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Spanish language

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Spanish (español), also called Castilian, is a Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native-speakers. [1]

412 relations: Academia Argentina de Letras, Academia Boliviana de la Lengua, Academia Chilena de la Lengua, Academia Colombiana de la Lengua, Academia Costarricense de la Lengua, Academia Cubana de la Lengua, Academia Dominicana de la Lengua, Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua, Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua, Academia Hondureña de la Lengua, Academia Mexicana de la Lengua, Academia Nacional de Letras, Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua, Academia Panameña de la Lengua, Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española, Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española, Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua, Academia Venezolana de la Lengua, Accusative case, Acute accent, Adjective, Affricate consonant, Africa, African Union, Al-Andalus, Alhambra Decree, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Ambeth Ocampo, Americas, Amerind languages, Andalusia, Andalusian Spanish, Andean Spanish, Andorra, Angola, Animacy, Antarctic Treaty Secretariat, Antioquia Department, Antonio de Nebrija, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arabic language influence on the Spanish language, Aragonese language, Argentina, Assimilation (linguistics), Association of Spanish Language Academies, Astur-Leonese languages, Asturian language, Atlanta metropolitan area, ..., Autonomous communities of Spain, Aymara language, Azuero Peninsula, Álava, Balearic Islands, Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area, Basque language, BBC, Belize, Betacism, Bolivia, Branching (linguistics), Brazil, British Overseas Territories, Burgos, Caló language, Caldas Department, Cambridge University Press, Canarian Spanish, Canary Islands, Cantabria, Caribbean Community, Caribbean Spanish, Castúo, Castile (historical region), Castilian languages, Castilian Spanish, Castrapo, Catalan language, Catalonia, Cádiz, Celtiberian language, Celtic languages, Central American Spanish, Certificate of Use of Language in Spanish, Ceuta, Chamorro language, Chavacano, Chef, Chiapas, Chicago metropolitan area, Chile, Classical Latin, Clitic, Cold War, Collation, Colombia, Columbia University Press, Consonant cluster, Constituent (linguistics), Continuant, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex, Dative case, De facto, De jure, Debuccalization, Delaware Valley, Dental consonant, Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area, Determiner, Diaeresis (diacritic), Diccionario de la lengua española, Diccionario panhispánico de dudas, Digraph (orthography), Dominican Republic, Don Quixote, East Harlem, Easter Island, Ecclesiastical Latin, Ecuador, Edinburgh University Press, El Salvador, English language, Equatoguinean Spanish, Equatorial Guinea, Ethnologue, Europe, European Union, Fang language, Federated States of Micronesia, Ferdinand Marcos, Filipino language, First language, Flap consonant, Florida, Foreign Service Institute, Fortition, France, French language, Frespañol, Fricative consonant, Fundéu BBVA, Galician language, Gascon language, Georgetown University Press, German language, Germanic languages, Germany, Gibraltar, Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo, Glosas Emilianenses, Gramática de la lengua castellana, Grammar, Grammatical case, Grammatical conjugation, Grammatical gender, Grammatical modifier, Grammatical number, Grammatical person, Grammatical tense, Greater Boston, Greater Cleveland, Greater Houston, Greater Los Angeles Area, Greater Orlando, Greater San Antonio, Guam, Guarani language, Guatemala, Haketia, Hard and soft G, Hebrew language, Hispanic, Hispanic America, Hispanidad, Hispanism, Hispanophone, History of the Philippines (1521–1898), Homophone, Honduras, Huelva, Iberian language, Iberian Peninsula, Iberian Romance languages, Ilustrado, Imperative mood, Indianapolis metropolitan area, Inflection, Influences on the Spanish language, Instituto Cervantes, International Phonetic Alphabet, Intonation (linguistics), Inverted question and exclamation marks, Isabella I of Castile, Isochrony, Israel, Italian language, Italic languages, Italy, José Rizal, Juan Luna, Judaeo-Spanish, Kingdom of Castile, La Rioja (Spain), La solidaridad, Labial consonant, Languages of Italy, Languages of Spain, Languages of the Philippines, Languages used on the Internet, Las Vegas Valley, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin script, Latin Union, Leísmo, Lenition, Leonese dialect, Lexical similarity, Lexicon, List of countries where Spanish is an official language, List of English words of Spanish origin, List of languages by number of native speakers, List of Spanish words of Germanic origin, List of Spanish words of Indigenous American Indian origin, List of Spanish words of Nahuatl origin, List of Spanish-language poets, Llanito, Llibre dels fets, Loanword, Loísmo, Madrid, Mandarin Chinese, Melilla, Mercosur, Mexican Spanish, Mexico, Mexico City, Miami metropolitan area, Middle Ages, Miguel de Cervantes, Minimal pair, Mirandese language, Mixed language, Modern history, Morocco, Morphophonology, Mozarabic language, Murcian Spanish, Mutual intelligibility, Nasal consonant, Nashville metropolitan area, National Congress of Brazil, Navarro-Aragonese, New Mexico, New York City, New York metropolitan area, Nicaragua, North American Academy of the Spanish Language, North American Free Trade Agreement, North American Spanish, Northern Mariana Islands, Noun, Null-subject language, Object (grammar), Object pronoun, Obstruent, Occitan language, Oceania, Official language, Official languages of the United Nations, Old Spanish language, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States, Os Lusíadas, Oxford University Press, Palatal consonant, Palatal lateral approximant, Palatal nasal, Palatalization (sound change), Palau, Palenquero, Paleohispanic languages, Panama, Panhispanism, Papaya, Papiamento, Paraguay, Peninsular Spanish, Peru, Peruvian Academy of Language, Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language, Philippine languages, Philippines, Phoenix metropolitan area, Phoneme, Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives, Phonology, Plazas de soberanía, Portuñol, Portuguese language, Possessive determiner, Pragmatics, Preposition and postposition, President of Brazil, Princeton University Press, Pro-drop language, Pronoun, Puerto Rico, Quechuan languages, Quindío Department, Real Academia Española, Realis mood, Reconquista, Register (sociolinguistics), Reintegrationism, Research Triangle, Rioplatense Spanish, Risaralda Department, Roman Empire, Romance languages, Romanian language, Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic, Salamanca, Salt Lake City metropolitan area, San Francisco Bay Area, Sardinian language, School, Second language, Second Punic War, Semivowel, Sephardi Jews, Seville, Sibilant, Signed Spanish, Sociolect, Soria, South Sudan, Southwestern United States, Spain, Spanglish, Spanish as a second language, Spanish Braille, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish Constitution of 1978, Spanish dialects and varieties, Spanish East Indies, Spanish Empire, Spanish irregular verbs, Spanish language in South America, Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish language in the Philippines, Spanish language in the United States, Spanish orthography, Spanish phonology, Spanish profanity, Spanish proverbs, Spanish Sahara, Spanish verbs, Spanish-based creole languages, Spanish–American War, Standard Spanish, Stop consonant, Stratum (linguistics), Stress (linguistics), Subject (grammar), Subject–verb–object, SWF, Switzerland, Syllable, Syntax, Taco, Tagalog language, Tampa Bay Area, T–V distinction, The Economist, Tilde, Toledo, Spain, Trill consonant, Trinidad and Tobago, Turkish language, Typewriter, Union of South American Nations, United Kingdom, United Nations, United States, United States Virgin Islands, Uruguay, Uruguayan Portuguese, Valencian Community, Valle del Cauca Department, Velar consonant, Venezuela, Verb, Verb framing, Voiceless dental fricative, Voicelessness, Voseo, Vowel breaking, Vowel reduction, Vulgar Latin, West Iberian languages, Western Roman Empire, Western Romance languages, Western Sahara, World Trade Organization, Yeísmo, Yes–no question, Yiddish language, Zulia. Expand index (362 more) »

Academia Argentina de Letras

The Academia Argentina de Letras is the academy in charge of studying and prescribing the use of the Spanish language in Argentina.

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Academia Boliviana de la Lengua

The Academia Boliviana de la Lengua (Spanish for Bolivian Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Bolivia.

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Academia Chilena de la Lengua

The Academia Chilena de la Lengua (Spanish for Chilean Language Academy) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Chile.

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Academia Colombiana de la Lengua

The Academia Colombiana de la Lengua (Spanish for Colombian Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Colombia.

