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Spanish language in the United States

Index Spanish language in the United States

The Spanish language in the United States has forty-five million Hispanic and Latino Americans speak Spanish as their first, second or heritage language, and there are six million Spanish language students in the United States. [1]

225 relations: Adams–Onís Treaty, Al Jazeera, Alta California, Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese, American English, American Sign Language, Andalusia, Andalusians, Andes, Anglicisation, Approximant consonant, Arabic, Arizona, Arizona Territory, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Azteca América, Bilingual education, Bilingual Education Act, Bill Clinton, Bolivia, Bracero program, California, California State Legislature, Californio, Calvin Veltman, Canarian Americans, Canarian Spanish, Canary Islanders, Canary Islands, Caribbean Spanish, Castilian Spanish, Castilla–La Mancha, Central American Spanish, Central Coast (California), Central Florida, Ceuta, Chicago, Chinese language and varieties in the United States, Civil society, Coahuila y Tejas, Cognate, Colombia, Colombian Spanish, Colorado, Conquistador, Constitution of California, Contras, Crisis (novel by Jorge Majfud), ..., Cuba, Cuban Americans, Cuban exile, Cuban Revolution, Cubans, De facto, De jure, Debuccalization, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Doral, Florida, Eastern United States, El Salvador, Electoral district, English-only movement, Ethnic groups in Europe, Exile, Federico García Lorca, First language, Florida, Ford Foundation, Francoist Spain, French and Indian War, French language in the United States, Fricative consonant, Gadsden Purchase, Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá, George Ticknor, German language, German language in the United States, German Texan, Giannina Braschi, Government agency, Government of Texas, Guam, Hawaiian language, Heritage language, Hispanic, Hispanic America, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanism, Hispanophone, History of the Spanish language, Homonym, Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965, Independence movement in Puerto Rico, Indigenous languages of the Americas, Instituto Cervantes, Italian language in the United States, Jorge Majfud, José Martí, José Vasconcelos, Juan Ponce de León, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Junot Díaz, Juracán, Kansas, Language shift, Languages of North America, Languages of the United States, List of colloquial expressions in Honduras, List of most commonly learned foreign languages in the United States, List of Spanish-language newspapers published in the United States, List of U.S. cities with diacritics, List of U.S. communities with Hispanic-majority populations in the 2010 census, Loanword, Louisiana (New Spain), Louisiana Creole people, Louisiana French, Louisiana Purchase, Louisiana Territory, Marshall Islands, Maryland, Massachusetts, Medium of instruction, Melilla, Mexican Americans, Mexican Revolution, Mexican Spanish, Mexican War of Independence, Mexican–American War, Mexico, Mexico–United States border, Miami–Dade County, Florida, Nahuas, Nahuatl, Nariño Department, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexican Spanish, New Mexico, New Mexico Territory, New York (state), New York City, Nicaraguan Revolution, Nicaraguans, North America, North American Academy of the Spanish Language, North American Free Trade Agreement, Northern Mariana Islands, Official language, Oklahoma, Old Norse, Organization of American States, Orlando, Florida, Pacific Islands, Palau, Paraguay, Peninsular Spanish, Peru, Philadelphia, Philippines, Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives, Preterite, Public sphere, Pueblo, Puerto Ricans in the United States, Puerto Rico, Referendum, Region of Murcia, Rhoticity in English, Rio Grande, Rioplatense Spanish, Salvadoran Civil War, Salvadorans, Sandra Cisneros, Santa Fe de Nuevo México, Second language, Semantics, South Florida, Southern United States, Southwestern United States, Spain, Spanglish, Spaniards, Spanish Civil War, Spanish colonization of the Americas, Spanish Empire, Spanish language, Spanish language in South America, Spanish language in the Americas, Spanish language in the Philippines, Spanish–American War, St. Augustine, Florida, St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana, Standard German phonology, Standard language, Stanford University Press, State of the Union, Statehood movement in Puerto Rico, Stop consonant, Subculture, Suburb, Taíno, Telemundo, Texas, Texas Legislature, The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao, The House on Mango Street, The New York Times, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Tucson, Arizona, U.S. state, United States Census, United States Census Bureau, Univision, Utah, Venezuela, Venezuelans, Voice (phonetics), Voiceless alveolar fricative, Weston, Florida, Wolof language, Working language, Wyoming, Yeísmo. Expand index (175 more) »

Adams–Onís Treaty

The Adams–Onís Treaty of 1819, also known as the Transcontinental Treaty, the Florida Purchase Treaty, or the Florida Treaty,Weeks, p.168.

