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Spinal cord

Index Spinal cord

The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular bundle of nervous tissue and support cells that extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. [1]

163 relations: Accessory cuneate nucleus, Action potential, Adipose tissue, Afferent nerve fiber, Alar plate, Allen Institute for Brain Science, Anastomosis, Anatomical terms of location, Anterior grey column, Anterior median fissure of spinal cord, Anterior spinal artery, Anterior white commissure, Antioxidant, Arachnoid mater, Artery of Adamkiewicz, Axial skeleton, Axon, Birth defect, Blood vessel, Bone, Bone morphogenetic protein, Brachial plexus, Brain, Brainstem, Brodmann area, Brown-Séquard syndrome, Cauda equina, Caudate nucleus, Central canal, Central nervous system, Central pattern generator, Centromedian nucleus, Cerebral cortex, Cerebral crus, Cerebrospinal fluid, Cervical enlargement, Cervical vertebrae, Coccyx, Conus medullaris, Corticospinal tract, Cuneate fasciculus, Cuneate nucleus, Decussation, Denticulate ligaments, Diastematomyelia, Dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway, Dorsal root ganglion, Dura mater, Ectoderm, Efferent, ..., Epidural space, Fastigial nucleus, Filum terminale, Floor plate, Foramen magnum, Fourth ventricle, Friedreich's ataxia, Ganglion, Gracile fasciculus, Gracile nucleus, Grey column, Grey commissure, Grey matter, Hand, Hereditary spastic paraplegia, Hippocampus, Human, Human leg, Hyperreflexia, Hypertonia, Hyporeflexia, Hypotonia, Inferior cerebellar peduncle, Internal arcuate fibers, Internal capsule, Interposed nucleus, Intervertebral disc, Intervertebral foramen, Lumbar, Lumbar enlargement, Lumbar nerves, Lumbar puncture, Lumbar vertebrae, Lumbosacral plexus, Medial lemniscus, Medical imaging, Medulla oblongata, Medullary pyramids (brainstem), Meninges, Methylprednisolone, Motor cortex, Motor neuron, Muscle atrophy, Myelin, Myotome, Nerve fascicle, Nervous tissue, Netrin, Neural tube, Neurogenic shock, Neuroglia, Neuron, Neutral spine, Notochord, Nucleus raphe magnus, Occipital bone, Oval, Paralysis, Paraplegia, Periaqueductal gray, Peripheral nervous system, Pia mater, Poliomyelitis, Post-polio syndrome, Postcentral gyrus, Posterior external arcuate fibers, Posterior grey column, Posterior median sulcus of spinal cord, Posterior spinal artery, Posterior thoracic nucleus, Posterolateral tract, Programmed cell death, Proprioception, Radicular artery, Redlich–Obersteiner's zone, Reflex, Reflex arc, Reticular formation, Rubrospinal tract, Sacrum, Segmental medullary artery, Sensory cortex, Sensory neuron, Skull, Sonic hedgehog, Spina bifida, Spinal canal, Spinal interneuron, Spinal nerve, Spinal shock, Spinal stenosis, Spinal tumor, Spinothalamic tract, Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, Substantia gelatinosa of Rolando, Sulcus limitans, Superior cerebellar peduncle, Tectospinal tract, Tethered spinal cord syndrome, Tetraplegia, Thalamus, Thecal sac, Thoracic vertebrae, Transverse myelitis, University of Cincinnati, Upper limb, Upper-limb surgery in tetraplegia, Ventral posterolateral nucleus, Ventral spinocerebellar tract, Vertebra, Vertebral column, Vestibulospinal tract, White matter. Expand index (113 more) »

Accessory cuneate nucleus

The accessory cuneate nucleus is located lateral to the cuneate nucleus in the medulla oblongata at the level of the sensory decussation (the crossing fibers of the posterior column/medial lemniscus tract).

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Adipose tissue

In biology, adipose tissue, body fat, or simply fat is a loose connective tissue composed mostly of adipocytes.

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Afferent nerve fiber

Afferent nerve fibers refer to axonal projections that arrive at a particular region; as opposed to efferent projections that exit the region.

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Alar plate

The alar plate (or alar lamina) is a neural structure in the embryonic nervous system, part of the dorsal side of neural tube, that involves the communication of general somatic and general visceral sensory impulses.

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Allen Institute for Brain Science

The Allen Institute for Brain Science is a Seattle-based independent, nonprofit medical research organization dedicated to accelerating the understanding of how the human brain works.