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Academia Costarricense de la Lengua

The Academia Costarricense de la Lengua (Spanish for Costa Rican Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Costa Rica.

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Academia Cubana de la Lengua

The Academia Cubana de la Lengua (Spanish for Cuban Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Cuba.

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Academia Dominicana de la Lengua

The Academia Dominicana de la Lengua (variously translated as the Dominican Academy of Language, the Dominican Academy of the Language, the Dominican Academy of Letters, or glossed as the Dominican Academy of the Spanish Language; acronym ADL) is the Dominican Republic's correspondent academy of the Royal Spanish Academy.

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Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua

The Academia Ecuatoriana de la Lengua (Ecuadorian Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Ecuador.

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Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua

The Academia Guatemalteca de la Lengua (Spanish for Guatemalan Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Guatemala.

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Academia Hondureña de la Lengua

The Academia Hondureña de la Lengua (Spanish for Honduran Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Honduras.

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Academia Mexicana de la Lengua

The Academia Mexicana de la Lengua (variously translated as the Mexican Academy of Language, the Mexican Academy of the Language, the Mexican Academy of Letters, or glossed as the Mexican Academy of the Spanish Language; acronym AML) is the correspondent academy in Mexico of the Royal Spanish Academy.

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Academia Nacional de Letras

The Academia Nacional de Letras (Spanish for National Academy of Letters) Uruguay) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Uruguay. It was founded in Montevideo on February 10, 1943. Among the first members were: Cardinal Antonio María Barbieri, Emilio Frugoni, Juana de Ibarbourou, Emilio Oribe. Since 1960, it is a member of the Association of Spanish Language Academies.

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Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua

The Academia Nicaragüense de la Lengua (Spanish for Nicaraguan Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Nicaragua.

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Academia Panameña de la Lengua

The Academia Panameña de la Lengua (Spanish for Panamanian Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Panama.

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Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española

The Academia Paraguaya de la Lengua Española (Spanish for Paraguayan Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Paraguay.

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Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española

The Academia Puertorriqueña de la Lengua Española (Spanish for Puerto Rican Academy of the Spanish Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Puerto Rico.

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Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua

The Academia Salvadoreña de la Lengua (Spanish for Salvadoran Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in El Salvador.

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Academia Venezolana de la Lengua

The Academia Venezolana de la Lengua (Spanish for Venezuelan Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on Venezuelan Spanish, the variant of the Spanish language in Venezuela.

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Accusative case

The accusative case (abbreviated) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb.

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Acute accent

The acute accent (´) is a diacritic used in many modern written languages with alphabets based on the Latin, Cyrillic, and Greek scripts.

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Adjective

In linguistics, an adjective is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Africa

Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent.

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African Union

The African Union (AU) is a continental union consisting of 54 countries in Africa.

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Al-Andalus

al-Andalus (الأندلس, trans.; al-Ándalus; al-Ândalus; al-Andalus; al-Àndalus; Berber: Andalus or Wandalus), also known as Muslim Spain or Islamic Iberia, was a medieval Muslim cultural domain and territory occupying at its peak most of what are today Spain and Portugal.

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Alhambra Decree

The Alhambra Decree (also known as the Edict of Expulsion) was an edict issued on 31 March 1492, by the joint Catholic Monarchs of Spain (Isabella I of Castile and Ferdinand II of Aragon) ordering the expulsion of Jews from the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon and its territories and possessions by 31 July, of that year.

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Allophone

In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds (or phones) or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Ambeth Ocampo

Ambeth Ocampo is a multi-awarded Filipino historian, academic, journalist, and author best known for his writings about Philippines' national hero José Rizal and for "Looking Back", his bi-weekly editorial page column in the Philippine Daily Inquirer.

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Americas

The Americas, or America,"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X).

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Amerind languages

Amerind is a hypothetical higher-level language family proposed by Joseph Greenberg in 1960 and elaborated by his student Merritt Ruhlen.

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Andalusia

Andalusia (Andalucía) is a south-western European region established as an autonomous community of the Kingdom of Spain.

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Andalusian Spanish

The Andalusian varieties of Spanish (Spanish: andaluz). are spoken in Andalusia, Ceuta, Melilla, and Gibraltar.

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Andean Spanish

Andean Spanish is a dialect of Spanish spoken in the central Andes, from western Venezuela, southern Colombia, with influence as far south as northern Chile and Northwestern Argentina, passing through Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia.

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Andorra

Andorra, officially the Principality of Andorra (Principat d'Andorra), also called the Principality of the Valleys of Andorra (Principat de les Valls d'Andorra), is a sovereign landlocked microstate in Southwestern Europe, located in the eastern Pyrenees mountains and bordered by Spain and France.

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Angola

Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu, Umbundu: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.

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Animacy

Animacy is a grammatical and semantic principle expressed in language based on how sentient or alive the referent of a noun is.

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Antarctic Treaty Secretariat

The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat is an organization created in 2003 by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) for the management of several ATCM tasks such as the support of the annual meeting of signatory countries of the Antarctic Treaty, and the publication of the ATCM annual report.

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Antioquia Department

The Department of Antioquia is one of the 32 departments of Colombia, located in the central northwestern part of Colombia with a narrow section that borders the Caribbean Sea.

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Antonio de Nebrija

Antonio de Nebrija (1441 – 5 July 1522), also known as Antonio de Lebrija, Elio Antonio de Lebrija, Antonius Nebrissensis, and Antonio of Lebrixa, was a Spanish Renaissance scholar.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِية, or عربي,عربى) is the Classical Arabic language of the 6th century and its modern descendants excluding Maltese.

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Arabic language influence on the Spanish language

Arabic influence on the Spanish language overwhelmingly dates from the Muslim rule in the Iberian Peninsula between 711 and 1492.

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Aragonese language

Aragonese (aragonés in Aragonese) is a Romance language spoken by between 10,000 and 30,000 people throughout the valleys of the Pyrenees in Aragon, Spain, mainly in the comarcas of Somontano de Barbastro, Jacetania, Alto Gállego, Sobrarbe, and Ribagorza.

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Argentina

Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located in southeastern South America.

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Assimilation (linguistics)

In linguistics, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Association of Spanish Language Academies

The Association of Spanish Language Academies (Asociación de Academias de la Lengua Española) is the entity which regulates the Spanish language.

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Astur-Leonese languages

Astur-Leonese is a group of mutually intelligible Romance dialects of the West Iberian branch, including.

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Asturian language

Asturian (autonym: asturianu,Art. 1 de la. or bable) is a Romance language of the West Iberian group, Astur-Leonese subgroup, spoken in Asturias (Spain).

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Atlanta metropolitan area

Metro Atlanta, designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget as the Atlanta-Sandy Springs-Roswell, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area, is the most populous metro area in the US state of Georgia and the ninth-largest metropolitan statistical area (MSA) in the United States.

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Autonomous communities of Spain

In Spain, an autonomous community (comunidad autónoma, autonomia erkidego, comunitat autònoma, comunidade autónoma) is a first-level political and administrative division, created in accordance with the Spanish constitution of 1978, with the aim of guaranteeing limited autonomy of the nationalities and regions that comprise the Spanish nation.

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Aymara language

Aymara (Aymar aru) is an Aymaran language spoken by the Aymara people of the Andes.

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Azuero Peninsula

Azuero Peninsula (Península de Azuero) is a large peninsula in southern Panama.

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Álava

Álava (in Spanish) or Araba (in Basque), officially Araba/Álava, is a province of Spain and a historical territory of the Basque Country, heir of the ancient Lordship of Álava.

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Balearic Islands

The Balearic Islands (Illes Balears; Islas Baleares) are an archipelago of Spain in the western Mediterranean Sea, near the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Baltimore–Washington metropolitan area

The Baltimore–Washington Metropolitan Area is a combined statistical area consisting of the overlapping labor market region of the cities of Baltimore, Maryland and Washington, D.C. The region includes Central Maryland, Northern Virginia, three counties in the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia, and one county in South Central Pennsylvania.

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Basque language

Basque (Basque: Euskara) is a language isolate ancestral to the Basque people.

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BBC

The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is the public-service broadcaster of the United Kingdom, headquartered at Broadcasting House in London.

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Belize

Belize is a country on the eastern coast of Central America.

