619 relations: Aaron Cardozo, Aaron Lopez, Abraham Bueno de Mesquita, Abraham Caceres, Abraham Capadose, Abraham Cohen de Herrera, Abraham Cohen Labatt, Abraham Cohen Pimentel, Abraham de Sola, Abraham Israel Pereyra, Abraham Lopes Cardozo, Abraham Pais, Abraham Pereira Mendes, Abraham Usque, Abraham Zacuto, AFC Ajax, Alan Mocatta, Albert Cardozo, Alexander Teixeira de Mattos, Algiers, Alhambra Decree, Alsace-Lorraine, Altona, Hamburg, Amato Lusitano, Amedeo Modigliani, American Revolution, Americas, Amidah, Amsterdam, Ancona, Anglicanism, Angra do Heroísmo, Annie Nathan Meyer, António José da Silva, António Lobo Antunes, Antonio Fernandez Carvajal, Antwerp, Anusim, Approximant consonant, Aramaic language, Arie Pais, Aron Mendes Chumaceiro, Artur Carlos de Barros Basto, Aruba, Ashkenazi Hebrew, Ashkenazi Jews, Austrians, Avianca, Ayin, Azores, ..., Baghdadi Jews, Bar and Bat Mitzvah, Barbados, Baron Diego Pereira d'Aguilar, Baroque music, Baruch Spinoza, Bayezid II, Bayonne, Belgium, Belmonte, Portugal, Bendigamos, Benedetto Marcello, Benjamin Mendes da Costa, Benjamin Musaphia, Benjamin N. 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Don Aaron Nunez Cardozo, GMH (1762–1834) was a Jewish English businessman, who established in Gibraltar and was consul for Tunis and Algiers in Gibraltar around 1805.
Aaron Lopez (1731–1782), born Duarte Lopez, was a Portuguese Jewish merchant and philanthropist.
Abraham ('Appie') Bueno de Mesquita (July 23, 1918, in Amsterdam – August 19, 2005, in Lelystad), commonly known under his stage name Bueno de Mesquita was a Dutch comedian, actor and stage artist, well known for his ability to make funny faces.
Abraham de Caceres or Casseres (fl. 1718-1740) was a Portuguese-Dutch Jewish composer of the late baroque period.
The Revd Dr Abraham Capadose or Capadoce (22 August 1795, Amsterdam – 16 December 1874, The Hague) was a Dutch physician and Calvinist writer. A Jewish convert to Christianity from 1822 onwards, he was part of the Dutch Réveil circle that also included da Costa and Willem de Clercq.
Abraham Cohen de Herrera (רבי אברהם כהן בן דוד דה-הירירה), also known as Alonso Nunez de Herrera or Abraham Irira (c. 1570 – c. 1635), was a religious philosopher and cabbalist.
Abraham Cohen Labatt (1802, Charleston, South Carolina - August 16, 1899, Galveston, Texas) was an American Sephardic Jew who was a prominent pioneer of Reform Judaism in the United States in the 19th century, founding several early congregations in the South and in San Francisco after the Gold Rush.
Abraham Cohen Pimentel (died March 21, 1697) was a rabbi of Amsterdam.
Abraham de Sola (September 18, 1825 – June 5, 1882) was a Canadian Rabbi, author, Orientalist, and scientist.
Abraham Israel Pereyra (Pereira) was a wealthy and prominent Jewish Portuguese merchant, who lived in Amsterdam from circa 1644 to his death in 1699.
Abraham Lopes Cardozo (1914–2006) was hazzan of Congregation Shearith Israel, the historic Spanish and Portuguese synagogue in New York City.
Abraham Pais (May 19, 1918 – July 28, 2000) was a Dutch-born American physicist and science historian.
Abraham Pereira Mendes (February 9, 1825 in Kingston, Jamaica – April 18, 1893 in New York City) was an English rabbi and educator.
Abraham ben Salomon Usque (given the Christian name Duarte Pinhel) was a 16th-century publisher.
Abraham Zacuto (אברהם זכות, Abraão ben Samuel Zacuto, also Abraham ben Samuel Zacut and Abraham Zacut) (Salamanca, August 12, 1452 – Damascus, probably 1515) was a Portuguese astronomer, astrologer, mathematician, rabbi and historian who served as Royal Astronomer in the 15th century to King John II of Portugal.
Amsterdamsche Football Club Ajax, also AFC Ajax, Ajax Amsterdam or simply Ajax, is a Dutch professional football club based in Amsterdam.
Sir Alan Abraham Mocatta, OBE (27 June 1907 – 1 November 1990) was a British judge, an expert on restrictive practices and a leader of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews of Britain.
Albert Jacob Cardozo (December 21, 1828 – November 8, 1885) was an attorney and an American jurist in New York.
Alexander Louis Teixeira de Mattos San Payo y Mendes (April 9, 1865 – December 5, 1921), known as Alexander Teixeira de Mattos, was a Dutch-English journalist, literary critic and publisher, who gained his greatest fame as a translator.
Algiers (الجزائر al-Jazā’er, ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻ, Alger) is the capital and largest city of Algeria.
The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion; Spanish: Decreto de la Alhambra, Edicto de Granada) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of practicing Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July of that year.
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Altona is the westernmost urban borough (Bezirk) of the German city state of Hamburg, on the right bank of the Elbe river.
João Rodrigues de Castelo Branco, better known as Amato Lusitano and Amatus Lusitanus (1511–1568), was a notable Portuguese Jewish physician of the 16th century.
Amedeo Clemente Modigliani (12 July 1884 – 24 January 1920) was an Italian-Jewish painter and sculptor who worked mainly in France.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
The Amidah (תפילת העמידה, Tefilat HaAmidah, "The Standing Prayer"), also called the Shmoneh Esreh ("The Eighteen", in reference to the original number of constituent blessings: there are now nineteen), is the central prayer of the Jewish liturgy.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Ancona ((elbow)) is a city and a seaport in the Marche region in central Italy, with a population of around 101,997.
Anglicanism is a Western Christian tradition that evolved out of the practices, liturgy and identity of the Church of England following the Protestant Reformation.
Angra do Heroísmo, generally known as Angra, is a municipality and city on the island of Terceira in the Portuguese autonomous region of the Azores.
Annie Nathan Meyer (February 19, 1867 – September 23, 1951) was an American author and promoter of higher education for women.
António José da Silva Coutinho (8 May 170518 October 1739) was a Portuguese dramatist born in colonial Brazil, known as "the Jew" (O Judeu).
António Lobo Antunes, GCSE, MD (born 1 September 1942) is a Portuguese novelist and medical doctor.
Antonio Fernandez Carvajal (c. 1590November 10, 1659)—in António Fernandes Carvalhal—was a Portuguese-Jewish merchant, who became the first endenizened English Jew.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
Anusim (אֲנוּסִים,; singular male, Anús, אָנוּס; singular female, Anusáh,, meaning "Coerced") is a legal category of Jews in halakha (Jewish law) who were forced to abandon Judaism against their will, typically while forcibly converted to another religion.
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Aäron (Arie) Pais (born 16 April 1930, The Hague) is a former Dutch politician and economist.
Aron Mendes Chumaceiro (January 28, 1810, Amsterdam—September 18, 1882, Amsterdam) was chakam (rabbi) of Curaçao, Dutch West Indies.
Artur Carlos de Barros Basto (אברהם ישראל בן-ראש; Abraham Israel Ben-Rosh) was born December 18, 1887 in Amarante, Portugal, and died in Porto on March 8, 1961.
Aruba (Papiamento) is an island and a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands in the southern Caribbean Sea, located about west of the main part of the Lesser Antilles and north of the coast of Venezuela.
Ashkenazi Hebrew (Hagiyya Ashkenazit, Ashkenazishe Havara), is the pronunciation system for Biblical and Mishnaic Hebrew favored for liturgical use and study by Ashkenazi Jewish practice.
Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or simply Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכְּנַזִּים, Ashkenazi Hebrew pronunciation:, singular:, Modern Hebrew:; also), are a Jewish diaspora population who coalesced in the Holy Roman Empire around the end of the first millennium.
Austrians (Österreicher) are a Germanic nation and ethnic group, native to modern Austria and South Tyrol that share a common Austrian culture, Austrian descent and Austrian history.
Avianca S.A. (acronym in Spanish for "Aerovías del Continente Americano S.A.", Airways of the American Continent) is a Colombian airline that has been the national airline and flag carrier of Colombia since 5 December 1919, when it was initially registered under the name SCADTA.
Ayin (also ayn, ain; transliterated) is the sixteenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician, Hebrew, Aramaic, Syriac ܥ, and Arabic rtl (where it is sixteenth in abjadi order only).
The Azores (or; Açores), officially the Autonomous Region of the Azores (Região Autónoma dos Açores), is one of the two autonomous regions of Portugal.
Baghdadi Jews, also known as Indo-Iraqi Jews, is the traditional name given to the communities of Jewish migrants and their descendants from Baghdad and elsewhere in the Middle East, who settled primarily along the trade routes of ports around the Indian Ocean and the South China Sea.
Bar Mitzvah (בַּר מִצְוָה) is a Jewish coming of age ritual for boys.
Barbados is an island country in the Lesser Antilles of the West Indies, in the Caribbean region of North America.
Baron Diego Lopes Pereira d'Aguilar (born 1699 Portugal; died 10 August 1759, London) was an Austro-English Jewish businessman, community leader and philanthropist, originally a Portuguese converso, who lived in the 18th century.
Baroque music is a style of Western art music composed from approximately 1600 to 1750.
Baruch Spinoza (born Benedito de Espinosa,; 24 November 1632 – 21 February 1677, later Benedict de Spinoza) was a Dutch philosopher of Sephardi/Portuguese origin.
Bayezid II (3 December 1447 – 26 May 1512) (Ottoman Turkish: بايزيد ثانى Bāyezīd-i s̱ānī, Turkish: II. Bayezid or II. Beyazıt) was the eldest son and successor of Mehmed II, ruling as Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1481 to 1512.
Bayonne (Gascon: Baiona; Baiona; Bayona) is a city and commune and one of the two sub-prefectures of the department of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Belmonte is a municipality in the district of Castelo Branco, Portugal.
Bendigamos is a hymn sung after meals according to the custom of Spanish and Portuguese Jews.
Benedetto Giacomo Marcello ((31 July or 1 August 1686 – 24 July 1739) was an Italian composer, writer, advocate, magistrate, and teacher.
Benjamin Mendes da Costa (17 July 1803 - 26 November 1868) was an English merchant and philanthropist.
Benjamin ben Immanuel Musaphia (c. 1606 – 1675), also called Benjamin Musaphia or Mussafia and Dionysius, was a Jewish doctor, scholar and kabbalist.
Benjamin Nathan Cardozo (May 24, 1870 – July 9, 1938) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
Bet, Beth, Beh, or Vet is the second letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Bēt, Hebrew Bēt, Aramaic Bēth, Syriac Bēṯ ܒ, and Arabic ب Its sound value is a voiced bilabial stop ⟨b⟩ or a voiced labiodental fricative ⟨v.
