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Index Spinosaurus

Spinosaurus (meaning "spine lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what now is North Africa, during the upper Albian to upper Turonian stages of the Cretaceous period, about 112 to 93.5 million years ago. [1]

139 relations: Acrocanthosaurus, Aegyptosaurus, Africa, Albian, Amargasaurus, Anatomical terms of location, Angola, Archosaur, Bahariasaurus, Bahariya Formation, Bait ball, Baryonyx, Bipedalism, Bison latifrons, Brazil, Canadian Museum of Nature, Carcharodontosauridae, Carcharodontosaurus, Carnivore, Carnosauria, Chenini Formation, Chimera (paleontology), Cladogram, Convergent evolution, Cretaceous, Cristiano Dal Sasso, Crocodilia, Crocodylomorpha, CT scan, Dale Russell, Deltadromeus, Dental alveolus, Dimetrodon, Dinosaur, Donald F. Glut, Early Cretaceous, Echkar Formation, Ecological niche, Edaphosaurus, Egypt, England, Ernst Stromer, Europe, Family (biology), Foramen, Friedrich von Huene, Gastralium, Genus, Geological period, German language, ..., Germans, Giganotosaurus, Gregory S. Paul, Grizzly bear, Holotype, Hypothesis, Ichthyovenator, Iguanodon, Irritator, Isotope analysis, Isotopes of oxygen, J. B. S. Haldane, Jack Horner (paleontologist), Jurassic, Jurassic Park III, Jurassic World, Kem Kem Beds, Kenya, Late Cretaceous, List of semiaquatic tetrapods, Mandible, Mangrove, Mawsonia (fish), Maxilla, Mechanoreceptor, Megacerops, Milan, Morocco, Morrison Formation, Mudflat, Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano, Nasal bone, National Museum of Natural History (France), Natural History Museum, London, Neck, Niger, Nomen dubium, North Africa, North America, Obligate, Ornithopod, Ouranosaurus, Palaeontological Museum, Munich, Paleontology, Paralititan, Peafowl, Pelycosaur, Permian, Piscivore, Plesiosauria, Premaxilla, Pterosaur, Quadrupedalism, Sail (anatomy), Sailfish, Sauropoda, Savanna, Scavenger, Sigilmassasaurus, Skull, South America, Spinosauridae, Splenial, Stage (stratigraphy), Stratum, Suchomimus, Synapsid, Tail, Tanzania, Tetanurae, The Gambia, Thermoregulation, Theropoda, Thresher shark, Titanosaur, Tooth enamel, Tunisia, Turkana Grits, Turonian, Type (biology), Tyrannosauridae, Tyrannosaurus, University of Chicago, University of Göttingen, Variety (magazine), Vertebra, Vomer, World War II, Year. Expand index (89 more) »


Acrocanthosaurus (meaning "high-spined lizard") is a genus of theropod dinosaur that existed in what is now North America during the Aptian and early Albian stages of the Early Cretaceous.

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Aegyptosaurus meaning 'Egypt’s lizard', for the country in which it was discovered (Greek sauros meaning 'lizard') is a genus of sauropod dinosaur believed to have lived in what is now Africa, around 95 million years ago, during the mid- and late-Cretaceous Period (Albian to Cenomanian stages).

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Africa is the world's second largest and second most-populous continent (behind Asia in both categories).

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The Albian is both an age of the geologic timescale and a stage in the stratigraphic column.

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Amargasaurus ("La Amarga lizard") is a genus of sauropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous epoch (129.4–122.46 mya) of what is now Argentina.

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Anatomical terms of location

Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.

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Angola, officially the Republic of Angola (República de Angola; Kikongo, Kimbundu and Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in Southern Africa.

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Archosaurs are a group of diapsid amniotes whose living representatives consist of birds and crocodilians.

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Bahariasaurus (meaning "Bahariya lizard") is a genus of large, theropod dinosaur found in the Bahariya Formation in El-Waha el-Bahariya or Bahariya (Arabic: الواحة البحرية meaning the "northern oasis") oasis in Egypt, the Farak Formation of Niger, and Kem Kem Beds of North Africa, which date to the late Cretaceous Period, (Cenomanian age), about 95 million years ago.

