267 relations: Abdomen, Addiction psychiatry, Adolescence, Adolescent medicine, Allergy, Allied health professions, American Association of Physician Specialists, American Board of Medical Specialties, American Board of Physician Specialties, American Medical Association, American Osteopathic Association, American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists, Anatomy, Andrology, Anesthesia, Anesthesiology, Anus, Arthritis, Assay, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Australasian College for Emergency Medicine, Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists, Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine, Autism, Autoimmunity, Aviation medicine, Ayurveda, Bacteria, Base of skull, Behavior, Behavioral neurology, Biliary tract, Biochemistry, Biopsy, Biopsychosocial model, Birth defect, Blood, Blood bank, Blood vessel, Board certification, Bone marrow, Brain injury, Burn center, Cancer, Cardiac surgery, Cardiology, Cardiothoracic anesthesiology, Cardiothoracic surgery, Cell (biology), Central Council of Homoeopathy, ..., Central Council of Indian Medicine, Central nervous system, Central place theory, Cerebrovascular disease, Child, Child and adolescent psychiatry, Childhood cancer, Circulatory system, Clinical chemistry, Clinical neurophysiology, Clinical psychology, Coagulation, Cognition, Collège des médecins du Québec, College of Family Physicians of Canada, College of Intensive Care Medicine, Colorectal surgery, Cytogenetics, Cytopathology, Dementia, Dentist, Dermatology, Diabetes mellitus, Diagnosis, Dietitian, Disaster medicine, Disaster recovery, Disaster response, Disease, Embryology, Emergency department, Emergency management, Emergency medicine, Emotion, Endocrine gland, Endocrine system, Endocrinology, Etiology, Family medicine, Federation of National Specialty Societies of Canada, Fluoroscopy, Forensic psychiatry, Fungus, Galen, Gastroenterology, Gastrointestinal tract, General practice, General surgery, Genetic counseling, Genetics, Geriatric neurology, Geriatric psychiatry, Geriatrics, Gynaecology, Gynecologic oncology, Hair, Hand surgery, Health informatics, Health promotion, Heart, Heart failure, Hematology, Hepatology, Histology, Hormone, Hospice and palliative medicine, Hospital, Hospital medicine, Human musculoskeletal system, Immune system, Immunology, In vitro, In vivo, Incident Command System, Infant, Infection, Infectious disease (medical specialty), Inflation, Intensive care medicine, Intensive care unit, Internal medicine, Internship, Interventional radiology, Ionizing radiation, JAMA (journal), Joint, Large intestine, Life support, Liver, Lund University, Male reproductive system, Malignancy, Maternal–fetal medicine, Mechanical ventilation, Medical Council of India, Medical education, Medical genetics, Medical imaging, Medical jurisprudence, Medical laboratory, Medical license, Medical microbiology, Medical research, Medical school, Medicine, Microscope, Mohs surgery, Molecular biology, Molecular genetics, Molecule, Nail (anatomy), National Board of Examinations, Neonatology, Nephrology, Neural tube defect, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neurology, Neuropsychiatry, Neuroradiology, Neurosurgery, Neurotology, Nuclear medicine, Obstetrics and gynaecology, Occupational medicine, Occupational safety and health, Oncology, Ophthalmology, Oral and maxillofacial surgery, Organ (anatomy), Organ transplantation, Orthodontics, Orthopedic surgery, Osteopathic medicine in the United States, Otorhinolaryngology, Pain management, Palliative care, Parasitism, Pathology, Pediatric emergency medicine, Pediatric endocrinology, Pediatric gastroenterology, Pediatric neurosurgery, Pediatric ophthalmology, Pediatric surgery, Pediatrics, Perception, Peripheral artery disease, Peripheral nervous system, Peripheral neuropathy, Pharmacology, Physical medicine and rehabilitation, Physician, Physicians in the United States, Plastic surgery, Podiatry, Preventive healthcare, Primary care physician, Psychiatry, Psychosomatic medicine, Psychotherapy, Public health, Pulmonology, Radiation therapy, Radioactive decay, Radiography, Radiology, Rectum, Reproductive endocrinology and infertility, Reproductive medicine, Residency (medicine), Respiratory system, Rheumatism, Rheumatology, Rida Khan, Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons, Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators, Royal Australasian College of Physicians, Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists, Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists, Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia, Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Royal New Zealand College of General Practitioners, Science, Skin, Sleep medicine, Social determinants of health, Society of General Internal Medicine, Specialty (medicine), Specialty registrar, Sports medicine, Stereotactic surgery, Surgeon, Surgery, Surgical oncology, Sweat gland, Sweden, Terminal illness, The National Law Review, Thoracic cavity, Thorax, Thyroid, Tissue (biology), Toxicology, Transfusion medicine, United States, United States Army, Urinary system, Urology, Vascular surgery, Vertebral column, Virus, Whole blood, Wilderness medicine (practice). 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The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
Addiction psychiatry is a medical subspecialty within psychiatry that focuses on the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of people who are suffering from one or more disorders related to addiction.
