47 relations: Ancient Egypt, Arithmetic progression, Berlin Papyrus 6619, Cathetus, Decagon, Degree (angle), Geometric progression, Geometry, Golden ratio, Golden rectangle, Gradian, Heronian triangle, Hexagon, Hyperbolic geometry, Integer, Integer triangle, Isosceles triangle, Mathematics Magazine, Middle Kingdom of Egypt, Moralia, Moritz Cantor, Multiple (mathematics), Natural number, Niven's theorem, Pell number, Pell's equation, Pentagon, Plutarch, Pythagorean theorem, Pythagorean triple, Radian, Rational number, Regular icosahedron, Right triangle, Schwarz triangle, Sine, Spherical geometry, Spiral of Theodorus, Square root of 3, Square triangular number, Tessellation, Triangle, Triangle group, Trigonometric functions, Trigonometry, Turn (geometry), Unit circle.

## Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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## Arithmetic progression

In mathematics, an arithmetic progression (AP) or arithmetic sequence is a sequence of numbers such that the difference between the consecutive terms is constant.

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## Berlin Papyrus 6619

The Berlin Papyrus 6619, simply called the Berlin Papyrus when the context makes it clear, is an ancient Egyptian papyrus document from the Middle Kingdom, second half of the 12th or 13th dynasty.

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## Cathetus

In a right triangle, a cathetus (originally from the Greek word Κάθετος; plural: catheti), commonly known as a leg, is either of the sides that are adjacent to the right angle.

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## Decagon

In geometry, a decagon is a ten-sided polygon or 10-gon.

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## Degree (angle)

A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.

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## Geometric progression

In mathematics, a geometric progression, also known as a geometric sequence, is a sequence of numbers where each term after the first is found by multiplying the previous one by a fixed, non-zero number called the common ratio.

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## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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## Golden ratio

In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities.

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## Golden rectangle

In geometry, a golden rectangle is a rectangle whose side lengths are in the golden ratio, 1: \tfrac, which is 1:\varphi (the Greek letter phi), where \varphi is approximately 1.618.

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## Gradian

The gradian is a unit of measurement of an angle, equivalent to \frac of a turn, \frac of a degree, or \frac of a radian.

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## Heronian triangle

In geometry, a Heronian triangle is a triangle that has side lengths and area that are all integers.

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## Hexagon

In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon.

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## Hyperbolic geometry

In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry (also called Bolyai–Lobachevskian geometry or Lobachevskian geometry) is a non-Euclidean geometry.

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## Integer

An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").

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## Integer triangle

An integer triangle or integral triangle is a triangle all of whose sides have lengths that are integers.

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## Isosceles triangle

In geometry, an isosceles triangle is a triangle that has two sides of equal length.

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## Mathematics Magazine

Mathematics Magazine is a refereed bimonthly publication of the Mathematical Association of America.

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## Middle Kingdom of Egypt

The Middle Kingdom of Egypt (also known as The Period of Reunification) is the period in the history of ancient Egypt between circa 2050 BC and 1710 BC, stretching from the reunification of Egypt under the impulse of Mentuhotep II of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Twelfth Dynasty.

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## Moralia

The Moralia (Ἠθικά Ethika; loosely translated as "Morals" or "Matters relating to customs and mores") of the 1st-century Greek scholar Plutarch of Chaeronea is an eclectic collection of 78 essays and transcribed speeches.

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## Moritz Cantor

Moritz Benedikt Cantor (23 August 1829 – 10 April 1920) was a German historian of mathematics.

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## Multiple (mathematics)

In science, a multiple is the product of any quantity and an integer.

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## Natural number

In mathematics, the natural numbers are those used for counting (as in "there are six coins on the table") and ordering (as in "this is the third largest city in the country").

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## Niven's theorem

In mathematics, Niven's theorem, named after Ivan Niven, states that the only rational values of θ in the interval 0° ≤ θ ≤ 90° for which the sine of θ degrees is also a rational number are: \begin \sin 0^\circ &.

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## Pell number

In mathematics, the Pell numbers are an infinite sequence of integers, known since ancient times, that comprise the denominators of the closest rational approximations to the square root of 2.

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## Pell's equation

Pell's equation (also called the Pell–Fermat equation) is any Diophantine equation of the form where n is a given positive nonsquare integer and integer solutions are sought for x and y. In Cartesian coordinates, the equation has the form of a hyperbola; solutions occur wherever the curve passes through a point whose x and y coordinates are both integers, such as the trivial solution with x.

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## Pentagon

In geometry, a pentagon (from the Greek πέντε pente and γωνία gonia, meaning five and angle) is any five-sided polygon or 5-gon.

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## Plutarch

Plutarch (Πλούταρχος, Ploútarkhos,; c. CE 46 – CE 120), later named, upon becoming a Roman citizen, Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus, (Λούκιος Μέστριος Πλούταρχος) was a Greek biographer and essayist, known primarily for his Parallel Lives and Moralia.

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## Pythagorean theorem

In mathematics, the Pythagorean theorem, also known as Pythagoras' theorem, is a fundamental relation in Euclidean geometry among the three sides of a right triangle.

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## Pythagorean triple

A Pythagorean triple consists of three positive integers,, and, such that.

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## Radian

The radian (SI symbol rad) is the SI unit for measuring angles, and is the standard unit of angular measure used in many areas of mathematics.

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## Rational number

In mathematics, a rational number is any number that can be expressed as the quotient or fraction of two integers, a numerator and a non-zero denominator.

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## Regular icosahedron

In geometry, a regular icosahedron is a convex polyhedron with 20 faces, 30 edges and 12 vertices.

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## Right triangle

A right triangle (American English) or right-angled triangle (British English) is a triangle in which one angle is a right angle (that is, a 90-degree angle).

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## Schwarz triangle

In geometry, a Schwarz triangle, named after Hermann Schwarz, is a spherical triangle that can be used to tile a sphere, possibly overlapping, through reflections in its edges.

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## Sine

In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.

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## Spherical geometry

Spherical geometry is the geometry of the two-dimensional surface of a sphere.

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## Spiral of Theodorus

In geometry, the spiral of Theodorus (also called square root spiral, Einstein spiral or Pythagorean spiral).

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## Square root of 3

The square root of 3 is the positive real number that, when multiplied by itself, gives the number 3.

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## Square triangular number

In mathematics, a square triangular number (or triangular square number) is a number which is both a triangular number and a perfect square.

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## Tessellation

A tessellation of a flat surface is the tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps.

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## Triangle

A triangle is a polygon with three edges and three vertices.

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## Triangle group

In mathematics, a triangle group is a group that can be realized geometrically by sequences of reflections across the sides of a triangle.

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## Trigonometric functions

In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.

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## Trigonometry

Trigonometry (from Greek trigōnon, "triangle" and metron, "measure") is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths and angles of triangles.

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## Turn (geometry)

A turn is a unit of plane angle measurement equal to 2pi radians, 360 degrees or 400 gradians.

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## Unit circle

In mathematics, a unit circle is a circle with a radius of one.

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