104 relations: Aeciospore, Aecium, Algae, Alternation of generations, Ancient Greek, Aplanospore, Ascomycota, Ascospore, Ascus, Asexual reproduction, Autospore, Auxiliary cell, Ballistospore, Basidiomycota, Basidiospore, Basidium, Bioaerosol, Biological dispersal, Biological life cycle, Biology, Bog pond, Calyptra, Carpospore, Carposporophyte, Chlamydospore, Conidium, Conifer cone, Cryptogam, Cryptospore, Diaspore (botany), Endospore, Equisetum, Evolutionary history of plants, Fern, Flagellum, Flower, Flowering plant, Fungi imperfecti, Fungus, G-force, Gamete, Gametophyte, Gymnosperm, Hydrophobin, Isoetes, Loam, Magnification, Megaspore, Meiosis, Microspore, ..., Mitosis, Morchella elata, Moss, Motility, Multicellular organism, Mycologia, Myxozoa, Oogonium, Oomycete, Oospore, Organism, Osmolyte, Ovule, Peridium, Phallaceae, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B, Pilobolus, Plant, Plant pathology, Ploidy, Pollen, Populus, Protozoa, Puffball, Red algae, Rust (fungus), Salviniales, Scylaspora, Sea lettuce, Seed, Selaginella, Selaginella lepidophylla, Sexual reproduction, Smut (fungus), Spermatophyte, Sporangium, Sporeling, Sporocarp (fungi), Sporophyte, Taxon, Teleomorph, anamorph and holomorph, Teliospore, Telium, Tetraspore, Thinning, Tumbleweed, Ukraine, Unicellular organism, Urediniospore, Vascular plant, Zoospore, Zygomycota, Zygospore, Zygote. Expand index (54 more) » « Shrink index
Aeciospores are one of several different types of spores formed by Rusts.
Aecium (plural aecia) is a specialised reproductive structure found in some rusts and smuts which produces aeciospores.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
Alternation of generations (also known as metagenesis) is the type of life cycle that occurs in those plants and algae in the Archaeplastida and the Heterokontophyta that have distinct sexual haploid and asexual diploid stages.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Ascomycota is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi that, together with the Basidiomycota, form the subkingdom Dikarya.
An ascospore is a spore contained in an ascus or that was produced inside an ascus.
An ascus (plural asci; from Greek ἀσκός 'skin bag') is the sexual spore-bearing cell produced in ascomycete fungi.
Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.
An autospore is a non-motile (non-flagellated) spore that is produced within a parent cell, and has the same shape as the parent cell, before release.
The auxiliary cell is a spore-like structure that form within the fungal family Gigasporaceae (order Diversisporales).
A ballistospore or ballistoconida is a spore that is discharged into the air from a living being, usually a species of fungus.
Basidiomycota is one of two large divisions that, together with the Ascomycota, constitute the subkingdom Dikarya (often referred to as the "higher fungi") within the kingdom Fungi.
A basidiospore is a reproductive spore produced by Basidiomycete fungi, a grouping that includes mushrooms, shelf fungi, rusts, and smuts.
Schematic showing a basidiomycete mushroom, gill structure, and spore-bearing basidia on the gill margins. A basidium (pl., basidia) is a microscopic sporangium (or spore-producing structure) found on the hymenophore of fruiting bodies of basidiomycete fungi which are also called tertiary mycellium, developed from secondary mycellium.
Bioaerosols (short for biological aerosols) are a subcategory of particles released from terrestrial and marine ecosystems into the atmosphere.
Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').
In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.
Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical composition, function, development and evolution.
A bog pond (Moorauge) is a waterbody in the middle of a raised or kettle bog, formerly also in percolating mires (Durchströmungsmooren).
Calyptra (from καλύπτρα (kalúptra) "veil") is a scientific term used in botany.
A carpospore is a diploid spore produced by red algae.
A chlamydospore is the thick-walled large resting spore of several kinds of fungi, including Ascomycota such as Candida, Basidiomycota such as Panus, and various Mortierellales species.
A conidium (plural conidia), sometimes termed an asexual chlamydospore or chlamydoconidium (plural chlamydoconidia), is an asexual, non-motile spore of a fungus.
A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures.
A cryptogam (scientific name Cryptogamae) is a plant (in the wide sense of the word) that reproduces by spores, without flowers or seeds.
Cryptospores are fossilised primitive plant spores that first appear in the fossil record during the middle of the Ordovician period.
In botany, a diaspore is a plant dispersal unit consisting of a seed or spore plus any additional tissues that assist dispersal.
An endospore is a dormant, tough, and non-reproductive structure produced by certain bacteria from the Firmicute phylum.
Equisetum (horsetail, snake grass, puzzlegrass) is the only living genus in Equisetaceae, a family of vascular plants that reproduce by spores rather than seeds.
The evolution of plants has resulted in a wide range of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through multicellular marine and freshwater green algae, terrestrial bryophytes, lycopods and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
A flagellum (plural: flagella) is a lash-like appendage that protrudes from the cell body of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells.
A flower, sometimes known as a bloom or blossom, is the reproductive structure found in flowering plants (plants of the division Magnoliophyta, also called angiosperms).
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
The fungi imperfecti or imperfect fungi, also known as Deuteromycota, are fungi which do not fit into the commonly established taxonomic classifications of fungi that are based on biological species concepts or morphological characteristics of sexual structures because their sexual form of reproduction has never been observed.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.
