306 relations: AC Ace, AC Cars, AC Cobra, Aerodynamics, Air-cooled engine, Aircraft, Alfa Romeo, Alfa Romeo 6C, Alfa Romeo 8C, Alfa Romeo Spider, Alfonso XIII of Spain, Alpine (automobile), Alvis Car and Engineering Company, Amilcar, Apperson, Ariel Atom, Aston Martin, Audi, Audi 80, Audi Quattro, Audi TT, Austin 7, Austin Motor Company, Austin Rover Group, Austro-Daimler, Automobile Club de l'Ouest, Automobile handling, Automotive engineering, Axle, Ballot (automobile), Barchetta, Bentley 3 Litre, Berkeley Cars, Berlinetta, Bicycle, Blackpool, BMW, BMW 328, BMW i8, BMW Z1, BMW Z3, BMW Z4, Brand, Brass Era car, British Leyland, British Motor Corporation, Brooklands, Bugatti, Bugatti Type 13, Bugatti Type 57, ..., Bugatti Veyron, Camille Jenatzy, Car, Car and Driver, Car classification, Car tuning, Carburetor, Carlo Felice Bianchi Anderloni, Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera, Caterham 7, Cecil Kimber, Center of mass, Chassis, Chenard-Walcker, Chevrolet Corvette, Chrysler Europe, Circuit de la Sarthe, Citroën, Coachbuilder, Compression ratio, Convertible, Coppa Florio, Coupé, Crane-Simplex, Crossley Motors, Delage, Doriot, Flandrin & Parant, Electronic stability control, England, Enzo Ferrari, Ernest Henry (engineer), Ettore Bugatti, Europe, Felice Nazzaro, Ferdinand Anton Ernst Porsche, Ferdinand Porsche, Ferrari, Ferrari 166 S, Ferrari 195 S, Ferrari F40, Fiat Automobiles, Fiat Barchetta, Fiat Coupé, Fiat Dino, Fiat X1/9, Firewall (engine), Ford Capri, Ford Cougar, Ford Motor Company, Ford Mustang, Ford of Europe, Ford Probe, Ford Puma, Four-wheel drive, Frazer Nash, Front-engine, front-wheel-drive layout, Front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, General Motors, German military administration in occupied France during World War II, Grand Prix motor racing, Grand tourer, Great Britain, Great Depression, Hispano-Suiza, History of the automobile, Honda, Honda Integra, Honda NSX, Honda Prelude, Horsepower, Hot hatch, Hotchkiss (car), Hundredweight, Ignition magneto, Isotta Fraschini, Italy, Jaguar E-Type, Jaguar XJS, Jaguar XK (X100), Jaguar XK120, Jaguar XK140, Japan, Jean Bugatti, Karl Benz, Kissel Motor Car Company, Kit car, Lamborghini, Lamborghini Aventador, Lamborghini Countach, Lamborghini Miura, Laurence Pomeroy, List of exclusively sports car manufacturers, List of sports cars, Lotus Cars, Lotus Eclat, Lotus Elan, Lotus Elise, Lotus Esprit, Lotus Europa S, Lotus Excel, Lotus Seven, Louis Coatalen, Magnesium alloy, Marc Birkigt, Marketing, Matra, Max Sailer, Mazda, Mazda MX-3, Mazda MX-5, Mazda MX-6, Mazda RX-7, McLaren Automotive, McLaren F1, Mercedes 60hp, Mercedes-Benz 300 SL, Mercedes-Benz SSK, Mercer (automobile), MG C-type, MG Cars, MG F / MG TF, MG F-type, MG J-type, MG K-type, MG L-type, MG M-type, MG MGB, MG Midget, MG N-type, MG P-type, MG Rover Group, MG T-type, MG XPower SV, Mid-engine design, Mille Miglia, Mitsubishi, Mitsubishi Eclipse, Mitsubishi GTO, Monte Carlo Rally, Morgan Motor Company, Morris Minor (1928), Motor Car Act 1903, Motor Sport (magazine), Motor Trend, Muscle car, Nissan 300ZX, Nissan S30, Nissan Silvia, Opel, Opel Kadett, Opel Manta, Opel Speedster, Overhead valve engine, Overland Automobile, Paris Motor Show, Patent, Paul Daimler, Peugeot, Plug-in hybrid, Pony car, Porsche, Porsche 356, Porsche 911, Porsche 914, Porsche 924, Porsche 928, Porsche 944, Porsche 959, Porsche 968, Porsche Boxster/Cayman, Powertrain, Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt, Production car speed record, Qvale, Qvale Mangusta, RAC Tourist Trophy, Radiator (engine cooling), Rallying, Rear mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, Rear-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout, Richard Hough, Riley Nine, Road & Track, Roadster (automobile), Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost, Rootes Group, Royal Automobile Club, Runabout (car), Russia, Saab Sonett, Sedan (automobile), Simson (company), Spain, Sport compact, Sport utility vehicle, Sports car racing, Sports sedan, SS Jaguar 100, Star Motor Company, Stoddard-Dayton, Straker-Squire, Streamliner, Stroke ratio, Stutz Bearcat, Stutz Motor Company, Sunbeam Motor Car Company, Sunbeam Rapier, Sunbeam Tiger, Supercar, Supercharger, Suspension (vehicle), Switzerland, Talbot, Targa Florio, Tax horsepower, Tetraethyllead, The Motor, Torpedo (car), Torsion bar suspension, Touring car, Toyota, Toyota Celica, Toyota MR2, Toyota Supra, Transmission (mechanics), Transverse engine, Triumph Spitfire, Triumph TR7, TVR, TVR Cerbera, TVR Griffith, Understeer and oversteer, United Kingdom, United States, Vauxhall, Vauxhall 30-98, Vauxhall Cavalier, Vauxhall Prince Henry, Victor Gauntlett, Vintage car, Vintage Sports-Car Club, Vittorio Jano, Voiturette, Volkswagen, Volkswagen Beetle, W. O. Bentley, West Germany, Wilhelm Maybach, Wolseley Hornet six, World War I, World War II, 1903 Gordon Bennett Cup, 1937 24 Hours of Le Mans, 1939 24 Hours of Le Mans, 2+2 (car body style), 24 Hours of Le Mans. Expand index (256 more) » « Shrink index
AC Ace is a car which was produced by AC Cars of Thames Ditton, England, from 1953 to 1963.