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An anastomosis (plural anastomoses) is a connection or opening between two things (especially cavities or passages) that are normally diverging or branching, such as between blood vessels, leaf veins, or streams.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Anterior grey column

The anterior grey column (also called the anterior cornu, anterior horn of spinal cord or ventral horn) is the front column of grey matter in the spinal cord.

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Anterior median fissure of spinal cord

The anterior median fissure of the spinal cord has an average depth of about 3 mm, but this is increased in the lower part of the spinal cord.

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Anterior spinal artery

In human anatomy, the anterior spinal artery is the artery that supplies the anterior portion of the spinal cord.

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Anterior white commissure

The anterior white commissure (ventral white commissure) is a bundle of nerve fibers which cross the midline of the spinal cord just anterior (in front of) to the gray commissure (Rexed lamina X).

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Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.

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Arachnoid mater

The arachnoid mater is one of the three meninges, the protective membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord.

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Artery of Adamkiewicz

In human anatomy, the artery of Adamkiewicz (also arteria radicularis magna) is the largest anterior segmental medullary artery.

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Axial skeleton

The axial skeleton is the part of the skeleton that consists of the bones of the head and trunk of a vertebrate.

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An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Birth defect

A birth defect, also known as a congenital disorder, is a condition present at birth regardless of its cause.

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Blood vessel

The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.

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A bone is a rigid organ that constitutes part of the vertebrate skeleton.

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Bone morphogenetic protein

Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are a group of growth factors also known as cytokines and as metabologens.

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Brachial plexus

The brachial plexus is a network of nerves formed by the anterior rami of the lower four cervical nerves and first thoracic nerve (C5, C6, C7, C8, and T1).

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The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.

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The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior part of the brain, adjoining and structurally continuous with the spinal cord.

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Brodmann area

A Brodmann area is a region of the cerebral cortex, in the human or other primate brain, defined by its cytoarchitecture, or histological structure and organization of cells.

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Brown-Séquard syndrome

Brown-Séquard syndrome (also known as Brown-Séquard's hemiplegia, Brown-Séquard's paralysis, hemiparaplegic syndrome, hemiplegia et hemiparaplegia spinalis, or spinal hemiparaplegia) is caused by damage to one half of the spinal cord, resulting in paralysis and loss of proprioception on the same (or ipsilateral) side as the injury or lesion, and loss of pain and temperature sensation on the opposite (or contralateral) side as the lesion.

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Cauda equina

The cauda equina is a bundle of spinal nerves and spinal nerve rootlets, consisting of the second through fifth lumbar nerve pairs, the first through fifth sacral nerve pairs, and the coccygeal nerve, all of which arise from the lumbar enlargement and the conus medullaris of the spinal cord.

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Caudate nucleus

The caudate nucleus is one of the structures that make up the dorsal striatum, which is a component of the basal ganglia.

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Central canal

The central canal, also known as ependymal canal, is the cerebrospinal fluid-filled space that runs longitudinally through the length of the entire spinal cord.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Central pattern generator

Central pattern generators (CPGs) are biological neural circuits that produce rhythmic outputs in the absence of rhythmic input.

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Centromedian nucleus

In the anatomy of the brain, the centromedian nucleus, also known as the centrum medianum, (CM or Cm-Pf) is a part of the intralaminar nucleus (ILN) of the thalamus.

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Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

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Cerebral crus

The cerebral crus (crus cerebri) is the anterior portion of the cerebral peduncle which contains the motor tracts, the plural of which is cerebral crura.

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Cerebrospinal fluid

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a clear, colorless body fluid found in the brain and spinal cord.

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Cervical enlargement

The cervical enlargement corresponds with the attachments of the large nerves which supply the upper limbs.

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Cervical vertebrae

In vertebrates, cervical vertebrae (singular: vertebra) are the vertebrae of the neck, immediately below the skull.

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The coccyx, commonly referred to as the tailbone, is the final segment of the vertebral column in humans and apes, and certain other mammals such as horses.

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Conus medullaris

The conus medullaris (Latin for "medullary cone") or conus terminalis is the tapered, lower end of the spinal cord.

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Corticospinal tract

The corticospinal tract is a white matter motor pathway starting at the cerebral cortex that terminates on lower motor neurons and interneurons in the spinal cord, controlling movements of the limbs and trunk.

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Cuneate fasciculus

The cuneate fasciculus, fasciculus cuneatus, cuneate tract, (tract of Burdach, named for Karl Friedrich Burdach) is a tract of nerves in the dorsal column of the spinal cord that primarily transmits information from the upper part of the body (the neck, trunk, and arms).

