The Red Terror in Spain (Terror Rojo) is the name given by some historians to various acts of violence committed from 1936 until the end of the Spanish Civil War "by sections of nearly all the leftist groups".
The Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica Italiana) was the name of the air force of the Kingdom of Italy.
The Royal Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1861 to 1946.
The Fuerzas Regulares Indígenas ("Indigenous Regular Forces"), known simply as the Regulares (Regulars), are volunteer infantry units of the Spanish Army, largely recruited in the cities of Ceuta and Melilla.
Renovación Española (RE) was a Spanish monarchist political party active during the Second Spanish Republic, advocating the restoration of Alfonso XIII of Spain as opposed to Carlism.
The Republican faction (Bando republicano), also known as the Loyalist faction (Bando leal or bando gubernamental), was the side in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939 that supported the established government of the Second Spanish Republic against the Nationalist or rebel faction of the military rebellion.
Republicanism is an ideology centered on citizenship in a state organized as a republic under which the people hold popular sovereignty.
The Requetés (from the French requêté, “hunting call”)Enciclopedia Universal Sopena.
The Restoration (Restauración), or Bourbon Restoration (Restauración borbónica), is the name given to the period that began on 29 December 1874 — after a coup d'état by Martínez-Campos ended the First Spanish Republic and restored the monarchy under Alfonso XII — and ended on 14 April 1931 with the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic.
Revisionism is a term which emerged in the late 1990s and is applied to a group of historiographic theories related to the recent history of Spain.
In political science, a revolution (Latin: revolutio, "a turn around") is a fundamental and relatively sudden change in political power and political organization which occurs when the population revolt against the government, typically due to perceived oppression (political, social, economic).
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
Robert Capa (born Endre Friedmann; October 22, 1913 – May 25, 1954) was a Hungarian war photographer and photojournalist, and was also the companion and professional partner of photographer Gerda Taro.
The Romanian Communist Party (Romanian: Partidul Comunist Român, PCR) was a communist party in Romania.
Ronda is a city in the Spanish province of Málaga.
Ignatius Royston Dunnachie Campbell, better known as Roy Campbell, (2 October 1901 – 23 April 1957) was a South African poet and satirist.
The Russian Civil War (Grazhdanskaya voyna v Rossiyi; November 1917 – October 1922) was a multi-party war in the former Russian Empire immediately after the Russian Revolutions of 1917, as many factions vied to determine Russia's political future.
The devotion to the Sacred Heart (also known as the Most Sacred Heart of Jesus, Sacratissimum Cor Iesu in Latin) is one of the most widely practiced and well-known Roman Catholic devotions, taking Jesus Christ′s physical heart as the representation of his divine love for humanity.
Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain that is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León.
San Sebastián or Donostia is a coastal city and municipality located in the Basque Autonomous Community, Spain.
Santiago José Carrillo Solares (18 January 1915 – 18 September 2012) was a Spanish politician who served as General Secretary of the Communist Party of Spain (PCE) from 1960 to 1982.
Santiago Casares y Quiroga (A Coruña, Galicia, 8 May 1884 – Paris, 17 February 1950) was Prime Minister of Spain from 13 May to 19 July 1936.
The Santoña Agreement or Pact of Santoña was an agreement signed in the town of Guriezo, near Santoña, Cantabria, on August 24, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War, between politicians close to the Basque Nationalist Party (Partido Nacionalista Vasco or PNV), fighting with the Republican Side, and Italian forces fighting with the Francoist side.
Santurtzi (Santurce; Santurtzi) is a port town in the province of Biscay, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, Spain.
Sealift is a term used predominantly in military logistics and refers to the use of cargo ships for the deployment of military assets, such as weaponry, vehicles, military personnel, and supplies.
The Second Battle of the Corunna Road (Carretera de Coruña) was a battle of the Spanish Civil War that took place from 13 December 1936 to 15 January 1937, northwest of Madrid.
The Second Italo-Ethiopian War, also referred to as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War, was a colonial war from 3 October 1935 until 1939, despite the Italian claim to have defeated Ethiopia by 5 May 1936, the date of the capture of Addis Ababa.
