199 relations: Achaean League, Achaean War, Adolf Hitler, Agesilaus II, Agis I, Agis II, Agis III, Agis IV, Agoge, Alexander the Great, American School of Classical Studies at Athens, Amyclas of Sparta, Amykles, Anatolia, Ancient Corinth, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Ancient Greek religion, Annexation, Anthroponymy, Antipater, Apella, Arcadia, Argos, Aristotle, Aspis, Athens, Attic Greek, Attica, Battle of Cnidus, Battle of Corinth (146 BC), Battle of Leuctra, Battle of Mantinea (362 BC), Battle of Plataea, Battle of the Granicus, Battle of Thermopylae, Battle of Thermopylae in popular culture, British School at Athens, Bronze, Bronze Age, Charites, Chilon of Sparta, Chionis of Sparta, Chronicon (Eusebius), City-state, Classical antiquity, Classical Athens, Clay tablet, Clearchus of Sparta, Cleomenes I, ..., Cleomenes III, Cleta, Conon, Constitution, Corinthian War, Crypteia, Cynisca, Dative case, Declaration of war, Defensive wall, Delian League, Diarchy, Diodorus Siculus, Discourse on the Arts and Sciences, Dorians, Doric Greek, El Salvador, Elder (administrative title), Epaminondas, Ephor, Epikleros, Epitadeus, Erich Bethe, Eugenics, Eurotas, Eurotas (river), Eurydice of Argos, Eusebius, Evil eye, Family, Free city (classical antiquity), Geographic coordinate system, Gerousia, Gorgo, Queen of Sparta, Great Rhetra, Greave, Greco-Persian Wars, Greece in the Roman era, Greek mythology, Gymnopaedia, Gytheio, Helen of Troy, Helots, Heracleidae, Heracles, Herodotus, Heroon, Hesychius of Alexandria, History of Athens, History of Sparta, Homer, Hoplite, Iliad, Internet Archive, Ionia, Iran, Isidore of Seville, Isocrates, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, John Aylmer (bishop), Karl Otfried Müller, Kibbutz, Lacedaemon (mythology), Laconia, Laconic phrase, Laconophilia, Last stand, Latin, League of Corinth, Leonidas I, Linear B, List of kings of Sparta, Lucius Mummius Achaicus, Lycurgus of Sparta, Lysander, Maniots, Megalopolis, Greece, Menelaus, Messenia (ancient region), Middle Ages, Monemvasia, Moralia, Mothax, Mycenae, Mycenaean Greece, Mycenaean Greek, Mystras, Nabis, Neolithic, Niccolò Machiavelli, Oligarchy, Origin myth, Orosius, Otto of Greece, Paganism, Palmach, Parnon, Pausanias (geographer), Peace of Antalcidas, Peloponnese, Peloponnesian War, Penguin Books, Perioeci, Perseides, Phalanx, Philip II of Macedon, Polyandry, Polygamy, Popular culture, Pottery, Prefectures of Greece, Provinces of Greece, Punic Wars, Renaissance, Retaining wall, Roman Republic, Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, Sarah B. Pomeroy, Second Messenian War, Serfdom, Slavery, Sparta (mythology), Sparta in popular culture, Sparta, Peloponnese, Spartan army, Spartan hegemony, Spartiate, Syssitia, Taygete, Taygetus, Ten Thousand, The 48 Laws of Power, Thebes, Greece, Therapnes, Thespiae, Thucydides, Trophimoi, Tsakonia, Tusculanae Disputationes, Tyrtaeus, University of Oslo, Votive offering, War against Nabis, Western culture, Wet nurse, William Martin Leake, Xanthippus of Carthage, Xenophon, Zeus. Expand index (149 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaean League (Greek: Κοινὸν τῶν Ἀχαιῶν, Koinon ton Akhaion - "League of Achaeans") was a Hellenistic-era confederation of Greek city states on the northern and central Peloponnese.
The Achaean War was an uprising by the Greek Achaean League, an alliance of Achaean and other Peloponnesian states in ancient Greece, against the Roman Republic around 146 BC, just after the Fourth Macedonian War.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Agesilaus II (Ἀγησίλαος Agesilaos; c. 444 – c. 360 BC), was a Eurypontid king of the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, ruling from 398 to about 360 BC, during most of which time he was, in Plutarch's words, "as good as though commander and king of all Greece," and was for the whole of it greatly identified with his country's deeds and fortunes.