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Al Jazeera

Al Jazeera (translit,, literally "The Island", though referring to the Arabian Peninsula in context), also known as JSC (Jazeera Satellite Channel), is a state-funded broadcaster in Doha, Qatar, owned by the Al Jazeera Media Network.

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Alta California

Alta California (Upper California), founded in 1769 by Gaspar de Portolà, was a polity of New Spain, and, after the Mexican War of Independence in 1822, a territory of Mexico.

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Alveolar and postalveolar approximants

The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese

The American Association of Teachers of Spanish and Portuguese is a language-specific professional association in the United States that was founded on 29 December 1917 in New York City as the American Association of Teachers of Spanish.

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American English

American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.

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American Sign Language

American Sign Language (ASL) is a natural language that serves as the predominant sign language of Deaf communities in the United States and most of Anglophone Canada.

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Andalusia

Andalusia (Andalucía) is an autonomous community in southern Spain.

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Andalusians

The Andalusians (andaluces) are a Spanish ethnic group that live in the southern region in Spain approximated by what is now called Andalusia.

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Andes

The Andes or Andean Mountains (Cordillera de los Andes) are the longest continental mountain range in the world.

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Anglicisation

Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Arabic

Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.

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Arizona

Arizona (Hoozdo Hahoodzo; Alĭ ṣonak) is a U.S. state in the southwestern region of the United States.

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Arizona Territory

The Territory of Arizona (also known as Arizona Territory) was a territory of the United States that existed from February 24, 1863 until February 14, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the state of Arizona.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Assimilation (phonology)

In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Azteca América

Azteca América (sometimes shortened to Azteca) is an American Spanish-language broadcast television network that is owned by HC2 Holdings, which acquired the network from the Azteca International Corporation subsidiary of TV Azteca. Headquartered in the Los Angeles suburb of Glendale, California, the network's programming is aimed at Hispanic and Latino Americans in the United States and has access to programming from TV Azteca's three television national networks in Mexico, including a library with over 200,000 hours of original programming and news content from local bureaus in 32 Mexican states. Its programming consists of a mix of telenovelas, Liga MX matches, sports, news programming, and reality and variety series. Azteca is available on cable and satellite television (primarily carried on dedicated Spanish language programming tiers, except in some markets with an over-the-air affiliate), with local stations in over 60 markets with large Hispanic and Latino populations (reaching 89% of the Hispanic population in the U.S. The network's former flagship station KAZA-TV in Los Angeles (until January 2018) was the highest-rated station in Azteca's portfolio. President and CEO Manuel Abud has led the company since March 3, 2014.

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Bilingual education

Bilingual education involves teaching academic content in two languages, in a native and secondary language with varying amounts of each language used in accordance with the program model.Bilingual education refers to the utilization of two languages as means of instruction for students and considered part of or the entire school curriculum.

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Bilingual Education Act

The Bilingual Education Act (BEA), also known as Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Amendments of 1967, approved by the 90th United States Congress on January 2, 1968, and was the first United States federal legislation recognized the needs of limited English speaking ability (LESA) students.

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Bill Clinton

William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.

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Bolivia

Bolivia (Mborivia; Buliwya; Wuliwya), officially known as the Plurinational State of Bolivia (Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia), is a landlocked country located in western-central South America.

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Bracero program

The Bracero Program (from the Spanish term bracero, meaning "manual laborer" or "one who works using his arms") was a series of laws and diplomatic agreements, initiated on August 4, 1942, when the United States signed the Mexican Farm Labor Agreement with Mexico.

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California

California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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California State Legislature

The California State Legislature is the state legislature of the U.S. state of California.

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Californio

Californio (historical and regional Spanish for "Californian") is a Spanish term with widely varying interpretations.

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Calvin Veltman

Calvin Veltman (born 1941) is an American sociologist, demographer and sociolinguist at the Université du Québec à Montréal.

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Canarian Americans

Canarian Americans are Americans whose ancestors came from the Canary Islands, Spain.