Bevis Marks Synagogue, officially Qahal Kadosh Sha'ar ha-Shamayim (קהל קדוש שער השמים, "Holy Congregation Gate of Heaven") is the oldest synagogue in the United Kingdom.
Biarritz (Biarritz or Miarritze; Gascon Biàrritz) is a city on the Bay of Biscay, on the Atlantic coast in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the French Basque Country in Southwestern France.
The Biblical apocrypha (from the Greek ἀπόκρυφος, apókruphos, meaning "hidden") denotes the collection of apocryphal ancient books found in some editions of Christian Bibles in a separate section between the Old and New Testaments or as an appendix after the New Testament.
Biblical Hebrew (rtl Ivrit Miqra'it or rtl Leshon ha-Miqra), also called Classical Hebrew, is an archaic form of Hebrew, a Canaanite Semitic language spoken by the Israelites in the area known as Israel, roughly west of the Jordan River and east of the Mediterranean Sea.
Birkat Hamazon or Birkat Hammazon, known in English as the Grace After Meals (בענטשן; translit. bentshn or "to bless", Yinglish: Benching), is a set of Hebrew blessings that Jewish Halakha ("collective body of Jewish religious laws") prescribes following a meal that includes at least a ke-zayit (olive sized) piece of bread or matzoh made from one or all of wheat, barley, rye, oats, spelt.
The Book of Esther, also known in Hebrew as "the Scroll" (Megillah), is a book in the third section (Ketuvim, "Writings") of the Jewish Tanakh (the Hebrew Bible) and in the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
The Book of Job (Hebrew: אִיוֹב Iyov) is a book in the Ketuvim ("Writings") section of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh), and the first poetic book in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible.
The Book of Lamentations (אֵיכָה, ‘Êykhôh, from its incipit meaning "how") is a collection of poetic laments for the destruction of Jerusalem.
The Book of Proverbs (Hebrew: מִשְלֵי, Míshlê (Shlomoh), "Proverbs (of Solomon)") is the second book of the third section (called Writings) of the Hebrew Bible and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
The Book of Ruth (מגילת רות, Ashkenazi pronunciation:, Megilath Ruth, "the Scroll of Ruth", one of the Five Megillot) is included in the third division, or the Writings (Ketuvim), of the Hebrew Bible; in most Christian canons it is treated as a history book and placed between Judges and 1 Samuel, as it is set "in the days when the judges judged", although the Syriac Christian tradition places it later, between Ecclesiastes and the Song of Songs.
Bordeaux (Gascon Occitan: Bordèu) is a port city on the Garonne in the Gironde department in Southwestern France.
Botany, also called plant science(s), plant biology or phytology, is the science of plant life and a branch of biology.
Boxing is a combat sport in which two people, usually wearing protective gloves, throw punches at each other for a predetermined set of time in a boxing ring.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brooklyn is the most populous borough of New York City, with a census-estimated 2,648,771 residents in 2017.
Bruce Bueno de Mesquita (born November 24, 1946) is a political scientist, professor at New York University, and senior fellow at Stanford University's Hoover Institution.
Calypso is a style of Afro-Caribbean music that originated in Trinidad and Tobago during the early to mid-19th century and eventually spread to the rest of the Caribbean Antilles and Venezuela by the mid-20th century.
Camille Pissarro (10 July 1830 – 13 November 1903) was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas (now in the US Virgin Islands, but then in the Danish West Indies).
Cantillation is the ritual chanting of readings from the Hebrew Bible in synagogue services.
Capitulations of the Ottoman Empire were contracts between the Ottoman Empire and European powers, particularly France.
The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.
Carlo Grossi (c. 163414 May 1688) was an Italian composer.
Carpentras (Provençal Occitan: Carpentràs in classical norm or Carpentras in Mistralian norm) is a commune in the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region in southeastern France.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Catholic Monarchs is the joint title used in history for Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon.
Catulle Mendès (22 May 1841 – 8 February 1909) was a French poet and man of letters.
Cecilia Álvarez-Correa Glen (born 30 August 1953) is an Industrial Engineer and Colombian politician that serves as Minister of Commerce, Industry and Tourism of Colombia under President Juan Manuel Santos Calderón.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
A character actor or character actress is a supporting actor who plays unusual, interesting, or eccentric characters.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
Charleston is the oldest and largest city in the U.S. state of South Carolina, the county seat of Charleston County, and the principal city in the Charleston–North Charleston–Summerville Metropolitan Statistical Area.
Cheetham HillThe Ordnance Survey records the placename as "Cheetham Hill".
A chemist (from Greek chēm (ía) alchemy; replacing chymist from Medieval Latin alchimista) is a scientist trained in the study of chemistry.
Chennai (formerly known as Madras or) is the capital of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
Christian Julius de Meza (14 January 1792 – 16 September 1865) was the commander of the Danish Army during the 1864 Second Schleswig War.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
A city council, town council, town board, or board of aldermen is the legislative body that governs a city, town, municipality, or local government area.
City Lights is an independent bookstore-publisher combination in San Francisco, California, that specializes in world literature, the arts, and progressive politics.
The Classical period was an era of classical music between roughly 1730 to 1820, associated with the style of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.
Colombians (colombianos in Spanish), are citizens of Colombia.
The Comtat Venaissin (Provençal: lou Coumtat Venessin, Mistralian norm: la Coumtat, classical norm: lo Comtat Venaicin; "County of Venaissin"), often called the Comtat for short, was a part of the Papal States in what is now the Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur region of France.
The Confederate States of America (CSA or C.S.), commonly referred to as the Confederacy, was an unrecognized country in North America that existed from 1861 to 1865.
Beth Ahabah (House of Love) is a Reform synagogue in Richmond, Virginia.
Congregation Mickve Israel in Savannah, Georgia, is one of the oldest in the United States, as it was organized in 1735 by mostly Sephardic Jewish immigrants of Spanish-Portuguese extraction from London who arrived in the new colony in 1733.
The Congregation Mikveh Israel, (קהל קדוש מקוה ישראל), "Holy Community of the Hope of Israel", is a synagogue founded in the 1740s in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
The Congregation Shearith Israel (Hebrew: קהילת שארית ישראל Kehilat She'arit Yisra'el "Congregation Remnant of Israel") – often called The Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue – is the oldest Jewish congregation in the United States.
Conservative Judaism (known as Masorti Judaism outside North America) is a major Jewish denomination, which views Jewish Law, or Halakha, as both binding and subject to historical development.
A converso (feminine form conversa), "a convert", (from Latin, "converted, turned around") was a Jew who converted to Roman Catholicism in Spain or Portugal, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries, or one of their descendants.
Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.
Cork (from corcach, meaning "marsh") is a city in south-west Ireland, in the province of Munster, which had a population of 125,622 in 2016.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Cristiano Giuseppe Lidarti (Vienna 23 February 1730 – Pisa 1795) was an Austrian composer, born in Vienna of Italian descent.
Crypto-Judaism is the secret adherence to Judaism while publicly professing to be of another faith; practitioners are referred to as "crypto-Jews" (origin from Greek kryptos – κρυπτός, 'hidden').
Curaçao (Curaçao,; Kòrsou) is a Lesser Antilles island in the southern Caribbean Sea and the Dutch Caribbean region, about north of the Venezuelan coast.
The Mikvé Israel-Emanuel Synagogue (בית הכנסת מקווה ישראל-עמנואל; The Hope of Israel-Emanuel Synagogue), in Willemstad, Curaçao, is the oldest surviving synagogue in the Americas.
Dancehall is a genre of Jamaican popular music that originated in the late 1970s.
Daniel De Leon (December 14, 1852 – May 11, 1914) was an American socialist newspaper editor, politician, Marxist theoretician, and trade union organizer.
Daniel Deronda is a British television serial drama adapted by Andrew Davies from the George Eliot novel of the same name.
Daniel Mendoza (5 July 1764 – 3 September 1836) (often known as Dan Mendoza) was an English prizefighter, who was boxing champion of England in 1792–1795.
The Danish West Indies (Dansk Vestindien) or Danish Antilles was a Danish colony in the Caribbean, consisting of the islands of Saint Thomas with; Saint John with; and Saint Croix with.
David Belasco (July 25, 1853 – May 14, 1931) was an American theatrical producer, impresario, director and playwright.
David Cohen Nassy (born 1612) was a professional colonizer who started Jewish colonies in the Caribbean.
David de Aaron de Sola or David Aaron de Sola (1796 – 1860) (Hebrew: דוד אהרן די סולה) was a rabbi and author, born in Amsterdam, the son of Aaron de Sola.
David ben Abraham de Castro Tartas (also David de Kastro Tartas; in Hebrew, דוד די קאסטרו תרטאס) (Tartas, 1630-Amsterdam, 1698) was a Portuguese Jewish printer in Amsterdam.
David de Sola Pool (דוד די סולה פול; 1885–1970) was the leading 20th-century Sephardic rabbi in the United States.
David Franco Mendes was a Jewish Hebrew-language poet, born in Amsterdam 13 August 1713; died there 10 October 1792.
David Laurent de Lara (c.1806, Amsterdam - 1876) was a London-based, Dutch-born limner of Spanish descent.
David Nieto (1654 – 10 January 1728) was the Haham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish community in London, later succeeded in this capacity by his son, Isaac Nieto.
David Ricardo (18 April 1772 – 11 September 1823) was a British political economist, one of the most influential of the classical economists along with Thomas Malthus, Adam Smith and James Mill.
Deaf-mute is a term which was used historically to identify a person who was either deaf using a sign language or both deaf and could not speak.
Deism (or; derived from Latin "deus" meaning "god") is a philosophical belief that posits that God exists and is ultimately responsible for the creation of the universe, but does not interfere directly with the created world.
Denization is an obsolete or defunct process in England and Ireland and the later Kingdom of Great Britain, the United Kingdom, and the British Empire, dating back to the 13th century, by which an alien (foreigner), through letters patent, became a denizen, thereby obtaining certain rights otherwise only normally enjoyed by the King's (or Queen's) subjects, including the right to hold land.
Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.
A diagram is a symbolic representation of information according to some visualization technique.
Didsbury is a suburban area of Manchester, England, on the north bank of the River Mersey, south of Manchester city centre.
Diego María de la Concepción Juan Nepomuceno Estanislao de la Rivera y Barrientos Acosta y Rodríguez, known as Diego Rivera (December 8, 1886 – November 24, 1957) was a prominent Mexican painter.
Diego Rodríguez de Silva y Velázquez (baptized on June 6, 1599August 6, 1660) was a Spanish painter, the leading artist in the court of King Philip IV, and one of the most important painters of the Spanish Golden Age.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Dublin is the capital of and largest city in Ireland.