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Betacism

In historical linguistics, betacism is a sound change in which (the voiced bilabial plosive, like in bane) shifts to (the voiced labiodental fricative, like in English vane).

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Bolivia

Bolivia (Buliwya; Wuliwya; Volívia), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Branching (linguistics)

In linguistics, branching refers to the shape of the parse trees that represent the structure of sentences.

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Brazil

Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and the Latin American region.

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British Overseas Territories

The fourteen British Overseas Territories (BOT) are territories under the jurisdiction and sovereignty of the United Kingdom; they do not, however, form part of it.

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Burgos

Burgos is a city in northern Spain and the historic capital of Castile.

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Caló language

Caló is a language spoken by the Spanish and Portuguese Romani.

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Caldas Department

Caldas is a department of Colombia named after Colombian patriotic figure Francisco José de Caldas.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Canarian Spanish

Canarian Spanish (Spanish: español de Canarias, español canario, habla canaria, isleño, or dialecto canario) is a variant of standard Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands by the Canarian people.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias), also known as the Canaries (Canarias), are a Spanish archipelago located just off the southern coast of Morocco, west of its southern border.

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Cantabria

Cantabria is a Spanish historical community and autonomous community with Santander as its capital city.

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Caribbean Community

Established in 1973, the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) is an organization of 15 Caribbean nations and dependencies.

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Caribbean Spanish

Caribbean Spanish (Spanish: español caribeño) is the general name of the Spanish dialects spoken in the Caribbean region.

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Castúo

Castúo is the generic name for the dialects of Spanish spoken in the autonomous community of Extremadura, in Spain.

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Castile (historical region)

Castile is a Spanish historical region of vague borders, which is the result of a gradual merge of the Kingdom of Castile with its neighbours to become the Crown of Castile and later the Kingdom of Spain when united with the Crown of Aragon and the Kingdom of Navarre.

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Castilian languages

The Castilian languages are Castilian (Spanish) and its closest relatives.

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Castilian Spanish

In English, Castilian Spanish usually refers to the variety of European Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers.

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Castrapo

Castrapo (a portmanteau of castellano and trapo, meaning rag) is the pejorative name for the form of the Spanish language spoken in the region of Galicia and which heavily uses Galician vocabulary and syntax.

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Catalan language

Catalan (Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh; also or autonym: català or) is a Romance language named for its origins in Catalonia, in what is northeastern Spain and adjoining parts of France.

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Catalonia

Catalonia (Catalunya; Catalonha; Cataluña) is an autonomous community of Spain and designated a "historical nationality" by its Statute of Autonomy.

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Cádiz

Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.

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Celtiberian language

Celtiberian or Northeastern Hispano-Celtic is an extinct Indo-European language of the Celtic branch spoken by the Celtiberians in an area of the Iberian Peninsula lying between the headwaters of the Duero, Tajo, Júcar and Turia rivers and the Ebro river.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages (usually pronounced but sometimes) are descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Central American Spanish

Central American Spanish (Spanish: español centroamericano or castellano centroamericano) is the general name of the Spanish language dialects spoken in Central America.

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Certificate of Use of Language in Spanish

The Certificate of Use of Language in Spanish, or CELU (Spanish: Certificado de Español: Lengua y Uso), is an exam designed to determine the level of proficiency in the Spanish language.

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Ceuta

Ceuta (assimilated pronunciation, also;; سبتة, Sabtah; Sebta) is an Spanish city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a western border with Morocco.

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Chamorro language

Chamorro (Chamorro: Finu' Chamorro or Chamoru) is a Malayo-Polynesian language (Austronesian) spoken by about 47,000 people (about 35,000 people on Guam and about 12,000 in the Northern Mariana Islands).

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Chavacano

Chavacano or Chabacano is a Spanish-based creole language spoken in the Philippines.

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Chef

A chef is a person who is a highly trained, skilled professional cook who is proficient in all aspects of food preparation of a particular cuisine.

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Chiapas

Chiapas, officially Free and Sovereign State of Chiapas (Estado Libre y Soberano de Chiapas), is one of the 31 states that, with the Federal District, make up the 32 federal entities of Mexico.

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Chicago metropolitan area

The Chicago metropolitan area, or Chicagoland, is the metropolitan area associated with the city of Chicago, Illinois, and its suburbs.

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Chile

Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Classical Latin

Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.

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Clitic

In morphology and syntax, a clitic (from Greek κλιτικός klitikos, "inflexional") is a morpheme that has syntactic characteristics of a word, but depends phonologically on another word or phrase.

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Cold War

The Cold War was a state of political and military tension after World War II between powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others) and powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its allies in the Warsaw Pact).

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Collation

Collation is the assembly of written information into a standard order.

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Colombia

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a country situated in the northwest of South America, bordered to the northwest by Panama; to the east by Venezuela and Brazil; to the south by Ecuador and Peru; and it shares maritime limits with Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Honduras, Jamaica, Dominican Republic and Haiti.

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Columbia University Press

Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster or consonant sequence is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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Constituent (linguistics)

In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words which function(s) as a single unit within a hierarchical structure.

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Continuant

A continuant is a speech sound produced with an incomplete closure of the oral vocal tract.

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Costa Rica

Costa Rica (literally meaning, "Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country in the Caribbean comprising the main island of Cuba, the Isla de la Juventud and several archipelagos.

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Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex

The Dallas–Fort Worth–Arlington, TX Metropolitan Statistical Area, the official title designated by the United States Office of Management and Budget, encompasses 12 counties within the U.S. state of Texas.

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Dative case

The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case generally used to indicate the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria gave Jakob a drink".

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De facto

De facto is a Latin expression that means "in fact, in reality, in actual existence, force, or possession, as a matter of fact" (literally "from fact").

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De jure

De jure (Classical Latin: de iúre) is an expression that means "of right, by right, according to law" (literally "from law"), as contrasted with de facto, which means "in fact, in reality" (literally "from fact").

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Debuccalization

Debuccalization is a sound change in which an oral consonant loses its original place of articulation and moves it to the glottis (usually,, or). The pronunciation of a consonant as is sometimes called aspiration but in phonetics, aspiration is the burst of air accompanying a stop.

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Delaware Valley

Culturally, the Delaware Valley is taken by various commercial media and advertising venues to mean the Philadelphia metropolitan area, but geographically, geologically, and historically the term used to refer to the valley through which the Delaware River flows.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Denver-Aurora-Lakewood, CO Metropolitan Statistical Area

Denver is the central city of a conurbation region in the U.S. state of Colorado.

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Determiner

A determiner (also called determinative) is a word, phrase, or affix that occurs together with a noun or noun phrase and serves to express the reference of that noun or noun phrase in the context.

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Diaeresis (diacritic)

The diaeresis (plural: diaereses), also spelled diæresis or dieresis and also known as the trema or the umlaut, is a diacritical mark that consists of two dots placed over a letter, usually a vowel.

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Diccionario de la lengua española

The Diccionario de la lengua española, also known as the Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE), is the authoritative dictionary of the Spanish language.

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Diccionario panhispánico de dudas

The Diccionario panhispánico de dudas (Pan-Hispanic Dictionary of Doubts) or DPD is an elaborate work undertaken by the Real Academia Española (RAE – Royal Spanish Academy) and the Association of Spanish Language Academies with the goal of resolving questions related to the proper use of the Spanish language.

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Digraph (orthography)

A digraph or digram (from the δίς dís, "double" and γράφω gráphō, "to write") is a pair of characters used to write one phoneme (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.

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Dominican Republic

The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a country on the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago in the Caribbean region.

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Don Quixote

Don Quixote, fully titled The Ingenious Gentleman Don Quixote of La Mancha (El ingenioso hidalgo don Quijote de la Mancha), is a Spanish novel by Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra.

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East Harlem

East Harlem, also colloquially known as El Barrio and previously as Spanish Harlem, is a neighborhood of Upper Manhattan, New York City roughly encompassing the area north of the Upper East Side, and East 96th Street and east of Fifth Avenue to the East and Harlem Rivers.

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Easter Island

Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle.

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Ecclesiastical Latin

Ecclesiastical Latin (also called Liturgical Latin or Church Latin) is the form of the Latin language used in the Roman Rite of the Catholic Church for liturgical and other purposes.

