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Index Sponge

Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts. [1]

283 relations: Adobe Flash, Ageliferin, Algae, Amebocyte, American Academy of Underwater Sciences, Ammonia, Amoeba, Amoeba (genus), Ancient Greek, Animal, Anti-predator adaptation, Aplysina, Aplysina archeri, Aragonite, Archaeocyatha, Archaeocyte, Arthur Dendy, Ascidiacea, Asexual reproduction, Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Édouard Placide Duchassaing de Fontbressin, Émile Topsent, Bacteria, Basal lamina, BBC News, Bernoulli's principle, Bilateria, Biochemistry, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Biomarker, Biomineralization, Birth control, Bottlenose dolphin, Breast implant, Bryozoa, Budding, Calcareous, Calcareous sponge, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Cambrian, Cambrian explosion, Cambridge University Press, Carbon dioxide, Caribbean, Carl Linnaeus, Carnivore, Céline Allewaert, CBC News, Cell (biology), ..., Cell membrane, Cell nucleus, Cell potency, Cell wall, Cellular differentiation, Cellulose, Ceramic glaze, Chancelloriidae, Chimney, Choanocyte, Choanoflagellate, Cholestane, Cholesterol, Chondrilla nucula, Chondrocladia, Cilium, Circulatory system, Cladorhizidae, Class (biology), Clionaidae, Cnidaria, COLE Publishing, Collagen, Conjoined twins, Contagious disease, Contraceptive sponge, Crustacean, Ctenophora, Cucurbitaceae, Cyanobacteria, Cyst, Cytoplasm, Demosponge, Diffusion, Digestion, Dinoflagellate, Diploblast, DNA, Dolphin, Doushantuo Formation, Dynein, Earthscan, Echinoderm, Economic Botany (journal), Ediacaran, Eduard Oscar Schmidt, Edward Alfred Minchin, Egg cell, Endoskeleton, Endosymbiont, Eocene, Epithelium, Esperiopsidae, Eumetazoa, Excretion, Exoskeleton, Family (biology), Filter feeder, Flagellum, Foraminifera, Fossil, Fungus, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastrulation, Gemmule, Gene, Genus, Geologica Acta, Giovanni Domenico Nardo, Giovanni Michelotti, Gonad, Graft (surgery), Great Barrier Reef, Green algae, Greenwood Publishing Group, Halichondrin B, Halkieriid, Henry John Carter, Hermaphrodite, Heterotroph, Hexactinellid, Homoscleromorpha, Human digestive system, Hydrothermal vent, Immune system, Integrative and Comparative Biology, James Scott Bowerbank, John Wiley & Sons, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology, Journal of Iberian Geology, Journal of Paleontology, Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom, Kingdom (biology), Larva, Last universal common ancestor, Leuconia, Luffa, Luffa aegyptiaca, Mail (armour), Maotianshan Shales, Marine Ecology Progress Series, Marine mammal, Marinoan glaciation, Matrix (biology), Maurice Burton, Max Walker de Laubenfels, McGraw-Hill Education, Medicine, Mediterranean Sea, Mesoglea, Mesohyl, Methanotroph, Microtubule, Microvillus, Molecular clock, Mollusca, Monophyly, Most recent common ancestor, Multicellular organism, Muscle, Myocyte, National Geographic Society, Nature (journal), Necrosis, Neoplasm, Nerve, Nervous system, Nervous tissue, Neuron, Neuroptera, Neurotransmitter, Oecologia, Oocyte, Organ (anatomy), Organelle, Osculum, Oval, Overfishing, Oxford University Press, Oxygen, Oxylipin, Palaeontology (journal), Paraphyly, Parazoa, Patricia Bergquist, PDF, Phagocytosis, Photosynthesis, Phylogenetic tree, Phylum, Pinacocyte, Pinacoderm, Placozoa, Plakoridine A, Plant, Pleat, PLOS One, Polymer, Polyp, Polysaccharide, Polyurethane, Porocyte, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protein, Protist, Randolph Kirkpatrick, Respiratory system, Ribosome, RNA, Robert Edmond Grant, Robert J. Lendlmayer von Lendenfeld, Rostrum (anatomy), Salinity, Scaffolding, Science (journal), Sclerocyte, Sclerosponge, Sea otter, Seabed, Seagrass, Sediment, Sessility (motility), Sexual reproduction, Shark Bay, Shrimp, Silicon dioxide, Silicone, Sister group, Sisyridae, Skeleton, Slug, Sperm, Spermatocyte, Spider web, Sponge, Sponge (material), Sponge diving, Sponge Reef Project, Sponge spicule, Spongia, Spongin, Springer Science+Business Media, Starfish, Stromatoporoidea, Symbiosis, Symmetry in biology, Synalpheus, Synalpheus regalis, Synapse, Syncytium, Tarpon Springs, Florida, Tedania, Temperate climate, Tetrahedron Letters, Tissue (biology), Tool, Transplantation (journal), Trichoplax, Tropics, Unicellular organism, University of California Museum of Paleontology, University of Stuttgart, Venom, Vermes, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Virus, World Register of Marine Species, Yolk, Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C, Zoology, Zoomorphology, Zootaxa. Expand index (233 more) »

