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ABC Australia may refer to.
ABC News is the news division of the American Broadcasting Company (ABC), owned by the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Adam's Bridge (Sinhala: adamgay palama), also known as Rama's Bridge or Rama Setu (Sanskrit), is a chain of limestone shoals, between Pamban Island, also known as Rameswaram Island, off the south-eastern coast of Tamil Nadu, India, and Mannar Island, off the north-western coast of Sri Lanka.
Affirmative action, also known as reservation in India and Nepal, positive action in the UK, and employment equity (in a narrower context) in Canada and South Africa, is the policy of protecting members of groups that are known to have previously suffered from discrimination.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
An airline is a company that provides air transport services for traveling passengers and freight.
Alfred Thangarajah Duraiappah (15 June 1926 – 27 July 1975) was a Sri Lankan Tamil lawyer, politician, Mayor of Jaffna and Member of Parliament.
All Ceylon Tamil Congress (அகில இலங்கைத் தமிழ்க் காங்கிரஸ்), is the oldest Tamil political party in Sri Lanka.
There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
An Historical Relation of the Island Ceylon together With somewhat Concerning Severall Remarkable passages of my life that hath hapned since my Deliverance out of Captivity is a book written by the English trader and sailor Robert Knox in 1681.
Egodahage George Wilfred Alwis Samarakoon (13 January 1911 – 2 April 1962) known as Ananda Samarakoon was a Sri Lankan composer and musician.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Ancestry.com LLC is a privately held online company based in Lehi, Utah.
The ancient Sinhalese excelled in the construction of tanks (Wevas) or reservoirs, dagobas (or stupas) and palaces in Sri Lanka, as evident from the ruins which displays a rich variety of architectural forms.
Angampora (අංගම්පොර, is a form of martial art from Sri Lanka that combines combat techniques, self-defense, sport, exercise, and meditation. A key component of angampora is the namesake angam, which incorporates hand-to-hand fighting, and illangam, involving the use of indigenous weapons such as the ethunu kaduwa, staves, knives and swords. Another component known as maya angam, which uses spells and incantations for combat, is also said to have existed. Angampora's distinct feature lies in the use of pressure point attacks to inflict pain or permanently paralyze the opponent. Fighters usually make use of both striking and grappling techniques, and fight until the opponent is caught in a submission lock that they cannot escape. Usage of weapons is discretionary. Perimeters of fighting are defined in advance, and in some of the cases is a pit. With the advent of colonialism over the entirety of the island in 1815, Angampora fell into disuse and was very nearly lost as a part of the country's heritage. The British administration prohibited its practice due to the dangers posed by a civilian populace versed in a martial art, burning down any angan madu (practice huts devoted to the martial art) found: flouting of the law was punished by a gunshot to the knee, effectively crippling practitioners; Angampora nevertheless survived within a few families, allowing it to emerge into mainstream Sri Lankan culture post-independence. A number of paintings related to angampora are found at Buddhist temples in Sri Lanka. These include Embekka Devalaya, Gadaladeniya Rajamaha Viharaya, Temple of the Tooth, Saman Devalaya (Ratnapura) and Lankathilaka Rajamaha Viharaya.
The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.
Queen Anula of Anuradhapura (reigned 47 BC – 42 BC) was the first queen in Sri Lankan history to have wielded meaningful power and authority, as well as the first female head of state in Asia.
Anuradhapura (අනුරාධපුරය; Tamil: அனுராதபுரம்) is a major city in Sri Lanka.
The Anuradhapura Kingdom (Sinhala: අනුරාධපුර රාජධානිය, Tamil:அனுராதபுர இராச்சியம்), named for its capital city, was the first established kingdom in ancient Sri Lanka and Sinhalese people.
The Anuradhapura Maha Viharaya was an important mahavihara or large Buddhist monastery for Theravada Buddhism in Sri Lanka.
Appam is a type of pancake, originating from the Indian subcontinent, made with fermented rice batter and coconut milk.
An aqueduct is a watercourse constructed to convey water.