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Canarian Spanish

Canarian Spanish (Spanish: español de las Canarias, español canario, habla canaria, isleño, dialecto canario or vernacular canario) is a variant of standard Spanish spoken in the Canary Islands by the Canarian people.

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Canary Islanders

Canary Islanders, or Canarians (canarios), are an ethnic group living in the archipelago of the Canary Islands (an autonomous community of Spain), near the coast of Western Africa.

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Canary Islands

The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.

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Caribbean Spanish

Caribbean Spanish (Spanish: español caribeño) is the general name of the Spanish dialects spoken in the Caribbean region.

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Castilian Spanish

In English, Castilian Spanish sometimes refers to the variety of Peninsular Spanish spoken in northern and central Spain or as the language standard for radio and TV speakers.

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Castilla–La Mancha

Castilla–La Mancha (or Castile–La Mancha) is an autonomous community of Spain.

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Central American Spanish

Central American Spanish (español centroamericano or castellano centroamericano) is the general name of the Spanish language dialects spoken in Central America.

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Central Coast (California)

The Central Coast is an area of California, United States, roughly spanning the coastal region between Point Mugu and Monterey Bay.

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Central Florida

Central Florida is a region of the Southern U.S. state of Florida.

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Ceuta

Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.

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Chicago

Chicago, officially the City of Chicago, is the third most populous city in the United States, after New York City and Los Angeles.

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Chinese language and varieties in the United States

Chinese language, mostly Yue varieties including Taishanese and Cantonese, are collectively the third most-spoken language in the United States, and are mostly spoken within Chinese American populations and by immigrants or the descendants of immigrants, especially in California and New York.

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Civil society

Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".

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Coahuila y Tejas

Coahuila y Tejas (Coahuila and Texas) was one of the constituent states of the newly established United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution.

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Cognate

In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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Colombia

Colombia, officially the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state largely situated in the northwest of South America, with territories in Central America.

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Colombian Spanish

Colombian Spanish (Spanish: español colombiano) is a grouping of the varieties of Spanish spoken in Colombia.

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Colorado

Colorado is a state of the United States encompassing most of the southern Rocky Mountains as well as the northeastern portion of the Colorado Plateau and the western edge of the Great Plains.

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Conquistador

Conquistadors (from Spanish or Portuguese conquistadores "conquerors") is a term used to refer to the soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire or the Portuguese Empire in a general sense.

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Constitution of California

The Constitution of the State of California is the constitution of California, describing the duties, powers, structure and function of the government of California.

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Contras

The Contras were the various U.S.-backed and funded right-wing rebel groups that were active from 1979 to the early 1990s in opposition to the socialist Sandinista Junta of National Reconstruction government in Nicaragua.

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Crisis (novel by Jorge Majfud)

Crisis is the seventh book of the Uruguayan American writer and literature professor Jorge Majfud.

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Cuba

Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.

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Cuban Americans

Cuban Americans (Cubanoamericanos) are Americans who trace their ancestry to Cuba.

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Cuban exile

The term "Cuban exile" refers to the many Cubans who fled from or left the island of Cuba.

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Cuban Revolution

The Cuban Revolution (Revolución cubana) was an armed revolt conducted by Fidel Castro's revolutionary 26th of July Movement and its allies against the authoritarian government of Cuban President Fulgencio Batista.

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Cubans

Cubans or Cuban people (Cubanos) are the inhabitants or citizens of Cuba.

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De facto

In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.

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De jure

In law and government, de jure (lit) describes practices that are legally recognised, whether or not the practices exist in reality.

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Debuccalization

Debuccalization is a sound change in which an oral consonant loses its original place of articulation and moves it to the glottis (usually,, or). The pronunciation of a consonant as is sometimes called aspiration but in phonetics, aspiration is the burst of air accompanying a stop.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills

The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.

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Doral, Florida

Doral is a city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States.

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Eastern United States

The Eastern United States, commonly referred to as the American East or simply the East, is a region roughly coinciding with the boundaries of the United States established in the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which bounded the new country to the west along the Mississippi River.

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El Salvador

El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.

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Electoral district

An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.

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English-only movement

The English-only movement, also known as the Official English movement, is a political movement for the use of only the English language in official United States government operations through the establishment of English as the only official language in the US.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Exile

To be in exile means to be away from one's home (i.e. city, state, or country), while either being explicitly refused permission to return or being threatened with imprisonment or death upon return.