Adobe Flash

Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.

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Ageliferin is a chemical compound produced by some sponges.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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An amebocyte or amoebocyte is a mobile cell (moving like an amoeba) in the body of invertebrates including echinoderms, molluscs, tunicates, sponges and some chelicerates.

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American Academy of Underwater Sciences

The American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS) is a group of Scientific organizations and individual members who conduct scientific and educational activities underwater.

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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An amoeba (rarely spelled amœba, US English spelled ameba; plural am(o)ebas or am(o)ebae), often called amoeboid, is a type of cell or organism which has the ability to alter its shape, primarily by extending and retracting pseudopods.

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Amoeba (genus)

Amoeba is a genus of single-celled amoeboids in the family Amoebidae.

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.

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Anti-predator adaptation

Anti-predator adaptations are mechanisms developed through evolution that assist prey organisms in their constant struggle against predators.

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Aplysina (also known as Aplysia, Luffaria, and Verongia) is the name of a genus of demosponges within the phylum Porifera.

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Aplysina archeri

Aplysina archeri (also known as stove-pipe sponge because of its shape) is a species of tube sponge that has long tube-like structures of cylindrical shape.

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Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).

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Archaeocyatha (or archaeocyathids “ancient cups”) is a taxon of extinct, sessile, reef-building marine organisms of warm tropical and subtropical waters that lived during the early (lower) Cambrian Period.

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Archaeocytes (from Greek archaios "beginning" and kytos "hollow vessel") or amoebocytes are amoeboid cells found in sponges.

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Arthur Dendy

Arthur Dendy (Manchester, 20 January 1865 – 24 March 1925, London) was an English zoologist known for his work on marine sponges and the terrestrial invertebrates of Victoria, Australia, notably including the "living fossil" Peripatus.

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Ascidiacea (commonly known as the ascidians or sea squirts) is a paraphyletic class in the subphylum Tunicata of sac-like marine invertebrate filter feeders.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography

Initiated in 1947, the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography (ASLO), formerly known as the American Society of Limnology and Oceanography, is a scientific society with the goal of Advancing the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography.

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Édouard Placide Duchassaing de Fontbressin

Édouard Placide Duchassaing de Fontbressin (1819 in Moule, Guadeloupe – 1873 in Périgueux) was a French naturalist.

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Émile Topsent

Émile-Eugène-Aldric Topsent (10 February 1862 – 22 September 1951) was a French zoologist known for his research of sponges.

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Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.

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Basal lamina

The basal lamina is a layer of extracellular matrix secreted by the epithelial cells, on which the epithelium sits.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Bernoulli's principle

In fluid dynamics, Bernoulli's principle states that an increase in the speed of a fluid occurs simultaneously with a decrease in pressure or a decrease in the fluid's potential energy.

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The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biological Journal of the Linnean Society

The Biological Journal of the Linnean Society is a direct descendant of the oldest biological journal in the world, the Transactions of the Linnean Society.

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A biomarker, or biological marker, generally refers to a measurable indicator of some biological state or condition.