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Ecuador

Ecuador, officially the Republic of Ecuador (República del Ecuador, which literally translates as "Republic of the Equator"), is a representative democratic republic in northwestern South America, bordered by Colombia on the north, Peru on the east and south, and the Pacific Ocean to the west.

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Edinburgh University Press

Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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El Salvador

El Salvador (Pipil: Kūskatan), officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.

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English language

English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.

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Equatoguinean Spanish

Equatoguinean Spanish (Español ecuatoguineano) is the variety of Spanish spoken in Equatorial Guinea.

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Equatorial Guinea

Equatorial Guinea (Guinea Ecuatorial, Guinée équatoriale, Guiné Equatorial), officially the Republic of Equatorial Guinea (República de Guinea Ecuatorial, République de Guinée équatoriale, República da Guiné Equatorial), is a country located in Central Africa, with an area of.

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Ethnologue

Ethnologue: Languages of the World is a web-based publication that contains statistics for 7,472 languages and dialects in the 18th edition, released in 2015.

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Europe

Europe is a continent that comprises the westernmost part of Eurasia.

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European Union

The European Union (EU) is a politico-economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.

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Fang language

Fang is the dominant Bantu language of Gabon and Equatorial Guinea.

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Federated States of Micronesia

The Federated States of Micronesia (abbreviated FSM) is an independent sovereign island nation and a United States associated state consisting of four states from west to east, Yap, Chuuk, Pohnpei and Kosraethat are spread across the Western Pacific Ocean.

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Ferdinand Marcos

Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos, Sr. (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician who served as President of the Philippines from 1965 to 1986.

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Filipino language

Filipino is the standard register of the Tagalog language and the national language of the Philippines, sharing official status with the English language.

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First language

A first language (also native language, mother tongue, arterial language, or L1) is the language or are the languages a person has learned from birth or within the critical period, or that a person speaks the best and so is often the basis for sociolinguistic identity.

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Flap consonant

In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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Florida

Florida is a state in the southeast United States, bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the north by Alabama and Georgia, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, and to the south by the Straits of Florida.

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Foreign Service Institute

The Foreign Service Institute (FSI) is the United States Federal Government's primary training institution for employees of the U.S. foreign affairs community, preparing American diplomats as well as other professionals to advance U.S. foreign affairs interests overseas and in Washington.

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Fortition

Fortition is a consonantal change from a 'weak' sound to a 'strong' one, the opposite of the more common lenition.

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France

France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state comprising territory in western Europe and several overseas regions and territories.

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French language

French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language, belonging to the Indo-European family.

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Frespañol

Frespañol (more commonly frañol or fragnol), is a portmanteau of the words français and español, which mean French and Spanish.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Fundéu BBVA

The Fundéu BBVA (formerly The Foundation of Urgent Spanish) is a non-profit organization created in February 2005 in Madrid, Spain.

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Galician language

Galician (or; galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.

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Gascon language

Gascon is a dialect of Occitan.

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Georgetown University Press

Georgetown University Press is a university press affiliated with Georgetown University that publishes about forty new books a year.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that derives most of its vocabulary from the Germanic branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of approximately 500 million people mainly in North America, Oceania, Central Europe, Western and Northern Europe.

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Germany

Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a federal parliamentary republic in western-central Europe.

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Gibraltar

Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean.

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Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo

Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo (born April 5, 1947) is a Filipino politician who served as the 14th President of the Philippines from 2001 to 2010, as the 12th Vice President of the Philippines from 1998 to 2001, and as member of the House of Representatives representing the 2nd District of Pampanga since 2010.

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Glosas Emilianenses

The Glosas Emilianenses (Spanish for "glosses of Millán/Emilianus") are glosses written in a Latin codex.

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Gramática de la lengua castellana

Gramática de la lengua castellana ("Grammar of the Castilian Language", originally titled in Latin: Grammatica Antonii Nebrissensis) is a book written by Antonio de Nebrija and published in 1492.

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Grammar

In linguistics, grammar is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.

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Grammatical case

Case is a grammatical category whose value reflects the grammatical function performed by a noun or pronoun in a phrase, clause, or sentence.

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Grammatical conjugation

In linguistics, conjugation is the creation of derived forms of a verb from its principal parts by inflection (alteration of form according to rules of grammar).

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Grammatical gender

In linguistics, grammatical gender is a specific form of noun-class system in which the division of noun classes forms an agreement system with another aspect of the language, such as adjectives, articles, or verbs.

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Grammatical modifier

In grammar, a modifier is an optional element in phrase structure or clause structure.

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Grammatical number

In linguistics, grammatical number is a grammatical category of nouns, pronouns, and adjective and verb agreement that expresses count distinctions (such as "one", "two", or "three or more").

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Grammatical person

Grammatical person, in linguistics, is the grammatical distinction between deictic references to participant(s) in an event; typically the distinction is between the speaker, the addressee, and others.

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Grammatical tense

In grammar, tense is a category that expresses time reference.

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Greater Boston

Greater Boston is the area of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts surrounding the city of Boston, consisting most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast, Cape Cod & The Islands.

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Greater Cleveland

The Cleveland metropolitan area, or Greater Cleveland as it is more commonly known, is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio, United States.

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Greater Houston

Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land is a nine-county metropolitan area defined by the Office of Management and Budget.

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Greater Los Angeles Area

The Greater Los Angeles Area is the second-largest urban region in the United States, encompassing five counties in the southern part of the U.S. state of California, extending from Ventura County in the west to San Bernardino County and Riverside County on the east, with Los Angeles County and Orange County in the center.

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Greater Orlando

Greater Orlando, commonly referred to as the Orlando metropolitan area, Metro Orlando, and for U.S. Census purposes as the Orlando–Kissimmee–Sanford, Florida Metropolitan Statistical Area, is a metropolitan area in the central region of the U.S. state of Florida.

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Greater San Antonio

San Antonio–New Braunfels is an eight-county metropolitan area in the U.S. state of Texas defined by the Office of Management and Budget (OMB).

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Guam

Guam (or; Chamorro: Guåhån) is an organized, unincorporated territory of the United States in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Guarani language

Guarani, specifically the primary variety known as Paraguayan Guarani (endonym avañe'ẽ 'the people's language'), is an indigenous language of South America that belongs to the Tupi–Guarani subfamily of the Tupian languages.

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Guatemala

Guatemala, officially the Republic of Guatemala (República de Guatemala), is a country in Central America bordered by Mexico to the north and west, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Belize to the northeast, the Caribbean to the east, Honduras to the east and El Salvador to the southeast.

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Haketia

Haketia (חקיטייה, حاكيتيا) (also written as Hakitia or Haquitía) is an endangered Jewish-Moroccan Romance language, also known as Djudeo Spañol or Ladino Occidental (western Ladino), that was spoken and spread throughout the North of Morocco such as in Tetuan, Tangiers and the Spanish towns of Ceuta and Melilla, in the latter of which it has become partial official before being absorbed by modern Spanish.

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Hard and soft G

In the Latin-based orthographies of many European languages (including English), a distinction between hard and soft occurs in which represents two distinct phonemes.

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Hebrew language

Hebrew is a West Semitic language of the Afroasiatic language family.

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Hispanic

Hispanic (hispano, hispánico hispánico, hispaniar., hispà) is an ethnonym to people of country heritage that speak the Spanish language, in some definitions, to ancient Roman Hispania, which roughly comprised the Iberian Peninsula including the contemporary states of Spain, Portugal, Andorra and the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar.

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Hispanic America

Hispanic America or Spanish America (Hispanoamérica, América española, or América hispana) is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.

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Hispanidad

The Hispanidad (Hispanicity) are the community formed by all the people and countries that share a common Hispanic heritage and cultural pattern.

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Hispanism

Hispanism (sometimes referred to as Hispanic Studies or Spanish Studies) is the study of the literature and culture of the Spanish-speaking world, principally that of Spain and Latin America.

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Hispanophone

Hispanophone (hispanohablantes, hispanoparlantes or hispanófono; also castellanohablantes, castellanoparlantes, or castellanófonos) or Hispanosphere denotes Spanish language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world.

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History of the Philippines (1521–1898)

This article covers the history of the Philippines from 1521 to 1898, known as the Spanish Colonial Time.

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Homophone

A homophone is a word that is pronounced the same as another word but differs in meaning, and may differ in spelling.