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Bahariya Formation

The Bahariya Formation (also transcribed as Baharija Formation) is a fossil bearing geologic formation dating back to the Early Cenomanian, which outcrops within the Bahariya depression in Egypt, and is known from oil exploration drilling across much of the Western Desert where it forms an important oil reservoir.

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Bait ball

A bait ball, or baitball, occurs when small fish swarm in a tightly packed spherical formation about a common centre.

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Baryonyx is a genus of theropod dinosaur which lived in the Barremian stage of the early Cretaceous Period, about 130–125 million years ago.

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Bipedalism is a form of terrestrial locomotion where an organism moves by means of its two rear limbs or legs.

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Bison latifrons

Bison latifrons (also known as the giant bison or long-horned bison) is an extinct species of bison that lived in North America during the Pleistocene epoch.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Canadian Museum of Nature

The Canadian Museum of Nature (Musée canadien de la nature), formerly called the National Museum of Natural Sciences, official website.

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Carcharodontosaurids (from the Greek καρχαροδοντόσαυρος, carcharodontósauros: "shark-toothed lizards") were a group of carnivorous theropod dinosaurs.

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Carcharodontosaurus is a genus of carnivorous carcharodontosaurid dinosaurs that existed between 112 and 93.5 million years ago,Holtz, Thomas R. Jr.

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A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Carnosauria is a large group of predatory dinosaurs that lived during the Jurassic and Cretaceous periods.

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Chenini Formation

The Chenini Formation is a geological formation in Tunisia whose strata date back to the Albian stage of the Cretaceous period.

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Chimera (paleontology)

In paleontology, a chimera is a fossil that was reconstructed with elements coming from more than a single species (or genus) of animal.

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A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Cristiano Dal Sasso

Cristiano Dal Sasso (born in Monza, 12 September 1965) is an Italian paleontologist.

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Crocodilia (or Crocodylia) is an order of mostly large, predatory, semiaquatic archosaurian reptiles, known as crocodilians.

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Crocodylomorpha is a group of archosaurs that includes the crocodilians and their extinct relatives.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Dale Russell

Dale Alan Russell (born 27 December 1937) is an American-Canadian geologist and palaeontologist.

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Deltadromeus (meaning "delta runner") is a genus of large theropod dinosaur from Northern Africa.

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Dental alveolus

Dental alveoli (singular alveolus) are sockets in the jaws in which the roots of teeth are held in the alveolar process with the periodontal ligament.

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Dimetrodon (or, meaning "two measures of teeth") is an extinct genus of synapsids that lived during the Cisuralian (Early Permian), around 295–272 million years ago (Ma).

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Dinosaurs are a diverse group of reptiles of the clade Dinosauria.

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Donald F. Glut

Donald F. Glut (born February 19, 1944) is an American writer, motion picture film director, and screenwriter.

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Early Cretaceous

The Early Cretaceous/Middle Cretaceous (geochronological name) or the Lower Cretaceous (chronostratigraphic name), is the earlier or lower of the two major divisions of the Cretaceous.

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Echkar Formation

The Echkar Formation is a geological formation in Niger, central Africa.

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Ecological niche

In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.

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Edaphosaurus (meaning "pavement lizard" for dense clusters of teeth) is a genus of extinct edaphosaurid synapsid that lived around 300 to 280 million years ago, during the late Carboniferous to early Permian periods.

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Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.

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England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.

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Ernst Stromer

Ernst Freiherr Stromer von Reichenbach (12 June 1871 – 18 December 1952) was a German paleontologist.

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Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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In anatomy, a foramen (pl. foramina) is any opening.

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Friedrich von Huene

Friedrich von Huene, full name Friedrich Richard von Hoinigen (March 22, 1875 – April 4, 1969) was a German paleontologist who renamed more dinosaurs in the early 20th century than anyone else in Europe.

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Gastralia (singular gastralium) are dermal bones found in the ventral body wall of modern crocodilian and Sphenodon species.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Geological period

A geological period is one of several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.

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Giganotosaurus is a genus of theropod dinosaur that lived in what is now Argentina, during the early Cenomanian age of the Late Cretaceous period, approximately 98 to 97 million years ago.