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Biomineralization is the process by which living organisms produce minerals, often to harden or stiffen existing tissues.

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Birth control

Birth control, also known as contraception and fertility control, is a method or device used to prevent pregnancy.

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Bottlenose dolphin

Bottlenose dolphins, the genus Tursiops, are the most common members of the family Delphinidae, the family of oceanic dolphin.

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Breast implant

A breast implant is a prosthesis used to change the size, shape, and contour of a woman’s breast.

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Bryozoa (also known as the Polyzoa, Ectoprocta or commonly as moss animals) are a phylum of aquatic invertebrate animals.

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Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.

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Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky.

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Calcareous sponge

The calcareous sponges of class Calcarea are members of the animal phylum Porifera, the cellular sponges.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Cambrian explosion

The Cambrian explosion or Cambrian radiation was an event approximately in the Cambrian period when most major animal phyla appeared in the fossil record.

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Cambridge University Press

Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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Carl Linnaeus

Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.

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A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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Céline Allewaert

Céline Allewaert is a Belgian spongiologist who works at Ghent University.

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CBC News

CBC News is the division of the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation responsible for the news gathering and production of news programs on the corporation's English-language operations, namely CBC Television, CBC Radio, CBC News Network, and CBC.ca.

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Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Cell nucleus

In cell biology, the nucleus (pl. nuclei; from Latin nucleus or nuculeus, meaning kernel or seed) is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cell potency

Cell potency is a cell's ability to differentiate into other cell types The more cell types a cell can differentiate into, the greater its potency.

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Cell wall

A cell wall is a structural layer surrounding some types of cells, just outside the cell membrane.

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Cellular differentiation

In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process where a cell changes from one cell type to another.

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Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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Ceramic glaze

Ceramic glaze is an impervious layer or coating of a vitreous substance which has been fused to a ceramic body through firing.

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The Chancelloriids are an extinct family of animal common in sediments from the Early Cambrian to the early Late Cambrian.

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A chimney is a structure that provides ventilation for hot flue gases or smoke from a boiler, stove, furnace or fireplace to the outside atmosphere.

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Choanocytes (also known as "collar cells") are cells that line the interior of asconoid, syconoid and leuconoid body type sponges that contain a central flagellum, or undulipodia,, 2004, accessed 2010-04-06.

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The choanoflagellates are a group of free-living unicellular and colonial flagellate eukaryotes considered to be the closest living relatives of the animals.

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Cholestane is a saturated 27-carbon tetracyclic triterpene.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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Chondrilla nucula

Chondrilla nucula, sometimes called the "Caribbean Chicken-liver sponge," is a sea sponge belonging to the phylum Porifera.

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Chondrocladia is a genus of carnivorous demosponges of the family Cladorhizidae of mycalinan Poecilosclerida.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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Cladorhizidae is a family of demosponges which are carnivorous and prey on crustaceans and other small animals.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Clionaidae is a family of demosponges which are found worldwide.

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Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.

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COLE Publishing

COLE Publishing is a privately held company with offices in Wisconsin and Minnesota.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Conjoined twins

Conjoined twins are identical twins joined in utero.

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Contagious disease

A contagious disease is a subset category of transmissible diseases, which are transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.

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Contraceptive sponge

The contraceptive sponge combines barrier and spermicidal methods to prevent conception.

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Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.

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Ctenophora (singular ctenophore, or; from the Greek κτείς kteis 'comb' and φέρω pherō 'to carry'; commonly known as comb jellies) is a phylum of invertebrate animals that live in marine waters worldwide.

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The Cucurbitaceae, also called cucurbits and the gourd family, are a plant family consisting of about 965 species in around 95 genera, the most important of which are.

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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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A cyst is a closed sac, having a distinct membrane and division compared with the nearby tissue.

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In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.

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Demospongiae is the most diverse class in the phylum Porifera.

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Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

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Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

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The diploblasts, or Eumetazoa, or Epitheliozoa, or Histozoa are a proposed basal animal clade as sister of the sponges.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.