Dutch Brazil, also known as New Holland, was the northern portion of the Portuguese colony of Brazil, ruled by the Dutch during the Dutch colonization of the Americas between 1630 and 1654.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
The Eastern Mediterranean denotes the countries geographically to the east of the Mediterranean Sea (Levantine Seabasin).
Eastern Sephardim are a distinctive sub-group of Sephardi Jews, mostly descended from families expelled and exiled from Iberia as Jews in the 15th century following the Alhambra Decree of 1492 in Spain and the decree of 1497 in Portugal.
Ecclesiastes (Greek: Ἐκκλησιαστής, Ekklēsiastēs, קֹהֶלֶת, qōheleṯ) is one of 24 books of the Tanakh or Hebrew Bible, where it is classified as one of the Ketuvim (or "Writings").
Ecuador (Ikwadur), officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"; Ikwadur Ripuwlika), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
An editor-in-chief, also known as lead editor, chief editor, managing or executive editor, is a publication's editorial leader who has final responsibility for its operations and policies.
Edwin de Leon (May 4, 1818 – November 30, 1891) was a Confederate diplomat, writer, and journalist.
Edwin Seroussi (born 26 December 1952 in Montevideo) is an Israeli musicologist of Uruguayan origin, and winner of a 2018 Israel Prize.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
Elijah Montalto (1567 – 1616) was a Marrano physician and polemicist from Paris, who became the personal physician of Maria de Medici.
Elizabeth I (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death on 24 March 1603.
Elstree is a village in the Hertsmere borough of Hertfordshire, England.
Emanuel de Witte (1617–1692) was a Dutch perspective painter.
Emanuel Mendez da Costa (June 5, 1717 – May 31, 1791) was an English botanist, naturalist, philosopher, and collector of valuable notes and of manuscripts, and of anecdotes of the literati.
Emanuel Nunes Carvalho (1771, London - 1817, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) was an American Jewish religious leader and lexicographer.
Emanuel Querido (6 August 1871 – 23 July 1943) was a successful Dutch publisher as the founder and owner of N.V. Em.
Emma Lazarus (July 22, 1849 – November 19, 1887) was an American poet, writer, translator, and Georgist from New York City.
Emmy Lopes Dias (4 August 1919, in Hilversum – 28 March 2005, in Laren) was a Dutch actress and activist who performed on stage, radio, and television.
An empresario was a person who had been granted the right to settle on land in exchange for recruiting and taking responsibility for new settlers.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Entomology is the scientific study of insects, a branch of zoology.
Ephraim Lópes Pereira d'Aguilar (1739 in Vienna – 1802 in London) was the second Baron d'Aguilar, a Barony of the Holy Roman Empire.
Eric Arturo Delvalle Cohen-Henríquez (2 February 1937 – 2 October 2015) was a Panamanian politician.
Ernest Clifford Peixotto (1869–1940) was an American artist, illustrator, and author.
Estrangeirados were, in the history of Portugal, Portuguese intellectuals who, in the late 17th century and particularly in the 18th century, strove to introduce the ideas of the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment, as well as other foreign ideas to Portugal.
Evaristo Sourdis Juliao (27 March 1905 – 22 September 1970) was a lawyer and diplomat who served as 23rd Comptroller General of Colombia, from 1967–69, the sixth Permanent Representative of Colombia to the United Nations in 1953, and as Minister of Foreign Affairs of Colombia first in 1950 and again from 1953–56.
Abramo Giulio Umberto Federigo Enriques (5 January 1871 – 14 June 1946) was an Italian mathematician, now known principally as the first to give a classification of algebraic surfaces in birational geometry, and other contributions in algebraic geometry.
Ferdinand II (Ferrando, Ferran, Errando, Fernando) (10 March 1452 – 23 January 1516), called the Catholic, was King of Sicily from 1468 and King of Aragon from 1479 until his death.
Ferdinando I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany (30 July 1549 – 17 February 1609) was Grand Duke of Tuscany from 1587 to 1609, having succeeded his older brother Francesco I.
Fernando António Nogueira Pessoa (13 June 1888 – 30 November 1935), commonly known as Fernando Pessoa, was a Portuguese poet, writer, literary critic, translator, publisher and philosopher, described as one of the most significant literary figures of the 20th century and one of the greatest poets in the Portuguese language.
Ferrara (Ferrarese: Fràra) is a town and comune in Emilia-Romagna, northern Italy, capital of the Province of Ferrara.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
Forced conversion is adoption of a different religion or irreligion under duress.
The Four Sephardic Synagogues are located in the Jewish Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Francis Salvador (1747 – 1 August 1776) was a young English plantation owner in the colony of South Carolina from the Sephardic Jewish community of London; in 1774 he was the first Jew to be elected to public office in the colonies when chosen for the Provincial Congress.
Francisco Hilario Henríquez y Carvajal (January 14, 1859 – February 6, 1935) was a doctor, lawyer, writer, educator and politician from the Dominican Republic, who served as President just prior to the US occupation of the country.
Francisco Lopes Suasso, second Baron d'Avernas le Gras (ca. 1657 – 22 April 1710) was a banker and financier of the Dutch Republic.
Frank de Miranda (Bloemendaal, March 8, 1913 - Ede, 1986) was a Dutch sculptor, psychologist and publicist.
Frank Reginald Nunes Nabarro MBE OMS FRS (7 March 1916 – 20 July 2006) was an English-born South African physicist and one of the pioneers of solid-state physics, which underpins much of 21st-century technology.
Frank Alvin Silvera (July 24, 1914 – June 11, 1970) was a Jamaican-born American character actor and theatrical director.
Fredericia is a town located in Fredericia municipality in the southeastern part of the Jutland peninsula in Denmark, in a sub-region also known as Trekantsområdet (the Triangle Area).
Frederick de Sola Mendes (Montego Bay, Jamaica, West Indies, July 8, 1850—1927) was a rabbi, author, and editor.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
Frieda Belinfante (May 10, 1904 in Amsterdam – April 26, 1995 in Santa Fe, New Mexico) was a Dutch cellist, conductor, a prominent lesbian and a member of the Dutch Resistance during World War II.
Gabriel Milan (or Gavrī'el Mil'ō (גבריאל מילאו), c 1631 – 26 March 1689) was governor of the Danish West Indies (now known as the U.S. Virgin Islands) from 7 May 1684 to 27 February 1686.
Garcia de Orta (or Garcia d'Orta) (1501? – 1568) was a Portuguese Renaissance Sephardi Jewish physician, herbalist and naturalist.
George John Lionel Maduro (15 July 1916 – 8 February 1945) was a Dutch law student who served as an officer in the 1940 Battle of the Netherlands and distinguished himself in repelling the German attack on The Hague.
Gershom Mendes Seixas (January 15, 1745 – July 2, 1816) was the first native-born Jewish religious leader in the United States.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gimel is the third letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Gīml, Hebrew ˈGimel ג, Aramaic Gāmal, Syriac Gāmal ܓ, and Arabic ج (in alphabetical order; fifth in spelling order).
Girona (Gerona; Gérone) is a city in Catalonia, Spain, at the confluence of the rivers Ter, Onyar, Galligants, and Güell and has an official population of 99,013 as of January 2017.
Glückstadt (Lykstad) is a town in the Steinburg district of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
The Gleaner Company Ltd. is a newspaper publishing enterprise in Jamaica.
The Governor-General of India (or, from 1858 to 1947, officially the Viceroy and Governor-General of India, commonly shortened to Viceroy of India) was originally the head of the British administration in India and, later, after Indian independence in 1947, the representative of the Indian head of state.
Grace Aguilar (2 June 1816 – 16 September 1847) was an English novelist, poet and writer on Jewish history and religion.
Gracia Mendes Nasi (1510-1569), was one of the wealthiest Jewish women of Renaissance Europe.
The Great Synagogue of Gibraltar, also known as Kahal Kadosh Sha'ar HaShamayim, is located in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar, and was the first synagogue on the Iberian Peninsula to operate since the expulsions from Spain and Portugal in 1492 and 1497 respectively.
The Great Synagogue of Florence or Tempio Maggiore is one of the largest synagogues in South-central Europe, situated in Florence, in Italy.
The Great Synagogue of Rome (Tempio Maggiore di Roma) is the largest synagogue in Rome.
Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston, the capital of the U.S. state of Massachusetts, and the most populous city in New England, as well as its surrounding areas.
The Greater Middle East is a political term, introduced in the early 2000s, denoting a set of contiguously connected countries stretching from Morocco in the west all the way to Pakistan in the east.
The term Hachmei Provence refers to the Jewish rabbis of Provence, a province in southern France, which was a great Torah center in the times of the Tosafists.
The haftarah or (in Ashkenazic pronunciation) haftorah (alt. haphtara, Hebrew: הפטרה; "parting," "taking leave", plural haftoros or haftorot is a series of selections from the books of Nevi'im ("Prophets") of the Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) that is publicly read in synagogue as part of Jewish religious practice. The Haftarah reading follows the Torah reading on each Sabbath and on Jewish festivals and fast days. Typically, the haftarah is thematically linked to the parasha (Torah portion) that precedes it. The haftarah is sung in a chant (known as "trope" in Yiddish or "Cantillation" in English). Related blessings precede and follow the Haftarah reading. The origin of haftarah reading is lost to history, and several theories have been proposed to explain its role in Jewish practice, suggesting it arose in response to the persecution of the Jews under Antiochus Epiphanes which preceded the Maccabean revolt, wherein Torah reading was prohibited,Rabinowitz, Louis. "Haftarah." Encyclopaedia Judaica. Eds. Michael Berenbaum and Fred Skolnik. Vol. 8. 2nd ed. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2007. 198-200. 22 vols. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Gale. or that it was "instituted against the Samaritans, who denied the canonicity of the Prophets (except for Joshua), and later against the Sadducees." Another theory is that it was instituted after some act of persecution or other disaster in which the synagogue Torah scrolls were destroyed or ruined - it was forbidden to read the Torah portion from any but a ritually fit parchment scroll, but there was no such requirement about a reading from Prophets, which was then "substituted as a temporary expedient and then remained." The Talmud mentions that a haftarah was read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus, who lived c.70 CE, and that by the time of Rabbah (the 3rd century) there was a "Scroll of Haftarot", which is not further described, and in the Christian New Testament several references suggest this Jewish custom was in place during that era.
Haketia (חַכִּיתִּיָה, حاكيتيا, Haquetía) (also written as Hakitia or Haquitía) is an endangered Jewish Romance language also known as Djudeo Spañol, Ladino Occidental, or Western Judaeo-Spanish.
Hakham (or chakam(i), haham(i), hacham(i); חכם, "wise") is a term in Judaism, meaning a wise or skillful man; it often refers to someone who is a great Torah scholar.
Halakha (הֲלָכָה,; also transliterated as halacha, halakhah, halachah or halocho) is the collective body of Jewish religious laws derived from the Written and Oral Torah.
Hale is a village and electoral ward within the Metropolitan Borough of Trafford, in Greater Manchester, England.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
A harpsichord is a musical instrument played by means of a keyboard which activates a row of levers that in turn trigger a mechanism that plucks one or more strings with a small plectrum.