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Federico García Lorca

Federico del Sagrado Corazón de Jesús García Lorca, known as Federico García Lorca (5 June 1898 – 19 August 1936) was a Spanish poet, playwright, and theatre director.

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First language

A first language, native language or mother/father/parent tongue (also known as arterial language or L1) is a language that a person has been exposed to from birth or within the critical period.

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Florida

Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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Ford Foundation

The Ford Foundation is a New York-headquartered, globally oriented private foundation with the mission of advancing human welfare.

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Francoist Spain

Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.

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French and Indian War

The French and Indian War (1754–63) comprised the North American theater of the worldwide Seven Years' War of 1756–63.

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French language in the United States

The French language is spoken as a minority language in the United States.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Gadsden Purchase

The Gadsden Purchase (known in Mexico as Venta de La Mesilla, "Sale of La Mesilla") is a region of present-day southern Arizona and southwestern New Mexico that the United States purchased via a treaty signed on December 30, 1853, by James Gadsden, U.S. ambassador to Mexico at that time.

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Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá

Gaspar Pérez de Villagrá (1555–1620) was a captain and legal officer (procurador general) in the Juan de Oñate expedition that first colonized Santa Fe de Nuevo México in 1598.

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George Ticknor

George Ticknor (August 1, 1791 – January 26, 1871) was an American academician and Hispanist, specializing in the subject areas of languages and literature.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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German language in the United States

Over 50 million Americans claim German ancestry, which makes them the largest single ethnic group in the United States.

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German Texan

German Texan (Deutschtexaner) is both a term to describe immigrants who arrived in the Republic of Texas from Germany from the 1830s onward and an ethnic category which includes their descendants in today's state of Texas.

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Giannina Braschi

Giannina Braschi (born February 5, 1953) is a Puerto Rican writer.

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Government agency

A government or state agency, sometimes an appointed commission, is a permanent or semi-permanent organization in the machinery of government that is responsible for the oversight and administration of specific functions, such as an intelligence agency.

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Government of Texas

The government of Texas operates under the Constitution of Texas and consists of a unitary democratic state government operating under a presidential system that uses the Dillon Rule, as well as governments at the county and municipal levels.

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Guam

Guam (Chamorro: Guåhån) is an unincorporated and organized territory of the United States in Micronesia in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Hawaiian language

The Hawaiian language (Hawaiian: Ōlelo Hawaii) is a Polynesian language that takes its name from Hawaiokinai, the largest island in the tropical North Pacific archipelago where it developed.

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Heritage language

A heritage language is a minority language learnt by its speakers at home as children, but it is never fully developed because its speakers grow up with a dominant language in which they become more competent.

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Hispanic

The term Hispanic (hispano or hispánico) broadly refers to the people, nations, and cultures that have a historical link to Spain.

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Hispanic America

Hispanic America (Spanish: Hispanoamérica, or América hispana), also known as Spanish America (Spanish: América española), is the region comprising the Spanish-speaking nations in the Americas.

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Hispanic and Latino Americans

Hispanic Americans and Latino Americans (Estadounidenses hispanos) are people in the United States who are descendants of people from countries of Latin America and Spain.

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Hispanism

Hispanism (sometimes referred to as Hispanic Studies or Spanish Studies) is the study of the literature and culture of the Spanish-speaking world, principally that of Spain and Hispanic America.

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Hispanophone

Hispanophone and Hispanosphere are terms used to refer to Spanish-language speakers and the Spanish-speaking world, respectively.

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History of the Spanish language

The language known today as Spanish is derived from a dialect of spoken Latin that evolved in the north-central part of the Iberian Peninsula after the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the fifth century.

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Homonym

In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which sound alike or are spelled alike, but have different meanings.

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Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965

The Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965 (H.R. 2580), also known as the Hart–Celler Act, changed the way quotas were allocated by ending the National Origins Formula that had been in place in the United States since the Emergency Quota Act of 1921.

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Independence movement in Puerto Rico

The Independence Movement in Puerto Rico refers to initiatives by inhabitants throughout the history of Puerto Rico to obtain full political independence for the island nation.

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Indigenous languages of the Americas

Indigenous languages of the Americas are spoken by indigenous peoples from Alaska and Greenland to the southern tip of South America, encompassing the land masses that constitute the Americas.

