129 relations: Abdomen, Accessory spleen, Actinopterygii, Adrenal gland, American Academy of Family Physicians, American Medical Association, Amino acid, Amphibian, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek, Anger, Antibody, Arteriole, Asplenia, Asplenia with cardiovascular anomalies, Autotransplantation, B cell, Bile, Biliary atresia, Bilirubin, Blood, Bone marrow, Cancer, Celiac artery, Cell and Tissue Research, Cetacea, Charles Baudelaire, Chondrichthyes, Cords of Billroth, Coronary artery disease, Cyclostomata, Dendritic cell, Depression (mood), Dextrocardia, Encyclopædia Britannica Online, Endoderm, Erythropoiesis, Foregut, French language, Frog, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastrosplenic ligament, Genetic disorder, George Cheyne (physician), Germinal center, Globin, Haemal nodes, Haematopoiesis, Hagfish, Heme, ..., Hemoglobin, Hilum (anatomy), Homology (biology), Human embryogenesis, Human iron metabolism, Humorism, Hypovolemia, Hypoxia (medical), Immune system, Immunoglobulin M, Infection, Injury, Intestinal malrotation, JAMA (journal), Lamprey, Laughter, Leukemia, Liver, Lymph node, Lymphatic system, Lymphatic vessel, Lymphocyte, Macrophage, Mammal, Manatee, Marginal zone, MedlinePlus, Melancholia, Memory B cell, Mesenchyme, Mesentery, Monocyte, Mononuclear phagocyte system, Myocardial infarction, Nerve, Neural crest, Opsonin, Organ (anatomy), Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths, Pinniped, Platelet, Pneumonia, Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, Polysplenia, Properdin, Quadrant (abdomen), Red blood cell, Red pulp, Reptile, Reticular fiber, Richard Blackmore, Romanticism, Senescence, Sepsis, Serous membrane, Shock (circulatory), Short gastric arteries, Sickle cell disease, Sinus (anatomy), Sinusoid (blood vessel), Splenectomy, Splenic artery, Splenic injury, Splenic vein, Splenomegaly, Splenosis, T cell, Talmud, Thoracic diaphragm, Thymus, Traditional Chinese medicine, Traffic collision, Tuftsin, Vaccine, Vertebrate, White blood cell, White pulp, World War II, Wound healing. Expand index (79 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
An accessory spleen (supernumerary spleen, splenule, or splenunculus) is a small nodule of splenic tissue found apart from the main body of the spleen.
Actinopterygii, or the ray-finned fishes, constitute a class or subclass of the bony fishes.
The adrenal glands (also known as suprarenal glands) are endocrine glands that produce a variety of hormones including adrenaline and the steroids aldosterone and cortisol.
The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP) was founded in 1947 to promote the science and art of family medicine.
The American Medical Association (AMA), founded in 1847 and incorporated in 1897, is the largest association of physicians—both MDs and DOs—and medical students in the United States.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amphibians are ectothermic, tetrapod vertebrates of the class Amphibia.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anger or wrath is an intense negative emotion.
An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to neutralize pathogens such as pathogenic bacteria and viruses.
An arteriole is a small-diameter blood vessel in the microcirculation that extends and branches out from an artery and leads to capillaries.
Asplenia refers to the absence of normal spleen function and is associated with some serious infection risks.
Asplenia with cardiovascular anomalies, also known as Ivemark syndrome and right atrial isomerism, is an example of a heterotaxy syndrome.
Autotransplantation is the transplantation of organs, tissues, or even particular proteins from one part of the body to another in the same person (auto- meaning "self" in Greek).
B cells, also known as B lymphocytes, are a type of white blood cell of the lymphocyte subtype.
Bile or gall is a dark green to yellowish brown fluid, produced by the liver of most vertebrates, that aids the digestion of lipids in the small intestine.
Biliary atresia, also known as extrahepatic ductopenia and progressive obliterative cholangiopathy, is a childhood disease of the liver in which one or more bile ducts are abnormally narrow, blocked, or absent.
Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
Bone marrow is a semi-solid tissue which may be found within the spongy or cancellous portions of bones.
Cancer is a group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.
The celiac (or coeliac) artery, also known as the celiac trunk, or truncus coeliacus, is the first major branch of the abdominal aorta.
Cell and Tissue Research presents regular articles and reviews in the areas of molecular, cell, stem cell biology and tissue engineering.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Charles Pierre Baudelaire (April 9, 1821 – August 31, 1867) was a French poet who also produced notable work as an essayist, art critic, and pioneering translator of Edgar Allan Poe.
Chondrichthyes (from Greek χονδρ- chondr- 'cartilage', ἰχθύς ichthys 'fish') is a class that contains the cartilaginous fishes: they are jawed vertebrates with paired fins, paired nares, scales, a heart with its chambers in series, and skeletons made of cartilage rather than bone.
The Cords of Billroth (also known as splenic cords or red pulp cords) are found in the red pulp of the spleen between the sinusoids, consisting of fibrils and connective tissue cells with a large population of monocytes and macrophages.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
Cyclostomata is a group of agnathans that comprises the living jawless fishes: the lampreys and hagfishes.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells (also known as accessory cells) of the mammalian immune system.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Dextrocardia (from Latin dexter, meaning "right," and Greek kardia, meaning "heart") is a rare congenital condition in which the apex of the heart is located on the right side of the body.
Encyclopædia Britannica Online is the website of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. and its Encyclopædia Britannica, with more than 120,000 articles that are updated regularly.
Endoderm is one of the three primary germ layers in the very early embryo.
Erythropoiesis (from Greek 'erythro' meaning "red" and 'poiesis' meaning "to make") is the process which produces red blood cells (erythrocytes).
The foregut is the anterior part of the alimentary canal, from the mouth to the duodenum at the entrance of the bile duct, and is attached to the abdominal walls by mesentery.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
A frog is any member of a diverse and largely carnivorous group of short-bodied, tailless amphibians composing the order Anura (Ancient Greek ἀν-, without + οὐρά, tail).
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
The gastrosplenic ligament (ligamentum gastrosplenicum or gastrolienal ligament) is part of the greater omentum.
A genetic disorder is a genetic problem caused by one or more abnormalities in the genome.
George Cheyne M.D. R.C. E.d. R.S.S. (1671–1743) was a pioneering physician, early proto-psychologist, philosopher and mathematician.
Germinal centers or germinal centres (GCs) are sites within secondary lymphoid organs – lymph nodes and the spleen where mature B cells proliferate, differentiate, and mutate their antibody genes (through somatic hypermutation aimed at achieving higher affinity), and switch the class of their antibodies (for example from IgM to IgG) during a normal immune response to an infection.
The globins are a superfamily of heme-containing globular proteins, involved in binding and/or transporting oxygen.
Haemal nodes are lymphoid organs found in various mammals and some birds.
Haematopoiesis (from Greek αἷμα, "blood" and ποιεῖν "to make"; also hematopoiesis in American English; sometimes also haemopoiesis or hemopoiesis) is the formation of blood cellular components.
Hagfish, the class '''Myxini''' (also known as Hyperotreti), are eel-shaped, slime-producing marine fish (occasionally called slime eels).
Heme or haem is a coordination complex "consisting of an iron ion coordinated to a porphyrin acting as a tetradentate ligand, and to one or two axial ligands." The definition is loose, and many depictions omit the axial ligands.
Hemoglobin (American) or haemoglobin (British); abbreviated Hb or Hgb, is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein in the red blood cells of all vertebrates (with the exception of the fish family Channichthyidae) as well as the tissues of some invertebrates.
In human anatomy, the hilum (plural hila), sometimes formerly called a hilus (plural hili), is a depression or fissure where structures such as blood vessels and nerves enter an organ.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
Human embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation of the embryo that occurs during the early stages of development.
Human iron metabolism is the set of chemical reactions that maintain human homeostasis of iron at the systemic and cellular level.