The Arabian Sea, also known as Sea of Oman, is a region of the northern Indian Ocean bounded on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by the Gulf of Aden, Guardafui Channel and the Arabian Peninsula, and on the east by India.
Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.
The architecture of ancient Sri Lanka displays a rich diversity, varying in form and architectural style from the Anuradhapura Kingdom (377 BC–1017) through the Kingdom of Kandy (1469–1815).
Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional figure or shape, or planar lamina, in the plane.
Arlington County is a county in the Commonwealth of Virginia, often referred to simply as Arlington or Arlington, Virginia.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
Arunachalam Mahadeva (translit; 5 October 1885 – 15 April 1966) was a Ceylon Tamil lawyer, politician and government minister.
The Aryan race was a racial grouping used in the period of the late 19th century and mid-20th century to describe people of European and Western Asian heritage.
Asela was an early monarch of Sri Lanka of the Kingdom of Anuradhapura, based at the ancient capital of Anuradhapura from 215 BC to 205 BC.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
The ACC Asia Cup is a men's One Day International & Twenty20 International cricket tournament.
Asia Times is a Hong Kong-based Philippine English-language news website covering politics, economics, business and culture "from an Asian perspective specially Philippine".
The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established on 19 December 1966, which is headquartered in the Ortigas Center located in the city of Mandaluyong, Metro Manila, Philippines.
The Asian elephant, or Asiatic elephant (Elephas maximus), is the only living species of the genus Elephas and is distributed in Southeast Asia, from India and Nepal in the west to Borneo in the south.
The Asian Tribune is an online newspaper that provides news and editorial on the current affairs of Asia, with a special emphasis on South Asia but mostly concentrates its news on the current Civil conflict in Sri Lanka.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Association for the Study of Ethnicity and Nationalism (ASEN) is an international, interdisciplinary association for academics, researchers, students, journalists and others directly concerned with advancing the study of ethnicity and nationalism.
An attack helicopter is an armed helicopter with the primary role of an attack aircraft, with the capability of engaging targets on the ground, such as enemy infantry and armored fighting vehicles.
Aṭṭhakathā (Pali for explanation, commentary) refers to Pali-language Theravadin Buddhist commentaries to the canonical Theravadin Tipitaka.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Avukana statue is a standing statue of the Buddha near Kekirawa in North Central Sri Lanka.
Badulla (බදුල්ල, பதுளை) is the main city of Uva Province situated in the lower central hills of Sri Lanka.
Baila (also known as bayila; from the Portuguese verb bailar, meaning to dance) is a form of music, popular in Sri Lanka.
Balangoda Man (Homo sapiens balangodensis) refers to hominins from Sri Lanka's late Quaternary period.
Bambarakanda Falls (also known as Bambarakele Falls) is the tallest waterfall in Sri Lanka.
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
The Bandaranaike–Chelvanayakam Pact was an agreement signed between the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka S. W. R. D. Bandaranaike and the leader of the main Tamil political party in Sri Lanka S. J. V. Chelvanayakam on July 26, 1957.
The first large-scale Asian–African or Afro–Asian Conference—also known as the Bandung Conference (Konferensi Asia-Afrika)—was a meeting of Asian and African states, most of which were newly independent, which took place on April 18–24, 1955 in Bandung, Indonesia.
Batadombalena is an archaeological site with evidence of habitation from 8,000 years BCE, Balangoda Man, located from Colombo in Sri Lanka, a two-hour drive from Colombo.
The Battle of Vijithapura was a decisive and major battle in the campaign carried out by Sri Lankan king Dutthagamani against the invading South Indian king Ellalan.
The Bay of Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গোপসাগর) is the northeastern part of the Indian Ocean, bounded on the west and north by India and Bangladesh, and on the east by Myanmar and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (India).
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.
Belilena is a well known large cave in Sri Lanka, located from the town of Kitulgala.
Bengal (Bānglā/Bôngô /) is a geopolitical, cultural and historical region in Asia, which is located in the eastern part of the Indian subcontinent at the apex of the Bay of Bengal.