A gametophyte is one of the two alternating phases in the life cycle of plants and algae.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
Hydrophobins are a group of small (~100 amino acids) cysteine-rich proteins that are expressed only by filamentous fungi.
Isoetes, commonly known as the quillworts, is a genus of plants in the class Isoetopsida and order Isoetales.
Loam is soil composed mostly of sand (particle size > 63 µm), silt (particle size > 2 µm), and a smaller amount of clay (particle size These proportions can vary to a degree, however, and result in different types of loam soils: sandy loam, silty loam, clay loam, sandy clay loam, silty clay loam, and loam. In the USDA textural classification triangle, the only soil that is not predominantly sand, silt, or clay is called "loam". Loam soils generally contain more nutrients, moisture, and humus than sandy soils, have better drainage and infiltration of water and air than silt and clay-rich soils, and are easier to till than clay soils. The different types of loam soils each have slightly different characteristics, with some draining liquids more efficiently than others. The soil's texture, especially its ability to retain nutrients and water are crucial. Loam soil is suitable for growing most plant varieties. Bricks made of loam, mud, sand, and water, with an added binding material such as rice husks or straw, have been used in construction since ancient times.
Magnification is the process of enlarging the appearance, not physical size, of something.
Megaspores, also called macrospores, are a type of spore that is present in heterosporous plants.
Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.
Microspores are land plant spores that develop into male gametophytes, whereas megaspores develop into female gametophytes.
In cell biology, mitosis is a part of the cell cycle when replicated chromosomes are separated into two new nuclei.
Morchella elata is a species of fungus in the family Morchellaceae.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Motility is the ability of an organism to move independently, using metabolic energy.
Multicellular organisms are organisms that consist of more than one cell, in contrast to unicellular organisms.
Mycologia is a peer-reviewed scientific journal that publishes papers on all aspects of the fungi, including lichens.
Myxozoa (etymology: Greek: μύξα myxa "slime" or "mucus" + thematic vowel o + ζῷον zoon "animals") is a class of aquatic, obligately parasitic cnidarian animals.
An oogonium (plural oogonia) is a small diploid cell which upon maturation forms a primordial follicle in a female fetus or the female (haploid or diploid) gametangium of certain thallophytes.
Oomycota or oomycetes form a distinct phylogenetic lineage of fungus-like eukaryotic microorganisms.
An oospore is a thick-walled sexual spore that develops from a fertilized oosphere in some algae, fungi, and Oomycetes.
In biology, an organism (from Greek: ὀργανισμός, organismos) is any individual entity that exhibits the properties of life.
Osmolytes are compounds affecting osmosis.
In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.
The peridium is the protective layer that encloses a mass of spores in fungi.
Phallaceae is a family of fungi, commonly known as stinkhorn mushrooms, within the order Phallales.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Pilobolus is a genus of fungi that commonly grows on herbivore dung.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plant pathology (also phytopathology) is the scientific study of diseases in plants caused by pathogens (infectious organisms) and environmental conditions (physiological factors).
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
A puffball is a member of any of several groups of fungi in the division Basidiomycota.
The red algae, or Rhodophyta, are one of the oldest groups of eukaryotic algae.
Rusts are plant diseases caused by pathogenic fungi of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales).
The order Salviniales (formerly known as the Hydropteridales and including the former Marsileales) is an order of ferns in the class Polypodiopsida.
Scylaspora is a genus of Silu-Devonian spore, which has been found attached to stick-like sporangia.
The sea lettuces comprise the genus Ulva, a group of edible green algae that is widely distributed along the coasts of the world's oceans.
A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.
Selaginella is the sole genus of primitive vascular plants in the family Selaginellaceae, the spikemosses or lesser clubmosses.
Selaginella lepidophylla (syn. Lycopodium lepidophyllum) is a species of desert plant in the spikemoss family (Selaginellaceae).
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
The smuts are multicellular fungi characterized by their large numbers of teliospores.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.
A sporeling is a young plant or fungus produced by a germinated spore, similar to a seedling derived from a germinated seed.
In fungi, the sporocarp (also known as fruiting body, fruit body or fruitbody) is a multicellular structure on which spore-producing structures, such as basidia or asci, are borne.
A sporophyte is the diploid multicellular stage in the life cycle of a plant or alga.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
In mycology, the terms teleomorph, anamorph, and holomorph apply to portions of the life cycles of fungi in the phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota.
Teliospore (sometimes called teleutospore) is the thick-walled resting spore of some fungi (rusts and smuts), from which the basidium arises.
Telium, plural telia, are structures produced by rust fungi as part of the reproductive cycle.
Tetraspores are red algae spores produced by the tetrasporophytic (diploid) phase in the life history of algae in the Rhodophyta as a result of meiosis.
Thinning is a term used in agricultural sciences to mean the removal of some plants, or parts of plants, to make room for the growth of others.
A tumbleweed is a structural part of the above-ground anatomy of a number of species of plants, a diaspore that, once it is mature and dry, detaches from its root or stem, and tumbles away in the wind.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
A unicellular organism, also known as a single-celled organism, is an organism that consists of only one cell, unlike a multicellular organism that consists of more than one cell.
Urediniospores (or uredospores) are thin-walled spores produced by the uredium, a stage in the life-cycle of rusts.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
A zoospore is a motile asexual spore that uses a flagellum for locomotion.
Zygomycota, or zygote fungi, is a division or phylum of the kingdom Fungi.
A zygospore is a diploid reproductive stage in the life cycle of many fungi and protists.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.
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