Agis I (Greek: Ἄγις) was a king of Sparta and eponym of the Agiad dynasty.
Agis II (Greek: Ἄγις; died c. 401 BC) was the 18th Eurypontid king of Sparta, the eldest son of Archidamus II by his first wife, and half-brother of Agesilaus II.
Agis III (Greek: Ἄγις) was the eldest son of Archidamus III, and the 21st Eurypontid king of Sparta.
Agis IV (Ἄγις; c. 265 BC – 241 BC), the elder son of Eudamidas II, was the 25th king of the Eurypontid dynasty of Sparta.
The agōgē (Greek: ἀγωγή in Attic Greek, or ἀγωγά, agōgá in Doric Greek) was the rigorous education and training program mandated for all male Spartan citizens, except for the firstborn son in the ruling houses, Eurypontid and Agiad.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
The American School of Classical Studies at Athens (ASCSA) (Αμερικανική Σχολή Κλασικών Σπουδών στην Αθήνα) is one of 17 foreign archaeological institutes in Athens, Greece.
In Greek mythology, Amyclas (Ἀμύκλας, Ἀmúklas) was a king of Sparta, the son of Lacedemon and Queen Sparta and brother of Queen Eurydice.
Amykles (Αμύκλες) is a village in Laconia, southern Greece.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Corinth (Κόρινθος Kórinthos) was a city-state (polis) on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnese to the mainland of Greece, roughly halfway between Athens and Sparta.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
Anthroponomastics (or anthroponymy) is the study of the names of human beings.
Antipater (Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros; c. 397 BC319 BC) was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, and father of King Cassander.
The Apella (Ἀπέλλα) was the popular deliberative assembly in the Ancient Greek city-state of Sparta, corresponding to the ecclesia in most other Greek states.
Arcadia (Αρκαδία, Arkadía) is one of the regional units of Greece.
Argos (Modern Greek: Άργος; Ancient Greek: Ἄργος) is a city in Argolis, the Peloponnese, Greece and is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
An aspis (ἀσπίς, plural aspides, ἀσπίδες), sometimes also referred to as a hoplon, was the heavy wooden shield used by the infantry in various periods of ancient Greece.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Attic Greek is the Greek dialect of ancient Attica, including the city of Athens.
Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.
The Battle of Cnidus (Ναυμαχία της Κνίδου; 394 BC), was an operation conducted by the Achaemenid Empire against the Spartan naval fleet during the Corinthian War.
The Battle of Corinth was a battle fought between the Roman Republic and the Greek city-state of Corinth and its allies in the Achaean League in 146 BC, which resulted in the complete and total destruction of Corinth.
The Battle of Leuctra (Λεῦκτρα, Leûktra) was a battle fought on 6 July 371 BC between the Boeotians led by Thebans and the Spartans along with their allies amidst the post-Corinthian War conflict.
The Second Battle of Mantinea was fought on July 4, 362 BC between the Thebans, led by Epaminondas and supported by the Arcadians and the Boeotian league against the Spartans, led by King Agesilaus II and supported by the Eleans, Athenians, and Mantineans.
The Battle of Plataea was the final land battle during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
The Battle of the Granicus River in May 334 BC was the first of three major battles fought between Alexander the Great and the Persian Empire.
The Battle of Thermopylae (Greek: Μάχη τῶν Θερμοπυλῶν, Machē tōn Thermopylōn) was fought between an alliance of Greek city-states, led by King Leonidas of Sparta, and the Persian Empire of Xerxes I over the course of three days, during the second Persian invasion of Greece.
The Battle of Thermopylae of 480 BCE has long been the topic of cultural motivation, as it is perhaps the most famous military last stand of all time.
The British School at Athens (BSA) (Βρετανική Σχολή Αθηνών) is one of the 17 Foreign Archaeological Institutes in Athens, Greece.
Bronze is an alloy consisting primarily of copper, commonly with about 12% tin and often with the addition of other metals (such as aluminium, manganese, nickel or zinc) and sometimes non-metals or metalloids such as arsenic, phosphorus or silicon.
The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, and in some areas proto-writing, and other early features of urban civilization.
In Greek mythology, a Charis (Χάρις) or Grace is one of three or more minor goddesses of charm, beauty, nature, human creativity, and fertility, together known as the Charites (Χάριτες) or Graces.