AC Cars Ltd. formerly known as Auto Carriers Ltd., is a British specialist automobile manufacturer and one of the oldest independent car makers founded in Britain.
The AC Cobra, sold as the Shelby Cobra in the United States, is an Anglo-American sports car with a Ford V8 engine, produced intermittently in both the UK and the US since 1962.
Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.
Air-cooled engines rely on the circulation of air directly over hot parts of the engine to cool them.
An aircraft is a machine that is able to fly by gaining support from the air.
Alfa Romeo Automobiles S.p.A. is a car manufacturer, founded by Frenchman Alexandre Darracq as A.L.F.A. (" Anonima Lombarda Fabbrica Automobili", "Lombard Automobile Factory Company") on 24 June 1910, in Milan.
The Alfa Romeo 6C name was used on road, race, and sports cars produced between 1927 and 1954 by Alfa Romeo; the "6C" name refers to six cylinders of the car's straight-six engine.
The Alfa Romeo 8C was originally a range of Alfa Romeo road, race and sports cars of the 1930s.
The Alfa Romeo Spider (105/115 series) is a roadster produced by the Italian manufacturer Alfa Romeo from 1966 to 1993—with small run of 1994 models for the North American market.
Alfonso XIII (Spanish: Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena; 17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931.
The Société des Automobiles Alpine SAS, commonly known as Alpine, is a French manufacturer of racing and sports cars established in 1955.
Alvis Car and Engineering Company Ltd was a British manufacturing company in Coventry from 1919 to 1967.
The Amilcar was a French automobile manufactured from 1921 to 1940.
The Apperson was a brand of American automobile manufactured from 1901 to 1926 in Kokomo, Indiana.
The Ariel Atom is a road legal high performance sports car made by the Ariel Motor Company based in Crewkerne, Somerset, England, and under licence in North America by TMI Autotech, Inc.
Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars and grand tourers. It was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. Steered from 1947 by David Brown, it became associated with expensive grand touring cars in the 1950s and 1960s, and with the fictional character James Bond following his use of a DB5 model in the 1964 film Goldfinger. Their sports cars are regarded as a British cultural icon. Aston Martin has held a Royal Warrant as purveyor of motorcars to the Prince of Wales since 1982. It has over 150 car dealerships in over 50 countries on six continents making them a global automobile brand. Their headquarters and the main production site are in Gaydon, Warwickshire, England, alongside one of Jaguar Land Rover's development centres on the site of a former RAF V Bomber airbase. One of Aston Martin's recent cars was named after the 1950s Vulcan Bomber. Aston Martin has exploited its branding for projects including speed boats, submarines, bicycles, monster trucks, clothing and real estate development..
Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer that designs, engineers, produces, markets and distributes luxury vehicles.
The Audi 80 is a compact executive car produced by the German manufacturer Audi (initially known as Auto Union and Audi NSU Auto Union) from 1966 to 1996.
The Audi Quattro is a road and rally car, produced by the German automobile manufacturer Audi, part of the Volkswagen Group.
The Audi TT is a 2-door compact sports car marketed by Volkswagen Group subsidiary Audi since 1998.
The Austin 7 is an economy car that was produced from 1922 until 1939 in the United Kingdom by Austin.
The Austin Motor Company Limited was a British manufacturer of motor vehicles, founded in 1905 by Herbert Austin.
The Austin Rover Group (abbreviated ARG) was a British motor manufacturer.
Austro-Daimler was an Austrian automaker company, from 1899 until 1934.
The Automobile Club de l'Ouest (English: Automobile Club of the West), sometimes abbreviated to ACO, is the largest automotive group in France.
Automobile handling and vehicle handling are descriptions of the way a wheeled vehicle responds and reacts to the inputs of a driver, as well as how it moves along a track or road.
Automotive engineering, along with aerospace engineering and marine engineering, is a branch of vehicle engineering, incorporating elements of mechanical, electrical, electronic, software and safety engineering as applied to the design, manufacture and operation of motorcycles, automobiles and trucks and their respective engineering subsystems.
An axle is a central shaft for a rotating wheel or gear.
Ballot was a French manufacturer, initially of engines, that also made automobiles between 1919 and 1932.
Barchetta, which translates as "little boat" in Italian, is a term used by Italian car manufacturers for two-seat sports cars with either an open top or convertible roof.
The Bentley 3 Litre was a car chassis manufactured by Bentley.
Berkeley Cars Ltd of Biggleswade, Bedfordshire, England produced economical sporting microcars with motorcycle-derived engines from 322 cc to 692 cc and front wheel drive between 1956 and 1960.
Berlinetta (from berlinetta) is sports coupé, typically with two-seats but also including 2+2 cars.
