117 relations: Acoustics, Alaryngeal speech, Alogia, Animal language, Anomic aphasia, Ape, Aphasia, Arcuate fasciculus, Articulation (phonetics), Articulatory phonetics, Ataxia, Auditory cortex, Auditory processing disorder, Birth defect, Brain, Broca's area, Cancer, Carl Wernicke, Categorical perception, Child, Cleft lip and cleft palate, Cognition, Cognitive science, Communication, Communication studies, Computer science, Consonant, Culture, Diglossia, Donald Duck talk, Dysarthria, Dystonia, Esophageal speech, Expressive aphasia, FOXP2, Freedom of speech, Glottis, Hearing loss, Homorganic consonant, Human brain, Imagined speech, Index of linguistics articles, Jargon aphasia, Kanzi, Language, Language acquisition, Larynx, Lateral sulcus, Lateralization of brain function, Lev Vygotsky, ..., Lexicon, Linguistics, Lisp, List of language disorders, Lung, Manner of articulation, Motor cortex, Motor neuron disease, Motor planning, Mutual intelligibility, Nasalization, Nerve, Origin of language, Otitis media, Otorhinolaryngology, Paralysis, Paul Broca, Phonation, Phoneme, Phonetics, Phonology, Place of articulation, Prefrontal cortex, Project MUSE, Psychologist, Psychology, Public speaking, Pulmonic consonant, Receptive aphasia, Relaxed pronunciation, Sign language, Singing, Sound, Spatial hearing loss, Speculation, Speech error, Speech perception, Speech processing, Speech recognition, Speech repetition, Speech-language pathology, Speechwriter, Spoken language, Stream of consciousness (psychology), Stuttering, Superior temporal gyrus, Syntax, Talking bird, Telegraphic speech, Tic, Tongue disease, Tourette syndrome, University of Ottawa Press, Vocabulary, Vocal fold nodule, Vocal folds, Vocal tract, Vocology, Voice (phonetics), Voice onset time, Vowel, Washoe (chimpanzee), Wernicke's area, Wernicke–Geschwind model, Wildness, Written language, YouTube. Expand index (67 more) » « Shrink index
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
Alaryngeal speech is speech made using sources other than the glottis in the larynx to create voiced sound.
In psychology, alogia (Greek ἀ-, “without”, and λόγος, “speech”), or poverty of speech, is a general lack of additional, unprompted content seen in normal speech.
Animal languages are forms of non-human animal communication that show similarities to human language.
Anomic aphasia (also known as dysnomia, nominal aphasia, and amnesic aphasia) is a mild, fluent type of aphasia where an individual has word retrieval failures and cannot express the words they want to say (particularly nouns and verbs).
Apes (Hominoidea) are a branch of Old World tailless anthropoid primates native to Africa and Southeast Asia.
Aphasia is an inability to comprehend and formulate language because of damage to specific brain regions.
The arcuate fasciculus (curved bundle) is a bundle of axons that forms part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, an association fiber tract.
In phonetics and phonology, articulation is the movement of the tongue, lips, jaw, and other speech organs (the articulators) in ways that make speech sounds.
The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics.
Ataxia is a neurological sign consisting of lack of voluntary coordination of muscle movements that includes gait abnormality.
The primary auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and other vertebrates.
Auditory processing disorder (APD), also known as central auditory processing disorder (CAPD), is an umbrella term for a variety of disorders that affect the way the brain processes auditory information.
A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Broca's area or the Broca area or is a region in the frontal lobe of the dominant hemisphere, usually the left, of the hominid brain with functions linked to speech production.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
Carl (or Karl) Wernicke (15 May 1848 – 15 June 1905) was a German physician, anatomist, psychiatrist and neuropathologist.
Categorical perception is a phenomenon of perception of distinct categories when there is a gradual change in a variable along a continuum.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human being between the stages of birth and puberty.
Cleft lip and cleft palate, also known as orofacial cleft, is a group of conditions that includes cleft lip (CL), cleft palate (CP), and both together (CLP).
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive science is the interdisciplinary, scientific study of the mind and its processes.
Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.
Communication studies or communication sciences is an academic discipline that deals with processes of human communication.
Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.
Donald Duck talk, formally called buccal speech, is an alaryngeal form of vocalization which uses the inner cheek to produce sound rather than the larynx.
Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder resulting from neurological injury of the motor component of the motor-speech system and is characterized by poor articulation of phonemes.
Dystonia is a neurological movement disorder syndrome in which sustained or repetitive muscle contractions result in twisting and repetitive movements or abnormal fixed postures.
Esophageal speech, also known as esophageal voice, is a method of speech production that involves oscillation of the esophagus.
Expressive aphasia, also known as Broca's aphasia, is a type of aphasia characterized by partial loss of the ability to produce language (spoken, manual, or written), although comprehension generally remains intact.