Chilon of Sparta (fl. 6th century BC) was a Spartan and one of the Seven Sages of Greece.
Chionis of Sparta (Greek Χίονις), or Chionis of Laconia, was an athlete of ancient Greece listed by Eusebius of Caesarea as three times victor in the stadion race of the 29th, 30th and 31st Olympiad (664-656 BC).
The Chronicon or Chronicle (Greek: Παντοδαπὴ ἱστορία Pantodape historia, "Universal history") was a work in two books by Eusebius of Caesarea.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
In the Ancient Near East, clay tablets (Akkadian ṭuppu(m) 𒁾) were used as a writing medium, especially for writing in cuneiform, throughout the Bronze Age and well into the Iron Age.
Clearchus or Clearch (Κλέαρχος; born in Sparta circa 450 BC - died at Babylon in 401 BC), the son of Rhamphias, was a Spartan general and mercenary, noted for his service under Cyrus the Younger.
Cleomenes (though some older reference works give the pronunciation with the accent on the next to last syllable, which is closer to the Greek; Greek Κλεομένης Kleomenes; died c. 489 BC) was an Agiad King of Sparta in the late 6th and early 5th centuries BC.
Cleomenes III was one of the two kings of Sparta from 235 to 222 BC.
In Greek mythology, Cleta (Κλήτα Klḗta, "the glorious") was one of the Charites (Graces).
Conon (Κόνων) (before 444 BC – after 394 BC) was an Athenian general at the end of the Peloponnesian War, who led the Athenian naval forces when they were defeated by a Peloponnesian fleet in the crucial Battle of Aegospotami; later he contributed significantly to the restoration of Athens' political and military power.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
The Corinthian War was an ancient Greek conflict lasting from 395 BC until 387 BC, pitting Sparta against a coalition of four allied states, Thebes, Athens, Corinth, and Argos, who were initially backed by Persia.
The Crypteia or Krypteia (Greek: κρυπτεία krupteía from κρυπτός kruptós, "hidden, secret things") was an ancient Spartan state institution involving young Spartan men.
Cynisca or Kyniska (Κυνίσκα; born c. 440 BC) was a Greek princess of Sparta.
The dative case (abbreviated, or sometimes when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in "Maria Jacobī potum dedit", Latin for "Maria gave Jacob a drink".
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
A defensive wall is a fortification usually used to protect a city, town or other settlement from potential aggressors.
The Delian League, founded in 478 BC, was an association of Greek city-states, with the amount of members numbering between 150 to 330under the leadership of Athens, whose purpose was to continue fighting the Persian Empire after the Greek victory in the Battle of Plataea at the end of the Second Persian invasion of Greece.
A diarchy (from Greek δι-, di-, "double", and -αρχία, -arkhía, "ruled").
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
A Discourse on the Moral Effects of the Arts and Sciences (1750), also known as Discourse on the Sciences and Arts (French: Discours sur les sciences et les arts) and commonly referred to as The First Discourse, is an essay by Genevan philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau which argued that the arts and sciences corrupt human morality.
The Dorians (Δωριεῖς, Dōrieis, singular Δωριεύς, Dōrieus) were one of the four major ethnic groups among which the Hellenes (or Greeks) of Classical Greece considered themselves divided (along with the Aeolians, Achaeans, and Ionians).
Doric, or Dorian, was an Ancient Greek dialect.
El Salvador, officially the Republic of El Salvador (República de El Salvador, literally "Republic of The Savior"), is the smallest and the most densely populated country in Central America.
The term Elder or its equivalent in another language, is used in several different countries and organizations to indicate a position of authority.
Epaminondas (Ἐπαμεινώνδας, Epameinondas; d. 362 BC) was a Theban general and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Greek city-state of Thebes, leading it out of Spartan subjugation into a pre-eminent position in Greek politics.
The ephors were leaders of ancient Sparta and shared power with the two Spartan kings.
An epikleros (ἐπίκληρος; plural epikleroi) was an heiress in ancient Athens and other ancient Greek city states, specifically a daughter of a man who had no male heirs.
Epitadeus was an early 4th-century BC Spartan ephor, who strengthened conservative class distinctions by allowing gifts of land to independent citizens (Spartiates).
Erich Julius Adolf Bethe (2 May 1863 – 19 October 1940) was a German classical philologist who was a native of Stettin.