A bhikkhu (from Pali, Sanskrit: bhikṣu) is an ordained male monastic ("monk") in Buddhism.
A bhikkhunī (Pali) or bhikṣuṇī (Sanskrit) is a fully ordained female monastic in Buddhism.
Bhuvanekabahu VI of Kotte, known also as Sapumal Kumaraya and Chempaka Perumal, was by self admission an adopted son of Parakramabâhu VI whose principal achievement was the conquest of Jaffna Kingdom in the year 1447 or 1450.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
A biodiversity hotspot is a biogeographic region with significant levels of biodiversity that is threatened with destruction.
The birth rate (technically, births/population rate) is the total number of live births per 1,000 in a population in a year or period.
Black and white, often abbreviated B/W or B&W, and hyphenated black-and-white when used as an adjective, is any of several monochrome forms in visual arts.
Black July (translit; කළු ජූලිය Kalu Juliya) is the common name used to refer to the anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Sri Lanka during July 1983.
The Bodhi Tree, (Sanskrit: बोधि) also known as Bo (from Sinhalese: Bo),The word 'Bodh' means knowledge and enlightenment.
The Bodhi-Vamsa, or Mahabodhi-Vamsa, is a prose poem in elaborate Sanskritized Pali, composed by Upatissa in the reign of Mahinda IV of Sri Lanka about AD 980.
Hindi cinema, often metonymously referred to as Bollywood, is the Indian Hindi-language film industry, based in the city of Mumbai (formerly Bombay), Maharashtra, India.
Bowling, in cricket, is the action of propelling the ball toward the wicket defended by a batsman.
Ceylon (Sinhala: බ්රිතාන්ය ලංකාව, Brithānya Laṃkāva; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, Birithaniya Ilangai) was a British Crown colony between 1815 and 1948.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
Theravada Buddhism is the religion of 70.2% of the population of Sri Lanka.
Bundala National Park is an internationally important wintering ground for migratory water birds in Sri Lanka.
The Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor Affairs (DRL) is a bureau within the United States Department of State.
Burgher people, also known simply as Burghers, are a small Eurasian ethnic group in Sri Lanka descended from Portuguese, Dutch, British and other European men who settled in Sri Lanka and developed relationships with native Sri Lankan women.
Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.
Christopher William Wijekoon Kannangara (Sinhalav g mtg fකන්නන්ගර; 13 October 1884 – 23 September 1969) was a Sri Lankan lawyer and politician.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
The Cabinet of Sri Lanka is the council of ministers that form the central government of Sri Lanka.
Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ Φιλομήτωρ Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr Philomḗtōr Kaĩsar "Ptolemy, Beloved of his Father, Beloved of his Mother, Caesar"; June 23, 47 BC – August 23, 30 BC), better known by the nicknames Caesarion (Καισαρίων, Kaisaríōn ≈ Little Caesar; Caesariō) and Ptolemy Caesar (Πτολεμαῖος Καῖσαρ, Ptolemaios Kaisar; Ptolemaeus Caesar), was the last Pharaoh of Egypt.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Canadians (Canadiens / Canadiennes) are people identified with the country of Canada.
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carnegie Mellon University (commonly known as CMU) is a private research university in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
The cashew tree (Anacardium occidentale) is a tropical evergreen tree that produces the cashew seed and the cashew apple.
Caste is a form of social stratification characterized by endogamy, hereditary transmission of a lifestyle which often includes an occupation, status in a hierarchy, customary social interaction, and exclusion.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
Central Highlands of Sri Lanka is a recognised world Heritage Site in Sri Lanka.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Province (මධ්යම පළාත Madhyama Palata, மத்திய மாகாணம் Madhiya Maakaanam) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
Centre-left politics or center-left politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-left politics, is an adherence to views leaning to the left-wing, but closer to the centre on the left–right political spectrum than other left-wing variants.
The Ceylon Citizenship Act No.
The Ceylon Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym CCS, was the premier civil service of the Government of Ceylon under British colonial rule and in the immediate post-independence period.