Haym Salomon (also Solomon; April 7, 1740 – January 6, 1785) was a Polish-born American Jewish businessman and political financial broker who immigrated to New York City from Poland during the period of the American Revolution.
Rabbi Hayyim Angel is the National Scholar of the Institute for Jewish Ideas and Ideals (jewishideas.org).
A hazzan or chazzan (חַזָּן, plural; Yiddish khazn; Ladino hassan) is a Jewish musician or precentor trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the congregation in songful prayer.
He is the fifth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Hē, Hebrew Hē, Aramaic Hē, Syriac Hē ܗ, and Arabic ﻫ. Its sound value is a voiceless glottal fricative.
Hendon is a London suburb in the Borough of Barnet, northwest of Charing Cross.
Henri Castro (1786 – November 3, 1865), a Jewish Texan, was one of the most important empresarios of the Republic of Texas.
Henry II (Henri II; 31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was a monarch of the House of Valois who ruled as King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559.
Henry III (19 September 1551 – 2 August 1589; born Alexandre Édouard de France, Henryk Walezy, Henrikas Valua) was King of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1573 to 1575 and King of France from 1574 until his death.
Henry Pereira Mendes (13 April 1852 – 21 October 1937), was an American rabbi who was born in Birmingham, England and died in New York City.
Henry Samuel Morais (May 13, 1860 – New York City September 21, 1935) was an American writer and rabbi.
Herberto Helder de Oliveira (November 23, 1930 – March 23, 2015) was a Portuguese poet.
Highbury is a district in North London and part of the London Borough of Islington.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.
Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
The History of the Jews in Algeria refers to the history of the Jewish community of Algeria, which dates to the 1st century CE.
The history of the Jews in Barbados has existed almost continually since 1654, when Sephardic Jews arrived on the island as refugees from what was formerly Dutch Brazil after it was captured by the Inquisitorial persecuting Portuguese colonizers who were consolidating their hold over all of Brazil.
The history of the Jews in Belmonte, Portugal, reaches back over six hundred years.
The history of the Jews in Curaçao can be traced back to the mid-17th century, when the first Jewish immigrants began to arrive.
Egyptian Jews constitute both one of the oldest and youngest Jewish communities in the world.
There has been a Jewish presence in Gibraltar for more than 650 years.
The history of the Jews in Indonesia began with the arrival of early European explorers and settlers, and the first Jews arrived in the 17th century.
The history of the Jews in Iraq (יְהוּדִים בָּבְלִים,, Yehudim Bavlim, اليهود العراقيون), is documented from the time of the Babylonian captivity c. 586 BC.
The history of the Jews in Jamaica predominantly dates back to migrants from Portugal and Spain to the island since 1494.
Jews of Kurdistan (יהודי כורדיסטן, Yehudei Kurdistan, lit. Jews of Kurdistan; אנשא דידן,, lit. our people; Kurdên cihû) are the ancient Eastern Jewish communities, inhabiting the region known as Kurdistan in northern Mesopotamia, roughly covering parts of northwestern Iran, northern Iraq, northeastern Syria and southeastern Turkey.
The history of the Jews in Livorno (Leghorn in English, Liorne or Liorna in Ladino), Italy has been documented since 1583, when descendants of the late 15th-century expulsions from Spain and Portugal settled in the city.
Moroccan Jews constitute an ancient community.
The history of the Jews in Portugal reaches back over two thousand years and is directly related to Sephardi history, a Jewish ethnic division that represents communities that originated in the Iberian Peninsula (Portugal and Spain).
Spanish Jews once constituted one of the largest and most prosperous Jewish communities in the world.
The history of the Jews in Suriname starts at least in the 17th century, when in 1639, the English government allowed Spanish and Portuguese Jews from the Netherlands, Portugal and Italy to settle the region, coming to the old capital Torarica.
By the time of the Ottoman conquests, Anatolia had been home to centuries old communities of Hellenistic and later Byzantine Jews.
The history of the Jews of Thessaloniki, (Greece) reaches back two thousand years.
The history of the Jews in Turkey (Türkiye Yahudileri, Turkish Jews; יהודים טורקים Yehudim Turkim, Djudios Turkos) covers the 2,400 years that Jews have lived in what is now Turkey.
The History of Marranos in England consists of the Marranos' contribution and achievement in England.
The Holland Mission or Dutch Mission (1592 – 1853) was the common name of a Catholic Church missionary district in the Low Countries during and after the Protestant Reformation.
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.
The Hoover Institution is an American public policy think tank and research institution located at Stanford University in California.
The seventh day of the Jewish holiday of Sukkot, 21st day of Tishrei, is known as Hoshana Rabbah (Aramaic: הוֹשַׁעְנָא רַבָּא, "Great Hoshana/Supplication").
The House of Este (Casa d'Este; originally House of Welf-Este) is a European princely dynasty.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe.
Ibero-America (Iberoamérica, Ibero-América) or Iberian America is a region in the Americas comprising countries or territories where Spanish or Portuguese are predominant languages, usually former territories of Portugal or Spain.
Immanuel Aboab (1555 – 1628) was a Portuguese Jewish scholar.
An impresario (from the Italian impresa, "an enterprise or undertaking") is a person who organizes and often finances concerts, plays, or operas, performing a role similar to that of an artist manager or a film or television producer.
Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement characterised by relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.
The Inquisition was a group of institutions within the government system of the Catholic Church whose aim was to combat public heresy committed by baptized Christians.
Isaac ben Judah Abarbanel (Hebrew: יצחק בן יהודה אברבנאל;‎ 1437–1508), commonly referred to as Abarbanel (אַבַּרבְּנְאֵל), also spelled Abravanel, Avravanel or Abrabanel, was a Portuguese Jewish statesman, philosopher, Bible commentator, and financier.
Isaac Aboab da Fonseca (or Isaak Aboab Foonseca) (February 1, 1605 – April 4, 1693) was a rabbi, scholar, kabbalist and writer.
Isaac (Fernando) Cardoso was a Jewish physician, philosopher, and polemic writer.
Isaac D'Israeli (11 May 1766 – 19 January 1848) was a British writer, scholar and man of letters.
Isaac da Costa (14 January 1798 – 28 April 1860) was a Jewish poet.
Isaac de Castro Tartas (ca. 1623, Tartas, Gascony – December 15, 1647, Lisbon) was a Marrano and Jewish martyr.
Isaac de Pinto (Amsterdam, 10 April 1717 – 13 August 1787 in the Hague) was a Dutch Jew of Portuguese origin, a merchant/banker, one of the main investors in the Dutch East India Company, a scholar, philosophe and a pre-Keynesian, who concentrated on Jewish emancipation and National Debt.
Isaac de Sequeira Samuda or Isaac de Sequeyra Samuda (b. 1681, d. 1729) was a British physician and poet.
Isaac Leeser (December 12, 1806 – February 1, 1868) was an American, Ashkenazi Jewish religious leader, teacher, scholar and publisher.
Isaac Mendes Belisario (1795–1849) was a Jamaican artist of Jewish descent.
Isaac Nieto (1702–1774) (Hebrew: יצחק ניטו) was Haham of the Portuguese congregation Sha'are Hashamayim, Bevis Marks, London, and the son of David Nieto.
from the Jewish Encyclopedia --> Balthazar (Isaac) Orobio de Castro (c.1617 in Bragança, Portugal – November 7, 1687 in Amsterdam), was a Jewish philosopher, physician and religious apologist.
Isaac Pinto (1720–1791) was an important American Jew in Colonial America.
Isaac Touro (1738 – 8 December 1783) was a Dutch-born American rabbi.
Isabella I (Isabel, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) reigned as Queen of Castile from 1474 until her death.
Islington is a district in Greater London, England, and part of the London Borough of Islington.
Italian Jews (Ebrei italiani, יהודים איטלקים Yehudim Italkim) can be used in a broad sense to mean all Jews living or with roots in Italy, or, in a narrower sense, to mean the Italkim, an ancient community who use the Italian liturgy as distinct from the communities dating from medieval or modern times who use the Sephardic liturgy or the Nusach Ashkenaz.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Jacob Abendana (1630 – 12 September 1685) was hakham of London from 1680 until his death.
Jacob ben Aaron Sasportas (1610 – April 15, 1698), was a Rabbi, Kabbalist, and anti-Shabbethaian; he was the father of Isaac ben Jacob Sasportas.
Jacob ben Hayyim Zemah (17th century) was a Portuguese kabalist and physician.
Jacob Henriques de Castro Sarmento (1692 in Bragança, Portugal – 14 September 1762 in London) was a Portuguese estrangeirado, physician, naturalist, poet and Deist.
Jacob Raphael De Cordova, (6 June 1808 – 26 January 1868), was the founder of the Jamaica Gleaner.
Jacob Lumbrozo (?, Lisbon - died between September 24, 1665 and May 31, 1666) was a Portuguese-born physician, farmer, and trader resident in the British colony of Maryland in the middle of the 17th century.
Jacob Mendes Da Costa, or Jacob Mendez Da Costa (February 7, 1833, Saint Thomas, U.S. Virgin Islands, Caribbean – September 12, 1900) was an American physician.
Jacob Rodrigues Pereira or Jacob Rodrigue Péreire (April 11, 1715 – September 15, 1780) was an academic and the first teacher of deaf-mutes in France.
Jamaica is an island country situated in the Caribbean Sea.
Jamaicans are the citizens of Jamaica and their descendants in the Jamaican diaspora.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Rabbi David Abraham Jessurun Cardozo (March 29, 1896 – August 31, 1972) was a Dutch-born American Sephardic Rabbi who served as assistant minister of the Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in New York City, the oldest synagogue in the United States and was the first rabbi to conduct High Holidays services in Spain since the Alhambra Decree of 1492 expelled Jews from that country.
The Jewish Cemetery is located off Lloyd's Road in Chennai, India.
Jewish ethnic divisions refers to a number of distinctive communities within the world's ethnically Jewish population.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Jodensavanne (Dutch, "Jewish Savanna") was an agricultural community in Suriname, South America established by Jews fleeing persecution in Spain.
Jorge Isaacs Ferrer (April 1, 1837 – April 17, 1895) was a Colombian writer, politician and soldier.
Joseph Athias (c. 1635 – 12 May 1700) was a rabbi and publisher of the Hebrew Bible.
Joseph ben Tzaddik was a rabbi in Arevalo, in Spain, during the fifteenth century.
Joseph d'Aguilar Samuda (21 May 1813 – 27 April 1885) was an English civil engineer and politician.
Joseph Dan (יוסף דן, born 1935) is an Israeli scholar of Jewish mysticism.
José, Josseph or Joseph Penso de la Vega, best known as Josseph de la Vega (ca.1650, Espejo, Spain — November 13, 1692, Amsterdam, Netherlands), was a successful Jewish merchant, poet, and philanthropist residing in 17th century Amsterdam.