AdolescenceMacmillan Dictionary for Students Macmillan, Pan Ltd.
Adolescent medicine or hebiatrics is a medical subspecialty that focuses on care of patients who are in the adolescent period of development, generally ranging from the last years of elementary school until graduation from high school (some doctors in this subspecialty treat young adults attending college at area clinics, in the subfield of college health).
Allergies, also known as allergic diseases, are a number of conditions caused by hypersensitivity of the immune system to typically harmless substances in the environment.
Allied health professions are health care professions distinct from nursing, medicine, and pharmacy.
The American Association of Physician Specialists, Inc. (AAPS) is a 501(c)(6) not-for-profit organization founded in 1950, with headquarters in Tampa, Florida.
Established in 1933, the American Board of Medical Specialties (ABMS) is a self-declared non-profit organization (that actively engages in lobbying activities) of approved medical boards (officially referred to as the "Member Boards" (see below), which represent 24 broad areas of specialty medicine. ABMS is the largest physician-led specialty certification organization in the United States. ABMS Member Boards have maintained a rigorous process for the evaluation and Board certification of medical specialists, though none of the processes have been confirmed by independent third-party review. They certify specialists in more than 150 medical specialties and subspecialties. More than 80 percent of practicing physicians in the United States have achieved Board Certification by one or more of the ABMS Member Boards. The Member Boards support lifelong learning by physicians through the ABMS Maintenance of Certification (ABMS MOC) program. ABMS also collaborates with other professional medical organizations and agencies to set standards for graduate medical school education and accreditation of residency programs. ABMS makes information available to the public about the Board Certification of physicians and their participation in the ABMS MOC program.
The American Board of Physician Specialties (ABPS), the official certifying body for the American Association of Physician Specialists (AAPS) is a non-profit umbrella organization for sixteen medical specialty boards that certifies and re-certifies physicians in fourteen medical specialties in the United States and Canada.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
The American Osteopathic Association (AOA) is the representative member organization for the more than 129,000 osteopathic medical doctors (D.O.s) and osteopathic medical students in the United States.
Established in 1939, the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Osteopathic Specialists (AOABOS) is a non-profit umbrella organization for 18 medical specialty boards in the United States.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Andrology (from ἀνήρ, anēr, genitive ἀνδρός, andros, "man"; and -λογία, -logia) is the medical specialty that deals with male health, particularly relating to the problems of the male reproductive system and urological problems that are unique to men.
In the practice of medicine (especially surgery and dentistry), anesthesia or anaesthesia (from Greek "without sensation") is a state of temporary induced loss of sensation or awareness.
Anesthesiology (spelled anaesthesiology in UK English), called anaesthetics in UK English according to some sources but not according to others, is the medical speciality concerned with anesthesia (loss of sensation) and anesthetics (substances that cause this loss).
The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.
Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.
An assay is an investigative (analytic) procedure in laboratory medicine, pharmacology, environmental biology and molecular biology for qualitatively assessing or quantitatively measuring the presence, amount, or functional activity of a target entity (the analyte).
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
The Australasian College for Emergency Medicine (ACEM) with its headquarters in Melbourne, is the primary training body for specialist emergency physicians in Australia and New Zealand.
The Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) is responsible for examining and qualifying anaesthetists in Australia and New Zealand.
The Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM) is one of the two Australian Medical Council (AMC) accredited general practice colleges in Australia.The College sets and upholds standards for best practice provision of rural and remote medical care.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.
