36 relations: Angiogenesis, Apoptosis, Atresia, Cancer, Cell growth, Cell signaling, Ceramidase, Ceramide, Endoplasmic reticulum, Eugene C. Butcher, Extracellular matrix, Fibroblast, Fingolimod, Glucocorticoid, High-density lipoprotein, Keratinocyte, Lipid signaling, Lysophosphatidic acid, Lysophospholipid receptor, Macular degeneration, Model organism, Monoclonal antibody, Multiple sclerosis, Ovarian follicle, Ozanimod, Premature ovarian failure, Renal cell carcinoma, S1PR1, S1PR2, Skin, Sphingolipid, Sphingosine, Sphingosine kinase, Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor, Toll-like receptor, Xenotransplantation.
Angiogenesis is the physiological process through which new blood vessels form from pre-existing vessels.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Atresia is a condition in which an orifice or passage in the body is (usually abnormally) closed or absent.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The term cell growth is used in the contexts of biological cell development and cell division (reproduction).
Cell signaling (cell signalling in British English) is part of any communication process that governs basic activities of cells and coordinates all cell actions.
Ceramidase (acylsphingosine deacylase, glycosphingolipid ceramide deacylase) is an enzyme which cleaves fatty acids from ceramide, producing sphingosine (SPH) which in turn is phosphorylated by a sphingosine kinase to form sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P).
Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Eugene C. "Gene" Butcher, M.D. (born 6 January 1950) is an immunologist and a Professor of Pathology at Stanford University.
In biology, the extracellular matrix (ECM) is a collection of extracellular molecules secreted by support cells that provides structural and biochemical support to the surrounding cells.
A fibroblast is a type of biological cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework (stroma) for animal tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing.
Fingolimod (INN, trade name Gilenya, Novartis) is an immunomodulating drug, mostly used for treating multiple sclerosis (MS).
Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.
High-density lipoproteins (HDL) are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.
A keratinocyte is the predominant cell type in the epidermis, the outermost layer of the skin, constituting 90% of the cells found there.
Lipid signaling, broadly defined, refers to any biological signaling event involving a lipid messenger that binds a protein target, such as a receptor, kinase or phosphatase, which in turn mediate the effects of these lipids on specific cellular responses.
Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a phospholipid derivative that can act as a signaling molecule.
The lysophospholipid receptor (LPL-R) group are members of the G protein-coupled receptor family of integral membrane proteins that are important for lipid signaling.
Macular degeneration, also known as age-related macular degeneration (AMD or ARMD), is a medical condition which may result in blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field.
A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.
Monoclonal antibodies (mAb or moAb) are antibodies that are made by identical immune cells that are all clones of a unique parent cell.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
An ovarian follicle is a roughly spheroid cellular aggregation set found in the ovaries.
Ozanimod (RPC-1063) is an investigational immunomodulatory drug currently in phase III clinical trials for the therapy of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS) and ulcerative colitis (UC).
Premature ovarian failure (POF) is the loss of function of the ovaries before age 40.
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kidney cancer that originates in the lining of the proximal convoluted tubule, a part of the very small tubes in the kidney that transport primary urine.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P receptor 1 or S1P1), also known as endothelial differentiation gene 1 (EDG1) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the S1PR1 gene.
Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 2 also known as S1PR2 or S1P2 is a human gene which encodes a G protein-coupled receptor which binds the lipid signaling molecule sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P).
Skin is the soft outer tissue covering vertebrates.
Sphingolipids are a class of lipids containing a backbone of sphingoid bases, a set of aliphatic amino alcohols that includes sphingosine.
Sphingosine (2-amino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol) is an 18-carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, which forms a primary part of sphingolipids, a class of cell membrane lipids that include sphingomyelin, an important phospholipid.
Sphingosine kinase (SphK) is a conserved lipid kinase that catalyzes formation sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) from the precursor sphingolipid sphingosine.
The sphingosine-1-phosphate receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors that are targets of the lipid signalling molecule Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P).
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are a class of proteins that play a key role in the innate immune system.
Xenotransplantation (xenos- from the Greek meaning "foreign"), is the transplantation of living cells, tissues or organs from one species to another.