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Gregory S. Paul

Gregory Scott Paul (born December 24, 1954) is an American freelance researcher, author and illustrator who works in paleontology, and more recently has examined sociology and theology.

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Grizzly bear

The grizzly bear (Ursus arctos ssp.) is a large population of the brown bear inhabiting North America.

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A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described.

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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

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Ichthyovenator is a spinosaurid theropod dinosaur from the Early Cretaceous of Laos, likely from the Aptian age (113–125 million years ago).

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Iguanodon (meaning "iguana-tooth") is a genus of ornithopod dinosaur that existed roughly halfway between the first of the swift bipedal hypsilophodontids of the mid-Jurassic and the duck-billed dinosaurs of the late Cretaceous.

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Irritator is a genus of spinosaurid theropod dinosaur that lived during the Early Cretaceous Period (Albian stage), around 110 million years ago, of what is now Brazil.

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Isotope analysis

Isotope analysis is the identification of isotopic signature, the abundance of certain stable isotopes and chemical elements within organic and inorganic compounds.

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Isotopes of oxygen

There are three known stable isotopes of oxygen (8O): 16O, 17O, and 18O.

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J. B. S. Haldane

John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (5 November 18921 December 1964) was an English scientist known for his work in the study of physiology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and in mathematics, where he made innovative contributions to the fields of statistics and biostatistics.

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Jack Horner (paleontologist)

John R. "Jack" Horner (born June 15, 1946) is an American paleontologist most famous for discovering and naming Maiasaura, providing the first clear evidence that some dinosaurs cared for their young.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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Jurassic Park III

Jurassic Park III is a 2001 American science-fiction adventure film and the third installment in the ''Jurassic Park'' film series.

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Jurassic World

Jurassic World is a 2015 American science fiction adventure film and the fourth installment of the ''Jurassic Park'' film series, as well as the first film in a planned Jurassic World trilogy.

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Kem Kem Beds

The Kem Kem Beds (also referred to by various names including the Continental Red Beds and Continental intercalaireMichard, A. (2008). Continental evolution: the geology of Morocco: structure, stratigraphy, and tectonics of the Africa-Atlantic-Mediterranean Triple junction. Published by Springer, 2008. 424 pages.) is a geological formation along the border between Morocco and Algeria in southeastern Morocco, whose strata date back to the Late Cretaceous.

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Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.

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Late Cretaceous

The Late Cretaceous (100.5–66 Ma) is the younger of two epochs into which the Cretaceous period is divided in the geologic timescale.

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List of semiaquatic tetrapods

This is a list of tetrapods that are semiaquatic; that is, while being at least partly terrestrial, they spend part of their life cycle or a significant fraction of their time in water as part of their normal behavior, and/or obtain a significant fraction of their food from an aquatic habitat.

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The mandible, lower jaw or jawbone is the largest, strongest and lowest bone in the human face.

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A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.

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Mawsonia (fish)

Mawsonia is an extinct genus of prehistoric coelacanth fish, and the largest of this group, up to several meters long.

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The maxilla (plural: maxillae) in animals is the upper jawbone formed from the fusion of two maxillary bones.

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A mechanoreceptor is a sensory receptor that responds to mechanical pressure or distortion.

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Megacerops ("large-horned face", from méga- "large" + kéras "horn" + ōps "face") is an extinct genus of the prehistoric odd-toed ungulate (hoofed mammal) family Brontotheriidae, an extinct group of rhinoceros-like browsers related to horses.

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Milan (Milano; Milan) is a city in northern Italy, capital of Lombardy, and the second-most populous city in Italy after Rome, with the city proper having a population of 1,380,873 while its province-level municipality has a population of 3,235,000.

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Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.

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Morrison Formation

The Morrison Formation is a distinctive sequence of Upper Jurassic sedimentary rock found in the western United States which has been the most fertile source of dinosaur fossils in North America.

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Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.

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Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano

The Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano (Milan Natural History Museum) is a museum in Milan, Italy.

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Nasal bone

The nasal bones are two small oblong bones, varying in size and form in different individuals; they are placed side by side at the middle and upper part of the face, and form, by their junction, "the bridge" of the nose.