Aviation medicine, also called flight medicine or aerospace medicine, is a preventive or occupational medicine in which the patients/subjects are pilots, aircrews, or astronauts.
Ayurveda is a system of medicine with historical roots in the Indian subcontinent.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
The base of skull is the most inferior area of the skull.
Behavior (American English) or behaviour (Commonwealth English) is the range of actions and mannerisms made by individuals, organisms, systems, or artificial entities in conjunction with themselves or their environment, which includes the other systems or organisms around as well as the (inanimate) physical environment.
Behavioral neurology is a subspecialty of neurology that studies the impact of neurological damage and disease upon behavior, memory, and cognition, and the treatment thereof.
The biliary tract, (biliary tree or biliary system) refers to the liver, gall bladder and bile ducts, and how they work together to make, store and secrete bile.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.
The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors (genetic, biochemical, etc), psychological factors (mood, personality, behavior, etc.), and social factors (cultural, familial, socioeconomic, medical, etc.).Santrock, J. W. (2007).
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
A blood bank is a center where blood gathered as a result of blood donation is stored and preserved for later use in blood transfusion.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Board certification is the process by which a physician or other professional demonstrates a mastery of basic knowledge and skills through written, practical, or simulator-based testing.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
A brain injury is an injury to the brain of a living organism, and can be categorized by many properties.
A burn center, burn unit or burns unit is a hospital specializing in the treatment of burns.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Cardiac surgery, or cardiovascular surgery, is surgery on the heart or great vessels performed by cardiac surgeons.
Cardiology (from Greek καρδίᾱ kardiā, "heart" and -λογία -logia, "study") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the heart as well as parts of the circulatory system.
Cardiothoracic anesthesiology is a subspeciality of the medical practice of anesthesiology devoted to the preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care of adult and pediatric patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery and related invasive procedures.
Cardiothoracic surgery (also known as thoracic surgery) is the field of medicine involved in surgical treatment of organs inside the thorax (the chest)—generally treatment of conditions of the heart (heart disease) and lungs (lung disease).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Central Council of Homeopathy (CCH) is a statutory apex body under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare, Department of AYUSH.
Central Council of Indian Medicine (CCIM) is a statutory body under Department of Ayurveda, Yoga and Naturopathy, Unani, Siddha and Homoeopathy (AYUSH), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, set up in 1971 under the Indian Medicine Central Council Act, (Act 48) which was passed in 1970.
The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.
Central place theory is a geographical theory that seeks to explain the number, size and location of human settlements in a residential system.
Cerebrovascular disease includes a variety of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain and the cerebral circulation.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
Child and adolescent psychiatry or pediatric psychiatry is a branch of psychiatry that focuses on the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mental disorders in children, adolescents, and their families.
Childhood cancer (also known as pediatric cancer) is cancer in a child.
The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.
Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of chemistry that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes.
Clinical neurophysiology is a medical specialty that studies the central and peripheral nervous systems through the recording of bioelectrical activity, whether spontaneous or stimulated.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Coagulation (also known as clotting) is the process by which blood changes from a liquid to a gel, forming a blood clot.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
The Collège des médecins du Québec, or Quebec College of Physicians, is a professional organization responsible for setting educational standards and policing its members at the provincial level in Quebec.
The College of Family Physicians of Canada' (CFPC; French: Le Collège des médecins de famille du Canada, CFPC), which is based in Mississauga, Ontario, is a professional association and the legal certifying body for the practice of family medicine in Canada.
The College of Intensive Care Medicine (CICM), also known by its longer and more complete name, the College of Intensive Care Medicine of Australia and New Zealand, is the medical specialty college statutorily responsible for the training and accreditation of intensive care medical specialists (called "intensivists") in Australia and New Zealand.
Colorectal surgery is a field in medicine, dealing with disorders of the rectum, anus, and colon.
Cytogenetics is a branch of genetics that is concerned with how the chromosomes relate to cell behaviour, particularly to their behaviour during mitosis and meiosis.
Cytopathology (from Greek κύτος, kytos, "a hollow"; πάθος, pathos, "fate, harm"; and -λογία, -logia) is a branch of pathology that studies and diagnoses diseases on the cellular level.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
A dentist, also known as a dental surgeon, is a surgeon who specializes in dentistry, the diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of diseases and conditions of the oral cavity.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
Diabetes mellitus (DM), commonly referred to as diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorders in which there are high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period.