The Second Polish Republic, commonly known as interwar Poland, refers to the country of Poland between the First and Second World Wars (1918–1939).
The Spanish Republic (República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic (Segunda República Española), was the democratic government that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939.
The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), commonly known as MI6, is the foreign intelligence service of the government of the United Kingdom, tasked mainly with the covert overseas collection and analysis of human intelligence (HUMINT) in support of the UK's national security.
Secularity (adjective form secular, from Latin saeculum meaning "worldly", "of a generation", "temporal", or a span of about 100 years) is the state of being separate from religion, or of not being exclusively allied with or against any particular religion.
Secularization (or secularisation) is the transformation of a society from close identification and affiliation with religious values and institutions toward nonreligious values and secular institutions.
Segismundo Casado López (1893, Nava de la Asunción, Segovia – 1968, Madrid) was a Spanish Army officer in the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, commanding the Republican Spanish Army in 1939.
Segovia is a city in the autonomous region of Castile and León, Spain.
The Segovia Offensive was a Republican diversionary offensive which took place between 31 May and 6 June 1937, during the Spanish Civil War.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
The Siege of Cuartel de la Montaña was the two-day siege of the military barracks which marked the initial failure of the uprising against the Second Spanish Republic in Madrid, Spain on 18–20 July 1936, at the start of the Spanish Civil War.
The Siege of Madrid was a two and a half year siege of the Spanish capital city of Madrid, during the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
The Siege of the Alcázar was a highly symbolic Nationalist victory in Toledo in the opening stages of the Spanish Civil War.
Simone Weil (3 February 1909 – 24 August 1943) was a French philosopher, mystic, and political activist. The mathematician Andre Weil was her brother. After her graduation from formal education, Weil became a teacher. She taught intermittently throughout the 1930s, taking several breaks due to poor health and to devote herself to political activism, work that would see her assisting in the trade union movement, taking the side of the Anarchists known as the Durruti Column in the Spanish Civil War, and spending more than a year working as a labourer, mostly in auto factories, so she could better understand the working class. Taking a path that was unusual among twentieth-century left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract much attention until after her death. In the 1950s and 1960s, her work became famous in continental Europe and throughout the English-speaking world. Her thought has continued to be the subject of extensive scholarship across a wide range of fields. A meta study from the University of Calgary found that between 1995 and 2012 over 2,500 new scholarly works had been published about her. Albert Camus described her as "the only great spirit of our times".
The Slovak Soviet Republic (Slovak: Slovenská republika rád, Hungarian: Szlovák Tanácsköztársaság, Ukrainian: Словацька Радянська Республіка, literally: "Slovak Republic of Councils") was a short-lived Communist state in southeast Slovakia in existence from 16 June 1919 to 7 July 1919.
Social revolutions are sudden changes in the structure and nature of society.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
Southampton is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire, England.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish State under the dictatorship of General Franco did not officially join the Axis Powers during World War II.
The Spanish Army (Ejército de Tierra; "Army of the Land/Ground") is the terrestrial army of the Spanish Armed Forces responsible for land-based military operations.
"Spanish Bombs" is a song by English punk rock band the Clash, with principal vocals by Joe Strummer and additional vocals by Mick Jones.
The Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas, CEDA) was a Spanish political party in the Second Spanish Republic.
The Political Constitution of the Spanish Monarchy (Constitución Política de la Monarquía Española), also known as the Constitution of Cádiz (Constitución de Cádiz) and as La Pepa, was the first Constitution of Spain and one of the earliest constitutions in world history.
The Spanish Constitution of 1931 was approved by the Constituent Assembly on 9 December 1931.
Baleares was a heavy cruiser of the Spanish Navy.
Canarias was a heavy cruiser of the Spanish Navy.
Elections to Spain’s legislature, the Cortes Generales, were held on 19 November 1933 for all 473 seats in the unicameral Cortes of the Second Spanish Republic.
Legislative elections were held in Spain on 16 February 1936.
Spanish Guinea (Spanish: Guinea Española) was a set of insular and continental territories controlled by Spain since 1778 in the Gulf of Guinea and on the Bight of Bonny, in Central Africa.