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Cuneate nucleus

One of the dorsal column nuclei, the cuneate nucleus is a wedge-shaped nucleus in the closed part of the medulla oblongata.

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Decussation is used in biological contexts to describe a crossing (Latin: the roman numeral for ten, deca, is an uppercase 'X').

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Denticulate ligaments

The pia mater of the spinal cord has a pair of denticulate ligaments (one on each side of the spinal cord) with 21 attachments per side which attach it to the arachnoid and dura mater.

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Diastematomyelia (occasionally diastomyelia) is a congenital disorder in which a part of the spinal cord is split, usually at the level of the upper lumbar vertebra.

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Dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway

The dorsal column–medial lemniscus pathway (DCML) (also known as the posterior column-medial lemniscus pathway (PCML)) is a sensory pathway of the central nervous system that conveys sensations of fine touch, vibration, two-point discrimination, and proprioception (position) from the skin and joints.

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Dorsal root ganglion

A dorsal root ganglion (or spinal ganglion) (also known as a posterior root ganglion), is a cluster of neurons (a ganglion) in a dorsal root of a spinal nerve.

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Dura mater

Dura mater, or dura, is a thick membrane made of dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord.

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Ectoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.

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Efferent is an anatomical term with the following meanings.

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Epidural space

In the spine, the epidural space (from Ancient Greek ἐπί, "on, upon" + dura mater also known as "epidural cavity", "extradural space" or "peridural space") is an anatomic space that is the outermost part of the spinal canal.

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Fastigial nucleus

The fastigial nucleus is located in the cerebellum.

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Filum terminale

The filum terminale ("terminal thread") is a delicate strand of fibrous tissue, about 20 cm in length, proceeding downward from the apex of the conus medullaris.

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Floor plate

The floor plate is a structure integral to the developing nervous system of vertebrate organisms.

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Foramen magnum

The foramen magnum (great hole) is a large oval opening (foramen) in the occipital bone of the skull in humans and various other animals.

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Fourth ventricle

The fourth ventricle is one of the four connected fluid-filled cavities within the human brain.

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Friedreich's ataxia

Friedreich's ataxia is an autosomal recessive inherited disease that causes progressive damage to the nervous system.

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A ganglion is a nerve cell cluster or a group of nerve cell bodies located in the autonomic nervous system and sensory system.

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Gracile fasciculus

The gracile fasciculus (fasciculus gracilis, tract of Goll or gracile tract) is a tract, a bundle of nerve fibers in the dorsal column-medial lemniscus pathway of the spinal cord and carries information from the lower parts of the body.

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Gracile nucleus

Located in the medulla oblongata, the gracile nucleus is one of the dorsal column nuclei that participate in the sensation of fine touch and proprioception of the lower body (legs and trunk).

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Grey column

The grey column refers to a somewhat ridge-shaped mass of grey matter in the spinal cord.

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Grey commissure

The grey commissure is a thin strip of grey matter that surrounds the central canal of the spinal cord and, along with the anterior white commissure, connects the two halves of the cord.

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Grey matter

Grey matter (or gray matter) is a major component of the central nervous system, consisting of neuronal cell bodies, neuropil (dendrites and myelinated as well as unmyelinated axons), glial cells (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes), synapses, and capillaries.

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A hand is a prehensile, multi-fingered appendage located at the end of the forearm or forelimb of primates such as humans, chimpanzees, monkeys, and lemurs.

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Hereditary spastic paraplegia

Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a group of inherited diseases whose main feature is a progressive gait disorder.

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The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.

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Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.

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Human leg

The human leg, in the general meaning, is the entire lower limb of the human body, including the foot, thigh and even the hip or gluteal region.

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Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes.

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Hypertonia is a term sometimes used synonymously with spasticity and rigidity in the literature surrounding damage to the central nervous system, namely upper motor neuron lesions.

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Hyporeflexia refers to below normal or absent reflexes (areflexia).

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Hypotonia, commonly known as floppy baby syndrome, is a state of low muscle tone (the amount of tension or resistance to stretch in a muscle), often involving reduced muscle strength.

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Inferior cerebellar peduncle

The upper part of the posterior district of the medulla oblongata is occupied by the inferior cerebellar peduncle, a thick rope-like strand situated between the lower part of the fourth ventricle and the roots of the glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves. Each cerebellar inferior peduncle connects the spinal cord and medulla oblongata with the cerebellum, and comprises the juxtarestiform body and restiform body. Important fibers running through the inferior cerebellar peduncle include the dorsal spinocerebellar tract and axons from the inferior olivary nucleus, among others.