General elections were held in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) from 23 August to 20 September 1947.
General elections were held in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in 1956.
General elections were held in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) in July 1960.
The first election to the State Council of Ceylon were held from 13 to 20 June 1931.
Ernesto "Che" Guevara (June 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967)The date of birth recorded on was June 14, 1928, although one tertiary source, (Julia Constenla, quoted by Jon Lee Anderson), asserts that he was actually born on May 14 of that year.
Cheena di (චීනාඩි, lit. Chinese fist or Chinese punch) is a Chinese-derived martial art from Sri Lanka.
The Cheras were the ruling dynasty of the present-day state of Kerala and to a lesser extent, parts of Tamil Nadu in South India.
The Chief Justice of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is the head of the judiciary of Sri Lanka and the Supreme Court of Sri Lanka.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
Chinese people in Sri Lanka or Sri Lankan Chinese (ශ්රී ලාංකික චීන, இலங்கை சீனர்கள்) are Sri Lankans of full or partial Chinese descent born or raised in Sri Lanka.
Chloroxylon is a genus of the family Rutaceae with the following species, both desired for their wood as high quality tropical timber and heavily exploited.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
The period of Chola rule in the island of Sri Lanka began with the invasion in 993 AD, when Raja Raja Chola sent a large Chola army which conquered the Anuradhapura Kingdom, in the north, and added it to the Chola Empire.
A Christian mission is an organized effort to spread Christianity.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
Christianity is a minority religion in Sri Lanka.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Church of Ceylon is the Anglican Church in Sri Lanka, as an extra-provincial diocese of the Archbishop of Canterbury.
Cinnamon is a spice obtained from the inner bark of several tree species from the genus Cinnamomum.
Citigroup Inc. or Citi (stylized as citi) is an American multinational investment bank and financial services corporation headquartered in New York City.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Vithana Kuruppuarachchilage Clarence Arthur Somasinghe Wijewardena (3 August 1943 – 13 December 1996) commonly known as Clarence Wijewardena (ක්ලැරන්ස් විජේවර්ධන) was one of the most respected musicians in Sri Lanka, as per his popularity and contribution to revolutionize the Sri Lankan Sinhala Pop Music who pioneered the use of electric guitar in Sinhala music.
Clement Allan Tisdell (born 18 November 1939 in Taree, New South Wales) is an Australian economist and Emeritus Professor at the University of Queensland.
Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.
Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated meat of a mature coconut.
Coffee is a brewed drink prepared from roasted coffee beans, which are the seeds of berries from the Coffea plant.
The Colebrooke–Cameron Commission was appointed in 1822 as a Royal Commission of Eastern Inquiry by the British Colonial Office.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
The Colombo Plan is a regional organisation that embodies the concept of collective intergovernmental effort to strengthen economic and social development of member countries in the Asia-Pacific region.
The Colombo Stock Exchange (CSE) (translit; கொழும்பு பங்கு பரிவர்த்தனை) is the main stock exchange in Sri Lanka.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Commonwealth Secretariat is the main intergovernmental agency and central institution of the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Communist Party of Sri Lanka (Sri Lankavay Komiyunist Pakshaya இலங்கை கம்யூனிஸ்ட் கட்சி) is a communist party in Sri Lanka.
Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.
Concubinage is an interpersonal and sexual relationship in which the couple are not or cannot be married.
Conscription, sometimes called the draft, is the compulsory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service.
Conservation International (CI) is an American nonprofit environmental organization headquartered in Arlington, Virginia.
The Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Śrī Laṃkā āndukrama vyavasthāva, Ilaṅkai araciyalamaippiṉ) has been the constitution of the island nation of Sri Lanka since its original promulgation by the National State Assembly on 7 September 1978.
A controlled-access highway is a type of highway which has been designed for high-speed vehicular traffic, with all traffic flow and ingress/egress regulated.
Cooking bananas are banana cultivars in the genus Musa whose fruits are generally used in cooking.
Copper is a reddish brown color that resembles the metal copper.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposes,Chambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations.