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National Museum of Natural History (France)

The French National Museum of Natural History, known in French as the (abbreviation MNHN), is the national natural history museum of France and a grand établissement of higher education part of Sorbonne Universities.

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Natural History Museum, London

The Natural History Museum in London is a natural history museum that exhibits a vast range of specimens from various segments of natural history.

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The neck is the part of the body, on many vertebrates, that separates the head from the torso.

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Niger, also called the Niger officially the Republic of the Niger, is a landlocked country in Western Africa named after the Niger River.

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Nomen dubium

In zoological nomenclature, a nomen dubium (Latin for "doubtful name", plural nomina dubia) is a scientific name that is of unknown or doubtful application.

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North Africa

North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.

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North America

North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.

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As an adjective, obligate means "by necessity" (antonym facultative) and is used mainly in biology in phrases such as.

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Ornithopods or members of the clade Ornithopoda are a group of ornithischian dinosaurs that started out as small, bipedal running grazers, and grew in size and numbers until they became one of the most successful groups of herbivores in the Cretaceous world, and dominated the North American landscape.

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Ouranosaurus (meaning "brave (monitor) lizard", alternatively "sky lizard" after the primordial Greek god Ouranos) is a genus of herbivorous iguanodont dinosaur that lived during the early Cretaceous (Aptian to early Albian age) at some point between 125 and 112 million years ago, in what is now Africa.

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Palaeontological Museum, Munich

The Palaeontological Museum in Germany (Paläontologische Museum München), is a German national natural history museum located in the city of Munich, Bavaria.

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Paleontology or palaeontology is the scientific study of life that existed prior to, and sometimes including, the start of the Holocene Epoch (roughly 11,700 years before present).

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Paralititan (meaning "tidal giant") was a giant titanosaurian sauropod dinosaur genus discovered in coastal deposits in the Upper Cretaceous Bahariya Formation of Egypt.

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The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.

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The pelycosaurs (from Greek πέλυξ pelyx 'wooden bowl' or 'axe' and σαῦρος sauros 'lizard') are an informal grouping (previously considered an order) composed of basal or primitive Late Paleozoic synapsids, sometimes erroneously referred to as "mammal-like reptiles".

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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A piscivore is a carnivorous animal that eats primarily fish.

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Plesiosauria (Greek: πλησίος, plesios, meaning "near to" and Sauria) or plesiosaurs are an order or clade of Mesozoic marine reptiles (marine Sauropsida), belonging to the Sauropterygia.

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The premaxilla (or praemaxilla) is one of a pair of small cranial bones at the very tip of the upper jaw of many animals, usually, but not always, bearing teeth.

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Pterosaurs (from the Greek πτερόσαυρος,, meaning "winged lizard") were flying reptiles of the extinct clade or order Pterosauria.

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Quadrupedalism or pronograde posture is a form of terrestrial locomotion in animals using four limbs or legs.

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Sail (anatomy)

The term sail or dorsal sail has been used to refer to sail-like structures on the back of various animals.

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A sailfish is a fish of the genus Istiophorus of billfish living in colder areas of all the seas of the earth.

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Sauropoda, or the sauropods (sauro- + -pod, "lizard-footed"), are a clade of saurischian ("lizard-hipped") dinosaurs.

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A savanna or savannah is a mixed woodland grassland ecosystem characterised by the trees being sufficiently widely spaced so that the canopy does not close.

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Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.

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Sigilmassasaurus ("Sijilmassa lizard") is a genus of tetanuran theropod dinosaur that lived approximately 100 to 94 million years ago during the middle of the Cretaceous Period in what is now northern Africa.

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The skull is a bony structure that forms the head in vertebrates.

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South America

South America is a continent in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.

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Spinosauridae (meaning 'spined lizards') is a family of megalosauroidean theropod dinosaurs.

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The splenial is a small bone in the lower jaw of reptiles, amphibians and birds, usually located on the lingual side (closest to the tongue) between the angular and suprangular.

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Stage (stratigraphy)

In chronostratigraphy, a stage is a succession of rock strata laid down in a single age on the geologic timescale, which usually represents millions of years of deposition.