Forkhead box protein P2 (FOXP2) is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the FOXP2 gene, also known as CAGH44, SPCH1 or TNRC10, and is required for proper development of speech and language.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
The glottis is defined as the opening between the vocal folds (the rima glottidis).
Hearing loss, also known as hearing impairment, is a partial or total inability to hear.
In phonetics, a homorganic consonant (from homo- "same" and organ "(speech) organ") is a consonant sound articulated in the same place of articulation as another.
The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.
Imagined speech (silent speech or covert speech) is thinking in the form of sound – “hearing” one’s own voice silently to oneself, without the intentional movement of any extremities such as the lips, tongue, or hands.
Linguistics is the scientific study of human language.
Jargon aphasia is a type of fluent aphasia in which an individual's speech is incomprehensible, but appears to make sense to the individual.
Kanzi (born October 28, 1980), also known by the lexigram (from the character 太), is a male bonobo who has been featured in several studies on great ape language.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Language acquisition is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive and comprehend language, as well as to produce and use words and sentences to communicate.
The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.
The lateral sulcus (also called Sylvian fissure or lateral fissure) is one of the most prominent features of the human brain.
The lateralization of brain function is the tendency for some neural functions or cognitive processes to be specialized to one side of the brain or the other.
Lev Semyonovich Vygotsky (p; – June 11, 1934) was a Soviet psychologist, the founder of an unfinished theory of human cultural and bio-social development commonly referred to as cultural-historical psychology, a prominent advocate for a new theory of consciousness, the "psychology of superman", and leader of the Vygotsky Circle (also referred to as "Vygotsky-Luria Circle").
A lexicon, word-hoard, wordbook, or word-stock is the vocabulary of a person, language, or branch of knowledge (such as nautical or medical).
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
A lisp, also known as sigmatism, is a speech impediment in which a person misarticulates sibilants,. These misarticulations often result in unclear speech.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.
The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.
A motor neuron disease (MND) is any of several neurodegenerative disorders that selectively affect motor neurons, the cells that control voluntary muscles of the body.
In psychology and neuroscience, motor planning is a set of processes related to the preparation of a movement that occurs during the reaction time (the time between the presentation of a stimulus to a person and that person's initiation of a motor response).
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
In phonetics, nasalization (or nasalisation) is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that some air escapes through the nose during the production of the sound by the mouth.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
The evolutionary emergence of language in the human species has been a subject of speculation for several centuries.
Otitis media is a group of inflammatory diseases of the middle ear.
Otorhinolaryngology (also called otolaryngology and otolaryngology–head and neck surgery) is a surgical subspecialty within medicine that deals with conditions of the ear, nose, and throat (ENT) and related structures of the head and neck.
Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.
Pierre Paul Broca (28 June 1824 – 9 July 1880) was a French physician, anatomist and anthropologist.
The term phonation has slightly different meanings depending on the subfield of phonetics.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).
In mammalian brain anatomy, the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is the cerebral cortex which covers the front part of the frontal lobe.
Project MUSE, a non-profit collaboration between libraries and publishers, is an online database of peer-reviewed academic journals and electronic books.
A psychologist studies normal and abnormal mental states from cognitive, emotional, and social processes and behavior by observing, interpreting, and recording how individuals relate to one another and to their environments.
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.
Public speaking (also called oratory or oration) is the process or act of performing a speech to a live audience.
A pulmonic consonant is a consonant produced by air pressure from the lungs, as opposed to ejective, implosive and click consonants.
Wernicke's aphasia, also known as receptive aphasia, sensory aphasia, or posterior aphasia, is a type of aphasia in which individuals have difficulty understanding written and spoken language.
Relaxed pronunciation (also called condensed pronunciation or word slurs) is a phenomenon that happens when the syllables of common words are slurred together.
Sign languages (also known as signed languages) are languages that use manual communication to convey meaning.
Singing is the act of producing musical sounds with the voice and augments regular speech by the use of sustained tonality, rhythm, and a variety of vocal techniques.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
Spatial hearing loss, refers to a form of deafness that is an inability to use spatial cues about where a sound originates from in space.
Speculation is the purchase of an asset (a commodity, goods, or real estate) with the hope that it will become more valuable at a future date.
A speech error, commonly referred to as a slip of the tongue (Latin: lapsus linguae, or occasionally self-demonstratingly, lipsus languae) or misspeaking, is a deviation (conscious or unconscious) from the apparently intended form of an utterance.
Speech perception is the process by which the sounds of language are heard, interpreted and understood.
Speech processing is the study of speech signals and the processing methods of these signals.
Speech recognition is the inter-disciplinary sub-field of computational linguistics that develops methodologies and technologies that enables the recognition and translation of spoken language into text by computers.
Children copy with their own mouths the words spoken by the mouths of those around them. This enables them to learn the pronunciation of words not already in their vocabulary. Speech repetition is the saying by one individual of the spoken vocalizations made by another individual.
Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.
A speechwriter is a person who is hired to prepare and write speeches that will be delivered by another person.
A spoken language is a language produced by articulate sounds, as opposed to a written language.
Stream of consciousness refers to the flow of thoughts in the conscious mind.
Stuttering, also known as stammering, is a speech disorder in which the flow of speech is disrupted by involuntary repetitions and prolongations of sounds, syllables, words or phrases as well as involuntary silent pauses or blocks in which the person who stutters is unable to produce sounds. The term stuttering is most commonly associated with involuntary sound repetition, but it also encompasses the abnormal hesitation or pausing before speech, referred to by people who stutter as blocks, and the prolongation of certain sounds, usually vowels or semivowels. According to Watkins et al., stuttering is a disorder of "selection, initiation, and execution of motor sequences necessary for fluent speech production." For many people who stutter, repetition is the primary problem. The term "stuttering" covers a wide range of severity, encompassing barely perceptible impediments that are largely cosmetic to severe symptoms that effectively prevent oral communication. In the world, approximately four times as many men as women stutter, encompassing 70 million people worldwide, or about 1% of the world's population. The impact of stuttering on a person's functioning and emotional state can be severe. This may include fears of having to enunciate specific vowels or consonants, fears of being caught stuttering in social situations, self-imposed isolation, anxiety, stress, shame, being a possible target of bullying having to use word substitution and rearrange words in a sentence to hide stuttering, or a feeling of "loss of control" during speech. Stuttering is sometimes popularly seen as a symptom of anxiety, but there is actually no direct correlation in that direction (though as mentioned the inverse can be true, as social anxiety may actually develop in individuals as a result of their stuttering). Stuttering is generally not a problem with the physical production of speech sounds or putting thoughts into words. Acute nervousness and stress do not cause stuttering, but they can trigger stuttering in people who have the speech disorder, and living with a stigmatized disability can result in anxiety and high allostatic stress load (chronic nervousness and stress) that reduce the amount of acute stress necessary to trigger stuttering in any given person who stutters, exacerbating the problem in the manner of a positive feedback system; the name 'stuttered speech syndrome' has been proposed for this condition. Neither acute nor chronic stress, however, itself creates any predisposition to stuttering. The disorder is also variable, which means that in certain situations, such as talking on the telephone or in a large group, the stuttering might be more severe or less, depending on whether or not the stutterer is self-conscious about their stuttering. Stutterers often find that their stuttering fluctuates and that they have "good" days, "bad" days and "stutter-free" days. The times in which their stuttering fluctuates can be random. Although the exact etiology, or cause, of stuttering is unknown, both genetics and neurophysiology are thought to contribute. There are many treatments and speech therapy techniques available that may help decrease speech disfluency in some people who stutter to the point where an untrained ear cannot identify a problem; however, there is essentially no cure for the disorder at present. The severity of the person's stuttering would correspond to the amount of speech therapy needed to decrease disfluency. For severe stuttering, long-term therapy and hard work is required to decrease disfluency.
The superior temporal gyrus is one of three (sometimes two) gyri in the temporal lobe of the human brain, which is located laterally to the head, situated somewhat above the external ear.
In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.
Talking birds are birds that can mimic the spoken language of humans.
Telegraphic speech, according to linguistics and psychology, is speech during the two-word stage of language acquisition in children, which is laconic and efficient.
A tic is a sudden, repetitive, nonrhythmic motor movement or vocalization involving discrete muscle groups.
Tongue diseases can be congenital or acquired, and are multiple in number.
Tourette syndrome (TS or simply Tourette's) is a common neuropsychiatric disorder with onset in childhood, characterized by multiple motor tics and at least one vocal (phonic) tic.
The University of Ottawa Press (Les Presses de l'Université d'Ottawa) is a bilingual university press located in Ottawa, Ontario.
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Vocal fold nodules are bilaterally symmetrical benign white masses that form at the midpoint of the vocal folds.
The vocal folds, also known commonly as vocal cords or voice reeds, are composed of twin infoldings of mucous membrane stretched horizontally, from back to front, across the larynx.
The vocal tract is the cavity in human beings and in animals where the sound produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered.
Vocology is the science and practice of vocal habilitation.
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
In phonetics, voice onset time (VOT) is a feature of the production of stop consonants.
A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.
Washoe (c. September 1965 – October 30, 2007) was a female common chimpanzee who was the first non-human to learn to communicate using American Sign Language as part of a research experiment on animal language acquisition.
Wernicke's area, also called Wernicke's speech area, is one of the two parts of the cerebral cortex that are linked to speech (the other is Broca's area).
Carl Wernicke created an early neurological model of language, that later was revived by Norman Geschwind.
Wildness, in its literal sense, is the quality of being wild or untamed.
A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.