Humorism, or humoralism, was a system of medicine detailing the makeup and workings of the human body, adopted by Ancient Greek and Roman physicians and philosophers, positing that an excess or deficiency of any of four distinct bodily fluids in a person—known as humors or humours—directly influences their temperament and health.
Hypovolemia is a state of decreased blood volume; more specifically, decrease in volume of blood plasma.
Hypoxia is a condition in which the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply at the tissue level.
The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.
Immunoglobulin M (IgM) is one of several forms of antibody that are produced by vertebrates.
Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.
Injury, also known as physical trauma, is damage to the body caused by external force.
Intestinal malrotation is a congenital anomaly of rotation of the midgut (embryologically, the gut undergoes a complex rotation outside the abdomen).
JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association.
Lampreys (sometimes also called, inaccurately, lamprey eels) are an ancient lineage of jawless fish of the order Petromyzontiformes, placed in the superclass Cyclostomata.
Laughter is a physical reaction in humans consisting typically of rhythmical, often audible contractions of the diaphragm and other parts of the respiratory system.
Leukemia, also spelled leukaemia, is a group of cancers that usually begin in the bone marrow and result in high numbers of abnormal white blood cells.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.
The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and an important part of the immune system, comprising a network of lymphatic vessels that carry a clear fluid called lymph (from Latin, lympha meaning "water") directionally towards the heart.
The lymphatic vessels (or lymph vessels or lymphatics) are thin-walled vessels structured like blood vessels, that carry lymph.
A lymphocyte is one of the subtypes of white blood cell in a vertebrate's immune system.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Manatees (family Trichechidae, genus Trichechus) are large, fully aquatic, mostly herbivorous marine mammals sometimes known as sea cows. There are three accepted living species of Trichechidae, representing three of the four living species in the order Sirenia: the Amazonian manatee (Trichechus inunguis), the West Indian manatee (Trichechus manatus), and the West African manatee (Trichechus senegalensis).
The marginal zone is the region at the interface between the non-lymphoid red pulp and the lymphoid white-pulp of the spleen.
MedlinePlus is an online information service produced by the United States National Library of Medicine.
Melancholia (from µέλαινα χολή),Burton, Bk.
Memory B cells are a B cell sub-type that are formed within germinal centers following primary infection and are important in generating an accelerated and more robust antibody-mediated immune response in the case of re-infection (also known as a secondary immune response).
Mesenchyme, in vertebrate embryology, is a type of connective tissue found mostly during the development of the embryo.
The mesentery is a continuous set of tissues that attaches the intestines to the abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum.
Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.
In immunology, the mononuclear phagocyte system or mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) (also known as the reticuloendothelial system or macrophage system) is a part of the immune system that consists of the phagocytic cells located in reticular connective tissue.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.
Neural crest cells are a temporary group of cells unique to chordates of the group Cristozoa that arise from the embryonic ectoderm cell layer, and in turn give rise to a diverse cell lineage—including melanocytes, craniofacial cartilage and bone, smooth muscle, peripheral and enteric neurons and glia.
An opsonin (from the Greek opsōneîn, to prepare for eating) is any molecule that enhances phagocytosis by marking an antigen for an immune response or marking dead cells for recycling (i.e., causes the phagocyte to "relish" the marked cell).
Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.
Periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (or periarterial lymphatic sheaths, or PALS) are a portion of the white pulp of the spleen.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Platelets, also called thrombocytes (from Greek θρόμβος, "clot" and κύτος, "cell"), are a component of blood whose function (along with the coagulation factors) is to react to bleeding from blood vessel injury by clumping, thereby initiating a blood clot.
Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.
Polysaccharide encapsulated bacteria, frequently referred to simply as encapsulated bacteria and less precisely called encapsulated organisms, are a group of bacteria that have an outer covering, a bacterial capsule, made of polysaccharide.
Polysplenia or Chaudhrey's disease is a congenital disease manifested by multiple small accessory spleens, rather than a single, full-sized, normal spleen.