The Spanish Legion (Legión Española, La Legión), informally known as the Tercio or the Tercios, is a unit of the Spanish Army and Spain's Rapid Reaction Force.
The Spanish Maquis were Spanish guerrillas exiled in France after the Spanish Civil War who continued to fight against the Spanish State until the early 1960s, carrying out sabotage, robberies (to help fund guerrilla activity), occupations of the Spanish Embassy in France and assassinations of Francoists, as well as contributing to the fight against Nazi Germany and the Vichy regime in France during World War II.
The Spanish Navy (Armada Española) is the maritime branch of the Spanish Armed Forces and one of the oldest active naval forces in the world.
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
The Spanish Republican Air Force was the air arm of the Armed Forces of the Second Spanish Republic, the legally established government of Spain between 1931 and 1939.
The Spanish Republican Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de la República Española) were initially formed by the following two branches of the military of the Second Spanish Republic.
The Spanish Republican Army (Ejército de la República Española) was the main branch of the Armed Forces of the Second Spanish Republic between 1931 and 1939.
The Spanish Republican Navy was the naval arm of the Armed Forces of the Second Spanish Republic, the legally established government of Spain between 1931 and 1939.
Spanish Sahara (Sahara Español; الصحراء الإسبانية As-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah), officially the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975.
Spanish West Africa is a former possession in the western Sahara Desert that Spain ruled after giving much of its former northwestern African possessions to Morocco.
Spartacus Educational is a free online encyclopedia with essays and other educational material on a wide variety of historical subjects (including British History and the History of the USA, as well as other subjects including the First World War, Second World War, Russian Revolution, Slavery, Women's Suffrage, Nazi Germany, Spanish Civil War, and The Cold War).
SS Cantabria was a Spanish cargo ship which was sunk in a military action of the Spanish Civil War, off the coast of Norfolk 12 miles ENEpg 13 The Ship-wrecks off North Norfolk.
SS Winnipeg was a French steamer notable for arriving at Valparaíso, Chile, on 3 September 1939, with 2,200 Spanish immigrants aboard.
Frank Stewart Farrar (28 June 1916 – 7 February 2000), who always went by the name of Stewart Farrar, was an English screenwriter, novelist and prominent figure in the Neopagan religion of Wicca, which he devoted much of his later life to propagating with the aid of his seventh wife, Janet Farrar, and then his friend Gavin Bone as well.
Strike action, also called labor strike, labour strike, or simply strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal of employees to work.
A summary execution is an execution in which a person is accused of a crime and immediately killed without benefit of a full and fair trial.
A number of governments have treated Freemasonry as a potential source of opposition due to its secret nature and international connections.
The T-26 tank was a Soviet light infantry tank used during many conflicts of the 1930s and in World War II.
A tankette is a tracked armoured fighting vehicle that resembles a small tank, roughly the size of a car.
Tarragona (Phoenician: Tarqon; Tarraco) is a port city located in northeast Spain on the Costa Daurada by the Mediterranean Sea.
The Thälmann Battalion was a battalion of the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War.
The Clash were an English rock band formed in London in 1976 as a key player in the original wave of British punk rock.
The Falling Soldier (full title: Loyalist Militiaman at the Moment of Death, Cerro Muriano, September 5, 1936) is a photograph by Robert Capa, claimed to have been taken on September 5, 1936.
The Spanish Earth is a 1937 propaganda film made during the Spanish Civil War in support of the democratically elected Republicans, whose forces included a wide range from the political left like communists, socialists, anarchists, to moderates like centrists, and liberalist elements.
The Spanish Labyrinth (full title: The Spanish Labyrinth: An Account of the Social and Political Background of the Spanish Civil War) by Gerald Brenan, is an account of Spain's social, economic and political history as a background to the Spanish Civil War.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Toledo is a city and municipality located in central Spain; it is the capital of the province of Toledo and the autonomous community of Castile–La Mancha.
A trade union or trades union, also called a labour union (Canada) or labor union (US), is an organization of workers who have come together to achieve many common goals; such as protecting the integrity of its trade, improving safety standards, and attaining better wages, benefits (such as vacation, health care, and retirement), and working conditions through the increased bargaining power wielded by the creation of a monopoly of the workers.