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Doushantuo Formation

The Doushantuo Formation is a fossil Lagerstätte in Weng'an County, Guizhou Province, China that is notable for being one of the oldest beds to contain minutely preserved microfossils, phosphatic fossils that are so characteristic they have given their name to "Doushantuo type preservation".

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Dynein is a family of cytoskeletal motor proteins that move along microtubules in cells.

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Earthscan is an English-language publisher of books and journals on climate change, sustainable development and environmental technology for academic, professional and general readers.

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Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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Economic Botany (journal)

Economic Botany is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers all aspects of economic botany.

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The Ediacaran Period, spans 94 million years from the end of the Cryogenian Period 635 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Cambrian Period 541 Mya.

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Eduard Oscar Schmidt

Eduard Oscar Schmidt (21 February 1823, Torgau17 January 1886, Kappelrodeck) was a German zoologist and phycologist.

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Edward Alfred Minchin

Edward Alfred Minchin (26 February 1866 – 30 September 1915) was a British zoologist who specialised in the study of sponges and Protozoa.

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Egg cell

The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.

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An endoskeleton (From Greek ἔνδον, éndon.

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An endosymbiont or endobiont is any organism that lives within the body or cells of another organism in a symbiotic relationship with the host body or cell, often but not always to mutual benefit.

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The Eocene Epoch, lasting from, is a major division of the geologic timescale and the second epoch of the Paleogene Period in the Cenozoic Era.

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Epithelium is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with connective tissue, muscle tissue and nervous tissue.

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Esperiopsidae is a family of marine demosponges.

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Eumetazoa (Greek: εὖ, well + μετά, after + ζῷον, animal) or '''Diploblasts''', or Epitheliozoa, or Histozoa are a proposed basal animal clade as sister group of the Porifera.

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Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.

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An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Filter feeder

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.

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Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.

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Gemmules are internal buds found in sponges and are involved in asexual reproduction.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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Geologica Acta

Geologica Acta is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers research in the Earth sciences.

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Giovanni Domenico Nardo

Giovanni Domenico Nardo (4 March 1802 – 7 April 1877) was an Italian naturalist from Venice, although he spent most of his life in Chioggia, home port of the biggest fishing flotilla of the Adriatic.

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Giovanni Michelotti

Giovanni Michelotti (6 October 1921 – 23 January 1980) was one of the most prolific designers of sports cars in the 20th century.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Graft (surgery)

Grafting refers to a surgical procedure to move tissue from one site to another on the body, or from another creature, without bringing its own blood supply with it.

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Great Barrier Reef

The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over over an area of approximately.

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Green algae

The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Halichondrin B

Halichondrin B is a large naturally occurring polyether macrolide originally isolated from the marine sponge Halichondria okadai by Hirata and Uemura in 1986.

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The halkieriids are a group of fossil Molluscs (see Calvapilosa) from the Lower to Middle Cambrian.

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Henry John Carter

Henry John Carter, FRS (18 August 1813 – 4 May 1895) was a surgeon working in Bombay, India, who carried out work in geology and zoology.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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A heterotroph (Ancient Greek ἕτερος héteros.

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Hexactinellid sponges are sponges with a skeleton made of four- and/or six-pointed siliceous spicules, often referred to as glass sponges.

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Homoscleromorpha is a class of marine sponges composed of two families: Plakinidae and Oscarellidae.

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Human digestive system

The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).

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Hydrothermal vent

A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.

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Immune system

The immune system is a host defense system comprising many biological structures and processes within an organism that protects against disease.

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Integrative and Comparative Biology

Integrative and Comparative Biology is the scientific journal for the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology (formerly the American Society of Zoologists).

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James Scott Bowerbank

James Scott Bowerbank FRS (14 July 1797 – 8 March 1877) was a British naturalist and palaeontologist.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Journal of Evolutionary Biology

The Journal of Evolutionary Biology is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of evolutionary biology.

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Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology

The Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology is a peer-reviewed bimonthly journal which publishes work on the biochemistry, physiology, behaviour, and genetics of marine plants and animals in relation to their ecology.

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Journal of Iberian Geology

Journal of Iberian Geology (formerly Cuadernos de Geología Ibérica) is a triannual peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Universidad Complutense de Madrid.