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Instituto Cervantes

The Cervantes Institute is a worldwide non-profit organization created by the Spanish government in 1991.

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Italian language in the United States

The Italian language has been a widely spoken language in the United States of America for more than one hundred years, due to large-scale immigration beginning in the late 19th century.

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Jorge Majfud

Jorge Majfud (born 1969) is a Uruguayan American writer.

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José Martí

José Julián Martí Pérez (January 28, 1853 – May 19, 1895) was a Cuban National Hero and an important figure in Latin American literature.

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José Vasconcelos

José Vasconcelos Calderón (28 February 1882 – 30 June 1959) has been called the "cultural caudillo" of the Mexican Revolution.

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Juan Ponce de León

Juan Ponce de León (1474 – July 1521) was a Spanish explorer and conquistador born in Santervás de Campos, Valladolid, Spain in 1474.

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Juan Ramón Jiménez

Juan Ramón Jiménez Mantecón (23 December 1881 – 29 May 1958) was a Spanish poet, a prolific writer who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1956 "for his lyrical poetry, which in the Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity".

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Junot Díaz

Junot Díaz (born December 31, 1968) is a Dominican-American writer, creative writing professor at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), and fiction editor at Boston Review.

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Juracán

Juracán is the phonetic name given by the Spanish colonizers to the zemi or deity of chaos and disorder which the Taíno natives in Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and Cuba, as well as the Island Caribs and Arawak natives elsewhere in the Caribbean, believed controlled the weather, particularly hurricanes (the latter word derives from the deity's name).

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Kansas

Kansas is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States.

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Language shift

Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.

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Languages of North America

The languages of North America reflect not only that continent's indigenous peoples, but the European colonization as well.

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Languages of the United States

Many languages are spoken, or historically have been spoken, in the United States.

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List of colloquial expressions in Honduras

List of colloquial expressions in Honduras concerns Spanish language expressions which are unique to Honduras.

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List of most commonly learned foreign languages in the United States

The tables below provide a list of foreign languages most frequently taught in American schools and colleges.

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List of Spanish-language newspapers published in the United States

This is a list of Spanish language newspapers published in the United States.

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List of U.S. cities with diacritics

This is a list of U.S. cities whose official names have diacritics.

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List of U.S. communities with Hispanic-majority populations in the 2010 census

At 95.6%, Laredo, Texas, had the largest percentage of Hispanic or Latinos by population of any city in the United States with over 100,000 population in the 2010 census, if one excludes the US territory of Puerto Rico.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Louisiana (New Spain)

Louisiana (Luisiana, sometimes called Luciana In some Spanish texts of the time the name of Luciana appears instead of Louisiana, as is the case in the Plan of the Internal Provinces of New Spain made in 1817 by the Spanish militar José Caballero.) was the name of an administrative Spanish Governorate belonging to the Captaincy General of Cuba, part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain from 1762 to 1802 that consisted of territory west of the Mississippi River basin, plus New Orleans.

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Louisiana Creole people

Louisiana Creole people (Créoles de Louisiane, Gente de Louisiana Creole), are persons descended from the inhabitants of colonial Louisiana during the period of both French and Spanish rule.

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Louisiana French

Louisiana French (français de la Louisiane, Louisiana Creole: françé la lwizyàn), also known as Cajun French (français cadien/français cadjin) is a variety of the French language spoken traditionally in colonial Lower Louisiana but as of today it is primarily used in the U.S. state of Louisiana, specifically in the southern parishes, though substantial minorities exist in southeast Texas as well.

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Louisiana Purchase

The Louisiana Purchase (Vente de la Louisiane "Sale of Louisiana") was the acquisition of the Louisiana territory (828,000 square miles or 2.14 million km²) by the United States from France in 1803.

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Louisiana Territory

The Territory of Louisiana or Louisiana Territory was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed from July 4, 1805, until June 4, 1812, when it was renamed the Missouri Territory.

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Marshall Islands

The Marshall Islands, officially the Republic of the Marshall Islands (Aolepān Aorōkin M̧ajeļ), is an island country located near the equator in the Pacific Ocean, slightly west of the International Date Line.

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Maryland

Maryland is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States, bordering Virginia, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. to its south and west; Pennsylvania to its north; and Delaware to its east.