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Honduras

Honduras, officially the Republic of Honduras (República de Honduras), is a republic in Central America.

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Huelva

Huelva is a city in southwestern Spain, the capital of the province of Huelva in the autonomous region of Andalusia.

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Iberian language

The Iberian language was the language of a people identified by Greek and Roman sources who lived in the eastern and southeastern regions of the Iberian Peninsula.

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Iberian Peninsula

The Iberian Peninsula, also known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe and is divided among four states: Spain, Portugal, Andorra, and France; as well as Gibraltar, an overseas territory of the United Kingdom.

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Iberian Romance languages

The Iberian Romance, Ibero-Romance or simply Iberian languages are the Romance languages that developed on the Iberian Peninsula, an area consisting primarily of Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra, and in southern France.

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Ilustrado

The Ilustrados (Spanish for "erudite," "learned," or "enlightened ones") constituted the Filipino educated class during the Spanish colonial period in the late 19th century.

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Imperative mood

The imperative is a grammatical mood that forms commands or requests, including the giving of prohibition or permission, or any other kind of advice or exhortation.

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Indianapolis metropolitan area

The Indianapolis metropolitan area, Metro Indianapolis, or Greater Indianapolis, is the metropolitan area of Central Indiana that centers on Indianapolis, Indiana, United States and its surrounding area.

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Inflection

In grammar, inflection or inflexion is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, mood, voice, aspect, person, number, gender and case.

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Influences on the Spanish language

The Spanish language has a long history of borrowing words, expressions and subtler features of other languages it has come in contact with.

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Instituto Cervantes

The Cervantes Institute is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (unofficially—though commonly—abbreviated IPA)"The acronym 'IPA' strictly refers to the 'International Phonetic Association'.

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Intonation (linguistics)

In linguistics, intonation is variation of spoken pitch that is not used to distinguish words; instead it is used for a range of functions such as indicating the attitudes and emotions of the speaker, signalling the difference between statements and questions, and between different types of questions, focusing attention on important elements of the spoken message and also helping to regulate conversational interaction.

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Inverted question and exclamation marks

Inverted question (¿) and exclamation (¡) marks are punctuation marks used to begin interrogative and exclamatory sentences (or clauses), respectively, in written Spanish and sometimes also in languages which have cultural ties with Spanish, such as in older standards of Galician (now it is optional and not recommended), Catalan or Waray-Waray.

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Isabella I of Castile

Isabella I (Isabel I, Old Spanish: Ysabel I; Madrigal de las Altas Torres, 22 April 1451–Medina del Campo, 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castille.

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Isochrony

Isochrony is the postulated rhythmic division of time into equal portions by a language.

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Israel

Israel, officially the State of Israel (מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל; دولة إِسْرَائِيل), is a country in West Asia, situated at the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Gulf of Aqaba in the Red Sea.

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Italian language

Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language spoken mainly in Europe: Italy, Switzerland, San Marino, Vatican City, as a second language in Albania, Malta, Slovenia and Croatia, by minorities in Crimea, Eritrea, France, Libya, Monaco, Montenegro, Romania and Somalia, – Gordon, Raymond G., Jr.

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Italic languages

The Italic languages are a subfamily of the Indo-European language family originally spoken by Italic peoples.

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Italy

Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.

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José Rizal

José Protasio Mercado Rizal y Alonso Realonda or popularly known as José Rizal (June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896) was a Filipino nationalist during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines.

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Juan Luna

Juan Luna y Novicio (October 23, 1857 – December 7, 1899) was a Filipino painter, sculptor and a political activist of the Philippine Revolution during the late 19th century.

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Judaeo-Spanish

Judaeo-Spanish (also Judeo-Spanish and Judæo-Spanish: Judeo-Español, Hebrew script: גֿודֿיאו-איספאנייול, Cyrillic: Ђудео-Еспањол), commonly referred to as Ladino, is a Romance language derived from Old Spanish.

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Kingdom of Castile

The Kingdom of Castile (Reino de Castilla, Regnum Castellae) was a large and powerful state on the Iberian Peninsula during the Middle Ages.

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La Rioja (Spain)

La Rioja is an autonomous community and a province in Spain, located in the north of the Iberian Peninsula.

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La solidaridad

La Solidaridad (The Solidarity) was an organization created in Spain on December 13, 1888.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Languages of Italy

There are a variety of regional languages spoken to varying degrees in Italy, most of which belong to various branches of the Romance languages and are hence descendants of Vulgar Latin.

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Languages of Spain

The languages of Spain (lenguas de España), or Spanish languages (lenguas españolas or lenguas hispánicas), are the languages spoken or once spoken in Spain.

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Languages of the Philippines

There are some 120 to 175 languages in the Philippines, depending on the method of classification.

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Languages used on the Internet

The most used language on the Internet is unknown, Laurent VAnnini and Hervé le crosnier (eds.), Maaya Network, C&F éditions, March 2012, 446 pp., ISBN 978-2-915825-08-4 although about half of the homepages of the most visited sites on the Internet are in English, with varying amounts of information available in many other languages.

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Las Vegas Valley

The Las Vegas Valley is a major metropolitan area located in the southern part of the U.S. state of Nevada.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an L-like consonant, in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin script

Latin script, or Roman script, is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet.

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Latin Union

The Latin Union is a defunct international organization of nations that use Romance languages, with the aim of protecting, projecting, and promoting the common cultural heritage of Latin peoples and unifying identities of the Latin, and Latin-influenced, world.

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Leísmo

Leísmo ("using le") is a dialectal variation in the Spanish language that occurs largely in Spain.

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Lenition

In linguistics, lenition is a kind of sound change that alters consonants, making them more sonorous (vowel-like).

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Leonese dialect

Leonese (llionés), in the narrow sense of this article, is a set of certain vernacular Romance dialects that are spoken in northern and western portions of the historical region of León in Spain (modern provinces of León, Zamora, and Salamanca), and in a few adjoining areas in Portugal.

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Lexical similarity

In linguistics, lexical similarity is a measure of the degree to which the word sets of two given languages are similar.

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Lexicon

A lexicon is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).

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List of countries where Spanish is an official language

The following is a list of sovereign states and dependent territories where Spanish is an official language, the national language or the de facto official language.

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List of English words of Spanish origin

It is a list of English language words whose origin can be traced to the Spanish language as "Spanish loan words".

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List of languages by number of native speakers

This article ranks human languages by their number of speakers.

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List of Spanish words of Germanic origin

This is a list of some Spanish words of Germanic origin.

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List of Spanish words of Indigenous American Indian origin

This is a list of Spanish words that come from Indigenous languages from America, it is called "americanism".

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List of Spanish words of Nahuatl origin

Documented Nahuatl words in the Spanish language (mostly as spoken in Mexico and Mesoamerica) include an extensive list of words that represent (i) animals, (ii) plants, fruit and vegetables, (iii) foods and beverages, and (iv) domestic appliances.

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List of Spanish-language poets

This is a list of notable poets who have written in the Spanish language.

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Llanito

Llanito or Yanito (pronounced) is a form of Gibraltarian Spanish heavily laced with words from English and other languages like Genoese, spoken in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

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Llibre dels fets

The Llibre dels fets (. Original spelling: Libre dels feyts (literally in English: 'Book of Deeds'), is a collection of autobiographical chronicles of the reign (1213 – 1276) of James the Conqueror, King of Aragon and Count of Barcelona. It is written in Catalan in the first person and describes the life of James. Though written at his dictation and with his editing, the work was not James', but was written by scribes. The language of the works is popular and colloquial, representing the spoken tongue. The style is direct.

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Loanword

A loanword (or loan word or loan-word) is a word borrowed from a donor language and incorporated into a recipient language without translation.

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Loísmo

Loísmo, with its feminine counterpart laísmo, is a feature of certain dialects of Spanish consisting of the use of the pronouns lo or la (which are normally used for direct objects) in place of the pronoun le (which is used for indirect objects).

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Madrid

Madrid is a south-western European city and the capital and largest municipality of Spain.

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Mandarin Chinese

Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.

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Melilla

Melilla (Mřič; مليلية, Maliliyyah) is a Spanish city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco with an area of.

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Mercosur

Mercosur or Mercosul (Mercado Común del Sur, Mercado Comum do Sul, Ñemby Ñemuha, Southern Common Market) is a sub-regional bloc.