A bicycle, also called a cycle or bike, is a human-powered, pedal-driven, single-track vehicle, having two wheels attached to a frame, one behind the other.
Blackpool is a seaside resort on the Lancashire coast in North West England.
BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke in German, or Bavarian Motor Works in English) is a German multinational company which currently produces luxury automobiles and motorcycles, and also produced aircraft engines until 1945.
The BMW 328 is a sports car made by BMW between 1936 and 1940, with the body design credited to Peter Szymanowski, who became BMW chief of design after World War II (although technically the car was designed by Fritz Fiedler).
The BMW i8 is a plug-in hybrid sports car developed by BMW.
The BMW Z1 is the first model in BMW's line of Z series roadsters (two-seater convertibles), and was produced in limited numbers from 1989 to 1991.
The E36/7/8 BMW Z3 is the second generation of the BMW Z range of two-seater sports cars, produced from 1995 to 2002.
The BMW Z4 is a range of two-seat roadster and coupé models which have been produced since 2002.
A brand is a name, term, design, symbol, or other feature that distinguishes an organization or product from its rivals in the eyes of the customer.
The Brass Era is an American term for the early period of automotive manufacturing, named for the prominent brass fittings used during this time for such things as lights and radiators.
British Leyland was an automotive engineering and manufacturing conglomerate formed in the United Kingdom in 1968 as British Leyland Motor Corporation Ltd (BLMC), following the merger of Leyland Motors and British Motor Holdings.
The British Motor Corporation Limited (BMC) was a UK-based vehicle manufacturer, formed in early 1952 to give effect to an agreed merger of the Morris and Austin businesses.
Brooklands was a motor racing circuit and aerodrome built near Weybridge in Surrey, England, United Kingdom.
Automobiles Ettore Bugatti was a French car manufacturer of high-performance automobiles, founded in 1909 in the then German city of Molsheim, Alsace by Italian-born Ettore Bugatti.
The Type 13 was the first true Bugatti car.
The Bugatti Type 57 and later variants (including the famous Atlantic and Atalante) was an entirely new design created by Jean Bugatti, son of founder Ettore.
The Bugatti Veyron EB 16.4 is a mid-engined sports car, designed and developed in Germany by the Volkswagen Group and manufactured in Molsheim, France, by Bugatti.
Camille Jenatzy (1868, Schaerbeek – 8 December 1913, Habay la Neuve) was a Belgian race car driver.
A car (or automobile) is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transportation.
Car and Driver (CD or C/D) is an American automotive enthusiast magazine.
Governments and private organizations have developed car classification schemes that are used for innumerable purposes including regulation, description and categorization, among others.
Car tuning is modification of the performance or appearance of a vehicle.
A carburetor (American English) or carburettor (British English; see spelling differences) is a device that mixes air and fuel for internal combustion engines in the proper ratio for combustion.
Carlo Felice Bianchi "Cici" Anderloni (7 April 1916 – 7 August 2003) was an Italian automobile designer, known for several designs for the Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera company.
Carrozzeria Touring Superleggera is an Italian automobile coachbuilder.
The Caterham 7 (or Caterham Seven) is a super-lightweight sports car produced by Caterham Cars in the United Kingdom.
Cecil Kimber (1888–1945) was an automobile engineer, most famous for his role in being the driving force behind the MG car company.
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
A chassis (plural chassis) is the internal framework of an artificial object, which supports the object in its construction and use.
Chenard-Walcker, also known as Chenard & Walcker, was a French automobile and commercial vehicle manufacturer from 1898 to 1946.
The Chevrolet Corvette, known colloquially as the Vette or Chevy Corvette, is a sports car manufactured by Chevrolet.
Chrysler Europe was the American automotive company Chrysler's operations in Europe from 1967 through 1979.
The Circuit des 24 Heures du Mans, also known as Circuit de la Sarthe (after the 1906 French Grand Prix triangle circuit) located in Le Mans, Maine, France, is a semi-permanent race course chiefly known as the venue for the 24 Hours of Le Mans auto race.
Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, part of the PSA Peugeot Citroën group since 1976, founded in 1919 by French industrialist André-Gustave Citroën (1878–1935).
A coachbuilder is a manufacturer of bodies for passenger-carrying vehicles.
The static compression ratio of an internal combustion engine or external combustion engine is a value that represents the ratio of the volume of its combustion chamber from its largest capacity to its smallest capacity.
A convertible or cabriolet is a passenger car that can be driven with or without a roof in place.
The Coppa Florio (or Florio Cup) was an automobile race first held in Italy in 1900.
A coupé — also known as coupe — is a car with a fixed-roof body style usually with two doors, however some four-door cars have been marketed as four door coupés or quad coupés due to their coupé-like roofline at the rear.
Not to be confused with American Simplex Crane-Simplex was a car manufacturer, operating in New York City and New Brunswick, New Jersey, at the beginning of the 20th century.
Crossley Motors was a British motor vehicle manufacturer based in Manchester, England.
Delage was a French luxury automobile and racecar company founded in 1905 by Louis Delage in Levallois-Perret near Paris; it was acquired by Delahaye in 1935 and ceased operation in 1953.
Doriot, Flandrin & Parant (D.F.P.) was a French car maker based in Courbevoie, Seine between 1906 and 1926.
Electronic stability control (ESC), also referred to as electronic stability program (ESP) or dynamic stability control (DSC), is a computerized technology that improves a vehicle's stability by detecting and reducing loss of traction (skidding).