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In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.

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Suchomimus (meaning 'crocodile mimic') is a genus of large theropod dinosaur with a crocodile-like skull that lived between 125–112 million years ago,Holtz, Thomas R. Jr.

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Synapsids (Greek, 'fused arch'), synonymous with theropsids (Greek, 'beast-face'), are a group of animals that includes mammals and every animal more closely related to mammals than to other living amniotes.

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The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.

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Tanzania, officially the United Republic of Tanzania (Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a sovereign state in eastern Africa within the African Great Lakes region.

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Tetanurae (/ˌtɛtəˈnjuːriː/ or "stiff tails") is a clade that includes most theropod dinosaurs, including tyrannosaurids, megalosaurids, ornithomimids, allosaurids, maniraptora, and Aves.

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The Gambia

No description.

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Thermoregulation is the ability of an organism to keep its body temperature within certain boundaries, even when the surrounding temperature is very different.

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Theropoda (or, from Greek θηρίον "wild beast" and πούς, ποδός "foot") or theropods are a dinosaur suborder characterized by hollow bones and three-toed limbs.

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Thresher shark

Thresher sharks are large lamniform sharks of the family Alopiidae found in all temperate and tropical oceans of the world; the family contains four species, all within the genus Alopias.

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Titanosaurs (members of the group Titanosauria) were a diverse group of sauropod dinosaurs which included Saltasaurus and Isisaurus.

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Tooth enamel

Tooth enamel is one of the four major tissues that make up the tooth in humans and many other animals, including some species of fish.

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Tunisia (تونس; Berber: Tunes, ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Tunisie), officially the Republic of Tunisia, (الجمهورية التونسية) is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa, covering. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent. It is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisia's population was estimated to be just under 11.93 million in 2016. Tunisia's name is derived from its capital city, Tunis, which is located on its northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the eastern end of the Atlas Mountains, and the northern reaches of the Sahara desert. Much of the rest of the country's land is fertile soil. Its of coastline include the African conjunction of the western and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Basin and, by means of the Sicilian Strait and Sardinian Channel, feature the African mainland's second and third nearest points to Europe after Gibraltar. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic. It is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a high human development index. It has an association agreement with the European Union; is a member of La Francophonie, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Arab Maghreb Union, the Arab League, the OIC, the Greater Arab Free Trade Area, the Community of Sahel-Saharan States, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Group of 77; and has obtained the status of major non-NATO ally of the United States. In addition, Tunisia is also a member state of the United Nations and a state party to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Close relations with Europe in particular with France and with Italy have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation and industrial modernization. In ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers. Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC; these immigrants founded Carthage. A major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the next eight hundred years, introduced Christianity and left architectural legacies like the El Djem amphitheater. After several attempts starting in 647, the Muslims conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, followed by the Ottoman Empire between 1534 and 1574. The Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881. Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, followed by parliamentary elections. The country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014.

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Turkana Grits

The Turkana Grits is a geological formation in Kenya whose strata date back to the Late Cretaceous.

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The Turonian is, in the ICS' geologic timescale, the second age in the Late Cretaceous epoch, or a stage in the Upper Cretaceous series.

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Type (biology)

In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.

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Tyrannosauridae (or tyrannosaurids, meaning "tyrant lizards") is a family of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaurs that comprises two subfamilies containing up to thirteen genera, including the eponymous Tyrannosaurus.

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Tyrannosaurus is a genus of coelurosaurian theropod dinosaur.

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University of Chicago

The University of Chicago (UChicago, U of C, or Chicago) is a private, non-profit research university in Chicago, Illinois.

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University of Göttingen

The University of Göttingen (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, GAU, known informally as Georgia Augusta) is a public research university in the city of Göttingen, Germany.

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Variety (magazine)

Variety is a weekly American entertainment trade magazine and website owned by Penske Media Corporation.

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In the vertebrate spinal column, each vertebra is an irregular bone with a complex structure composed of bone and some hyaline cartilage, the proportions of which vary according to the segment of the backbone and the species of vertebrate.

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The vomer is one of the unpaired facial bones of the skull.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spinosaurus

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