Joseph Dweck was born in Los Angeles and is of Syrian-Jewish origin.
Dom Joseph Nasi (or Nassi; also known as João Miques/Micas and Dom João Migas Mendes in a Portuguese variant, Giuseppe Nasi in Italian, and as Yasef Nassi in Ottoman Turkish; 1524, Portugal – 1579, Constantinople) was a Portuguese-Jewish diplomat and administrator, member of the House of Mendes/Benveniste, nephew of Dona Gracia Mendes Nasi, and an influential figure in the Ottoman Empire during the rules of both Sultan Suleiman I and his son Selim II.
Joseph Salvador (1716–1786) was a British businessman of London, perhaps most notable for being the first and only Jew to serve as a director of the British East India Company.
Joseph Teixeira de Mattos (1892–1971), was a Dutch watercolor painter and pastellist who made drawings wherever he went.
Titus Flavius Josephus (Φλάβιος Ἰώσηπος; 37 – 100), born Yosef ben Matityahu (יוסף בן מתתיהו, Yosef ben Matityahu; Ἰώσηπος Ματθίου παῖς), was a first-century Romano-Jewish scholar, historian and hagiographer, who was born in Jerusalem—then part of Roman Judea—to a father of priestly descent and a mother who claimed royal ancestry.
Juan Nepomuceno Fernández Lindo y Zelaya (generally known as Juan Lindo) (16 May 1790, Tegucigalpa, Honduras – 23 April 1857, Gracias, Honduras) was a Conservative Central American politician, president of the Republic of El Salvador from 1841 to 1842 and of the Republic of Honduras from 1847 to 1852.
Judaeo-Portuguese, or Lusitanic, is the extinct Jewish language that was used by the Jews of Portugal.
Judaeo-Spanish or Judeo-Spanish (judeo-español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.
Judah Leon Abravanel (or Abrabanel, otherwise known as: in Latin, Leo Hebraeus; in Portuguese, Leão Hebreu; in Spanish, León Hebreo; in Italian, Leone Ebreo; in English, Leo the Hebrew; and in Hebrew, יהודה בן יצחק אברבנאל) (c. 1465 Lisbon – c. 1523 Naples) was a Portuguese Jewish physician, poet and philosopher.
Judah Philip Benjamin, QC (August 11, 1811 – May 6, 1884) was a lawyer and politician who was a United States Senator from Louisiana, a Cabinet officer of the Confederate States and, after his escape to the United Kingdom at the end of the American Civil War, an English barrister.
Judah Touro (June 16, 1775 – January 18, 1854) was an American businessman and philanthropist.
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judeo-Italian, also referred to as Italkian, is an endangered Jewish language, with only about 200 speakers in Italy and 250 total speakers today.
Julio Lobo y Olavarria (30 October 1898– 30 January 1983) was a powerful Cuban sugar trader and financier.
Kabbalah (קַבָּלָה, literally "parallel/corresponding," or "received tradition") is an esoteric method, discipline, and school of thought that originated in Judaism.
The Kaddish or Qaddish (קדיש, qaddiš "holy"; alternative spelling: Ḳaddish) is a hymn of praises to God found in Jewish prayer services.
The Kadoorie Mekor Haim Synagogue (Sinagoga do Porto/Sinagoga Kadoorie Mekor Haim/Museu Judaico do Porto) is a synagogue of the Jewish community of Porto, situated in the civil parish of Lordelo do Ouro e Massarelos, the municipality of Porto, in the Portuguese northern district of Porto.
Kahal Zur Israel located in Rua do Bom Jesus 197 Recife, Brazil, was a Jewish congregation in Brazil.
Kamatz or Qamatz (קָמַץ) is a Hebrew niqqud (vowel) sign represented by two perpendicular lines (looking like an uppercase T) underneath a letter.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
The Kingdom of Aragon (Reino d'Aragón, Regne d'Aragó, Regnum Aragonum, Reino de Aragón) was a medieval and early modern kingdom on the Iberian Peninsula, corresponding to the modern-day autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain.
The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.
The Kingdom of Naples (Regnum Neapolitanum; Reino de Nápoles; Regno di Napoli) comprised that part of the Italian Peninsula south of the Papal States between 1282 and 1816.
Kol Nidre (also known as Kol Nidrey or Kol Nidrei) (Aramaic: כָּל נִדְרֵי) is an Aramaic declaration recited in the synagogue before the beginning of the evening service on every Yom Kippur.
The Lançados (literally the thrown out ones) were settlers and adventurers of Portuguese origin in Senegambia, the Cape Verde Islands, Guinea, Sierra Leone and other areas on the coast of West Africa.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Lawrence Monsanto Ferlinghetti (born March 24, 1919) is an American poet, painter, socialist activist, and the co-founder of City Lights Booksellers & Publishers.
Leeds is a city in the metropolitan borough of Leeds, in the county of West Yorkshire, England.
Lekha Dodi (לכה דודי; also transliterated as Lecha Dodi, L'chah Dodi, Lekah Dodi, Lechah Dodi; Ashkenazic pronunciation: Lecho Dodi) is a Hebrew-language Jewish liturgical song recited Friday at dusk, usually at sundown, in synagogue to welcome Shabbat prior to the evening services.
Leonora Duarte (1610 – 1678?) was a Flemish composer and musician, born in Antwerp.
A limner is an illuminator of manuscripts, or more generally, a painter of ornamental decoration.
Lionel Belasco (1881 – c. 24 June 1967) was a prominent pianist, composer and bandleader, best known for his calypso recordings.
Lisbon (Lisboa) is the capital and the largest city of Portugal, with an estimated population of 552,700, Census 2011 results according to the 2013 administrative division of Portugal within its administrative limits in an area of 100.05 km2.
The Lisbon Synagogue (formally, the Synagogue Shaaré Tikvah (Gates of Hope) is a historical Portuguese synagogue situated in the civil parish of Santo António, in the municipality of Lisbon.
The following is a list of Governors of the United States Virgin Islands.
Livorno is a port city on the Ligurian Sea on the western coast of Tuscany, Italy.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The London School of Jewish Studies (commonly known as LSJS, originally founded as Jews' College) is a London-based organisation providing adult educational courses and training to the wider Jewish community.
Louis XIII (27 September 1601 – 14 May 1643) was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who ruled as King of France from 1610 to 1643 and King of Navarre (as Louis II) from 1610 to 1620, when the crown of Navarre was merged with the French crown.
Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.
Luis de Carvajal (sometimes Luis de Carabajal y de la Cueva) (c. 1537–1591) was governor of the Spanish province of Nuevo León in present-day Mexico, an alleged slave trader, and the first Spanish subject known to have entered Texas from Mexico across the lower Rio Grande.
Luis Moises Gomez (c. 1660–1740) was a Sephardic Jewish merchant and trader, whose Spanish Jewish ancestors fled to France and England to escape from the Spanish Inquisition for the New World.
Maurits Cornelis Escher (17 June 1898 – 27 March 1972) was a Dutch graphic artist who made mathematically-inspired woodcuts, lithographs, and mezzotints.
Maurice Arthur Mendes de Leon (4 July 1856, Bruges - 16 December 1924, Amsterdam) was a Dutch physician, considered one of the founding fathers of gynaecology in the Netherlands, partly because of his surgical skills, but also due to his study into the interaction between gynaecological and psychological problems.
Maduro & Curiel's Bank (MCB) is a private Dutch Caribbean bank and financial services provider headquartered in Willemstad, Curaçao.
Maduro Holding B.V. is the holding company of the Maduro Group, a private Dutch conglomerate based in the Dutch Caribbean.
Maida Vale is an affluent residential district comprising the northern part of Paddington in west London, west of St John's Wood and south of Kilburn.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Manchester Jewish Museum occupies the former Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue on Cheetham Hill Road in Manchester, England.
Dom Manuel I (31 May 1469 – 13 December 1521), the Fortunate (Port. o Afortunado), King of Portugal and the Algarves, was the son of Ferdinand, Duke of Viseu, by his wife, the Infanta Beatrice of Portugal.
A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand -- or, once practical typewriters became available, typewritten -- as opposed to being mechanically printed or reproduced in some indirect or automated way.
The mappiq (also mapiq, mapik, mappik, lit. "causing to go out") is a diacritic used in the Hebrew alphabet.
Marc D. Angel (born July 1945) is rabbi emeritus of Congregation Shearith Israel, the historic Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue in New York City.
Marie de' Medici (Marie de Médicis, Maria de' Medici; 26 April 1575 – 3 July 1642) was Queen of France as the second wife of King Henry IV of France, of the House of Bourbon.
Mark Prager Lindo (18 September 1819 — 9 March 1877) was a Dutch prose writer of English-Jewish descent.
Marranos were Jews living in the Iberian Peninsula who converted or were forced to convert to Christianity during the Middle Ages yet continued to practice Judaism in secret.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
The Masoretes (Hebrew: Ba'alei ha-Masora) were groups of Jewish scribe-scholars who worked between the 6th and 10th centuries CE, based primarily in early medieval Palestine in the cities of Tiberias and Jerusalem, as well as in Iraq (Babylonia).
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Maud Nathan (October 20, 1862 – December 15, 1946) was an American social worker, labor activist and suffragist for women's right to vote.
Max Delvalle Levy-Maduro (February 27, 1911 – December 20, 1979) was a Panamanian politician who served as vice president from 1964 to 1968 and briefly served as acting president in 1967.
In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea that have a Mediterranean climate, with mild, rainy winters and hot, dry summers, which supports characteristic Mediterranean forests, woodlands, and scrub vegetation.
Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.
Manoel Dias Soeiro (1604 – November 20, 1657), better known by his Hebrew name Menasseh ben Israel, also, Menasheh ben Yossef ben Yisrael, also known with the Hebrew acronym, MB"Y, was a Portuguese rabbi, kabbalist, writer, diplomat, printer and publisher, founder of the first Hebrew printing press (named Emeth Meerets Titsma`h) in Amsterdam in 1626.
A merchant is a person who trades in commodities produced by other people.
Meteg (or metheg, Hebrew מֶתֶג, lit. 'bridle', also ga'ya געיה, lit. 'bellowing', מאריך ma'arikh, or מעמיד ma'amid) is a punctuation mark used in Biblical Hebrew for stress marking.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
Michel Eyquem de Montaigne, Lord of Montaigne (28 February 1533 – 13 September 1592) was one of the most significant philosophers of the French Renaissance, known for popularizing the essay as a literary genre.
Miguel Barrios (a.k.a. Daniel Levi de Barrios; c. 1625 – 1701) was a poet and historian from a converso family who joined the community of Spanish and Portuguese Jews in Amsterdam.
Minhag (מנהג "custom", pl. מנהגים, minhagim) is an accepted tradition or group of traditions in Judaism.
The Ministry of Transport (Ministerio de Transporte) is the national executive ministry of the Government of Colombia responsible for regulating transportation in Colombia.