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Enzo Anselmo Ferrari, Cavaliere di Gran Croce OMRI (18 February 1898 – 14 August 1988) was an Italian motor racing driver and entrepreneur, the founder of the Scuderia Ferrari Grand Prix motor racing team, and subsequently of the Ferrari automobile marque.
Ernest Henry (1885 in Geneva, Switzerland – 1950 in Paris, France) was a mechanical engineer.
Ettore Arco Isidoro Bugatti (15 September 1881 – 21 August 1947) was an Italian-born French automobile designer.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
Felice Nazzaro (4 December 1881 – 21 March 1940) was an Italian racecar driver, a native of Turin.
Ferdinand Anton Ernst Porsche (19 September 1909 – 27 March 1998), mainly known as Ferry Porsche, was an Austrian technical automobile designer and automaker-entrepreneur.
Ferdinand Porsche (3 September 1875 – 30 January 1951) was an automotive engineer and founder of the Porsche car company.
Ferrari N.V. is an Italian luxury sports car manufacturer based in Maranello.
The Ferrari 166 S was an evolution of Ferrari's 125 S sports race car that became a sports car for the street in the form of the 166 Inter.
The 195 S was a racing sports car produced by Ferrari in 1950.
The Ferrari F40 is a mid-engined, rear-wheel drive sports car built from 1987 to 1992, with the LM and GTE race car versions continuing production until 1994 and 1996 respectively.
Fiat Automobiles S.p.A. (originally FIAT, lit) is the largest automobile manufacturer in Italy, a subsidiary of FCA Italy S.p.A., which is part of Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (previously Fiat S.p.A.). Fiat Automobiles was formed in January 2007 when Fiat reorganized its automobile business, and traces its history back to 1899 when the first Fiat automobile, the Fiat 4 HP, was produced.
The Fiat Barchetta (Type 183) is a roadster produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat from 1995 to 2005 (though production was paused between May 2002 and 2004).
The Fiat Coupé (type 175, officially titled the Coupé Fiat) was a two door, four seater coupé produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat between 1993 and 2000.
The Fiat Dino (Type 135) was a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive sports car produced by Fiat from 1966 to 1973.
The Fiat X1/9 is a two-seater mid-engined sports car designed by Bertone and manufactured by Fiat from 1972-1982 and subsequently by Bertone from 1982-1989.
In automotive engineering, the firewall is the part of the automobile body (unibody or body-on-frame) that separates the engine compartment from the passenger compartment (driver and passengers).
The Ford Capri is a fastback coupé built by Ford Motor Company between 1968 and 1986, designed by American Philip T. Clark, who was also involved in the design of the Ford Mustang.
The Ford Cougar is a coupe that was produced and sold in the European market between 1998 and 2002, and sold in Canada and the United States from 1999 to 2002 as the Mercury Cougar.
Ford Motor Company (commonly referred to simply as "Ford") is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Dearborn, Michigan, a suburb of Detroit.
The Ford Mustang is an American car manufactured by Ford.
Ford of Europe AG is a subsidiary company of Ford Motor Company founded in 1967 in Cork, Ireland with headquarters in Cologne, Germany.
The Ford Probe is a liftback coupé produced by Ford, introduced in 1988 and produced until 1997.
The Ford Puma is a compact coupé that was produced by Ford Europe from September 1997 to July 2002.
Four-wheel drive, also called 4×4 ("four by four") or 4WD, refers to a two-axled vehicle drivetrain capable of providing torque to all of its wheels simultaneously.
Frazer Nash was a brand of British sports car manufactured from 1922 first by Frazer Nash Limited founded by engineer Archibald Frazer-Nash.
In automotive design, an FF, or front-engine, front-wheel-drive (FWD) layout places both the internal combustion engine and driven roadwheels at the front of the vehicle.
In automotive design, an FR, or front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout is one where the engine is located at the front of the vehicle and driven wheels are located at the rear.
General Motors Company, commonly referred to as General Motors (GM), is an American multinational corporation headquartered in Detroit that designs, manufactures, markets, and distributes vehicles and vehicle parts, and sells financial services.
The Military Administration in France (Militärverwaltung in Frankreich; Occupation de la France par l'Allemagne) was an interim occupation authority established by Nazi Germany during World War II to administer the occupied zone in areas of northern and western France.
Grand Prix motor racing has its roots in organised automobile racing that began in France as far back as 1894.
A grand tourer (gran turismo) (GT) is a performance and luxury automobile capable of high speed and long-distance driving.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
Hispano-Suiza (English: Hispanic-Swiss) was a Spanish automotive/engineering company and, after World War II, a French aviation engine and components manufacturer.
The early history of the automobile can be divided into a number of eras, based on the prevalent means of propulsion.
is a Japanese public multinational conglomerate corporation primarily known as a manufacturer of automobiles, aircraft, motorcycles, and power equipment.
The Honda Integra (sold in some markets as Acura Integra and Rover 416i) is an automobile produced by Japanese automobile manufacturer Honda from 1985 to 2006.
The Honda NSX, marketed in North America as the Acura NSX, is a two-seat, mid-engine sports car manufactured by Honda/Acura.
The Honda Prelude is a sports coupé which was produced by Japanese car manufacturer Honda from 1978 until 2001.
Horsepower (hp) is a unit of measurement of power (the rate at which work is done).
Hot hatch (shortened from hot hatchback) is a high-performance derivative of a car body style consisting of a three- or five-door hatchback automobile.
Hotchkiss were luxury cars made between 1903 and 1955 by the French company Hotchkiss et Cie in Saint-Denis, Paris.