Properdin is the only known positive regulator of complement activation that stabilizes the alternative pathway convertases.
The human abdomen is divided into regions by anatomists and physicians for purposes of study, diagnosis, and therapy.
Red blood cells-- also known as RBCs, red cells, red blood corpuscles, haematids, erythroid cells or erythrocytes (from Greek erythros for "red" and kytos for "hollow vessel", with -cyte translated as "cell" in modern usage), are the most common type of blood cell and the vertebrate's principal means of delivering oxygen (O2) to the body tissues—via blood flow through the circulatory system.
The red pulp of the spleen is composed of connective tissue known also as the cords of Billroth and many splenic sinuses that are engorged with blood, giving it a red color.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Reticular fibers, reticular fibres or reticulin is a type of fiber in connective tissue composed of type III collagen secreted by reticular cells.
Sir Richard Blackmore (22 January 1654 – 9 October 1729), English poet and physician, is remembered primarily as the object of satire and dull poet, but he was also a respected medical doctor and theologian.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Senescence or biological ageing is the gradual deterioration of function characteristic of most complex lifeforms, arguably found in all biological kingdoms, that on the level of the organism increases mortality after maturation.
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition that arises when the body's response to infection causes injury to its own tissues and organs.
In anatomy, serous membrane (or serosa) is a smooth tissue membrane consisting of two layers of mesothelium, which secrete serous fluid.
Shock is the state of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function.
The short gastric arteries consist of from five to seven small branches, which arise from the end of the splenic artery, and from its terminal divisions.
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of blood disorders typically inherited from a person's parents.
A sinus is a sac or cavity in any organ or tissue, or an abnormal cavity or passage caused by the destruction of tissue.
A sinusoid is a small blood vessel that is a type of capillary similar to a fenestrated endothelium.
A splenectomy is a surgical procedure that partially or completely removes the spleen.
The splenic artery (in the past called the lienal artery) is the blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the spleen.
A splenic injury, which includes a ruptured spleen, is any injury to the spleen.
The splenic vein (formerly the lienal vein) is a blood vessel that drains blood from the spleen, the stomach fundus and part of the pancreas.
Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen.
Splenosis is the result of spleen tissue breaking off the main organ and implanting at another site inside the body. This is called ''heterotopic autotransplantation'' of the spleen. It most commonly occurs as a result of traumatic splenic rupture or abdominal surgery.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
The Talmud (Hebrew: תַּלְמוּד talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root LMD "teach, study") is the central text of Rabbinic Judaism and the primary source of Jewish religious law and theology.
For other uses, see Diaphragm (disambiguation). The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm (partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle in humans and other mammals that extends across the bottom of the thoracic cavity.
The thymus is a specialized primary lymphoid organ of the immune system.
Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is a style of traditional medicine built on a foundation of more than 2,500 years of Chinese medical practice that includes various forms of herbal medicine, acupuncture, massage (tui na), exercise (qigong), and dietary therapy, but recently also influenced by modern Western medicine.
A traffic collision, also called a motor vehicle collision (MVC) among other terms, occurs when a vehicle collides with another vehicle, pedestrian, animal, road debris, or other stationary obstruction, such as a tree, pole or building.
Tuftsin is a tetrapeptide (Thr-Lys-Pro-Arg) located in the Fc-domain of the heavy chain of immunoglobulin G (residues 289-292).
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
White pulp is a histological designation for regions of the spleen (named because it appears whiter than the surrounding red pulp on gross section), that encompasses approximately 25% of splenic tissue.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Wound healing is an intricate process in which the skin repairs itself after injury.
Diaphragmatic surface of spleen, Lienal, Lienalis, Penicilliary radicle, Spleen disease, Spleen disorders, Spleens, Splen, Splenctic, Splenetic, Splenic, Splenic diseases, Splenic hilum, Visceral surface, Visceral surface of spleen, Visceral surface of the spleen, Visceral surfaces of spleens, Visceral surfaces of the spleens.