The Trades Union Congress (TUC) is a national trade union centre, a federation of trade unions in England and Wales, representing the majority of trade unions.
Tragic Week (in Catalan la Setmana Tràgica, in Spanish la Semana Trágica) (25 July – 2 August 1909) is the name used for a series of violent confrontations between the Spanish army and radicals of the working classes of Barcelona and other cities of Catalonia (Spain), assisted by anarchists, socialists and republicans, during the last week of July 1909.
The Trienio Liberal ("Liberal Triennium") is a period of 3 years in the modern history of Spain between 1820 and 1823, when a liberal government ruled Spain after a military uprising in January 1820 by the lieutenant-colonel Rafael de Riego against the absolutist rule of King Ferdinand VII.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT, General Union of Workers) is a major Spanish trade union, historically affiliated with the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of California, San Diego is a public research university located in the La Jolla neighborhood of San Diego, California, in the United States.
The University of Illinois Urbana–Champaign (also known as U of I, Illinois, or colloquially as the University of Illinois or UIUC) is a public research university in the U.S. state of Illinois and the flagship institution of the University of Illinois System.
Aran (previously officially called Val d'Aran) is an administrative entity in Catalonia, Spain, consisting of the Aran Valley, in area, in the Pyrenees mountains, in the northwestern part of the province of Lleida.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
Valentín González González (November 4, 1904 – October 20, 1983) was a Republican military commander during the Spanish Civil War.
Valladolid is a city in Spain and the de facto capital of the autonomous community of Castile and León.
Valter or Walter Roman (October 9, 1913 – November 11, 1983), born Ernst or Ernő Neuländer, was a Romanian communist activist and soldier.
Vicente Rojo Lluch (8 October 1894 – 15 June 1966) was Chief of the General Staff of the Spanish Armed Forces during the Spanish Civil War.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
Viriatos, named after the Lusitanian leader Viriathus, was the generic name given to Portuguese volunteers who fought with the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War.
Vittorio Vidali (1900–1983), also known as Vittorio Vidale, Enea Sormenti, Jacobo Hurwitz Zender, Carlos Contreras, "Comandante Carlos" was an Italian Communist.
"Viva la Quinta Brigada" (listed as "Viva la Quince Brigada" in later recordings) is a Christy Moore song about the Irishmen who fought in the Spanish Civil War against Franco.
Wystan Hugh Auden (21 February 1907 – 29 September 1973) was an English-American poet.
The War Resisters League (WRL) is the oldest secular pacifist organization in the United States.
War Resisters' International (WRI) is an international anti-war organization with members and affiliates in over thirty countries.
In the history of Spain, the White Terror (also known as the Francoist Repression, la Represión franquista) was the series of assassinations realized by the Nationalist faction during the Spanish Civil War (1936–39), and during the first nine years of the régime of General Francisco Franco.
Wilhelm Josef Ritter von Thoma (11 September 1891 – 30 April 1948) was a German officer who served in World War I, in the Spanish Civil War, and as a general in World War II.
Wolfram Freiherr von Richthofen (10 October 1895 – 12 July 1945) was a German field marshal of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force) during World War II.
Woodrow Wilson Guthrie (July 14, 1912 – October 3, 1967) was an American singer-songwriter, one of the most significant figures in American folk music; his songs, including social justice songs, such as "This Land Is Your Land", have inspired several generations both politically and musically.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
The XI International Brigade fought for the Spanish Second Republic in the Spanish Civil War.
The Abraham Lincoln Brigade, officially the XV International Brigade, was a mixed brigade (Brigada mixta) that fought for the Spanish Republic in the Spanish Civil War as a part of the International Brigades.
The XYZ Line, or Matallana Line, was a system of fortifications built during the Spanish Civil War in order to defend the capital of the Second Spanish Republic in Valencia, Spain.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
Aragon front, Bibliography of the Spanish Civil War, Civil War in Spain, Civil War of Spain, Political parties of the Spanish Civil War, Political parties of the spanish civil war, Spainish Civil War, Spanish Civil war, Spanish civil war, Spanish crusade, The Spanish civil war.