The hundredweight (abbreviation: cwt), formerly also known as the centum weight or quintal, is an English, imperial, and US customary unit of weight or mass of various values.
An ignition magneto, or high tension magneto, is a magneto that provides current for the ignition system of a spark-ignition engine, such as a petrol engine.
Isotta Fraschini is an Italian motors brand historically known for the production of cars as well as trucks, and engines for marine and aviation use.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
The Jaguar E-Type, or the Jaguar XK-E for the North American market, is a British sports car that was manufactured by Jaguar Cars Ltd between 1961 and 1975.
The Jaguar XJ-S (later XJS), a luxury grand tourer, was produced by the British manufacturer Jaguar from 1975 to 1996.
The Jaguar XK8 (project code X100) is a 2-door grand tourer that was launched by Jaguar Cars in 1996, and was the first generation of a new XK series.
The Jaguar XK120 is a sports car manufactured by Jaguar between 1948 and 1954.
The Jaguar XK140 is a sports car manufactured by Jaguar between 1954 and 1957 as the successor to the XK120.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
Jean Bugatti (15 January 1909 – 11 August 1939) was a French automotive designer and test engineer.
Karl Friedrich Benz (25 November 1844 – 4 April 1929) was a German engine designer and automobile engineer.
The Kissel Motor Car Company was an American automobile and truck manufacturing company founded by Louis Kissel and his sons, George and William, on June 5, 1906 in Hartford, Wisconsin.
A kit car is an automobile that is available as a set of parts that a manufacturer sells and the buyer then assembles into a functioning car.
Automobili Lamborghini S.p.A. is an Italian brand and manufacturer of luxury sports cars and SUVs based in Sant'Agata Bolognese and tractors Lamborghini Trattori in Pieve di Cento, Italy.
The Lamborghini Aventador is a mid-engined sports car produced by the Italian automotive manufacturer Lamborghini.
The Lamborghini Countach is a rear mid-engined, V12 sports car produced by Italian car manufacturer Lamborghini from 1974 to 1990.
The Lamborghini Miura is a sports car produced by Italian automaker Lamborghini between 1966 and 1973.
Laurence Henry Pomeroy (1883–1941) was an English automotive engineer trained as a locomotive engineer and particularly interested in the introduction of light alloys into automotive applications.
This is a list of specialist manufacturers or marques of modern and classic sports cars.
This page is a compilation of sports cars, roadsters, supercars, race cars, and coupés, both discontinued and still in production.
Lotus Cars is a British automotive company that manufactures sports cars and racing cars in its headquarters in Hethel, United Kingdom.
Lotus Eclat (Type 76 and Type 84) is a front engine rear drive coupe automobile built from 1975 to 1982 by Lotus Cars.
Lotus Elan is the name of two separate ranges of automobiles produced by Lotus Cars.
The Lotus Elise is a two-seat, rear-wheel drive, mid-engined roadster conceived in early 1994 and released in September 1996 by the British manufacturer Lotus Cars.
The Lotus Esprit is a sports car that was built by Lotus Cars at their Hethel factory in the United Kingdom between 1976 and 2004.
The Lotus Europa S (Type 121) is a two-seat mid-engined sports car, designed to be a more toned down and comfortable variant of the driver focused Lotus Elise and its derivative, the Exige.
The Type 89 Lotus Excel is a front-engined, rear-wheel drive sports car designed and built by Lotus from 1982 to 1992.
The Lotus Seven is a small, simple, lightweight two-seater open-top sports car produced by the British manufacturer Lotus Cars (initially called Lotus Engineering) between 1957 and 1972.
Louis Hervé Coatalen (11 September 1879 – 23 May 1962) was an automobile engineer and racing driver born in Brittany who spent much of his adult life in Britain and took British nationality.
Magnesium alloys are mixtures of magnesium with other metals (called an alloy), often aluminum, zinc, manganese, silicon, copper, rare earths and zirconium.
Marc Birkigt (8 March 1878, Geneva – 15 March 1953, Versoix) was a Swiss engineer who moved to Barcelona, Spain when he was hired as an engineer by Emilio de la Cuadra, founder of Hispano-Suiza automobiles.
Marketing is the study and management of exchange relationships.
Mécanique Aviation Traction or Matra (Mécanique Aviation Traction) was a French company covering a wide range of activities mainly related to automobiles, bicycles, aeronautics and weaponry.
Max Sailer (20 December 1882 – 5 February 1964) was a German racecar driver.
, commonly referred to as simply Mazda, is a Japanese multinational automaker based in Fuchū, Aki District, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.
The Mazda MX-3 is a four-seat coupé manufactured and marketed by Mazda, introduced at the Geneva Auto Show in March 1991 and marketed for model years 1992-1998.
The Mazda MX-5, released as the Mazda MX-5 Miata in North America and as the Eunos Roadster or Mazda Roadster in Japan, is a lightweight two-seater roadster with a front-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout.
The Mazda MX-6 is a front-wheel drive sport coupé that was produced by Mazda between 1987 and 1997.
The Mazda RX-7 is a front-engine, rear-drive sports car manufactured and marketed by Mazda from 1978-2002 across three generations — all noted for using a compact, lightweight Wankel engine.
McLaren Automotive (formerly known as McLaren Cars) is a British automotive manufacturer based at the McLaren Technology Centre in Woking, Surrey.
The McLaren F1 is a sports car designed and manufactured by McLaren Cars.
The Mercedes Simplex 60 hp was manufactured by Mercedes Benz in 1903 and 1904.