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Journal of Paleontology

The Journal of Paleontology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal covering the field of paleontology.

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Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom

The Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom is a scientific journal published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Marine Biological Association.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

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A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Last universal common ancestor

The last universal common ancestor (LUCA), also called the last universal ancestor (LUA), cenancestor, or (incorrectlyThere is a common misconception that definitions of LUCA and progenote are the same; however, progenote is defined as an organism “still in the process of evolving the relationship between genotype and phenotype”, and it is only hypothesed that LUCA is a progenote.) progenote, is the most recent population of organisms from which all organisms now living on Earth have a common descent.

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Leuconia is a genus of calcareous sponges belonging to the family Grantiidae.

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Luffa is a genus of tropical and subtropical vines in the cucumber family (Cucurbitaceae).

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Luffa aegyptiaca

Luffa aegyptiaca, the sponge gourd, Egyptian cucumber, or Vietnamese luffa, is a species of Luffa cultivated for its fruit.

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Mail (armour)

Mail or maille (also chain mail(le) or chainmail(le)) is a type of armour consisting of small metal rings linked together in a pattern to form a mesh.

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Maotianshan Shales

The Maotianshan Shales are a series of Early Cambrian deposits in the Chiungchussu Formation, famous for their Konservat Lagerstätten, deposits known for the exceptional preservation of fossilized organisms or traces.

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Marine Ecology Progress Series

The Marine Ecology Progress Series is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that covers all aspects of marine ecology.

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Marine mammal

Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.

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Marinoan glaciation

The Marinoan glaciation was a period of worldwide glaciation that lasted from approximately 650 to 635 Ma (million years ago) during the Cryogenian period.

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Matrix (biology)

In biology, matrix (plural: matrices) is the material (or tissue) in animal or plant cells, in which more specialized structures are embedded, and a specific part of the mitochondrion.

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Maurice Burton

Maurice Burton (28 March 1898 – 9 September 1992) was a British zoologist and popular science author, who produced many natural history encyclopedias and books including a skeptical treatment of the Loch Ness Monster.

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Max Walker de Laubenfels

Max Walker de Laubenfels (1894–1960) was an American spongiologist.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.

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Mediterranean Sea

The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.

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Mesoglea, also known as mesohyl, is the translucent, non-living, jelly-like substance found between the two epithelial cell layers (i.e., between the ectoderm and endoderm) in the bodies of cnidarians and sponges.

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The mesohyl, formerly known as mesenchyme or as mesoglea, is the gelatinous matrix within a sponge.

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Methanotrophs (sometimes called methanophiles) are prokaryotes that metabolize methane as their only source of carbon and energy.

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Microtubules are tubular polymers of tubulin that form part of the cytoskeleton that provides the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and some bacteria with structure and shape.

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Microvilli (singular: microvillus) are microscopic cellular membrane protrusions that increase the surface area for diffusion and minimize any increase in volume, and are involved in a wide variety of functions, including absorption, secretion, cellular adhesion, and mechanotransduction.

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Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

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Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Most recent common ancestor

In biology and genealogy, the most recent common ancestor (MRCA, also last common ancestor (LCA), or concestor) of any set of organisms is the most recent individual from which all the organisms are directly descended.

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Multicellular organism

Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.

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Muscle is a soft tissue found in most animals.

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A myocyte (also known as a muscle cell) is the type of cell found in muscle tissue.

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National Geographic Society

The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Necrosis (from the Greek νέκρωσις "death, the stage of dying, the act of killing" from νεκρός "dead") is a form of cell injury which results in the premature death of cells in living tissue by autolysis.

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Neoplasia is a type of abnormal and excessive growth of tissue.

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A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of axons (nerve fibers, the long and slender projections of neurons) in the peripheral nervous system.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Nervous tissue

Nervous tissue or nerve tissue is the main tissue component of the two parts of the nervous system; the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS), and the branching peripheral nerves of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), which regulates and controls bodily functions and activity.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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The insect order Neuroptera, or net-winged insects, includes the lacewings, mantidflies, antlions, and their relatives.

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Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.