Diagnosis is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
A dietitian (or dietician) is an expert in dietetics; that is, human nutrition and the regulation of diet.
Disaster medicine is the area of medical specialization serving the dual areas of providing health care to disaster survivors and providing medically related disaster preparation, disaster planning, disaster response and disaster recovery leadership throughout the disaster life cycle.
Disaster recovery (DR) involves a set of policies, tools and procedures to enable the recovery or continuation of vital technology infrastructure and systems following a natural or human-induced disaster.
Disaster response is the second phase of the disaster management cycle.
A disease is any condition which results in the disorder of a structure or function in an organism that is not due to any external injury.
Embryology (from Greek ἔμβρυον, embryon, "the unborn, embryo"; and -λογία, -logia) is the branch of biology that studies the prenatal development of gametes (sex cells), fertilization, and development of embryos and fetuses.
An emergency department (ED), also known as an accident & emergency department (A&E), emergency room (ER), emergency ward (EW) or casualty department, is a medical treatment facility specializing in emergency medicine, the acute care of patients who present without prior appointment; either by their own means or by that of an ambulance.
Emergency management or disaster management is the organization and management of the resources and responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies (preparedness, response, and recovery).
Emergency medicine, also known as accident and emergency medicine, is the medical specialty concerned with caring for undifferentiated, unscheduled patients with illnesses or injuries requiring immediate medical attention.
Emotion is any conscious experience characterized by intense mental activity and a certain degree of pleasure or displeasure.
Endocrine glands are glands of the endocrine system that secrete their products, hormones, directly into the blood rather than through a duct.
The endocrine system is a chemical messenger system consisting of hormones, the group of glands of an organism that carry those hormones directly into the circulatory system to be carried towards distant target organs, and the feedback loops of homeostasis that the hormones drive.
Endocrinology (from endocrine + -ology) is a branch of biology and medicine dealing with the endocrine system, its diseases, and its specific secretions known as hormones.
Etiology (alternatively aetiology or ætiology) is the study of causation, or origination.
Family medicine (FM), formerly family practice (FP), is a medical specialty devoted to comprehensive health care for people of all ages; the specialist is named a family physician or family doctor.
The Federation of National Specialty Societies of Canada is an organization of national specialty societies in Canada created in 2004 and it is based in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.
Fluoroscopy is an imaging technique that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the interior of an object.
Forensic psychiatry is a sub-speciality of psychiatry and is related to criminology.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
Gastroenterology (MeSH heading) is the branch of medicine focused on the digestive system and its disorders.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
General practice is the name given in the United Kingdom to the service provided by General practitioners.
General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on abdominal contents including esophagus, stomach, small bowel, colon, liver, pancreas, gallbladder, appendix and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland (depending on local referral patterns).
Genetic counseling is the process by which the patients or relatives at risk of an inherited disorder (or may be carrying a child at risk) are advised of the consequences and nature of the disorder, the probability of developing or transmitting it, and the options open to them in management and family planning.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
Geriatric neurology is the branch of medicine that studies neurologic disorders in elderly.
Geriatric psychiatry, also known as geropsychiatry, psychogeriatrics or psychiatry of old age, is a subspecialty of psychiatry dealing with the study, prevention, and treatment of mental disorders in humans with old age.
Geriatrics, or geriatric medicine, is a specialty that focuses on health care of elderly people.
Gynaecology or gynecology (see spelling differences) is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts.
Gynecologic oncology is a specialized field of medicine that focuses on cancers of the female reproductive system, including ovarian cancer, uterine cancer, vaginal cancer, cervical cancer, and vulvar cancer.
Hair is a protein filament that grows from follicles found in the dermis.
The field of hand surgery deals with both surgical and non-surgical treatment of conditions and problems that may take place in the hand or upper extremity (commonly from the tip of the hand to the shoulder), American Society for Surgery of the Hand.
Health informatics (also called health care informatics, healthcare informatics, medical informatics, nursing informatics, clinical informatics, or biomedical informatics) is information engineering applied to the field of health care, essentially the management and use of patient healthcare information.
Health promotion is "any planned combination of educational, political, environmental, regulatory, or organizational mechanisms that support actions and conditions of living conducive to the health of individuals, groups, and communities".