In Judaism, a minyan (מִנְיָן lit. noun count, number; pl. minyanim) is the quorum of ten Jewish adults required for certain religious obligations.
The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition", from the verb shanah, or "to study and review", also "secondary") is the first major written collection of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".
In its primary meaning, the Hebrew word (meaning "commandment",,, Biblical:; plural, Biblical:; from "command") refers to precepts and commandments commanded by God.
Mizrahi Jews, Mizrahim (מִזְרָחִים), also referred to as Edot HaMizrach ("Communities of the East"; Mizrahi Hebrew), ("Sons of the East"), or Oriental Jews, are descendants of local Jewish communities in the Middle East from biblical times into the modern era.
Modena (Mutna; Mutina; Modenese: Mòdna) is a city and comune (municipality) on the south side of the Po Valley, in the Province of Modena in the Emilia-Romagna region of northern Italy.
The Montefiore Synagogue is the former private synagogue of Sir Moses Montefiore.
Montpellier (Montpelhièr) is a city in southern France.
Montreal (officially Montréal) is the most populous municipality in the Canadian province of Quebec and the second-most populous municipality in Canada.
Mordecai Manuel Noah (July 14, 1785, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania – May 22, 1851, New York) was an American playwright, diplomat, journalist, and utopian.
Moroccan Jews (al-Yehud al-Magharibah יהודים מרוקאים Yehudim Maroka'im) are the Jews who live or have lived in the area of North African country of Morocco.
Morris Fidanque de Castro (February 5, 1902 – December 9, 1966) was the first native Governor of the United States Virgin Islands and a lifetime government servant for the territory.
Moses Angel (29 April 1819 – 1898 in Hammersmith, London, England) was headmaster at the Jews' Free School (JFS) in Bell Lane, Spitalfields from 1842 onwards.
Moses Cohen Henriques was a Dutch pirate of Portuguese Sephardic Jewish origin, operating in the Caribbean.
Moses Mendes da Costa (died 1747), also called Anthony da Costa, was an 18th-century English banker.
Moses Gaster (17 September 1856 – 5 March 1939) was a Romanian, later British scholar, the Hakham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish congregation, London, and a Hebrew and Romanian linguist.
Rabbi Moses Hyamson (September 3, 1862 – June 9, 1949) was an Orthodox rabbi, former head Dayan of the London Beth Din and between 1911 and 1913, acting Chief Rabbi of the British Empire.
Moses Jacob Ezekiel, also known as Moses "Ritter von" Ezekiel (October 28, 1844 – March 27, 1917) was a Jewish-American sculptor who lived and worked in Rome for the majority of his career.
Sir Moses Haim Montefiore, 1st Baronet, FRS (24 October 1784 – 28 July 1885) was a British financier and banker, activist, philanthropist and Sheriff of London.
Naomi (Hebrew: Standard Hebrew Noʻomi, Tiberian Hebrew nåʿå̆mī) is Ruth's mother-in-law in the Old Testament Book of Ruth.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Naxos (Greek: Νάξος) is a Greek island and the largest of the Cyclades.
The Nederlands Verbond voor Progressief Jodendom (Dutch Union for Progressive Judaism; until 2006: Verbond voor Liberaal-Religieuze Joden in Nederland, Union for Liberal-Religious Jews in the Netherlands) is the umbrella organisation for Progressive Jews in the Netherlands, and is affiliated to the World Union for Progressive Judaism.
Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1886 to describe an art movement founded by Georges Seurat.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
Nevis is a small island in the Caribbean Sea that forms part of the inner arc of the Leeward Islands chain of the West Indies.
New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam, or) was a 17th-century Dutch settlement established at the southern tip of Manhattan Island that served as the seat of the colonial government in New Netherland.
New Christian (cristiano nuevo; cristão-novo; cristià nou) was a law-effective and social category developed from the 15th century onwards, and used in what is today Spain and Portugal as well as their New World colonies, to refer to Sephardi Jews and Muslims ("Moors") who had converted to the Catholic Church, often by force or coercion.
The New Kingdom of León (Nuevo Reino de León), was an administrative territory of the Spanish Empire, politically ruled by the Viceroyalty of New Spain.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
New York is a state in the northeastern United States.
New York University (NYU) is a private nonprofit research university based in New York City.
Newport is a seaside city on Aquidneck Island in Newport County, Rhode Island, United States.
Nicolás Maduro Moros (born 23 November 1962) is a Venezuelan politician who has served as the 63rd President of Venezuela since 2013 and previously served under President Hugo Chávez as Minister of Foreign Affairs from 2006 to 2013 and as Vice President of Venezuela from 2012 to 2013.
The Nidḥe Israel Synagogue (בית הכנסת נדחי ישראל Bet Knesset Nide Yisrael, lit. Synagogue of the Scattered of Israel) is the only synagogue in Bridgetown, Barbados.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North African Sephardim are a distinct sub-group of Sephardi Jews, who descend from exiled Iberic Jewish families of the late 15th century and North African Maghrebi Jewish communities that had settled mostly in Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia and Libya.
Nusach (נוסח nusaħ, modern pronunciation nusakh or núsakh), plural nuschaot (נוסחות) or nusachim (נוסחים), is a concept in Judaism that has two distinct meanings.
Nusach Ashkenaz is a style of Jewish religious service conducted by Ashkenazi Jews, originating from Central and Western Europe.
The Ohel Leah Synagogue (Hebrew: בית הכנסת אהל לאה Beit Ha-Knesset Ohel Leah; Cantonese: 猶太教莉亞堂 jau4 taai3 gaau1 lei6 ngaa3 tong4, colloquial 猶太廟 jau4 taai3 miu6, lit. "Jewish temple") and its next-door neighbors, the Jewish Recreation Club and the Jewish Community Center, have formed the center of Jewish social and religious life in Hong Kong for over a century.
The Ohel Rachel Synagogue (Hebrew for "Tent of Rachel") is a Sephardi synagogue in Shanghai, China.
In the Hebrew Bible, Oholah (אהלה) and Oholibah (אהליבה) (or: Aholah and Aholibah) are pejorative personifications given by the prophet Ezekiel to the cities of Samaria in the Kingdom of Israel and Jerusalem in the kingdom of Judah, respectively.
Old Christian (cristiano viejo, cristão-velho, cristià vell) was a social and law-effective category used in the Iberian Peninsula from the late 15th and early 16th century onwards, to distinguish Portuguese and Spanish people attested as having cleanliness of blood from the populations categorized as New Christian, mainly persons of partial or full Jewish descent who converted to Christianity, and their descendants.
Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo; romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), originally a colloquial Latin spoken in the provinces of the Roman Empire that provided the root for the early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.
The Old Testament (abbreviated OT) is the first part of Christian Bibles, based primarily upon the Hebrew Bible (or Tanakh), a collection of ancient religious writings by the Israelites believed by most Christians and religious Jews to be the sacred Word of God.
Olinde Rodrigues Benjamin Olinde Rodrigues (6 October 1795 – 17 December 1851), more commonly known as Olinde Rodrigues, was a French banker, mathematician, and social reformer.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
Ophir Pines-Paz (אופיר פינס-פז, born 11 July 1961) is an Israeli former politician who served as Minister of Internal Affairs, Minister of Science, Culture & Sport and as a member of the Knesset for the Labor Party from 1996 until 2010.
Orthez (Gascon Ortès) is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department and Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Panama (Panamá), officially the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America, bordered by Costa Rica to the west, Colombia to the southeast, the Caribbean Sea to the north and the Pacific Ocean to the south.
Papiamento or Papiamentu is a Portuguese-based creole language spoken in the Dutch West Indies.
Paraíba (Tupi: pa'ra a'íba: "bad for navigation") is a state of Brazil.
Paradesi Jews were originally Sephardic immigrants to the Indian subcontinent from Sepharad (Spain and Portugal) during the 15th and 16th centuries who fled conversion or persecution in the wake of the Alhambra Decree expelling Jews from Spain.
Paramaribo (nickname: Par′bo) is the capital and largest city of Suriname, located on the banks of the Suriname River in the Paramaribo District.
The parochet (Hebrew: פרוכת) (also paroches; from the Aramaic parokta meaning "curtain" or "screen" Sonne Isaiah (1962) 'Synagogue' in The Interpreter's dictionary of the Bible vol 4, New York: Abingdon Press pp 476-491) is the curtain that covers the Aron Kodesh (Torah Ark) containing the Sifrei Torah (Torah scrolls) in a synagogue.
Passover or Pesach (from Hebrew Pesah, Pesakh) is a major, biblically derived Jewish holiday.
The Pereire brothers were prominent 19th-century financiers in Paris, France, who were rivals of the Rothschilds.
Pedro de Herrera was a Spanish Converso (Jews converted to Catholicism) leader.
Pedro Henríquez Ureña (born June 29, 1884 - May 11, 1946) was a Dominican essayist, philosopher, humanist, philologist and literary critic.
On 5 December 1496, King Manuel I of Portugal signed the decree of expulsion of Jews and Muslims to take effect by the end of October of the next year.
Pesukei dezimra (פְסוּקֵי דְּזִמְרָא, P'suqế dh'zimra "Verses of Praise") or zemirot, as they are called in the Spanish and Portuguese tradition, are a group of praises that may be recited daily during Jewish morning services.
Peter Sellers, CBE (born Richard Henry Sellers; 8 September 1925 – 24 July 1980) was an English film actor, comedian and singer.
Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.
Philip Guedalla (12 March 1889 – 16 December 1944) was an English barrister, and a popular historical and travel writer and biographer.
Philo of Alexandria (Phílōn; Yedidia (Jedediah) HaCohen), also called Philo Judaeus, was a Hellenistic Jewish philosopher who lived in Alexandria, in the Roman province of Egypt.
Philosophy of religion is "the philosophical examination of the central themes and concepts involved in religious traditions." These sorts of philosophical discussion are ancient, and can be found in the earliest known manuscripts concerning philosophy.
A physicist is a scientist who has specialized knowledge in the field of physics, which encompasses the interactions of matter and energy at all length and time scales in the physical universe.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Isaac Isidore Mendès-France (11 January 1907 – 18 October 1982), known as PMF, was a French politician who served as President of the Council of MinistersEquivalent in the French Fourth Republic to Prime Minister for eight months from 1954 to 1955.
Pim de la Parra (born 5 January 1940) is a Surinamese-Dutch film director.
Pinchas Toledano is the current Haham (Chief Rabbi) of Amsterdam and of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews of the Netherlands.
Pisa is a city in the Tuscany region of Central Italy straddling the Arno just before it empties into the Ligurian Sea.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
Political science is a social science which deals with systems of governance, and the analysis of political activities, political thoughts, and political behavior.
Ponta Delgada is the largest municipality (concelho) and administrative capital of the Autonomous Region of the Azores in Portugal.
Porto (also known as Oporto in English) is the second-largest city in Portugal after Lisbon and one of the major urban areas of the Iberian Peninsula.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
The Portuguese Inquisition (Portuguese: Inquisição Portuguesa) was formally established in Portugal in 1536 at the request of its king, John III.