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Internal arcuate fibers

The internal arcuate fibers are the axons of second-order sensory neurons that compose the gracile and cuneate nuclei of the medulla oblongata.

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Internal capsule

The internal capsule is a white matter structure situated in the inferomedial part of each cerebral hemisphere of the brain.

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Interposed nucleus

The interposed nucleus is part of the deep cerebellar complex and is composed of the globose nucleus and the emboliform nucleus.

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Intervertebral disc

An intervertebral disc (or intervertebral fibrocartilage) lies between adjacent vertebrae in the vertebral column.

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Intervertebral foramen

The intervertebral foramen (also called neural foramen, and often abbreviated as IV foramen or IVF), is a foramen between two spinal vertebrae.

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In tetrapod anatomy, lumbar is an adjective that means of or pertaining to the abdominal segment of the torso, between the diaphragm and the sacrum. The lumbar region is sometimes referred to as the lower spine, or as an area of the back in its proximity.

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Lumbar enlargement

The lumbar enlargement (or lumbosacral enlargement) is a widened area of the spinal cord that gives attachment to the nerves which supply the lower limbs.

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Lumbar nerves

The lumbar nerves are the five pairs of spinal nerves emerging from the lumbar vertebrae.

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Lumbar puncture

Lumbar puncture (LP), also known as a spinal tap, is a medical procedure in which a needle is inserted into the spinal canal, most commonly to collect cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) for diagnostic testing.

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Lumbar vertebrae

The lumbar vertebrae are, in human anatomy, the five vertebrae between the rib cage and the pelvis.

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Lumbosacral plexus

The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerves, sacral nerves, and coccygeal nerve form the lumbosacral plexus, the first lumbar nerve being frequently joined by a branch from the twelfth thoracic.

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Medial lemniscus

The medial lemniscus, also known as Reil's band or Reil's ribbon, is a large ascending bundle of heavily myelinated axons that decussate in the brainstem, specifically in the medulla oblongata.

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Medical imaging

Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).

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Medulla oblongata

The medulla oblongata (or medulla) is located in the brainstem, anterior and partially inferior to the cerebellum.

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Medullary pyramids (brainstem)

The medullary pyramids are paired white matter structures of the brainstem's medulla oblongata that contain motor fibers of the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts – known together as the pyramidal tracts.

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The meninges (singular: meninx, from membrane, adjectival: meningeal) are the three membranes that envelop the brain and spinal cord.

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Methylprednisolone, sold under the brand names Depo-Medrol and Solu-Medrol among others, is a corticosteroid medication used to suppress the immune system and decrease inflammation.

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Motor cortex

The motor cortex is the region of the cerebral cortex involved in the planning, control, and execution of voluntary movements.

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Motor neuron

A motor neuron (or motoneuron) is a neuron whose cell body is located in the motor cortex, brainstem or the spinal cord, and whose axon (fiber) projects to the spinal cord or outside of the spinal cord to directly or indirectly control effector organs, mainly muscles and glands.

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Muscle atrophy

Muscle atrophy is defined as a decrease in the mass of the muscle; it can be a partial or complete wasting away of muscle, and is most commonly experienced when persons suffer temporary disabling circumstances such as being restricted in movement and/or confined to bed as when hospitalized.

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Myelin is a lipid-rich substance that surrounds the axon of some nerve cells, forming an electrically insulating layer.

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A myotome is the group of muscles that a single spinal nerve innervates.

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Nerve fascicle

A nerve fascicle, or fasciculus is a bundle of funiculi.

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Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.

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Netrins are a class of proteins involved in axon guidance.

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Neural tube

In the developing chordate (including vertebrates), the neural tube is the embryonic precursor to the central nervous system, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord.

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Neurogenic shock

Neurogenic shock is a distributive type of shock resulting in low blood pressure, occasionally with a slowed heart rate, that is attributed to the disruption of the autonomic pathways within the spinal cord.

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Neuroglia, also called glial cells or simply glia, are non-neuronal cells in the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord) and the peripheral nervous system.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neutral spine

A good posture refers to the "three natural curves are present in a healthy spine.". It is also called Neutral Spine.

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In anatomy, the notochord is a flexible rod made out of a material similar to cartilage.