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heart failure (HF), often referred to as congestive heart failure (CHF), is when the heart is unable to pump sufficiently to maintain blood flow to meet the body's needs.
Hematology, also spelled haematology, is the branch of medicine concerned with the study of the cause, prognosis, treatment, and prevention of diseases related to blood.
Hepatology is the branch of medicine that incorporates the study of liver, gallbladder, biliary tree, and pancreas as well as management of their disorders.
Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.
A hormone (from the Greek participle “ὁρμῶ”, "to set in motion, urge on") is any member of a class of signaling molecules produced by glands in multicellular organisms that are transported by the circulatory system to target distant organs to regulate physiology and behaviour.
Hospice and palliative medicine is a formal subspecialty of medicine in the United States that focuses on symptom management, relief of suffering and end-of-life care.
A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment.
Hospital medicine in the United States is the medical specialty concerned with the care of acutely ill hospitalized patients.
The human musculoskeletal system (also known as the locomotor system, and previously the activity system) is an organ system that gives humans the ability to move using their muscular and skeletal systems.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunology is a branch of biology that covers the study of immune systems in all organisms.
In vitro (meaning: in the glass) studies are performed with microorganisms, cells, or biological molecules outside their normal biological context.
Studies that are in vivo (Latin for "within the living"; often not italicized in English) are those in which the effects of various biological entities are tested on whole, living organisms or cells, usually animals, including humans, and plants, as opposed to a tissue extract or dead organism.
The Incident Command System (ICS) is a standardized approach to the command, control, and coordination of emergency response providing a common hierarchy within which responders from multiple agencies can be effective.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Infectious disease, also known as infectious diseases, infectious medicine, infectious disease medicine or infectiology, is a medical specialty dealing with the diagnosis, control and treatment of infections.
In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time.
Intensive care medicine, or critical care medicine, is a branch of medicine concerned with the diagnosis and management of life-threatening conditions that may require sophisticated life support and monitoring.
Intensive care unit An intensive care unit (ICU), also known as an intensive therapy unit or intensive treatment unit (ITU) or critical care unit (CCU), is a special department of a hospital or health care facility that provides intensive treatment medicine.
Internal medicine or general medicine (in Commonwealth nations) is the medical specialty dealing with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of adult diseases.
An internship is a period of work experience offered by an organisation for a limited period of time.
Interventional radiology (IR), sometimes known as vascular and interventional radiology (VIR), is a medical specialty which provides minimally invasive image-guided diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
A joint or articulation (or articular surface) is the connection made between bones in the body which link the skeletal system into a functional whole.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Life support refers to the treatments and techniques performed in an emergency in order to support life after the failure of one or more vital organs.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Lund University (Lunds universitet) is a public university, consistently ranking among the world's top 100 universities.
The male reproductive system consists of a number of sex organs that play a role in the process of human reproduction.
Malignancy is the tendency of a medical condition to become progressively worse.
Maternal–fetal medicine (MFM) (also known as perinatology) is a branch of medicine that focuses on managing health concerns of the mother and fetus prior to, during, and shortly after pregnancy.
Mechanical ventilation is the medical term for artificial ventilation where mechanical means is used to assist or replace spontaneous breathing. This may involve a machine called a ventilator or the breathing may be assisted by an anesthesiologist, certified registered nurse anesthetist, physician, physician assistant, respiratory therapist, paramedic, EMT, or other suitable person compressing a bag or set of bellows. Mechanical ventilation is termed "invasive" if it involves any instrument penetrating the trachea through the mouth, such as an endotracheal tube or the skin, such as a tracheostomy tube. There are two main types: positive pressure ventilation, where air (or another gas mix) is pushed into the trachea, and negative pressure ventilation, where air is, in essence, sucked into the lungs. There are many modes of mechanical ventilation, and their nomenclature has been revised over the decades as the technology has continually developed.
The Medical Council of India (MCI) is a statutory body for establishing uniform and high standards of medical education in India.
Medical education is education related to the practice of being a medical practitioner; either the initial training to become a physician (i.e., medical school and internship), or additional training thereafter (e.g., residency, fellowship and continuing medical education).