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Massachusetts

Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Medium of instruction

A medium of instruction (plural: usually mediums of instruction, but the archaic media of instruction is still used by some) is a language used in teaching.

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Melilla

Melilla (مليلية, Maliliyyah; ⵎⵔⵉⵜⵙ, Mřič) is a Spanish autonomous city located on the north coast of Africa, sharing a border with Morocco, with an area of.

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Mexican Americans

Mexican Americans (mexicoamericanos or estadounidenses de origen mexicano) are Americans of full or partial Mexican descent.

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Mexican Revolution

The Mexican Revolution (Revolución Mexicana) was a major armed struggle,, that radically transformed Mexican culture and government.

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Mexican Spanish

Mexican Spanish (español mexicano) is a set of varieties of the Spanish language as spoken in Mexico and in some parts of the United States and Canada.

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Mexican War of Independence

The Mexican War of Independence (Guerra de Independencia de México) was an armed conflict, and the culmination of a political and social process which ended the rule of Spain in 1821 in the territory of New Spain.

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Mexican–American War

The Mexican–American War, also known as the Mexican War in the United States and in Mexico as the American intervention in Mexico, was an armed conflict between the United States of America and the United Mexican States (Mexico) from 1846 to 1848.

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Mexico

Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.

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Mexico–United States border

The Mexico–United States border is an international border separating Mexico and the United States, extending from the Pacific Ocean to the west and Gulf of Mexico to the east.

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Miami–Dade County, Florida

Miami-Dade County is a county located in the southeastern part of the U.S. state of Florida.

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Nahuas

The Nahuas are a group of indigenous people of Mexico and El Salvador.

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Nahuatl

Nahuatl (The Classical Nahuatl word nāhuatl (noun stem nāhua, + absolutive -tl) is thought to mean "a good, clear sound" This language name has several spellings, among them náhuatl (the standard spelling in the Spanish language),() Naoatl, Nauatl, Nahuatl, Nawatl. In a back formation from the name of the language, the ethnic group of Nahuatl speakers are called Nahua.), known historically as Aztec, is a language or group of languages of the Uto-Aztecan language family.

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Nariño Department

Nariño is a department of Colombia named after independence leader Antonio Nariño.

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Nevada

Nevada (see pronunciations) is a state in the Western, Mountain West, and Southwestern regions of the United States of America.

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.

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New Mexican Spanish

New Mexican Spanish (Spanish: español neomexicano) is a variant of Spanish spoken in the United States, primarily in the northern part of the state of New Mexico and the southern part of the state of Colorado by the Hispanos of New Mexico.

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New Mexico

New Mexico (Nuevo México, Yootó Hahoodzo) is a state in the Southwestern Region of the United States of America.

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New Mexico Territory

The Territory of New Mexico was an organized incorporated territory of the United States that existed (with varying boundaries) from September 9, 1850, until January 6, 1912, when the remaining extent of the territory was admitted to the Union as the State of New Mexico, making it the longest-lived organized incorporated territory of the United States, lasting approximately 62 years.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Nicaraguan Revolution

The Nicaraguan Revolution (Revolución Nicaragüense or Revolución Popular Sandinista) encompassed the rising opposition to the Somoza dictatorship in the 1960s and 1970s, the campaign led by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN) to violently oust the dictatorship in 1978–79, the subsequent efforts of the FSLN to govern Nicaragua from 1979 until 1990 and the Contra War which was waged between the FSLN-led government of Nicaragua and the United States-backed Contras from 1981-1990.

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Nicaraguans

Nicaraguans (Nicaragüense; also Nica, Nicoya and Pinolero) are people inhabiting in, originating or having significant heritage from Nicaragua.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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North American Academy of the Spanish Language

The North American Academy of the Spanish Language (Academia Norteamericana de la Lengua Española, ANLE) is an institution made up of philologists of the Spanish language who live and work in the United States, including writers, poets, professors, educators and experts in the language itself, whose mission is to support and promote the study and correct usage of Spanish in the United States of America, including Puerto Rico.

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North American Free Trade Agreement

The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA; Spanish: Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte, TLCAN; French: Accord de libre-échange nord-américain, ALÉNA) is an agreement signed by Canada, Mexico, and the United States, creating a trilateral trade bloc in North America.