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Nucleus raphe magnus

The nucleus raphe magnus (called the nucleus raphes magnus by Terminologia AnatomicaFederative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) (1998). Terminologia Anatomica. Stuttgart: Thieme and some scientific publicationsAnderson, D.M. (2000). Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary (29th edition). Philadelphia/London/Toronto/Montreal/Sydney/Tokyo: W.B. Saunders Company.), is located directly rostral to the nucleus raphe obscurus, and receives input from the spinal cord and cerebellum.

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Occipital bone

The occipital bone is a cranial dermal bone, and is the main bone of the occiput (back and lower part of the skull).

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An oval (from Latin ovum, "egg") is a closed curve in a plane which "loosely" resembles the outline of an egg.

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Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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Paraplegia is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities.

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Periaqueductal gray

The periaqueductal gray (PAG, also known as the central gray) is the primary control center for descending pain modulation.

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Peripheral nervous system

The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of the two components of the nervous system, the other part is the central nervous system (CNS).

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Pia mater

Pia mater (or in, retrieved 2012-07-28.), often referred to as simply the pia, is the delicate innermost layer of the meninges, the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord.

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Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus.

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Post-polio syndrome

Post-polio syndrome (PPS, or post-poliomyelitis syndrome or post-polio sequelae) is a condition that affects approximately 25 to 40 percent of people who have previously survived an acute attack of poliomyelitis, though more recent studies have shown that 80+% of polio survivors show symptoms of Post Polio Sequelae.

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Postcentral gyrus

The postcentral gyrus is a prominent gyrus in the lateral parietal lobe of the human brain.

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Posterior external arcuate fibers

The posterior external arcuate fibers (dorsal external arcuate fibers) take origin in the accessory cuneate nucleus; they pass to the inferior peduncle of the same side.

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Posterior grey column

The posterior grey column (posterior cornu, dorsal horn, spinal dorsal horn posterior horn) of the spinal cord is one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord.

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Posterior median sulcus of spinal cord

The posterior median sulcus is the posterior end of the posterior median septum of neuroglia of the spinal cord.

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Posterior spinal artery

The posterior spinal artery (dorsal spinal arteries) arises from the vertebral artery in 25% of humans or the posterior inferior cerebellar artery in 75% of humans, adjacent to the medulla oblongata.

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Posterior thoracic nucleus

The posterior thoracic nucleus, (Clarke's column, column of Clarke, dorsal nucleus, nucleus dorsalis of Clarke) is a group of interneurons found in the medial part of lamina VII, also known as the intermediate zone, of the spinal cord.

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Posterolateral tract

The posterolateral tract (fasciculus of Lissauer, Lissauer's tract, tract of Lissauer, dorsolateral fasciculus, dorsolateral tract, zone of Lissauer) is a small strand situated in relation to the tip of the posterior column close to the entrance of the posterior nerve roots.

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Programmed cell death

Programmed cell death (or PCD) is the death of a cell in any form, mediated by an intracellular program.

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Proprioception, from Latin proprius, meaning "one's own", "individual", and capio, capere, to take or grasp, is the sense of the relative position of one's own parts of the body and strength of effort being employed in movement.

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Radicular artery

The posterior and anterior radicular arteries run along the posterior and anterior roots of the spinal nerves and supply them with blood.

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Redlich–Obersteiner's zone

The Redlich–Obersteiner's zone, also known as the root entry zone, is a boundary between the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS).

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A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus.

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Reflex arc

A reflex arc is a neural pathway that controls a reflex.

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Reticular formation

The reticular formation is a set of interconnected nuclei that are located throughout the brainstem.

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Rubrospinal tract

The rubrospinal tract is a part of the nervous system.

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The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.

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Segmental medullary artery

Each segmental medullary artery is a branch of the cervical part of the vertebral artery.

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Sensory cortex

The sensory cortex can refer informally to the primary somatosensory cortex, or it can be used as a term for the primary and secondary cortices of the different senses (two cortices each, on left and right hemisphere): the visual cortex on the occipital lobes, the auditory cortex on the temporal lobes, the primary olfactory cortex on the uncus of the piriform region of the temporal lobes, the gustatory cortex on the insular lobe (also referred to as the insular cortex), and the primary somatosensory cortex on the anterior parietal lobes.

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Sensory neuron

Sensory neurons also known as afferent neurons are neurons that convert a specific type of stimulus, via their receptors, into action potentials or graded potentials.

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The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.

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Sonic hedgehog

Sonic hedgehog is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SHH ("sonic hedgehog") gene.