Medical genetics is the branch of medicine that involves the diagnosis and management of hereditary disorders.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
Medical jurisprudence or legal medicine is the branch of science and medicine involving the study and application of scientific and medical knowledge to legal problems, such as inquests, and in the field of law.
A medical laboratory or clinical laboratory is a laboratory where tests are carried out on clinical specimens in order to obtain information about the health of a patient in order to provide diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A medical license is an occupational license that permits a person to legally practice medicine.
Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.
Biomedical research (or experimental medicine) encompasses a wide array of research, extending from "basic research" (also called bench science or bench research), – involving fundamental scientific principles that may apply to a ''preclinical'' understanding – to clinical research, which involves studies of people who may be subjects in clinical trials.
A medical school is a tertiary educational institution —or part of such an institution— that teaches medicine, and awards a professional degree for physicians and surgeons.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Mohs surgery, developed in 1938 by a general surgeon, Frederic E. Mohs, is microscopically controlled surgery used to treat common types of skin cancer.
Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.
Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
A nail is a horn-like envelope covering the tips of the fingers and toes in most primates and a few other mammals.
National Board of Examinations (NBE) is an autonomous body under the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (India), Government of India, and established in 1975 at New Delhi as a Society under Delhi Society registration act, to standardizing postgraduate medical education and examination in India.
Neonatology is a subspecialty of pediatrics that consists of the medical care of newborn infants, especially the ill or premature newborn.
Nephrology (from Greek nephros "kidney", combined with the suffix -logy, "the study of") is a specialty of medicine and pediatrics that concerns itself with the kidneys: the study of normal kidney function and kidney disease, the preservation of kidney health, and the treatment of kidney disease, from diet and medication to renal replacement therapy (dialysis and kidney transplantation).
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are a group of birth defects in which an opening in the spinal cord or brain remains from early in human development.
Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.
Neurology (from νεῦρον (neûron), "string, nerve" and the suffix -logia, "study of") is a branch of medicine dealing with disorders of the nervous system.
Neuropsychiatry is a branch of medicine that deals with mental disorders attributable to diseases of the nervous system.
Neuroradiology is a subspecialty of radiology focusing on the diagnosis and characterization of abnormalities of the central and peripheral nervous system, spine, and head and neck using neuroimaging techniques.
Neurosurgery, or neurological surgery, is the medical specialty concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, surgical treatment, and rehabilitation of disorders which affect any portion of the nervous system including the brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves, and extra-cranial cerebrovascular system.
Neurotology or neuro-otology is a branch of clinical medicine which studies and treats neurological disorders of the ear.
Nuclear medicine is a medical specialty involving the application of radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease.
Obstetrics and gynecology (commonly known as OB-GYN, OBG, O&G or obs and gynae in the USA, and referred to as gynae in the UK) is the medical specialty that deals with pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period (obstetrics) and the health of the female reproductive systems (vagina, uterus, and ovaries) and the breasts (gynecology).
Occupational medicine, until 1960 called industrial medicine, is the branch of medicine which is concerned with the maintenance of health in the workplace, including prevention and treatment of diseases and injuries, with secondary objectives of maintaining and increasing productivity and social adjustment in the workplace.
Occupational safety and health (OSH), also commonly referred to as occupational health and safety (OHS), occupational health, or workplace health and safety (WHS), is a multidisciplinary field concerned with the safety, health, and welfare of people at work.
Oncology is a branch of medicine that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of cancer.
Ophthalmology is a branch of medicine and surgery (both methods are used) that deals with the anatomy, physiology and diseases of the eyeball and orbit.
Oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS or OMFS) specializes in treating many diseases, injuries and defects in the head, neck, face, jaws and the hard and soft tissues of the oral (mouth) and maxillofacial (jaws and face) region.
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.
Orthodontia, also called orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics, is a specialty field of dentistry that deals primarily with malpositioned teeth and the jaws: their diagnosis, prevention and correction.
Orthopedic surgery or orthopedics, also spelled orthopaedic, is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system.
Osteopathic medicine is a branch of the medical profession in the United States.
Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.
Pain management, pain medicine, pain control or algiatry, is a branch of medicine employing an interdisciplinary approach for easing the suffering and improving the quality of life of those living with chronic pain The typical pain management team includes medical practitioners, pharmacists, clinical psychologists, physiotherapists, occupational therapists, physician assistants, nurses.