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Oecologia is an international peer-reviewed English-language journal published by Springer since 1968 (some articles were published in German or French until 1976).

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An oocyte, oöcyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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In cell biology, an organelle is a specialized subunit within a cell that has a specific function, in which their function is vital for the cell to live.

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The osculum is an excretory structure in the living sponge, a large opening to the outside through which the current of water exits after passing through the spongocoel.

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An oval (from Latin ovum, "egg") is a closed curve in a plane which "loosely" resembles the outline of an egg.

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Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.

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Oxylipins constitute a family of oxygenated natural products which are formed from fatty acids by pathways involving at least one step of dioxygen-dependent oxidation.

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Palaeontology (journal)

Palaeontology is one of the two scientific journals of the Palaeontological Association (the other being Papers in Palaeontology).

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In taxonomy, a group is paraphyletic if it consists of the group's last common ancestor and all descendants of that ancestor excluding a few—typically only one or two—monophyletic subgroups.

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The Parazoa, are a proposed clade of animals.

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Patricia Bergquist

Dame Patricia Rose Bergquist (née Smyth, 10 March 1933 – 9 September 2009) was a New Zealand scientist who specialised in anatomy and taxonomy.

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The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.

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In cell biology, phagocytosis is the process by which a cell—often a phagocyte or a protist—engulfs a solid particle to form an internal compartment known as a phagosome.

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Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Pinacocytes are flat cells found on the outermost layer (Pinacoderm) of a sponge (phylum Porifera).

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The pinacoderm is the outer most layer of cells (pinacocytes) surrounding the body of organisms belonging to the phylum Porifera (sponges), equivalent to the epidermis in other organisms.

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The Placozoa are a basal form of free-living (non-parasitic) multicellular organism.

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Plakoridine A

Plakoridine A is an alkaloid isolated from the marine sponge Plakortis sp.

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Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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A pleat (older plait) is a type of fold formed by doubling fabric back upon itself and securing it in place.

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PLOS One (stylized PLOS ONE, and formerly PLoS ONE) is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal published by the Public Library of Science (PLOS) since 2006.

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A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.

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Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Polyurethane (PUR and PU) is a polymer composed of organic units joined by carbamate (urethane) links.

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Porocytes are tubular cells which make up the pores of a sponge known as ostia.

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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.

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Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.

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Randolph Kirkpatrick

Randolph Kirkpatrick (1863 – 1950) was a British spongiologist, cnidariologist and bryozoologist.

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Respiratory system

The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Robert Edmond Grant

Robert Edmond Grant MD FRCPEd FRS FRSE FZS FGS (11 November 1793 – 23 August 1874) was a British anatomist and zoologist.

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Robert J. Lendlmayer von Lendenfeld

Robert J. Lendlmayer von Lendenfeld (1858-1913) was an Austrian zoologist, alpinist and traveler.

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Rostrum (anatomy)

In anatomy, the term rostrum (from the Latin rostrum meaning beak) is used for a number of phylogenetically unrelated structures in different groups of animals.

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Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Scaffolding, also called scaffold or staging, is a temporary structure used to support a work crew and materials to aid in the construction, maintenance and repair of buildings, bridges and all other man made structures.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Sclerocytes are specialised cells that secrete the mineralized structures in the body wall of some invertebrates.

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Sclerosponges are sponges with a soft body that covers a hard, often massive skeleton made of calcium carbonate, either aragonite or calcite.

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Sea otter

The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.

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The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.

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Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.

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Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

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Sessility (motility)

In biology, sessility (in the sense of positional movement or motility) refers to organisms that do not possess a means of self-locomotion and are normally immobile.

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Sexual reproduction

Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.

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Shark Bay

Shark Bay is a World Heritage Site in the Gascoyne region of Western Australia.

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The term shrimp is used to refer to some decapod crustaceans, although the exact animals covered can vary.

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Silicon dioxide

Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.

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Silicones, also known as polysiloxanes, are polymers that include any inert, synthetic compound made up of repeating units of siloxane, which is a chain of alternating silicon atoms and oxygen atoms, combined with carbon, hydrogen, and sometimes other elements.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

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Sisyridae, commonly known as spongeflies or spongillaflies, are a family of winged insects in the order Neuroptera.