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Northern Mariana Islands

The Northern Mariana Islands, officially the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI; Sankattan Siha Na Islas Mariånas; Refaluwasch or Carolinian: Commonwealth Téél Falúw kka Efáng llól Marianas), is an insular area and commonwealth of the United States consisting of 15 islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Official language

An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.

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Oklahoma

Oklahoma (Uukuhuúwa, Gahnawiyoˀgeh) is a state in the South Central region of the United States.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Organization of American States

The Organization of American States (Organización de los Estados Americanos, Organização dos Estados Americanos, Organisation des États américains), or the OAS or OEA, is a continental organization that was founded on 30 April 1948, for the purposes of regional solidarity and cooperation among its member states.

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Orlando, Florida

Orlando is a city in the U.S. state of Florida and the county seat of Orange County.

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Pacific Islands

The Pacific Islands are the islands of the Pacific Ocean.

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Palau

Palau (historically Belau, Palaos, or Pelew), officially the Republic of Palau (Beluu er a Belau), is an island country located in the western Pacific Ocean.

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Paraguay

Paraguay (Paraguái), officially the Republic of Paraguay (República del Paraguay; Tetã Paraguái), is a landlocked country in central South America, bordered by Argentina to the south and southwest, Brazil to the east and northeast, and Bolivia to the northwest.

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Peninsular Spanish

Peninsular Spanish (español peninsular), also known as Spanish of Spain (español de España) European Spanish (español europeo) and Iberian Spanish (español ibérico), sometimes inaccurately referred to as Castilian Spanish (español castellano) refers to the varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Iberian Peninsula, as opposed to the Spanish spoken in the Americas and in the Canary Islands.

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Peru

Peru (Perú; Piruw Republika; Piruw Suyu), officially the Republic of Peru, is a country in western South America.

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Philadelphia

Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Philippines

The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.

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Phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives

In Spanish dialectology, the terms,, and are used to describe the opposition between dialects that distinguish the phonemes and (distinción), and those that do not exhibit the distinction and have only one coronal fricative phoneme, either alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción) or, less commonly, denti-alveolar (similar to in accents with distinción).

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Preterite

The preterite (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense or verb form serving to denote events that took place or were completed in the past.

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Public sphere

The public sphere (German Öffentlichkeit) is an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.

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Pueblo

Pueblos are modern and old communities of Native Americans in the Southwestern United States.

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Puerto Ricans in the United States

A Stateside Puerto Rican, also ambiguously Puerto Rican American (puertorriqueño-americano, puertorriqueño-estadounidense) is a term for residents in the United States who were born in or trace family ancestry to Puerto Rico.

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Puerto Rico

Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.

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Referendum

A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.

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Region of Murcia

The Region of Murcia (Región de Murcia, Regió de Múrcia) is an autonomous community of Spain located in the southeast of the state, between Andalusia and Valencian Community, on the Mediterranean coast.

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Rhoticity in English

Rhoticity in English refers to English speakers' pronunciation of the historical rhotic consonant, and is one of the most prominent distinctions by which varieties of English can be classified.

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Rio Grande

The Rio Grande (or; Río Bravo del Norte, or simply Río Bravo) is one of the principal rivers in the southwest United States and northern Mexico (the other being the Colorado River).

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Rioplatense Spanish

Rioplatense Spanish (español rioplatense, locally castellano rioplatense) is a dialect of the Spanish language spoken mainly in the areas in and around the Río de la Plata Basin of Argentina and Uruguay.

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Salvadoran Civil War

The Salvadoran Civil War was a conflict between the military-led government of El Salvador and the Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN), a coalition or "umbrella organization" of several left-wing groups.

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Salvadorans

The Salvadorans (Spanish: Salvadoreños), colloquially known as Guanacos, are people who identify with El Salvador.

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Sandra Cisneros

Sandra Cisneros (born December 20, 1954) is a Mexican-American writer.

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Santa Fe de Nuevo México

Santa Fe de Nuevo México (Santa Fe of New Mexico; shortened as Nuevo México or Nuevo Méjico, and translated as New Mexico) was a province of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and later a territory of independent Mexico.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Semantics

Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics.

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South Florida

South Florida is a region of the U.S. state of Florida, comprising the southernmost part of the state.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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Southwestern United States

The Southwestern United States (Suroeste de Estados Unidos; also known as the American Southwest) is the informal name for a region of the western United States.