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Mexican Spanish

Mexican Spanish (español mexicano) is a set of varieties of the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico and in some parts of the United States and Canada, where there are communities of Hispanic origin influenced by North American Spanish-speaking media.

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Mexico

Mexico (México), officially the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos), is a federal republic in North America.

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Mexico City

Mexico City (Ciudad de México, officially known as México, D. F., or simply D. F.) is the federal district (distrito federal), capital of Mexico and seat of the federal powers of the union.

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Miami metropolitan area

The Miami metropolitan area anchors a region commonly referred to by local inhabitants as South Florida; it is the metropolitan area comprising Miami, Florida, and nearby communities.

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Middle Ages

In European history, the Middle Ages or Medieval period lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.

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Miguel de Cervantes

Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra (or;; 29 September 1547 (assumed)22 April 1616), often simply called Cervantes, was a Spanish novelist, poet, and playwright.

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Minimal pair

In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.

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Mirandese language

The Mirandese language (autonym: mirandés or lhéngua mirandesa; mirandês or língua mirandesa) is a Romance language belonging to the Astur-Leonese linguistic group, sparsely spoken in a small area of northeastern Portugal, in the municipalities of Miranda do Douro, Mogadouro and Vimioso.

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Mixed language

A mixed language is a language that arises through the fusion of usually two source languages, normally in situations of thorough bilingualism (Meakins, 2013), so that it is not possible to classify the resulting language as belonging to either of the language families that were its sources.

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Modern history

Modern history, also referred to as the modern period or the modern era, is the historiographical approach to the timeframe after the post-classical era (known as the Middle Ages).

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Morocco

Morocco (المغرب; ⵍⵎⴰⵖⵔⵉⴱ or Muṛṛakuc, ⵎⵓⵔⴰⴽⵓⵛ; Maroc), officially the Kingdom of Morocco, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa.

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Morphophonology

Morphophonology (also morphophonemics or morphonology) is the branch of linguistics that studies the interaction between morphological and phonological or phonetic processes.

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Mozarabic language

Mozarabic, more accurately Andalusi Romance, was a continuum of closely related Romance dialects spoken in the Muslim controlled areas of the Iberian Peninsula, known as Al-Andalus.

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Murcian Spanish

Murciano is a variant of the Peninsular Spanish, spoken mainly in autonomous region of Murcia and the adjacent Comarca of Vega Baja del Segura in the province of Alicante (especially in the rural areas) on the Mediterranean coast.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without intentional study or special effort.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Nashville metropolitan area

The Nashville metropolitan area is a metropolitan area centered on Nashville, Tennessee, in the United States.

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National Congress of Brazil

The National Congress (Congresso Nacional) is the legislative body of Brazil's federal government.

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Navarro-Aragonese

Navarro-Aragonese was a Romance language spoken south of the middle Pyrenees and in part of the Ebro River basin in the Middle Ages.

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New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México; Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state located in the southwestern and western regions of the United States, admitted to the union as the 47th state on January 6, 1912.

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New York City

New York – often called New York City or the City of New York to distinguish it from the State of New York, of which it is a part – is the most populous city in the United States and the center of the New York metropolitan area, the premier gateway for legal immigration to the United States and one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world.

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New York metropolitan area

The New York metropolitan area includes the most populous city in the United States (New York City); counties comprising Long Island and the Mid- and Lower Hudson Valley in the state of New York; the five largest cities in New Jersey (Newark, Jersey City, Paterson, Elizabeth, and Edison) and their vicinities; six of the seven largest cities in Connecticut (Bridgeport, New Haven, Stamford, Waterbury, Norwalk, and Danbury) and their vicinities; and five counties in northeastern Pennsylvania.

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Nicaragua

Nicaragua, officially the Republic of Nicaragua, is the largest country in the Central American isthmus.

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North American Academy of the Spanish Language

The North American Academy of the Spanish Language (Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española, ANLE) is an institution made up of philologists of the Spanish language who live and work in the United States, including writers, poets, professors, educators and experts in the language itself, whose mission is to support and promote the study and correct usage of Spanish in the United States of America, including Puerto Rico.

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North American Free Trade Agreement

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.

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North American Spanish

North American Spanish (español norteamericano) is the name of the Spanish dialects spoken in North America.

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Northern Mariana Islands

The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas), is one of five inhabited American insular areas.

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Noun

A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Null-subject language

In linguistic typology, a null-subject language is a language whose grammar permits an independent clause to lack an explicit subject; such a clause is then said to have a null subject.

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Object (grammar)

Traditional grammar defines the object in a sentence as the entity that is acted upon by the subject.

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Object pronoun

In linguistics, an object pronoun is a personal pronoun that is used typically as a grammatical object: the direct or indirect object of a verb, or the object of a preposition.

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Obstruent

An obstruent is a speech sound such as,, or that is formed by obstructing airflow.

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Occitan language

Occitan, also known as lenga d'òc (langue d'oc) by its native speakers, is a Romance language.

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Oceania

Oceania (Pronunciation: The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) ISBN 0-19-861263-X — p.1282 "Oceania /ˌəʊsɪˈɑːnɪə, -ʃɪ-/". or), also known as Oceanica, is a region centered on the islands of the tropical Pacific Ocean.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Official languages of the United Nations

The official languages of the United Nations are the six languages that are used in UN meetings, and in which all official UN documents are written when budget allows.

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Old Spanish language

Old Spanish, also known as Old Castilian (castellano antiguo, romance castellano) or Medieval Spanish (español medieval), is an early form of the Spanish language that was spoken on the Iberian Peninsula from the 10th century until roughly the beginning of the 15th century, before a consonantal readjustment gave rise to the evolution of modern Spanish.

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Organization of American States

The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États Américains), or the OAS or OEA, is an inter-continental organization founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.

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Organization of Ibero-American States

The Organization of Ibero-American States (Organização dos Estados Ibero-americanos, Organización de Estados Iberoamericanos, usually abbreviated OEI), formally the Organization of Ibero-American States for Education, Science and Culture, is an international organization whose members are the Portuguese- and Spanish-speaking nations of the Americas and Europe and Equatorial Guinea in Africa.

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Os Lusíadas

Os Lusíadas, usually translated as The Lusiads, is a Portuguese epic poem by Luís Vaz de Camões (sometimes anglicized as Camoens).

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second-oldest, after Cambridge University Press.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palatal lateral approximant

The palatal lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Palatal nasal

The palatal nasal is a type of consonant, used in some spoken languages.

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Palatalization (sound change)

In historical linguistics, palatalization is a sound change that either results in a palatal or palatalized consonant or a front vowel, or is triggered by one of these.

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Palau

Palau (historically Belau or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Palenquero

Palenquero (also palenque) is a Spanish-based creole language spoken in Colombia.

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Paleohispanic languages

The Paleohispanic languages were the languages of the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, excluding languages of foreign colonies, such as Greek in Emporion and Phoenician in Qart Hadast.

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Panama

Panama (Panamá), officially called the Republic of Panama (República de Panamá), is a country in Central America situated between North and South America.

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Panhispanism

Panhispanism is a political trend aimed to achieve social, economic, and political cooperation (at the extreme, unification) of the Spanish-speaking countries, principally those of Hispanic America, due to the distance between Spain, Western Sahara and Equatorial Guinea.

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Papaya

The papaya (from Carib via Spanish), papaw, or pawpaw (is the fruit of the plant Carica papaya, and is one of the 22 accepted species in the genus Carica of the plant family Caricaceae. It is native to the tropics of the Americas, perhaps from southern Mexico and neighbouring Central America. It was first cultivated in Mexico several centuries before the emergence of the Mesoamerican classical civilizations. The papaya is a large, tree-like plant, with a single stem growing from tall, with spirally arranged leaves confined to the top of the trunk. The lower trunk is conspicuously scarred where leaves and fruit were borne. The leaves are large, in diameter, deeply palmately lobed, with seven lobes. Unusually for such large plants, the trees are dioecious. The tree is usually unbranched, unless lopped. The flowers are similar in shape to the flowers of the Plumeria, but are much smaller and wax-like. They appear on the axils of the leaves, maturing into large fruit - long and in diameter. The fruit is a type of berry. It is ripe when it feels soft (as soft as a ripe avocado or a bit softer) and its skin has attained an amber to orange hue. Carica papaya was the first transgenic fruit tree to have its genome deciphered.