Eugenics (from Greek εὐγενής eugenes 'well-born' from εὖ eu, 'good, well' and γένος genos, 'race, stock, kin') is a set of beliefs and practices that aims at improving the genetic quality of a human population.
In Greek mythology, Eurotas was a king of Laconia, the son of King Myles and grandson of Lelex, eponymous ancestor of the Leleges.
The Eurotas or Evrotas (Greek: Ευρώτας) is the main river of Laconia and one of the major rivers of the Peloponnese, in Greece.
In Greek mythology, Eurydice (Εὐρυδίκη) was wife to Acrisius, king of Argos, mother of Danaë and therefore maternal grandmother to Perseus.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
The evil eye is a curse or legend believed to be cast by a malevolent glare, usually given to a person when they are unaware.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
A free city (civitas libera, urbs liberae condicionis; ἐλευθέρα καὶ αὐτόνομος πόλις) was a self-governed city during the Hellenistic and Roman Imperial eras.
A geographic coordinate system is a coordinate system used in geography that enables every location on Earth to be specified by a set of numbers, letters or symbols.
The Gerousia (γερουσία) was the Spartan council of elders, which was made up of men over the age of sixty.
Gorgo (Γοργώ; fl. 480 BC) was a Queen of Sparta.
The Great Rhetra (Μεγάλη Ῥήτρα, literally: Great "Saying" or "Proclamation", charter) was used in two senses by the classical authors.
A greave (from the Old French greve "shin, shin armour" from the Arabic jaurab, meaning stocking) is a piece of armour that protects the leg.
The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
Greece in the Roman era describes the period of Greek history when it was dominated by the Roman republic, the Roman Empire and the Byzantine Empire (collectively, the Roman era).
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
The Gymnopaedia, in ancient Sparta, was a yearly celebration during which naked youths displayed their athletic and martial skills through the medium of war dancing.
Gytheio (Γύθειο), the ancient Gythium or Gytheion (Γύθειον), is a town and a former municipality in Laconia, Peloponnese, Greece.
In Greek mythology, Helen of Troy (Ἑλένη, Helénē), also known as Helen of Sparta, or simply Helen, was said to have been the most beautiful woman in the world, who was married to King Menelaus of Sparta, but was kidnapped by Prince Paris of Troy, resulting in the Trojan War when the Achaeans set out to reclaim her and bring her back to Sparta.
The helots (εἵλωτες, heílotes) were a subjugated population group that formed the main population of Laconia and Messenia, the territory controlled by Sparta.
In Greek mythology, the Heracleidae (Ἡρακλεῖδαι) or Heraclids were the numerous descendants of Heracles (Hercules), especially applied in a narrower sense to the descendants of Hyllus, the eldest of his four sons by Deianira (Hyllus was also sometimes thought of as Heracles' son by Melite).
Heracles (Ἡρακλῆς, Hēraklês, Glory/Pride of Hēra, "Hera"), born Alcaeus (Ἀλκαῖος, Alkaios) or Alcides (Ἀλκείδης, Alkeidēs), was a divine hero in Greek mythology, the son of Zeus and Alcmene, foster son of AmphitryonBy his adoptive descent through Amphitryon, Heracles receives the epithet Alcides, as "of the line of Alcaeus", father of Amphitryon.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
A heroon or herõon (Greek ἡρῷον, plural ἡρῷα, heroa), also latinized as heroum, was a shrine dedicated to an ancient Greek or Roman hero and used for the commemoration or cult worship of the hero.
Hesychius of Alexandria (Ἡσύχιος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς), a Greek grammarian who, probably in the 5th or 6th century AD, compiled the richest lexicon of unusual and obscure Greek words that has survived, probably by absorbing the works of earlier lexicographers.
Athens is one of the oldest named cities in the world, having been continuously inhabited for at least 5000 years.
The History of Sparta describes the destiny of the ancient Dorian Greek state known as Sparta from its beginning in the legendary period to its incorporation into the Achaean League under the late Roman Republic, as Allied State, in 146 BC, a period of roughly 1000 years.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Hoplites were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek city-states who were primarily armed with spears and shields.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
The Internet Archive is a San Francisco–based nonprofit digital library with the stated mission of "universal access to all knowledge." It provides free public access to collections of digitized materials, including websites, software applications/games, music, movies/videos, moving images, and nearly three million public-domain books.