A creole language, or simply creole, is a stable natural language developed from a mixture of different languages at a fairly sudden point in time: often, a pidgin transitioned into a full, native language.
Cricket is a bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, at the centre of which is a rectangular pitch with a target at each end called the wicket (a set of three wooden stumps upon which two bails sit).
The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.
Criminal law is the body of law that relates to crime.
Cristina Goettsch Mittermeier (born Cristina Sofía Goettsch Cabello: November 26, 1966 in Mexico City, Mexico) is a photographer.
Crown colony, dependent territory and royal colony are terms used to describe the administration of United Kingdom overseas territories that are controlled by the British Government.
Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country comprising the island of Cuba as well as Isla de la Juventud and several minor archipelagos.
Cue sports (sometimes written cuesports), also known as billiard sports, are a wide variety of games of skill generally played with a cue stick, which is used to strike billiard balls and thereby cause them to move around a cloth-covered billiards table bounded by elastic bumpers known as.
The Cūḷavaṃsa, also Chulavamsa (Pāli: "Lesser Chronicle"), is a historical record, written in the Pali language, of the monarchs of Sri Lanka.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
Don Stephen Senanayake (දොන් ස්ටීවන් සේනානායක; டி.; 21 October 1883 – 22 March 1952) was a Sri Lankan statesmen.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.
Deer (singular and plural) are the ruminant mammals forming the family Cervidae.
There is no universal agreement on the definition of terrorism.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Deregulation is the process of removing or reducing state regulations, typically in the economic sphere.
Tissa, later Devanampiya Tissa was one of the earliest kings of Sri Lanka based at the ancient capital of Anuradhapura from 307 BC to 267 BC.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
Dharma (dharma,; dhamma, translit. dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions – Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism.
Dhatusena was a king of Sri Lanka who ruled from 455 to 473.
The Dipavamsa or Deepavamsa (i.e., "Chronicle of the Island"; in Pali: Dīpavaṃsa), is the oldest historical record of Sri Lanka.
In Sri Lanka, districts (Distrikka, மாவட்டம்) are the second-level administrative divisions, and are included in a province.
The districts of Sri Lanka are divided into administrative sub-units known as divisional secretariats.
Dominions were semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.
Between 1948 and 1972, CeylonThe Sri Lanka Independence Act 1947 uses the name "Ceylon" for the new dominion; nowhere does that Act use the term "Dominion of Ceylon", which although sometimes used was not the official name.
Sir Don Baron Jayatilaka (Sinhala:ශ්රීමත් දොන් බාරොන් ජයතිලක; 13 February 1868 – 29 May 1944) known as D.B. Jayatilaka was a Sri Lankan educationalist, statesmen and diplomat.
The Donoughmore Commission (DC) was responsible for the creation of the Donoughmore Constitution in effect between 1931–47 in Ceylon (now called Sri Lanka).
The Donoughmore Constitution (translit; translit), created by the Donoughmore Commission, served Sri Lanka (Ceylon) from 1931 to 1947 when it was replaced by the Soulbury Constitution.
Dow Jones & Company is an American publishing and financial information firm that has been owned by News Corp. since 2007.
A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.
Dudley Shelton Senanayake (Sinhala: ඩඩ්ලි ශෙල්ටන් සේනානායක: டட்லி சேனநாயக்கா) 19 June 1911 – 13 April 1973), was a Sri Lankan statesman who served as Prime Minister of Ceylon from 1952 to 1953 (first term as the second Prime Minister of Ceylon), in 1960 (second term) and from 1965 to 1970 (third term) and Leader of the Opposition from 1960 to 1964. Senanayake's tenures as prime minister were associated with democratic socialist policies focused on agricultural and educational reforms with a pro-western alignment.
Major Deshamanya Duncan White, MBE, ED (Sinhala: ඩන්කන් වයිට්) (1 March 1918 – 3 July 1998) was a Ceylonese (Sri Lankan) sportsman.