The Mercedes-Benz 300 SL (W198) was the first iteration of the SL-Class grand tourer and fastest production car of its day.
The Mercedes-Benz SSK (W06) is a roadster built by German automobile manufacturer Mercedes-Benz between 1928 and 1932.
Mercer was an American automobile manufacturer from 1909 until 1925.
The MG C-type is a sports car that was produced by MG from 1931 to 1932.
MG, the initials of Morris Garages, is a British automotive marque registered by the now defunct MG Car Company Limited,The M.G. Car Company Limited, incorporated 21 July 1930.
The MG F and MG TF are mid-engined, rear wheel drive roadster cars that were sold under the MG marque by three manufacturers between 1995 and 2011.
The MG F-type Magna is a six-cylinder-engined car that was produced by MG from October 1931 to 1932.
The MG J-type is a sports car that was produced by MG from 1932 to 1934.
The MG K-type Magnette is a motor car produced in the United Kingdom by MG from October 1932 to 1934.
The MG L-type is a sports car that was produced by the MG Car company in 1933 and 1934.
The MG M-type (also known as the MG Midget) is a sports car that was produced by the MG Cars from April 1929 to 1932.
The MGB is a two-door sports car manufactured and marketed by the British Motor Corporation (BMC), later British Leyland, as a four-cylinder, soft-top roadster from 1962 until 1980.
The MG Midget is a small two-seater sports car produced by MG from 1961 to 1979.
The MG N-type Magnette is a sports car that was produced by MG from October 1934 to 1936.
The MG P-type is a sports car that was produced by MG from 1934 to 1936.
The MG Rover Group was the last domestically owned mass-production car manufacturer in the British motor industry.
The MG T series is a range of body-on-frame open two-seater sports cars with very little weather protection that were produced by MG from 1936 to 1955.
The MG XPower SV is a sports car that was produced by MG Rover.
A mid-engine layout describes the placement of an automobile engine between the rear and front axles.
The Mille Miglia (Thousand Miles) was an open-road endurance race which took place in Italy twenty-four times from 1927 to 1957 (thirteen before the war, eleven from 1947).
The is a group of autonomous Japanese multinational companies in a variety of industries.
The Mitsubishi Eclipse is a sport compact car that was produced by Mitsubishi in four generations between 1989 and 2011.
The Mitsubishi GTO is a sports car built by the Japanese automaker Mitsubishi between 1990 and 1999.
The Monte Carlo Rally or Rallye Monte Carlo (officially Rallye Automobile Monte Carlo) is a rallying event organised each year by the Automobile Club de Monaco which also organises the Formula One Monaco Grand Prix and the Rallye Monte-Carlo Historique.
The Morgan Motor Company is a family-owned British motor car manufacturer that was founded in 1910 by Henry Frederick Stanley Morgan.
This article refers to the motor car manufactured by Morris Motors Limited from 1928–1934.
The Motor Car Act 1903 (3 Edw.7, c. 36) was an Act of the United Kingdom Parliament that received royal assent on 14 August 1903, which introduced motor vehicle registration, driver licensing and increased the speed limit.
Motor Sport is a magazine founded in the United Kingdom in 1924"Racing Magazines ", Magazine-Agent.com, 2009, webpage:.
Motor Trend is an American automobile magazine.
Muscle car is an American term used to refer to a variety of high-performance automobiles.
The Nissan 300ZX is a sports car in the Nissan Z-car family that was produced across two similar but unique generations.
The Nissan S30 (sold in Japan as the Nissan Fairlady Z and in other markets as the Datsun 240Z, then later as the 260Z and 280Z) was the first generation of Z GT two-seat coupes, produced by Nissan Motors, Ltd.
The Nissan Silvia is the name given to the company's long-running line of sport coupes based on the Nissan S platform.
Opel (Opel) is a German automobile manufacturer, subsidiary of French automaker Groupe PSA since August 2017.
The Opel Kadett is a small family car produced by the German automobile manufacturer Opel from 1962 until 1991 (the Cabrio continued until 1993), when it was succeeded by Opel Astra.
The Opel Manta is a rear-wheel-drive sports coupé motor vehicle built by Opel from 1970 to 1988.
The Opel Speedster is a British built mid-engined, targa-topped, two seat sports car sold by the German automaker Opel, introduced in July 2000.
An overhead valve engine (OHV engine), or "pushrod engine", is a reciprocating piston engine whose poppet valves are sited in the cylinder head.
The Overland Automobile Company was a United States-based automobile manufacturer.
The Paris Motor Show (Mondial de l'Automobile) is a biennial auto show in Paris.
A patent is a set of exclusive rights granted by a sovereign state or intergovernmental organization to an inventor or assignee for a limited period of time in exchange for detailed public disclosure of an invention.
Paul Daimler (September 13, 1869 – December 15, 1945) was a German mechanical engineer who designed automobiles.
Peugeot is a French automotive manufacturer, part of Groupe PSA.
A plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) is a hybrid electric vehicle whose battery can be recharged by plugging it in to an external source of electric power as well by its on-board engine and generator.
Pony car is an American class of automobile launched and inspired by the Ford Mustang in 1964.
The Porsche 356 is a sports car which was first produced by Austrian company Porsche Konstruktionen GesmbH (1948–1949), and then by German company Dr. Ing. h. c. F. Porsche GmbH (1950–1965).
The Porsche 911 (pronounced Nine Eleven or in Neunelfer) is a two-door, 2+2 high performance rear-engined classic German sports car made since 1963 by Porsche AG of Stuttgart, Germany.