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Papiamento

Papiamentu or Papiamento is the most widely spoken language on the Caribbean ABC islands, having official status as the native language on the islands of Aruba and Curaçao.

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Paraguay

Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay, Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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Peninsular Spanish

Peninsular Spanish, also known as European Spanish and Iberian Spanish, refers to the varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, as opposed to the Spanish spoken in the Americas and in the Canary Islands.

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw; Piruw), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Peruvian Academy of Language

The Academia Peruana de la Lengua (Spanish for Peruvian Academy of Language) is an association of academics and experts on the use of the Spanish language in Peru.

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Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language

The Philippine Academy of the Spanish Language (Akademyáng Pilipino ng Wikang Kastilà) is the main Spanish-language regulating body in the Philippines.

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Philippine languages

In linguistics, the Philippine languages are a 1991 proposal by Robert Blust that all the languages of the Philippines and northern Sulawesi—except Sama–Bajaw (languages of the "Sea Gypsies") and a few languages of Palawan—form a subfamily of Austronesian languages.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign island country in Southeast Asia situated in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Phoenix metropolitan area

The Phoenix Metropolitan Area – often referred to as the Valley of the Sun, the Salt River Valley or Metro Phoenix – is a metropolitan area, centered on the city of Phoenix, that includes much of the central part of the U.S. State of Arizona.

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Phoneme

A phoneme is all the phones that share the same signifier for a particular language's phonology.

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Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives

In Spanish dialectology, the terms, and are used to describe the opposition between dialects that distinguish the phonemes and (distinción), and those that exhibit merger of the two sounds (neutralización) into either (seseo) or, a sibilant fricative similar to (ceceo).

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Plazas de soberanía

The plazas de soberanía (literally "places of sovereignty") are the Spanish sovereign territories in continental North Africa bordering Morocco.

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Portuñol

Portuñol or Portunhol is the name often given to any unsystematic mixture of Portuguese with Spanish.

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Portuguese language

Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Romance language and the sole official language of Portugal, Brazil, Mozambique, Angola, Cape Verde, Guinea-Bissau and São Tomé and Príncipe.

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Possessive determiner

Possessive determiners constitute a sub-class of determiners which modify a noun by attributing possession (or other sense of belonging) to someone or something.

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Pragmatics

Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.

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Preposition and postposition

Prepositions and postpositions, together called adpositions, are a class of words that express spatial or temporal relations (in, under, towards, before) or marking various semantic roles (of, for).

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President of Brazil

The President of Brazil, officially the President of the Federative Republic of Brazil (Presidente da República Federativa do Brasil), or simply the President of the Republic, is both head of state and head of government of the Federative Republic of Brazil.

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Princeton University Press

The Princeton University Press is an independent publisher with close connections to Princeton University.

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Pro-drop language

A pro-drop language (from "pronoun-dropping") is a language in which certain classes of pronouns may be omitted when they are in some sense pragmatically inferable (the precise conditions vary from language to language, and can be quite intricate).

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Pronoun

In linguistics and grammar, a pronoun is a word that substitutes for a noun or noun phrase.

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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico, officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, literally the "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico"), is a United States territory located in the northeastern Caribbean.

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Quechuan languages

Quechuan, also known as runa simi ("people's language"), is a Native American language family spoken primarily in the Andes region of South America, derived from a common ancestral language.

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Quindío Department

Quindío is a department of Colombia.

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Real Academia Española

The Real Academia Española (English: Royal Spanish Academy), generally abbreviated as RAE, is the official royal institution responsible for overseeing the Spanish language.

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Realis mood

A realis mood is a grammatical mood which is used principally to indicate that something is a statement of fact; in other words, to express what the speaker considers to be a known state of affairs, as in declarative sentences.

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Reconquista

The Reconquista ("reconquest") is a historical period of approximately 770 years in the history of the Iberian Peninsula, beginning after the Islamic conquest 711-718, to the fall of Granada, the last Islamic state on the peninsula, in 1492.

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Register (sociolinguistics)

In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.

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Reintegrationism

Reintegrationism (Galician and reintegracionismo, or) is the linguistic and cultural movement in Galicia which defends the unity of Galician and Portuguese as a single language.

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Research Triangle

The Research Triangle, commonly referred to as simply The Triangle, is a region in the Piedmont of North Carolina in the United States, anchored by North Carolina State University, Duke University, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the cities of Raleigh and Durham and the towns of Cary and Chapel Hill.

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Rioplatense Spanish

Rioplatense Spanish (español rioplatense, locally castellano rioplatense) is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken mainly in the areas in and around the Río de la Plata Basin of Argentina and Uruguay, and also in Rio Grande do Sul.

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Risaralda Department

Risaralda is a department of Colombia.

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages— sometimes called the Latin languages, and occasionally the Romanic or Neo-Latin languages—are the modern languages that evolved from spoken Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries A.D. and that thus form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Romanian language

Romanian (obsolete spellings Rumanian, Roumanian; autonym: română, limba română, "the Romanian language", or românește, lit. "in Romanian") is a Romance language spoken by around 24 million people as a native language, primarily in Romania and Moldova, and by another 4 million people as a second language.

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Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic

The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic (SADR) (الجمهورية العربية الصحراوية الديمقراطية, República Árabe Saharaui Democrática) is a partially recognized state that controls a thin strip of area in the Western Sahara region and claims sovereignty over the entire territory of Western Sahara, a former Spanish colony.

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Salamanca

Salamanca is a city in northwestern Spain that is the capital of the Province of Salamanca in the community of Castile and León.

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Salt Lake City metropolitan area

The Salt Lake City Metropolitan Statistical Area, as defined by the Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, is an area consisting of two counties in north central Utah, anchored by Salt Lake City.

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San Francisco Bay Area

The San Francisco Bay Area, commonly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populated region that surrounds the San Francisco and San Pablo estuaries in Northern California.

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Sardinian language

Sardinian (sardu, limba sarda, lingua sarda) is a Romance language primarily spoken on three-quarters of the island of Sardinia (Italy).

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School

A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Second Punic War

The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.

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Semivowel

In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.

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Sephardi Jews

Sephardi Jews, also known as Sephardic Jews or simply Sephardim (סְפָרַדִּי, Modern Hebrew: Sfaraddi, Tiberian: Səp̄āraddî, lit. "The Jews of Spain"), are a Jewish ethnic division whose ethnogenesis and emergence as a distinct community of Jews coalesced in the Iberian Peninsula around the start of the 2nd millennium (i.e., about the year 1000).

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Seville

Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.

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Sibilant

Sibilance is a manner of articulation of fricative and affricate consonants, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant, or a strident.

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Signed Spanish

Signed Spanish and Signed Exact Spanish are any of several manually coded forms of Spanish that apply the words (signs) of a national sign language to Spanish word order or grammar.

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Sociolect

In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) associated with a social group such as a socioeconomic class, an ethnic group (precisely termed ethnolect), an age group, etc.

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Soria

Soria is a city in north-central Spain, the capital of the province of Soria in the autonomous community of Castile and León.

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South Sudan

South Sudan, officially the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in northeastern Africa that gained its independence from Sudan in 2011.

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Southwestern United States

The Southwestern United States (also known as the American Southwest) is the United States portion of the Southwest (which is situated in both the United States and Mexico).

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state located on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe.

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Spanglish

Spanglish is formed by the interaction between Spanish, a Romance language, and English, a Germanic language, in the speeches of people who speak both languages or parts of both languages.

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Spanish as a second language

The term Spanish as a Second Language or Spanish as a Foreign Language refers to the teaching and learning of Spanish for those whose mother tongue is not Spanish, particularly immigrants, tourists, indigenous peoples and refugees.

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Spanish Braille

Spanish Braille is the braille alphabet of the Spanish language, both in Spain and in Latin America, and of Galician.

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Spanish colonization of the Americas

Colonial expansion under the crown of Castile was initiated by the Spanish conquistadores and developed by the Monarchy of Spain through its administrators and missionaries.

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Spanish Constitution of 1978

The Spanish Constitution of 1978 (Constitución Española) is the current supreme law of the Kingdom of Spain.