Ionia (Ancient Greek: Ἰωνία, Ionía or Ἰωνίη, Ioníe) was an ancient region on the central part of the western coast of Anatolia in present-day Turkey, the region nearest İzmir, which was historically Smyrna.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Saint Isidore of Seville (Isidorus Hispalensis; c. 560 – 4 April 636), a scholar and, for over three decades, Archbishop of Seville, is widely regarded as the last of the Fathers of the Church, as the 19th-century historian Montalembert put it in an oft-quoted phrase, "The last scholar of the ancient world." At a time of disintegration of classical culture, and aristocratic violence and illiteracy, he was involved in the conversion of the Arian Visigothic kings to Catholicism, both assisting his brother Leander of Seville, and continuing after his brother's death.
Isocrates (Ἰσοκράτης; 436–338 BC), an ancient Greek rhetorician, was one of the ten Attic orators.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
John Aylmer (Ælmer or Elmer; 1521 – 3 June 1594) was an English bishop, constitutionalist and a Greek scholar.
Karl Otfried Müller (28 August 1797 – 1 August 1840) was a German scholar and Philodorian, or admirer of ancient Sparta, who introduced the modern study of Greek mythology.
A kibbutz (קִבּוּץ /, lit. "gathering, clustering"; regular plural kibbutzim /) is a collective community in Israel that was traditionally based on agriculture.
Lacedaemon (Λακεδαίμων, Lakedaímōn) was a mythical king of Laconia At the Perseus Project.
Laconia (Λακωνία, Lakonía), also known as Lacedaemonia, is a region in the southeastern part of the Peloponnese peninsula.
A laconic phrase or laconism is a concise or terse statement, especially a blunt and elliptical rejoinder.
Laconophilia (also known as Laconism) is love or admiration of Sparta and of the Spartan culture or constitution.
A last stand is a military situation in which a body of troops holds a defensive position in the face of overwhelming odds.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League (from Greek Ἑλληνικός Hellenikos, "pertaining to Greece and Greeks"), was a federation of Greek states created by Philip II during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC after the battle of Chaeronea and succeeded by Alexander the Great at 336 BC, to facilitate the use of military forces in the war of Greece against Persia.
Leonidas I (or; Doric Λεωνίδας, Leōnídas; Ionic and Attic Greek: Λεωνίδης, Leōnídēs; "son of the lion"; died 11 August 480 BC) was a warrior king of the Greek city-state of Sparta.
Linear B is a syllabic script that was used for writing Mycenaean Greek, the earliest attested form of Greek.
This list of kings of Sparta details the important rulers of the Greek city-state of Sparta in the Peloponnesus.
Lucius Mummius (2nd century BC), was a Roman statesman and general.
Lycurgus (Λυκοῦργος, Lykoûrgos,; 820 BC) was the quasi-legendary lawgiver of Sparta who established the military-oriented reformation of Spartan society in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi.
Lysander (died 395 BC, Λύσανδρος, Lýsandros) was a Spartan admiral who commanded the Spartan fleet in the Hellespont which defeated the Athenians at Aegospotami in 405 BC.
The Maniots or Maniates (Μανιάτες) are the inhabitants of the Mani Peninsula, Laconia, in the southern Peloponnese, Greece.
Megalopoli (Μεγαλόπολη) is a town in the southwestern part of the regional unit of Arcadia, southern Greece.
In Greek mythology, Menelaus (Μενέλαος, Menelaos, from μένος "vigor, rage, power" and λαός "people," "wrath of the people") was a king of Mycenaean (pre-Dorian) Sparta, the husband of Helen of Troy, and the son of Atreus and Aerope.
Messenia or Messinia (Μεσσηνία) was an ancient district of the southwestern Peloponnese more or less overlapping the modern Messenia region of Greece.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Monemvasia (Μονεμβασία) is a town and a municipality in Laconia, Greece.
The Moralia (Ἠθικά Ethika; loosely translated as "Morals" or "Matters relating to customs and mores") of the 1st-century Greek scholar Plutarch of Chaeronea is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches.
Mothax (μόθαξ, mothax, pl.: μόθακες, mothakes) is a Doric Greek word meaning "stepbrother".