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Spain

Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Spanglish

Spanglish (a portmanteau of the words "Spanish" and "English") is a name sometimes given to various contact dialects, pidgins, or creole languages that result from interaction between Spanish and English used by people who speak both languages or parts of both languages, mainly in the United States.

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Spaniards

Spaniards are a Latin European ethnic group and nation.

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Spanish Civil War

The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.

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Spanish colonization of the Americas

The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.

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Spanish Empire

The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.

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Spanish language

Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.

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Spanish language in South America

The Spanish language in South America varies within the different countries and regions of the continent.

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Spanish language in the Americas

The different varieties of the Spanish language spoken in the Americas are distinct from Peninsular Spanish and Spanish spoken elsewhere, such as in Africa and Asia.

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Spanish language in the Philippines

Spanish was the official language of the Philippines from the beginning of Spanish rule in the late 16th century, through the conclusion of the Spanish–American War in 1898.

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Spanish–American War

The Spanish–American War (Guerra hispano-americana or Guerra hispano-estadounidense; Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was fought between the United States and Spain in 1898.

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St. Augustine, Florida

St.

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St. Bernard Parish, Louisiana

St.

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Standard German phonology

The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Stanford University Press

The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.

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State of the Union

The State of the Union Address is an annual message presented by the President of the United States to a joint session of the United States Congress, except in the first year of a new president's term.

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Statehood movement in Puerto Rico

The statehood movement in Puerto Rico aims to make Puerto Rico a state of the United States.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Subculture

A subculture is a group of people within a culture that differentiates itself from the parent culture to which it belongs, often maintaining some of its founding principles.

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Suburb

A suburb is a mixed-use or residential area, existing either as part of a city or urban area or as a separate residential community within commuting distance of a city.

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Taíno

The Taíno people are one of the indigenous peoples of the Caribbean.

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Telemundo

Telemundo is an American Spanish-language terrestrial television network owned by Comcast through the NBCUniversal division NBCUniversal Telemundo Enterprises.

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Texas

Texas (Texas or Tejas) is the second largest state in the United States by both area and population.

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Texas Legislature

The Legislature of the state of Texas is the state legislature of Texas.

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The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao

The Brief Wondrous Life of Oscar Wao (2007) is a novel written by Dominican American author Junot Díaz.

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The House on Mango Street

The House on Mango Street is a 1984 coming-of-age novel by Mexican-American writer Sandra Cisneros.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (Tratado de Guadalupe Hidalgo in Spanish), officially titled the Treaty of Peace, Friendship, Limits and Settlement between the United States of America and the Mexican Republic, is the peace treaty signed on February 2, 1848, in the Villa de Guadalupe Hidalgo (now a neighborhood of Mexico City) between the United States and Mexico that ended the Mexican–American War (1846–1848).

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Tucson, Arizona

Tucson is a city and the county seat of Pima County, Arizona, United States, and home to the University of Arizona.

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U.S. state

A state is a constituent political entity of the United States.

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United States Census

The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...

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United States Census Bureau

The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.

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Univision

Univision is an American Spanish-language broadcast television network that is owned by Univision Communications.

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Utah

Utah is a state in the western United States.

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Venezuela

Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).

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Venezuelans

Venezuelan people are people identified with Venezuela.

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiceless alveolar fricative

A voiceless alveolar fricative is a type of fricative consonant pronounced with the tip or blade of the tongue against the alveolar ridge (gum line) just behind the teeth.

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Weston, Florida

Weston is a master planned suburban community in Broward County, Florida, United States.

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Wolof language

Wolof is a language of Senegal, the Gambia and Mauritania, and the native language of the Wolof people.

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Working language

A working language (also procedural language) is a language that is given a unique legal status in a supranational company, society, state or other body or organization as its primary means of communication.

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Wyoming

Wyoming is a state in the mountain region of the western United States.

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Yeísmo

Yeísmo is a distinctive feature of many dialects of the Spanish language, which consists of the loss of the traditional palatal lateral approximant phoneme (written) and its merger into the phoneme (written), usually realized as a palatal approximant or affricate.

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List of U.S. state, district, and territorial Spanish language use, Spanish in America, Spanish in the US, Spanish in the United States, Spanish in the united states, Spanish language in America.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_language_in_the_United_States

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