Palliative care is a multidisciplinary approach to specialized medical and nursing care for people with life-limiting illnesses.
In evolutionary biology, parasitism is a relationship between species, where one organism, the parasite, lives on or in another organism, the host, causing it some harm, and is adapted structurally to this way of life.
Pathology (from the Ancient Greek roots of pathos (πάθος), meaning "experience" or "suffering" and -logia (-λογία), "study of") is a significant field in modern medical diagnosis and medical research, concerned mainly with the causal study of disease, whether caused by pathogens or non-infectious physiological disorder.
Pediatric emergency medicine (PEM) is a medical subspecialty of both pediatrics and emergency medicine.
Pediatric endocrinology (British: Paediatric) is a medical subspecialty dealing with disorders of the endocrine glands, such as variations of physical growth and sexual development in childhood, diabetes and many more.
Pediatric gastroenterology developed as a sub-specialty of pediatrics and gastroenterology.
Pediatric Neurosurgery is a subspecialty of neurosurgery; which includes surgical procedures that are related to the nervous system, brain and spinal cord; that treats human children with operable neurological disorders.
Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases, visual development, and vision care in children.
Pediatric surgery is a subspecialty of surgery involving the surgery of fetuses, infants, children, adolescents, and young adults.
Pediatrics (also spelled paediatrics or pædiatrics) is the branch of medicine that involves the medical care of infants, children, and adolescents.
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Peripheral artery disease (PAD) is a narrowing of the arteries other than those that supply the heart or the brain.
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).
Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.
Pharmacology is the branch of biology concerned with the study of drug action, where a drug can be broadly defined as any man-made, natural, or endogenous (from within body) molecule which exerts a biochemical or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, or organism (sometimes the word pharmacon is used as a term to encompass these endogenous and exogenous bioactive species).
Physical medicine and rehabilitation, also known as physiatry, is a branch of medicine that aims to enhance and restore functional ability and quality of life to those with physical impairments or disabilities.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physicians in the United States are doctors that practice medicine for the human body.
Plastic surgery is a surgical specialty involving the restoration, reconstruction, or alteration of the human body.
Podiatry or podiatric medicine is a branch of medicine devoted to the study, diagnosis, and medical and surgical treatment of disorders of the foot, ankle and lower extremity.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
A primary care physician is a physician who provides both the first contact for a person with an undiagnosed health concern as well as continuing care of varied medical conditions, not limited by cause, organ system, or diagnosis.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychosomatic medicine is an interdisciplinary medical field exploring the relationships among social, psychological, and behavioral factors on bodily processes and quality of life in humans and animals.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Public health is "the science and art of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts and informed choices of society, organizations, public and private, communities and individuals".
Pulmonology is a medical speciality that deals with diseases involving the respiratory tract.
Radiation therapy or radiotherapy, often abbreviated RT, RTx, or XRT, is therapy using ionizing radiation, generally as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
Radiography is an imaging technique using X-rays to view the internal form of an object.
Radiology is the science that uses medical imaging to diagnose and sometimes also treat diseases within the body.
The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.
Reproductive endocrinology and infertility (REI) is a surgical subspecialty of obstetrics and gynecology that trains physicians in reproductive medicine addressing hormonal functioning as it pertains to reproduction as well as the issue of infertility.
Reproductive medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with prevention, diagnosis and management of reproductive problems; goals include improving or maintaining reproductive health and allowing people to have children at a time of their choosing.
Residency is a stage of graduate medical training.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Rheumatism or rheumatic disorder is an umbrella term for conditions causing chronic, often intermittent pain affecting the joints and/or connective tissue.
Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.
Rida Khan is a Pakistani politician who had been a member of the National Assembly of Pakistan, from June 2013 to May 2018.
The Royal Australasian College of Dental Surgeons (RACDS) is a postgraduate professional education college established in 1965 to provide a broad range of activities to enhance the professional development of both general and specialist dentists through individually actioned studies and examinations which lead to Membership or Fellowship of the College.
The Royal Australasian College of Medical Administrators (RACMA) is an accredited specialist medical college comprising medical practitioners with specialist training in management and leadership of health services and systems.
The Royal Australasian College of Physicians (RACP) is a not-for-profit professional organisation responsible for training, educating, and representing 17,000 physicians and paediatricians and 8000 trainees in 33 medical specialties in Australia and New Zealand.