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Spina bifida

Spina bifida is a birth defect where there is incomplete closing of the backbone and membranes around the spinal cord.

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Spinal canal

The spinal canal (or vertebral canal or spinal cavity) is the space in the vertebral column formed by the vertebrae through which the spinal cord passes.

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Spinal interneuron

A spinal interneuron, found in the spinal cord, relays signals between (afferent) sensory neurons, and (efferent) motor neurons.

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Spinal nerve

A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body.

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Spinal shock

Spinal shock was first defined by Whytt in 1750 as a loss of sensation accompanied by motor paralysis with initial loss but gradual recovery of reflexes, following a spinal cord injury (SCI) – most often a complete transection.

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Spinal stenosis

Spinal stenosis is an abnormal narrowing of the spinal canal or neural foramen that results in pressure on the spinal cord or nerve roots.

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Spinal tumor

Spinal tumors are neoplasms located in the spinal cord.

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Spinothalamic tract

The spinothalamic tract (also known as anterolateral system or the ventrolateral system) is a sensory pathway from the skin to the thalamus.

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Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord

Subacute combined degeneration of spinal cord, also known as Lichtheim's disease, refers to degeneration of the posterior and lateral columns of the spinal cord as a result of vitamin B12 deficiency (most common), vitamin E deficiency, and copper deficiency.

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Substantia gelatinosa of Rolando

The apex of the posterior grey column, one of the three grey columns of the spinal cord, is capped by a V-shaped or crescentic mass of translucent, gelatinous neuroglia, termed the substantia gelatinosa of Rolando (or SGR) (or gelatinous substance of posterior horn of spinal cord), which contains both neuroglia cells, and small nerve cells.

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Sulcus limitans

In the floor of the fourth ventricle, the sulcus limitans separates the cranial nerve motor nuclei (medial) from the sensory nuclei (lateral).

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Superior cerebellar peduncle

In the human brain, the superior cerebellar peduncle (brachium conjunctivum) is a paired structure of white matter that connects the cerebellum to the midbrain.

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Tectospinal tract

In humans, the tectospinal tract (also known as colliculospinal tract) is a nerve tract that coordinates head and eye movements.

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Tethered spinal cord syndrome

Tethered cord syndrome (TCS) or occult spinal dysraphism sequence refers to a group of neurological disorders that relate to malformations of the spinal cord.

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Tetraplegia, also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms.

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The thalamus (from Greek θάλαμος, "chamber") is the large mass of gray matter in the dorsal part of the diencephalon of the brain with several functions such as relaying of sensory signals, including motor signals, to the cerebral cortex, and the regulation of consciousness, sleep, and alertness.

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Thecal sac

The thecal sac or dural sac is the membranous sheath or tube of dura mater that surrounds the spinal cord and the cauda equina.

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Thoracic vertebrae

In vertebrates, thoracic vertebrae compose the middle segment of the vertebral column, between the cervical vertebrae and the lumbar vertebrae.

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Transverse myelitis

Transverse myelitis (TM) is a rare neurological condition in which the spinal cord is inflamed.

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University of Cincinnati

The University of Cincinnati (commonly referred to as UC or Cincinnati) is a comprehensive public research university in Cincinnati, in the U.S. state of Ohio, and a part of the University System of Ohio.

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Upper limb

The upper limb or upper extremity is the region in a vertebrate animal extending from the deltoid region up to and including the hand, including the arm, axilla and shoulder.

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Upper-limb surgery in tetraplegia

Upper-limb surgery in tetraplegia includes a number of surgical interventions that can help improve the quality of life of a patient with tetraplegia.

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Ventral posterolateral nucleus

The ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) is a nucleus of the thalamus.

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Ventral spinocerebellar tract

The ventral spinocerebellar tract conveys proprioceptive information from the body to the cerebellum.

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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.

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Vertebral column

The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton.

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Vestibulospinal tract

The vestibulospinal tract is a neural tract in the central nervous system.

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White matter

White matter refers to areas of the central nervous system (CNS) that are mainly made up of myelinated axons, also called tracts.

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Afferent tract, Cervical segment, Cervical segments, Cervical spinal cord, Lumbar segment, Lumbar spinal cord, Medulla spinalis, Sacral segment, Spinal Cord, Spinal chord, Spinal cord diseases, Spinal cord segment, Spinal cord segments, Spinal cord tract, Spinal cord tracts, Spinal cords, Spinal tract, Spinal tracts, Thoracic segment, Thoracic segments, Thoracis nerve, Thoracis nerves.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinal_cord

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