The Porsche 914 or VW-Porsche 914 is a mid-engined sports car designed manufactured and marketed collaboratively by Volkswagen and Porsche from 1969 to 1976.
The Porsche 924 is a sports car produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1976 to 1988.
The Porsche 928 is a luxury grand tourer produced by Porsche AG of Germany from 1978 to 1995.
The Porsche 944 is a sports car built by Porsche from 1982 to 1991.
The Porsche 959 is a sports car manufactured by German car manufacturer Porsche from 1986 to 1993, first as a Group B rally car and later as a road legal production car designed to satisfy FIA homologation regulations requiring at least 200 units be produced.
The Porsche 968 is a sports car made by Porsche AG from 1992 to 1995.
The Porsche Boxster and Cayman are mid-engined two-seater sports cars built by Porsche.
In a motor vehicle, the term powertrain or powerplant describes the main components that generate power and deliver it to the road surface, water, or air.
The Prinz-Heinrich-Fahrt (Prince Heinrich Tour, also known as Prince Henry Tour), named after Prince Albert Wilhelm Heinrich of Prussia, was an automobile contest held from 1908 to 1911 and a precursor to the German Grand Prix.
This is a list of the world's record-breaking top speeds achieved by street-legal production cars (as opposed to concept cars or modified cars).
Qvale was an independent Italian car manufacturer founded in 2000 by the American Kjell Qvale's son, Bruce Qvale.
The Qvale Mangusta is a sports car produced in limited numbers in Italy by the automaker Qvale between 2000 and 2002.
The International Tourist Trophy is an award given by the Royal Automobile Club (RAC) and awarded semi-annually to the winners of a selected motor racing event each year in the United Kingdom.
Radiators are heat exchangers used for cooling internal combustion engines, mainly in automobiles but also in piston-engined aircraft, railway locomotives, motorcycles, stationary generating plant or any similar use of such an engine.
Rally is a form of motorsport that takes place on public or private roads with modified production or specially built road-legal cars.
In automotive design, a RMR or Rear Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout (now simply known as MR or Mid-engine, rear-wheel-drive layout) is one in which the rear wheels are driven by an engine placed just in front of them, behind the passenger compartment.
In automotive design, an RR, or Rear-engine, Rear-wheel-drive layout places both the engine and drive wheels at the rear of the vehicle.
Richard Alexander Hough (pronounced how; 15 May 1922 – 7 October 1999) was a British author and historian specializing in maritime history.
The Riley Nine was one of the most successful light sporting cars produced by the British motor industry in the inter war period.
Road & Track (R&T) is an American automotive enthusiast magazine.
A roadster (spider or spyder) is an open two-seat car with emphasis on sporting appearance or character.
The Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost name refers both to a car model and one specific car from that series.
The Rootes Group or Rootes Motors Limited was a British automobile manufacturer and, separately a major motor distributors and dealers business.
The Royal Automobile Club is a British private club and is not to be confused with RAC, an automotive services company, which it formerly owned.
A runabout is a car body style that was popular in North America until about 1915.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Saab Sonett is an automobile manufactured between 1955 and 1957 and again between 1966 and 1974 by Saab of Sweden.
A sedan (American, Canadian, Australian, and New Zealand English) or saloon (British, Irish and Indian English) is a passenger car in a three-box configuration with A, B & C-pillars and principal volumes articulated in separate compartments for engine, passenger and cargo.
Simson was a German company which produced firearms, automobiles, bicycles and motorcycles, and mopeds.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
A sport compact is a high-performance version of a compact car or a subcompact car.
Sport-utility (vehicle), SUV or sport-ute is an automotive classification, typically a kind of station wagon / estate car with off-road vehicle features like raised ground clearance and ruggedness, and available four-wheel drive.
Sports car racing is a form of circuit auto racing with sports cars that have two seats and enclosed wheels.
A sports sedan — also known as "sports saloon" — is a subjective term for a sedan/saloon car which is designed to have sporting performance or handling characteristics.
The SS Jaguar 100 is a British 2-seat sports car built between 1936 and 1941 by SS Cars Ltd of Coventry, England.
The Star Motor Company was a British car and commercial vehicle maker based in Wolverhampton and active from 1898 to 1932.
Stoddard-Dayton was a high quality car manufactured by Dayton Motor Car Company in Dayton, Ohio, USA, between 1905 and 1913.
Straker-Squire (also known as Brazil Straker) was a British automobile manufacturer based in Bristol, and later Edmonton in North London.
A streamliner is a vehicle incorporating streamlining in a shape providing reduced air resistance.
In a reciprocating piston engine, the stroke ratio, defined by either bore/stroke ratio or stroke/bore ratio, is a term to describe the ratio between cylinder bore diameter and piston stroke.
The Stutz Bearcat was a well-known American sports car of the pre- and post-World War One period.
The Stutz Motor Company was an American producer of luxury cars based in Indianapolis, Indiana, USA.
Sunbeam Motor Car Company Limited was a British motor car manufacturer with its works at Moorfields in Blakenhall, a suburb of Wolverhampton in the county of Staffordshire, now West Midlands.
The Sunbeam Rapier is an automobile produced by Rootes Group from 1955 to 1976, in two different body-styles, the "Series" cars (which underwent several revisions) and the later (1967–76) fastback shape, part of the "Arrow" range.
The Sunbeam Tiger is a high-performance V8 version of the British Rootes Group's Sunbeam Alpine roadster, designed in part by American car designer and racing driver Carroll Shelby and produced from 1964 until 1967.