Mycenae (Greek: Μυκῆναι Mykēnai or Μυκήνη Mykēnē) is an archaeological site near Mykines in Argolis, north-eastern Peloponnese, Greece.
Mycenaean Greece (or Mycenaean civilization) was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece, spanning the period from approximately 1600–1100 BC.
Mycenaean Greek is the most ancient attested form of the Greek language, on the Greek mainland, Crete and Cyprus in Mycenaean Greece (16th to 12th centuries BC), before the hypothesised Dorian invasion, often cited as the terminus post quem for the coming of the Greek language to Greece.
Mystras or Mistras (Μυστρᾶς/Μιστρᾶς), also known as Myzithras (Μυζηθρᾶς) in the Chronicle of the Morea, is a fortified town and a former municipality in Laconia, Peloponnese, Greece.
Nabis (Νάβις) was ruler of Sparta from 207 BC to 192 BC, during the years of the First and Second Macedonian Wars and the eponymous "War against Nabis", i.e. against him.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Oligarchy is a form of power structure in which power rests with a small number of people.
An origin myth is a myth that purports to describe the origin of some feature of the natural or social world.
Paulus Orosius (born 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.
Otto (Óthon; 1 June 1815 – 26 July 1867) was a Bavarian prince who became the first modern King of Greece in 1832 under the Convention of London.
Paganism is a term first used in the fourth century by early Christians for populations of the Roman Empire who practiced polytheism, either because they were increasingly rural and provincial relative to the Christian population or because they were not milites Christi (soldiers of Christ).
The Palmach (Hebrew:, acronym for Plugot Maḥatz (Hebrew), lit. "strike forces") was the elite fighting force of the Haganah, the underground army of the Yishuv (Jewish community) during the period of the British Mandate for Palestine.
Parnon or Parnonas (Πάρνων/Πάρνωνας) or Malevos (Μαλεβός) is a mountain range, or massif, on the east of the Laconian plain and the Evrotas valley.
Pausanias (Παυσανίας Pausanías; c. AD 110 – c. 180) was a Greek traveler and geographer of the second century AD, who lived in the time of Roman emperors Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius.
The King's Peace (387 BC), also known as the Peace of Antalcidas, was a peace treaty guaranteed by the Persian King Artaxerxes II that ended the Corinthian War in ancient Greece.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
The Peloponnesian War (431–404 BC) was an ancient Greek war fought by the Delian League led by Athens against the Peloponnesian League led by Sparta.
Penguin Books is a British publishing house.
The perioeci, or perioikoi, were the members of an autonomous group of free but non-citizen inhabitants of Sparta.
In Greek mythology the Perseides, "those born of Perseus" and Andromeda, are the members of the House of Perseus, descended, according to Valerius Flaccus through Perse and Perses.
The phalanx (φάλαγξ; plural phalanxes or phalanges, φάλαγγες, phalanges) was a rectangular mass military formation, usually composed entirely of heavy infantry armed with spears, pikes, sarissas, or similar weapons.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
Polyandry (from πολυ- poly-, "many" and ἀνήρ anēr, "man") is a form of polygamy in which a woman takes two or more husbands at the same time.
Polygamy (from Late Greek πολυγαμία, polygamía, "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marrying multiple spouses.
Popular culture (also called pop culture) is generally recognized as a set of the practices, beliefs, and objects that are dominant or ubiquitous in a society at a given point in time.
Pottery is the ceramic material which makes up pottery wares, of which major types include earthenware, stoneware and porcelain.
During the first administrative division of independent Greece in 1833–1836 and again from 1845 until their abolition with the Kallikratis reform in 2010, the prefectures (translit) were the country's main administrative unit.
The provinces of Greece (επαρχία, "eparchy") were sub-divisions of some the country's prefectures.
The Punic Wars were a series of three wars fought between Rome and Carthage from 264 BC to 146 BC.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting the soil mass laterally so that the soil can be retained at different levels on the two sides.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
The Sanctuary of Artemis Orthia, an Archaic site devoted in Classical times to Artemis, was one of the most important religious sites in the Greek city-state of Sparta, and continued to be used into the fourth century CE.
Sarah B. Pomeroy (born 13 March 1938) is an American ancient historian, author, translator, and former professor of classics.
The Second Messenian War was a war between the Ancient Greek states of Messenia and Sparta.