From about 1590 on, there had been a Portuguese Jewish community in Hamburg, whose qehilla (קהילה "congregation") existed until its compulsory merger with the Ashkenazi congregation in July 1939.
Portuguese people are an ethnic group indigenous to Portugal that share a common Portuguese culture and speak Portuguese.
The Portuguese Synagogue, also known as the Esnoga, or Snoge, is a late 17th-century Sephardic synagogue in Amsterdam, completed in 1675.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
The President of Honduras (Presidente de Honduras) officially known as the President of the Republic of Honduras (Spanish: Presidente de la República de Honduras), is the head of state and head of government of Honduras, and the Commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces.
The President of Venezuela (Presidente de Venezuela), officially known as the President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Presidente de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela) is the head of state and head of government in Venezuela's presidential system.
The Province of Maryland was an English and later British colony in North America that existed from 1632 until 1776, when it joined the other twelve of the Thirteen Colonies in rebellion against Great Britain and became the U.S. state of Maryland.
The Province of New York (1664–1776) was a British proprietary colony and later royal colony on the northeast coast of North America.
The Book of Psalms (תְּהִלִּים or, Tehillim, "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms or "the Psalms", is the first book of the Ketuvim ("Writings"), the third section of the Hebrew Bible, and a book of the Christian Old Testament.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
The Pyrenees (Pirineos, Pyrénées, Pirineus, Pirineus, Pirenèus, Pirinioak) is a range of mountains in southwest Europe that forms a natural border between Spain and France.
In Judaism, a rabbi is a teacher of Torah.
Rafael Cansinos Assens (November 24, 1882 – July 6, 1964), born in Seville, was a Spanish poet, novelist, essayist, literary critic and translator.
Ramsgate is a seaside town in the district of Thanet in east Kent, England.
Raphael Meldola FRS (19 July 1849 – 16 November 1915) was a British chemist and entomologist.
Raphael Meldola (1754 – 1 June 1828) was an English Rabbi.
Raymond of Penyafort, O.P., (ca. 1175 – 6 January 1275) (Sant Ramon de Penyafort,; San Raimundo de Peñafort) was a Spanish Dominican friar in the 13th century, who compiled the Decretals of Gregory IX, a collection of canon laws that remained a major part of Church law until the 20th century.
Recife is the fourth-largest urban agglomeration in Brazil with 3,995,949 inhabitants, the largest urban agglomeration of the North/Northeast Regions, and the capital and largest city of the state of Pernambuco in the northeast corner of South America.
Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern Jewish movement that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization and is based on the conceptions developed by Mordecai Kaplan (1881–1983).
Reform Judaism (also known as Liberal Judaism or Progressive Judaism) is a major Jewish denomination that emphasizes the evolving nature of the faith, the superiority of its ethical aspects to the ceremonial ones, and a belief in a continuous revelation not centered on the theophany at Mount Sinai.
A reform movement is a type of social movement that aims to bring a social or political system closer to the community's ideal.
Reggio Emilia (also; Rèz, Regium Lepidi) is a city in northern Italy, in the Emilia-Romagna region.
Rehuel Lobatto (June 6, 1797 – February 9, 1866) was a Dutch mathematician.
Reine Colaço Osorio-Swaab (16 January 1881 – 14 April 1971) was a Dutch composer.
This article describes the principal types of religious Jewish music from the days of the Temple to modern times.
René Samuel Cassin (5 October 1887 – 20 February 1976) was a French jurist, law professor and judge.
The Republic of Texas (República de Tejas) was an independent sovereign state in North America that existed from March 2, 1836, to February 19, 1846.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Responsa (Latin: plural of responsum, "answers") comprise a body of written decisions and rulings given by legal scholars in response to questions addressed to them.
Ricardo Rodolfo Maduro Joest (born 20 April 1946 in Panama) is a former President of Honduras and chairman of the Central Bank of Honduras.
Richmond is the capital of the Commonwealth of Virginia in the United States.
Robert David Quixano Henriques (11 December 1905 – 22 January 1967) was a British writer, broadcaster and farmer.
Robert Gruntal Nathan (January 2, 1894 – May 25, 1985) was an American novelist and poet.
Roderigo Lopez (also called Ruy Lopes, Ruy Lopez or Roger Lopez; c. 1517 – 7 June 1594) served as physician-in-chief to Queen Elizabeth I of England from 1581 until his death by execution, having been found guilty of plotting to poison her.
The Romaniote Jews or Romaniots (Ῥωμανιῶτες, Rhōmaniṓtes; רומניוטים, Romanyotim) are an ethnic Jewish community with distinctive cultural features who have lived in the Eastern Mediterranean for more than 2,000 years and are the oldest Jewish community in the Levant.
Rosh Hashanah (רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה), literally meaning the "beginning (also head) the year" is the Jewish New Year.
Rufus Daniel Isaacs, 1st Marquess of Reading, (10 October 1860 – 30 December 1935) was the Viceroy of India (1921–25), barrister, jurist and the last member of the official Liberal Party to serve as Foreign Secretary.
Sabato Morais (שבתאי מוראיס; April 13, 1823 – November 11, 1897) was an Italian-American rabbi, leader of Mikveh Israel Synagogue, pioneer of Italian Jewish Studies in America, and founder of the Jewish Theological Seminary in New York City.
Saint Thomas (Santo Tomás; Sint-Thomas; Sankt Thomas) is one of the Virgin Islands in the Caribbean Sea and, together with Saint John, Water Island and Saint Croix, form a county and constituent district of the United States Virgin Islands (USVI), an unincorporated territory of the United States.
Saint-Jean-de-Luz (Basque: Donibane Lohizune, Spanish: San Juan de Luz) is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in south-western France.
Salford is a town in the City of Salford, North West England.
Samuel Gabriel 'Sam' Costa (17 June 1910 – 23 September 1981) was a popular singer of the British dance band era and a voice actor on the show ''Much Binding in the Marsh''.
Samuel Jessurun de Mesquita (6 June 1868 – 11 February 1944) was a Dutch graphic artist active in the years before the Second World War.
Samuel Nunis (1668–1744) was a Portuguese physician and among the earliest Jews to settle in North America.
Samuel Sarphati (January 31, 1813 – June 23, 1866) was a Dutch physician and Amsterdam city planner.
Saul Levi Morteira or Mortera (1596 – 10 February 1660) was a Dutch rabbi of Portuguese descent.
Savannah is the oldest city in the U.S. state of Georgia and is the county seat of Chatham County.
The Colombian-German Air Transport Society (Sociedad Colombo Alemana de Transportes Aéreos, Deutsch-Kolumbianische Luftverkehrsgesellschaft), or SCADTA, was the world's second airline, and the first airline in the Americas, operating from 1919 until World War II.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
Sean Paul Francis Henriques (born 9 January 1973) is a Jamaican dancehall singer and record producer.
Seattle is a seaport city on the west coast of the United States.
The Second Schleswig War (2., Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg) was the second military conflict over the Schleswig-Holstein Question of the nineteenth century.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
A Sefer Torah (ספר תורה; "Book of Torah" or "Torah scroll"; plural: Sifrei Torah) is a handwritten copy of the Torah, the holiest book in Judaism.
Segol (סֶגּוֹל) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign that is represented by three dots forming an upside down equilateral triangle "ֶ ". As such, it resembles an upside down therefore sign (a because sign) underneath a letter.
Selichot or slichot (סליחות; singular סליחה, selichah) are Jewish penitential poems and prayers, especially those said in the period leading up to the High Holidays, and on Fast Days.
Sepharad (Sp̄āraḏ; also Sefarad, Sephared, Sfard), is a biblical place name of uncertain location.
Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּים, Modern Hebrew: Sefaraddim, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddîm; also Ye'hude Sepharad, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), originally from Sepharad, Spain or the Iberian peninsula, are a Jewish ethnic division.
Sephardic Bnei Anusim (בני אנוסים ספרדיים,, lit. "Children coerced Spanish) is a modern term used to define the contemporary Christian descendants of estimated quarter of a million 15th-century Sephardic Jewish which were coerced or forced to convert to Catholicism during the 14th and 15th century in Spain.
As a result of the Alhambra Decree of 1492 and the Holy Office of the Inquisition, many Sephardim (Spanish and Portuguese Jews) left the Iberian peninsula at the end of the 15th century and throughout the 16th century, in search of religious freedom.
Sephardic law and customs means the practice of Judaism as observed by the Sephardi and Mizrahi Jews, so far as it is peculiar to themselves and not shared with other Jewish groups such as the Ashkenazim.
Sephardic music is an umbrella term used to refer to the music of the Sephardic Jewish community.
Sephardic Temple Tifereth Israel, also called The Sephardic Temple, is a large, urban Sephardi Jewish synagogue located in Westwood, Los Angeles, California at the corner of Wilshire Boulevard and Warner Avenue.
Shabbat (שַׁבָּת, "rest" or "cessation") or Shabbos (Ashkenazi Hebrew and שבת), or the Sabbath is Judaism's day of rest and seventh day of the week, on which religious Jews, Samaritans and certain Christians (such as Seventh-day Adventists, the 7th Day movement and Seventh Day Baptists) remember the Biblical creation of the heavens and the earth in six days and the Exodus of the Hebrews, and look forward to a future Messianic Age.
Shavuot or Shovuos, in Ashkenazi usage; Shavuʿoth in Sephardi and Mizrahi Hebrew (שבועות, lit. "Weeks"), is known as the Feast of Weeks in English and as Pentecost (Πεντηκοστή) in Ancient Greek.
Shemtob Gaguin(e) (5 September 1884 – 30 July 1953) was a British Sephardic rabbi and scion of a famous Moroccan rabbinical dynasty which emigrated to Palestine from Spain at the time of the Inquisition.
Shva or, in Biblical Hebrew, shĕwa (שְׁוָא) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign written as two vertical dots (ְ) beneath a letter.
A siddur (סדור; plural siddurim סדורים) is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers.
The Sierra Club is an environmental organization in the United States.
Simchat Torah or Simhat Torah (Ashkenazi: Simchas Torah,, lit., "Rejoicing of/ Torah") is a Jewish holiday that celebrates and marks the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings, and the beginning of a new cycle.
Sint Eustatius, also known affectionately to the locals as Statia,Tuchman, Barbara W. The First Salute: A View of the American Revolution New York: Ballantine Books, 1988.
Social work is an academic discipline and profession that concerns itself with individuals, families, groups and communities in an effort to enhance social functioning and overall well-being.
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
Solomon Abudarham (died 1804) was Chief Rabbi of the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar until his death from yellow fever in December 1804.
Solomon ben Jacob Almoli (before 1485 – after 1542) was a rabbi, physician and Hebrew author of the sixteenth century; lived in the Ottoman Empire, probably in Constantinople.