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The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Slug, or land slug, is a common name for any apparently shell-less terrestrial gastropod mollusc.

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Sperm is the male reproductive cell and is derived from the Greek word (σπέρμα) sperma (meaning "seed").

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Spermatocytes are a type of male gametocyte in animals.

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Spider web

A spider web, spiderweb, spider's web, or cobweb (from the archaic word coppe, meaning "spider") is a device created by a spider out of proteinaceous spider silk extruded from its spinnerets, generally meant to catch its prey.

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Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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Sponge (material)

A sponge is a tool or cleaning aid made of soft, porous material.

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Sponge diving

Sponge diving is the oldest known form of the original art of underwater diving.

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Sponge Reef Project

The Sponge Reef Project is a binational scientific project between Germany and Canada to study the sponge reefs off British Columbia, Canada, reefs formed by sponges of the Hexactinellid family.

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Sponge spicule

Spicules are structural elements found in most sponges.

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Spongia is a genus of marine sponges in the family Spongiidae, originally described by Linnaeus in 1759, containing more than 50 species.

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Spongin, a modified type of collagen protein, forms the fibrous skeleton of most organisms among the phylum Porifera, the sponges.

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Springer Science+Business Media

Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.

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Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.

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Stromatoporoidea is a class of aquatic invertebrates common in the fossil record from the Ordovician through the Devonian.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Symmetry in biology

Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.

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Synalpheus is a genus of snapping shrimp of the family Alpheidae, presently containing more than 100 species; new ones are described on a regular basis, and the exact number even of described species is disputed.

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Synalpheus regalis

Synalpheus regalis is a species of snapping shrimp that commonly live in sponges in the coral reefs along the tropical West Atlantic.

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In the nervous system, a synapse is a structure that permits a neuron (or nerve cell) to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another neuron or to the target efferent cell.

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A syncytium or symplasm (plural syncytia; from Greek: σύν (syn).

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Tarpon Springs, Florida

Tarpon Springs is a city in Pinellas County, Florida, United States.

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Tedania is a genus of demosponges in the family Tedaniidae.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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Tetrahedron Letters

Tetrahedron Letters is a weekly international journal for rapid publication of full original research papers in the field of organic chemistry.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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A tool is any physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process.

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Transplantation (journal)

Transplantation is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering transplantation medicine.

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Trichoplax adhaerens is the only extant representative of phylum Placozoa, which is a basal group of multicellular animals (metazoa).

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The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Unicellular organism

A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.

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University of California Museum of Paleontology

The University of California Museum of Paleontology (UCMP) is a paleontology museum located on the campus of the University of California, Berkeley.

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University of Stuttgart

The University of Stuttgart (Universität Stuttgart) is a university located in Stuttgart, Germany.

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Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.

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Vermes ("worms") is an obsolete taxon used by Carl Linnaeus and Jean-Baptiste Lamarck for non-arthropod invertebrate animals.

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Vesicle (biology and chemistry)

In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.

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A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms.

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World Register of Marine Species

The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms.

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Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.

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Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C

Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C: A Journal of Biosciences is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal.

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Zoology or animal biology is the branch of biology that studies the animal kingdom, including the structure, embryology, evolution, classification, habits, and distribution of all animals, both living and extinct, and how they interact with their ecosystems.

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Zoomorphology is a quarterly academic journal published by Springer-Verlag Germany of Berlin, Germany.

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Zootaxa is a peer-reviewed scientific mega journal for animal taxonomists.

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Asconoid, Asconoid, syconoid, and leuconoid., Autoskeleton, Carnivorous sponge, Ecology of Sponges, Ecology of sponges, Freshwater sponge, List of sponges, Marine sponge, Ostia(Sponges), Ostium (sponges), Perifera, Phylum Porifera, Porifera, Poriferan, Poriferology, Red Sponge, Sea Sponge, Sea sponge, Sea sponges, Sponge (animal), Sponges, Spongiaria, Spongiologist, Spongiology, Spongiæ, Tube sponge, Tube sponges.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sponge

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