The Royal Australasian College of Surgeons (RACS) is the leading advocate for surgical standards, professionalism and surgical education in Australia and New Zealand.
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists (RANZCOG) is the body responsible for training and examining obstetricians and gynaecologists in New Zealand and Australia.
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists (RANZCO) is the medical college responsible for training and professional development of ophthalmologists in Australia and New Zealand.
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) is the principal organisation representing the medical specialty of psychiatry in Australia and New Zealand and has responsibility for training, examining and awarding the qualification of Fellowship of the College (FRANZCP) to medical practitioners.
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists (RANZCR) is the leading professional organisation for the promotion of the science and practice of the medical specialties of clinical radiology (diagnostic and interventional radiology) and radiation oncology in Australia and New Zealand.
The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners (RACGP) is the professional body for general practitioners (GPs) in Australia.
The Royal College of Pathologists of Australasia is a medical organization that promotes the science and practice of pathology.
The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada (Royal College) (French: Collège royal des médecins et chirurgiens du Canada) is a regulatory college which acts as a national, nonprofit organization established in 1929 by a special Act of Parliament to oversee the medical education of specialists in Canada.
The Royal New Zealand College Of General Practitioners (RNZCGP) is the professional body which provides training and ongoing professional development for general practitioners and rural hospital generalists, and sets standards for general practice in New Zealand.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sleep medicine is a medical specialty or subspecialty devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of sleep disturbances and disorders.
The social determinants of health are linked to the economic and social conditions and their distribution among the population that influence individual and group differences in health status.
The Society of General Internal Medicine (SGIM) is an American professional society composed of physicians engaged in internal medicine research and teaching.
A specialty, or speciality, in medicine is a branch of medical practice.
A specialty registrar (StR) is a doctor, public health practitioner or dentist who is working as part of a specialty training programme in the UK.
Sports medicine, also known as sport and exercise medicine is a branch of medicine that deals with physical fitness and the treatment and prevention of injuries related to sports and exercise.
Stereotactic surgery or stereotaxy is a minimally invasive form of surgical intervention which makes use of a three-dimensional coordinate system to locate small targets inside the body and to perform on them some action such as ablation, biopsy, lesion, injection, stimulation, implantation, radiosurgery (SRS), etc.
In medicine, a surgeon is a physician who performs surgical operations.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
Surgical oncology is the branch of surgery applied to oncology; it focuses on the surgical management of tumors, especially cancerous tumors.
Sweat glands, also known as sudoriferous or sudoriparous glands,, are small tubular structures of the skin that produce sweat.
Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.
Terminal illness is an incurable disease that cannot be adequately treated and is reasonably expected to result in the death of the patient.
The National Law Review is an American law journal, legal news website and legal analysis content-aggregating database.
The thoracic cavity (or chest cavity) is the chamber of the body of vertebrates that is protected by the thoracic wall (rib cage and associated skin, muscle, and fascia).
The thorax or chest (from the Greek θώραξ thorax "breastplate, cuirass, corslet" via thorax) is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals located between the neck and the abdomen.
The thyroid gland, or simply the thyroid, is an endocrine gland in the neck, consisting of two lobes connected by an isthmus.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
Toxicology is a discipline, overlapping with biology, chemistry, pharmacology, and medicine, that involves the study of the adverse effects of chemical substances on living organisms and the practice of diagnosing and treating exposures to toxins and toxicants.
Transfusion medicine (or transfusiology) is the branch of medicine that is concerned with transfusion of blood and blood components.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The urinary system, also known as the renal system or urinary tract, consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and the urethra.
Urology (from Greek οὖρον ouron "urine" and -λογία -logia "study of"), also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female urinary-tract system and the male reproductive organs.
Vascular surgery is a surgical subspecialty in which diseases of the vascular system, or arteries, veins and lymphatic circulation, are managed by medical therapy, minimally-invasive catheter procedures, and surgical reconstruction.
The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.
A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.
Whole blood (WB) is human blood from a standard blood donation.
Wilderness medicine, providing "vital emergency care in remote settings" is a rapidly evolving field and is of increasing importance as more people engage in hiking, climbing, kayaking and other potentially hazardous activities in the backcountry.
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