Sir Solomon de Medina (ca.1650, Bordeaux – 15 September 1730, Amsterdam Oskar K. Rabinowicz, Sir Solomon de Medina, London: Jewish Historical Society of England, 1974) was an army contractor for William III and the first Jew to be knighted in England.
Solomon Franco was a Jewish convert to Anglicanism who combined his interest in Cabalism with support for the English monarchy.
Solomon Gaon (1912–1994) was Sephardic Rabbi and Hakham of the Spanish and Portuguese Jews of the British Commonwealth.
Solomon ibn Verga (or Salomón ben Verga, c. 1460 – 1554) (שלמה אבן וירגה) was a Spanish historian and physician, and author of the Shevet Yehudah (Hebrew: - "Scepter of Judah").
The Song of Moses is the name sometimes given to the poem which appears in Deuteronomy of the Hebrew Bible, which according to the Bible was delivered just prior to Moses' death on Mount Nebo.
The Song of Songs, also Song of Solomon or Canticles (Hebrew:, Šîr HašŠîrîm, Greek: ᾎσμα ᾎσμάτων, asma asmaton, both meaning Song of Songs), is one of the megillot (scrolls) found in the last section of the Tanakh, known as the Ketuvim (or "Writings"), and a book of the Old Testament.
The Song of the Sea (שירת הים, Shirat HaYam, also known as Az Yashir Moshe and Song of Moses, or Mi Chamocha) is a poem that appears in the Book of Exodus of the Hebrew Bible, at.
Southern Europe is the southern region of the European continent.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
The Spanish American wars of independence were the numerous wars against Spanish rule in Spanish America with the aim of political independence that took place during the early 19th century, after the French invasion of Spain during Europe's Napoleonic Wars.
Spanish and Portuguese Jews, also called Western Sephardim, are a distinctive sub-group of Iberian Jews who are largely descended from Jews who lived as New Christians in the Iberian Peninsula during the immediate generations following the forced expulsion of unconverted Jews from Spain in 1492 and from Portugal in 1497.
The Spanish and Portuguese Synagogue of Montreal, also known as Shearith Israel, is a Montreal synagogue, located on St.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
The Tribunal of the Holy Office of the Inquisition (Tribunal del Santo Oficio de la Inquisición), commonly known as the Spanish Inquisition (Inquisición española), was established in 1478 by Catholic Monarchs Ferdinand II of Aragon and Isabella I of Castile.
Spanish Netherlands (Países Bajos Españoles; Spaanse Nederlanden; Pays-Bas espagnols, Spanische Niederlande) was the collective name of States of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, held in personal union by the Spanish Crown (also called Habsburg Spain) from 1556 to 1714.
The Spanish Synagogue is one of the two functioning synagogues in the Venetian Ghetto of Venice, northern Italy.
A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
Suffragettes were members of women's organisations in the late-19th and early-20th centuries who, under the banner "Votes for Women", fought for women's suffrage, the right to vote in public elections.
Surabaya (formerly Dutch: Soerabaia and later Surabaja) is a port city and the capital of East Java (Jawa Timur) province of Indonesia.
Suriname (also spelled Surinam), officially known as the Republic of Suriname (Republiek Suriname), is a sovereign state on the northeastern Atlantic coast of South America.
The Synagogue of Tomar is the best preserved of the medieval synagogues of Portugal.
Syrian Jews (יהודי סוריה Yehudey Surya, الْيَهُود السُّورِيُّون al-Yahūd as-Sūriyyūn, colloquially called SYs in the United States) are Jews who lived in the region of the modern state of Syria, and their descendants born outside Syria.
Tablet is an American Jewish online magazine founded in 2009 by Jewish non-profit Nextbook.
Tarbes (Tarba) is a commune in the Hautes-Pyrénées department in the Occitanie region of southwestern France.
Taw, tav, or taf is the twenty-second and last letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Tāw, Hebrew Tav, Aramaic Taw, Syriac Taw ܬ, and Arabic Tāʼ ت (in abjadi order, 3rd in modern order).
The Ten Commandments (עֲשֶׂרֶת הַדִּבְּרוֹת, Aseret ha'Dibrot), also known as the Decalogue, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and Christianity.
Terceira is an island in the Azores archipelago, in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean.
The Texas House of Representatives is the lower house of the bicameral Texas Legislature.
The Hague (Den Haag,, short for 's-Gravenhage) is a city on the western coast of the Netherlands and the capital of the province of South Holland.
The Jewish Chronicle (The JC) is a London-based Jewish weekly newspaper.
The Paris Review is a quarterly English language literary magazine established in Paris in 1953 by Harold L. Humes, Peter Matthiessen, and George Plimpton.
The Times of Israel is an Israeli-based online newspaper launched in 2012.
Theodore Seixas Solomons (1870–1947) was an explorer and early member of the Sierra Club.
In Marxism, a theoretician is an individual who observes and writes about the condition or dynamics of society, history, or economics, making use of the main principles of Marxian socialism in the analysis.
Thomas Cooper De Leon (May 21, 1839–March 19, 1914) was an American journalist, author, and playwright.
The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud (Hebrew: Nikkud Tveriyani) is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text.
Tisha B'Av (תִּשְׁעָה בְּאָב, "the ninth of Av") is an annual fast day in Judaism, on which a number of disasters in Jewish history occurred, primarily the destruction of both the First Temple by the Babylonians and the Second Temple by the Romans in Jerusalem.
Tomar, also known in English as Thomar, is a city and a municipality in Santarém District in Portugal.
Torah (תּוֹרָה, "Instruction", "Teaching" or "Law") has a range of meanings.
The ark in a synagogue (also called the Torah ark or holy ark) is generally a receptacle, or ornamental closet, which contains each synagogue's Torah scrolls (Sifrei Torah in Hebrew).
The Touro Synagogue or Congregation Jeshuat Israel (קהל קדוש ישועת ישראל) is a synagogue built in 1763 in Newport, Rhode Island, that is the oldest synagogue building still standing in the United States, the oldest surviving Jewish synagogue building in North America, and the only surviving synagogue building in the U.S. dating to the colonial era.
Touro Synagogue is a Reform synagogue in New Orleans, Louisiana.
Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island sovereign state that is the southernmost nation of the West Indies in the Caribbean.
Trinidadians, colloquially known as Trinis, are the people who are identified with the country of Trinidad and Tobago.
Tunis (تونس) is the capital and the largest city of Tunisia.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Tzere (also spelled Tsere, Tzeirei, Zere, Zeire, Ṣerî, Ṣerê etc.; צֵירֵי, sometimes צירה) is a Hebrew niqqud vowel sign represented by two dots "◌ֵ" underneath a letter.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Maurice Uriel "Uri" Coronel (24 December 1946 – 18 July 2016) was a Dutch sports director and chairman of Ajax Amsterdam, a position he held at the club from April 2008 to 25 July 2011.
Uriel da Costa (c. 1585 – April 1640) or Uriel Acosta (from the Latin form of his Portuguese surname, Costa, or da Costa) was a Jewish philosopher and skeptic who questioned the Catholic and Rabbinic institutions of his time.
A utopia is an imagined community or society that possesses highly desirable or nearly perfect qualities for its citizens.
The Venetian Ghetto was the area of Venice in which Jews were compelled to live by the government of the Venetian Republic.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Elias Victor Seixas Jr. (pronounced SAY-shus; born August 30, 1923) Los Angeles Times.
Executive Vice President of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Vicepresidente Ejecutivo de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela, commonly known simply as the Vice President of Venezuela, is the second highest political position in the government of Venezuela. The Vice President is the direct collaborator of the President of the Republic according to the Constitution. The office of Vice President appeared in the Constitution of 1830 until the Constitution of 1858, and once again in the Constitution of 1999. Since 14 June 2018, Delcy Rodríguez of the United Socialist Party of Venezuela has been Vice President to Nicolás Maduro.
Vicente Lombardo Toledano (July 16, 1894 – November 16, 1968) was one of the foremost Mexican labor leaders of the 20th century, and called "the dean of Mexican Marxism the best-known link between Mexico and the international world of Marxism and socialism," In 1936 he founded the Confederation of Mexican Workers (CTM), the national labor federation most closely associated with the ruling party founded by President Lázaro Cárdenas, the Party of the Mexican Revolution (PRM).
Vivian de Sola Pinto (9 December 1895 – 27 July 1969) was a British poet, literary critic and historian.
Vivian Hughes Ridler, CBE (2 October 1913–11 January 2009), was a printer, typographer and scholar in Britain.
The Vulgate is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible that became the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible during the 16th century.
In Mizrahi and Sephardic Middle Eastern Jewish prayer services, each Shabbat the congregation conducts services using a different 'maqam'.
Wembley is an area of northwest London, England, and part of the London Borough of Brent.
The West London Synagogue of British Jews, abbreviated WLS (ק"ק שער ציון, Kahal Kadosh Sha'ar Tziyon, "Holy Congregation Gate of Zion"), is a Reform synagogue and congregation near Marble Arch in London.
Western Europe is the region comprising the western part of Europe.
Willemstad is the capital city of Curaçao, an island in the southern Caribbean Sea that forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
William Carlos Williams (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963) was an American poet and physician closely associated with modernism and imagism.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William I, Prince of Orange (24 April 1533 – 10 July 1584), also widely known as William the Silent or William the Taciturn (translated from Willem de Zwijger), or more commonly known as William of Orange (Willem van Oranje), was the main leader of the Dutch revolt against the Spanish Habsburgs that set off the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) and resulted in the formal independence of the United Provinces in 1581.
Withington is a suburb of south Manchester, England.
The Xuetes (singular Xueta, also known as Xuetons and spelled as Chuetas) were a social group on the island of Majorca, the descendants of Majorcan Jews who either were conversos (forcible converts to Christianity) or were Crypto-Jews, forced to keep their religion hidden.
Yemenite Jews or Yemeni Jews or Teimanim (from Yehudey Teman; اليهود اليمنيون) are those Jews who live, or once lived, in Yemen.
Yodh (also spelled yud, yod, jod, or jodh) is the tenth letter of the Semitic abjads, including Phoenician Yōd, Hebrew Yōd, Aramaic Yodh, Syriac Yōḏ ܚ, and Arabic ي (in abjadi order, 28th in modern order).
Yom Kippur (יוֹם כִּיפּוּר,, or), also known as the Day of Atonement, is the holiest day of the year in Judaism.
The Zohar (זֹהַר, lit. "Splendor" or "Radiance") is the foundational work in the literature of Jewish mystical thought known as Kabbalah.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.
Iberian Jewish, Iberian Jews, Jews of the Iberian Peninsula, Jews of the Portuguese Nation, Jews of the Portuguese nation, Portuguese Jewish, Portuguese Jews, Portuguese and Spanish Jews, Portuguese-Jewish, Spanish & Portuguese Jew, Spanish Jew, Spanish Jews, Spanish and Portuguese Jew, Spanish and Portuguese Jewish, Western European Sephardim, Western Sephardim.