A supercar is a luxury, high-performance sports car or grand tourer.
A supercharger is an air compressor that increases the pressure or density of air supplied to an internal combustion engine.
Suspension is the system of tires, tire air, springs, shock absorbers and linkages that connects a vehicle to its wheels and allows relative motion between the two.
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
Talbot or Clément-Talbot Limited was a London automobile manufacturer founded in 1903.
The Targa Florio was an open road endurance automobile race held in the mountains of Sicily near the island's capital of Palermo.
The tax horsepower or taxable horsepower was an early system by which taxation rates for automobiles were reckoned in some European countries, such as Britain, Belgium, Germany, France, and Italy; some US states like Illinois charged license plate purchase and renewal fees for passenger automobiles based on taxable horsepower.
Tetraethyllead (commonly styled tetraethyl lead), abbreviated TEL, is an organolead compound with the formula (CH3CH2)4Pb.
The Motor (later, just Motor) was a British weekly car magazine founded on 28 January 1903 and published by Temple Press.
The torpedo body style was a type of automobile body used from the early twentieth century until the mid-1930s; it fell quickly into disuse by World War II, and the appearance was modernized into what is now called a "hardtop".
A front VW Beetle suspension cross-section A torsion bar suspension, also known as a torsion spring suspension (not to be confused with a torsion beam rear suspension), is a general term for any vehicle suspension that uses a torsion bar as its main weight-bearing spring.
A touring car is an open car seating four or more.
, usually shortened to Toyota, is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Aichi, Japan.
The or was an automobile produced by Toyota from 1970 to 2006.
The Toyota MR2 is a two-seat, mid-engined, rear-wheel-drive sports car manufactured in Japan and marketed globally by Toyota from 1984 to 2007 over three generations: W10 (1984–1989), W20 (1990–1999) and W30 (2000–2007).
The is a sports car/grand tourer that was produced by Toyota Motor Corporation from 1978 to 2002.
A transmission is a machine in a power transmission system, which provides controlled application of the power.
A transverse engine is an engine mounted in a vehicle so that the engine's crankshaft axis is perpendicular to the direction of travel.
The Triumph Spitfire is a small British two-seat sports car, introduced at the London Motor Show in 1962.
The Triumph TR7 is a sports car which was manufactured from September 1974 to October 1981 by the Triumph Motor Company (which was part of British Leyland) in the United Kingdom.
TVR is an independent British manufacturer of high-end sports cars.
The TVR Cerbera is a sports car manufactured by TVR between 1996 and 2003.
The TVR Griffith, later models being referred to as the Griffith 500, is a sports car designed and built by TVR starting production in 1991 and ending production in 2002 with production beginning again in 2018 under a revived TVR brand.
Understeer and oversteer are vehicle dynamics terms used to describe the sensitivity of a vehicle to steering.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Vauxhall is a mixed commercial and residential district of southwest London in the London Borough of Lambeth.
The Vauxhall 30–98 is a car manufactured by Vauxhall at Luton, Bedfordshire from 1913 to 1927.
The Vauxhall Cavalier was a large family car sold primarily in the UK by Vauxhall from 1975 to 1995.
The Vauxhall Prince Henry was a car manufactured by Vauxhall from 1911 to 1914.
Malcolm Victor Gauntlett (20 May 1942 – 31 March 2003) was an English petrochemical entrepreneur and car enthusiast, best known for forming the largest independent petrol retail business in the United Kingdom, and for reviving Aston Martin.
A vintage car is, in the most general sense, an old automobile, and in the narrower senses of car enthusiasts and collectors, it is a car from the period of 1919 to 1930.
The Vintage Sports-Car Club or VSCC is a British motor racing club.
Vittorio Jano (János Viktor; 22 April 1891 – 13 March 1965) was an Italian automobile designer of Hungarian descent from the 1920s through 1960s.
A voiturette is a miniature automobile.
Volkswagen, shortened to VW, is a German automaker founded on 28 May 1937 by the German Labour Front under Adolf Hitler and headquartered in Wolfsburg.
The Volkswagen Beetle – officially the Volkswagen Type 1, informally in German the Käfer (literally "beetle"), in parts of the English-speaking world the Bug, and known by many other nicknames in other languages – is a two-door, rear-engine economy car, intended for five passengers, that was manufactured and marketed by German automaker Volkswagen (VW) from 1938 until 2003.
Walter Owen Bentley, MBE (16 September 1888 – 13 August 1971) was an English engineer who designed engines for cars and aircraft, raced cars and motorcycles, and founded Bentley Motors Limited in Cricklewood near London.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
(9 February 1846 – 29 December 1929) was an early German engine designer and industrialist.
The Wolseley Hornet is a six-cylinder twelve fiscal horsepower lightweight automobile which was offered as a saloon car, coupé and open two-seater as well as the usual rolling chassis for bespoke coachwork.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The 1903 Gordon Bennett Cup, formally titled the IV Coupe Internationale, was a motor race held on 2 July 1903, on the Athy Circuit consisting of closed roads in Ireland.
The 1937 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 14th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place on 19 and 20 June 1937.
The 1939 24 Hours of Le Mans was the 16th Grand Prix of Endurance, and took place at Circuit de la Sarthe, Le Mans, France, on 17 and 18 June 1939.
The 2+2 is a version of the coupé car body style that has two small rear seats for children or occasional usage, along with two front seats for the driver and front passenger.
The 24 Hours of Le Mans (24 Heures du Mans) is the world's oldest active sports car race in endurance racing, held annually since near the town of Le Mans, France.