Serfdom is the status of many peasants under feudalism, specifically relating to manorialism.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
In Greek mythology, Sparta was the daughter of Eurotas by Clete.
Sparta has been the a topic of cultural inspiration.
Sparta (Σπάρτη, Spártē) is a town and municipality in Laconia, Greece.
The Spartan army stood at the center of the Spartan state, whose citizens trained in the disciplines and honor of a warrior society.
The polis of Sparta was the greatest military land power of classical Greek antiquity.
The Spartiates (Σπαρτιάτες, "Spartans") or Homoioi (Ὅμοιοι, "those who are alike"; sing. homoios) were the males of Sparta known to the Spartans as "peers" or "men of equal status".
The syssitia (Classical Greek: τὰ συσσίτια ta syssítia) were, in Ancient Greece, common meals for men and youths in social or religious groups, especially in Crete and Sparta, though also in Megara in the time of Theognis (6th century BC) and Corinth in the time of Periander (7th century BC).
In Classical Greek mythology, Taygete (Ταϋγέτη) was a nymph, one of the Pleiades according to the Bibliotheca (3.10.1) and a companion of Artemis, in her archaic role as potnia theron, "Mistress of the animals", with its likely roots in prehistory.
The Taygetus, Taugetus, Taygetos or Taÿgetus (Taygetos) is a mountain range in the Peloponnese peninsula in Southern Greece.
The Ten Thousand (οἱ Μύριοι, oi Myrioi) was a force of mercenary units, mainly Greek, employed by Cyrus the Younger to attempt to wrest the throne of the Persian Empire from his brother, Artaxerxes II.
The 48 Laws of Power (1998) is the first book by American author Robert Greene.
Thebes (Θῆβαι, Thēbai,;. Θήβα, Thíva) is a city in Boeotia, central Greece.
Therapnes (Θεράπνες), in ancient times Therapne (Θεράπνη), is a municipal unit (dimotiki enotita) of the municipality (dimos) of Sparti within the regional unit (perifereiaki enotita) of Laconia in the region (perifereia) of Peloponnese, one of 13 regions into which Greece has been divided.
Thespiae (Greek: Θεσπιαί, Thespiaí) was an ancient Greek city (polis) in Boeotia.
Thucydides (Θουκυδίδης,, Ancient Attic:; BC) was an Athenian historian and general.
The Trophimoi (Greek: τρόφιμοι, students or pupils from τροφός trophós food) were children of non-Spartiatae - Perioeci or foreigners - who underwent Spartan education.
Tsakonia (Τσακωνιά) or the Tsakonian region (Τσακωνικός χώρος) refers to the small area in the eastern Peloponnese where the Tsakonian language is spoken.
The Tusculanae Disputationes (also Tusculanae Quaestiones; English: Tusculanes or Tusculan Disputations) is a series of five books written by Cicero, around 45 BC, attempting to popularise Greek philosophy in Ancient Rome, including Stoicism.
Tyrtaeus (Τυρταῖος Tyrtaios) was a Greek lyric poet from Sparta who composed verses around the time of the Second Messenian War, the date of which is not clearly established, but sometime in the latter part of the seventh century BC.
The University of Oslo (Universitetet i Oslo), until 1939 named the Royal Frederick University (Det Kongelige Frederiks Universitet), is the oldest university in Norway, located in the Norwegian capital of Oslo.
A votive deposit or votive offering is one or more objects displayed or deposited, without the intention of recovery or use, in a sacred place for broadly religious purposes.
The War against Nabis, or the Laconian War, of 195 BC was fought between the Greek city-state of Sparta and a coalition composed of Rome, the Achaean League, Pergamum, Rhodes, and Macedon.
Western culture, sometimes equated with Western civilization, Occidental culture, the Western world, Western society, European civilization,is a term used very broadly to refer to a heritage of social norms, ethical values, traditional customs, belief systems, political systems and specific artifacts and technologies that have some origin or association with Europe.
A wet nurse is a woman who breast feeds and cares for another's child.
William Martin Leake, FRS (14 January 1777 – 6 January 1860), was an English antiquarian and topographer.
Xanthippus (Greek: Ξάνθιππος) was a Spartan mercenary general hired by the Carthaginians to aid in their war against the Romans during the First Punic War.
Xenophon of Athens (Ξενοφῶν,, Xenophōn; – 354 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher, historian, soldier, mercenary, and student of Socrates.
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
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