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Spanish dialects and varieties

Some of the regional varieties of the Spanish language are quite divergent from one another, especially in pronunciation and vocabulary, and less so in grammar.

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Spanish East Indies

The Spanish East Indies (nocat) were the Spanish territories in Asia-Pacific from 1565 until 1898.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio español) was one of the largest empires in world history and one of the first of global extent.

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Spanish irregular verbs

Spanish verbs are a complex area of Spanish grammar, with many combinations of tenses, aspects and moods (up to fifty conjugated forms per verb).

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Spanish language in South America

The Spanish language in South America varies within the different countries and regions of the continent.

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Spanish language in the Americas

Spanish language in the Americas refers to the Spanish language spoken in the Americas, as opposed to Peninsular Spanish and Spanish spoken elsewhere, such as in Africa and Asia.

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Spanish language in the Philippines

Spanish was the official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in the late 16th century, through the conclusion of the Spanish–American War in 1898.

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Spanish language in the United States

The Spanish language is the second most spoken language in the United States.

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Spanish orthography

Spanish orthography is the orthography used in the Spanish language.

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Spanish phonology

This article is about the phonology and phonetics of the Spanish language.

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Spanish profanity

This article is a summary of Spanish profanity, referred to in the Spanish language as lenguaje soez (low language), maldiciones (curse words), malas palabras (bad words), insultos (insults), vulgaridades (vulgarities), palabrotas (lit.: "big words"), tacos (in Spain), palabras sucias (dirty words in Panama), lisuras (in Peru), puteadas (in Peru, Chile, Argentina and Uruguay), bardeos (in Argentina), desvergue in El Salvador, groserías, majaderías or maldiciones in Mexico, garabatos (gibberish or shootings/firings in Chile), plebedades (plebe talk) in the Colombian Caribbean or groserías (impolite words or acts).

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Spanish proverbs

Spanish proverbs are a subset of proverbs that are used in Western cultures in general; there are many that have essentially the same form and content as their counterparts in other Western languages.

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Spanish Sahara

Spanish Sahara (Sáhara Español; الصحراء الاسبانية Al-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah) was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975.

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Spanish verbs

Spanish verbs are one of the more complex areas of Spanish grammar.

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Spanish-based creole languages

A number of creole languages are based on the Spanish language.

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Spanish–American War

The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-estadounidense) was a conflict in 1898 between Spain and the United States, the result of U.S. intervention in the Cuban War of Independence.

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Standard Spanish

Standard Spanish is a linguistic variety, or lect, that is considered a correct educated standard for the Spanish language.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive, is an oral occlusive, a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stratum (linguistics)

In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, stress is the relative emphasis that may be given to certain syllables in a word, or to certain words in a phrase or sentence.

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Subject (grammar)

The subject (glossing abbreviations: or) is, according to a tradition that can be traced back to Aristotle (and that is associated with phrase structure grammars), one of the two main constituents of a clause, the other constituent being the predicate, whereby the predicate says something about the subject.

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Subject–verb–object

In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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SWF

SWF is an abbreviation for small web format, an Adobe Flash file format used for multimedia, vector graphics and ActionScript.

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Switzerland

Switzerland (Schweiz;Swiss Standard German spelling and pronunciation. The Swiss German name is sometimes spelled as Schwyz or Schwiiz. Schwyz is also the standard German (and international) name of one of the Swiss cantons. Suisse; Svizzera; Svizra or),The latter is the common Sursilvan pronunciation.

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Syllable

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Syntax

In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language.

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Taco

A taco is a traditional Mexican dish composed of a corn or wheat tortilla folded or rolled around a filling.

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Tagalog language

Tagalog is an Austronesian language spoken as a first language by a quarter of the population of the Philippines and as a second language by the majority.

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Tampa Bay Area

The Tampa Bay Area is the region of west central Florida adjacent to Tampa Bay.

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T–V distinction

In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.

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The Economist

The Economist is an English-language weekly newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited in offices in London.

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Tilde

The tilde (in the American Heritage dictionary ˜ or ~) is a grapheme with several uses.

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Toledo, Spain

Toledo is a municipality located in central Spain, 70 km south of Madrid.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago, officially the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, is a twin island country off the northern edge of South America, lying just off the coast of northeastern Venezuela and south of Grenada in the Lesser Antilles.

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Turkish language

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around 10–15 million native speakers in Southeastern Europe and 55–60 million native speakers in Western Asia.

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Typewriter

A typewriter is a mechanical or electromechanical machine for writing in characters similar to those produced by printer's movable type by means of keyboard-operated types striking a ribbon to transfer ink or carbon impressions onto paper.

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Union of South American Nations

The Union of South American Nations, USAN; (Unión de Naciones Suramericanas, UNASUR; União de Nações Sul-Americanas, UNASUL; Unie van Zuid-Amerikaanse Naties, UZAN) is an intergovernmental regional organization comprising 12 South American countries.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state in Europe.

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United Nations

The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization to promote international co-operation.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly referred to as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major territories and various possessions.

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United States Virgin Islands

The Virgin Islands of the United States (commonly called the United States Virgin Islands, U.S. Virgin Islands, American Virgin Islands, or USVI) are a group of islands in the Caribbean that are an insular area of the United States.

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Uruguay

Uruguay, officially the Eastern Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a country in the southeastern region of South America.

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Uruguayan Portuguese

Uruguayan Portuguese, also known as Fronteiriço, is a variety of Portuguese with influences from Spanish.

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Valencian Community

The Valencian Community (Comunitat Valenciana, Comunidad Valenciana), or the Valencian Country (País Valencià), is an autonomous community of Spain.

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Valle del Cauca Department

Valle del Cauca, or Cauca Valley is a department of Colombia.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Venezuela

Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela), is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America.

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Verb

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Verb framing

In linguistics, verb-framing and satellite-framing are typological descriptions of how verb phrases in different languages describe the path of motion or the manner of motion, respectively.

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Voiceless dental fricative

The voiceless dental non-sibilant fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some oral languages.

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Voicelessness

In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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Voseo

Voseo is the use of vos as a second person singular pronoun, including its conjugational verb forms in many dialects of Spanish.

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Vowel breaking

In historical linguistics, vowel breaking, vowel fracture, or diphthongization is the change of a monophthong into a diphthong or triphthong.

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Vowel reduction

In phonetics, vowel reduction is any of various changes in the acoustic quality of vowels, which are related to changes in stress, sonority, duration, loudness, articulation, or position in the word (e.g. for Creek language), and which are perceived as "weakening".

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Vulgar Latin

Vulgar Latin is a generic term for the nonstandard (as opposed to classical) sociolects of Latin from which the Romance languages developed.

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West Iberian languages

West Iberian is a branch of the Romance languages that includes Pyrenean–Mozarabic, Castilian (Spanish and Ladino), Astur-Leonese (Asturian, Extremaduran, Leonese, Mirandese and Cantabrian, where cantabrian language is listed in the Astur-Leonese linguistic group.), and the modern descendants of Galician-Portuguese (Galician, Portuguese, and the Fala language).

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Western Roman Empire

In historiography, the Western Roman Empire consists of the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any one time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court, coequal with (or only nominally subordinate to) that administering the eastern half.

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Western Romance languages

The Western Romance languages are one of the primary subdivisions of the Romance languages.

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Western Sahara

The Western Sahara (الصحراء المغربية; Sahara Occidental; Berber: Taneẓroft Tutrimt) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by Morocco to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.

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World Trade Organization

The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization which regulates international trade.

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Yeísmo

Yeísmo is a distinctive feature of many dialects of the Spanish language, which consists of the loss of the traditional palatal lateral approximant phoneme (written) and its merger into the phoneme (written), usually realized as a palatal approximant or affricate.

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Yes–no question

In linguistics, a yes–no question, formally known as a polar question, is a question whose expected answer is either "yes" or "no".

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Yiddish language

Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, literally "Jewish"; in older sources also "Yiddish-Taitsh" (Judaeo-German)) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Zulia

Zulia State (Estado Zulia) is one of the 23 states of Venezuela.

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Castellano language, Castilian ('Spanish') language, Castilian language, Castillian language, ESPAÑOL language, ISO 639:es, ISO 639:spa, Modern Spanish, Spanish (language), Spanish Language, Spanish etymology, Spanish langugae, Spanish-language.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_language

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