Dutch Ceylon (Sinhala: ලන්දේසි ලංකාව Landesi Lankava) was a governorate established in present-day Sri Lanka by the Dutch East India Company.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
The Dutch (Dutch), occasionally referred to as Netherlanders—a term that is cognate to the Dutch word for Dutch people, "Nederlanders"—are a Germanic ethnic group native to the Netherlands.
The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, against the Portuguese Empire.
Dutugamunu (also spelled as Dutthagamani, also known as Dutthagamani Abhaya "fearless Gamini"), was a Sinhalese king of Sri Lanka who reigned from 161 BC to 137 BC.
The Southern Expressway, also known as the Southern Lanka Distributor (Dakśina Laṃkā Adhivēgi Mārgaya, தென்னிலங்கை அதிவேக நெடுஞ்சாலை is Sri Lanka's first E Class highway. The highway links the Sri Lankan capital Colombo with Galle and Matara, major cities in the south of the island. The Southern Expressway Project (SEP) was introduced by the Road Development Authority and the Ministry of Highways as far back as late 1980s. The University of Moratuwa undertook an Environment Impact Assessment study in 1996, which was submitted to the government in early 1997. Construction of the highway began in 2003 and completion up to Galle was achieved by November 2011. March 2014 saw the section from Galle to Matara being declared open to the public. The construction of the expressway was partly funded by the Japan Bank for International Cooperation, who were responsible for the section between Kurundugahahetekma and Kokmaduwa, and the Asian Development Bank, responsible for the section between Kurundugahahetekma and Pinnaduwa. The expressway reduces the time taken to travel from Colombo to Galle to one hour from three hours, and Colombo to Matara to one and a half hours from four hours taken by the regular A2 highway. The extension of the expressway to Hambantota was inaugurated on 4 July 2015. The extension will be four lanes (with allowance of further two lanes in future), the cost of US $180M being funded by the Exim Bank of China. On 10 August 2015, a Highway Traffic Management system was inaugurated and currently covers the length of the expressway, including the Outer-Circular Expressway.
Colombo - Katunayake Expressway is Sri Lanka's second E Class highway.
Early flying machines include all forms of aircraft studied or constructed before the development of the modern aeroplane by 1910.
The East India Company (EIC), also known as the Honourable East India Company (HEIC) or the British East India Company and informally as John Company, was an English and later British joint-stock company, formed to trade with the East Indies (in present-day terms, Maritime Southeast Asia), but ended up trading mainly with Qing China and seizing control of large parts of the Indian subcontinent.
Easter,Traditional names for the feast in English are "Easter Day", as in the Book of Common Prayer, "Easter Sunday", used by James Ussher and Samuel Pepys and plain "Easter", as in books printed in,, also called Pascha (Greek, Latin) or Resurrection Sunday, is a festival and holiday celebrating the resurrection of Jesus from the dead, described in the New Testament as having occurred on the third day of his burial after his crucifixion by the Romans at Calvary 30 AD.
The Eastern Province (கிழக்கு மாகாணம் Kil̮akku Mākāṇam; නැගෙනහිර පළාත Næ̆gĕnahira Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
Ebony is a dense black hardwood, most commonly yielded by several different species in the genus Diospyros, which also contains the persimmons.
Ediriweera Sarachchandra (Sinhala: මහාචාර්ය එදිරිවීර සරච්චන්ද්ර) (3 June 1914 – 16 August 1996) was a Sri Lankan playwright, novelist, poet, literary critic, essayist and social commentator.
Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.
Edward Harper was a British engineer who travelled to Colombo in 1921 to work in the Ceylon Telegraph Department.
Eelam (ஈழம், īḻam, also spelled Eezham, Ilam or Izham in English) is the native Tamil name for the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
An electoral district, (election) precinct, election district, or legislative district, called a voting district by the US Census (also known as a constituency, riding, ward, division, electoral area, or electorate) is a territorial subdivision for electing members to a legislative body.
Ellalan (translit; translit) was a member of the Tamil Chola dynasty, who upon capturing the throne became king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom, in present-day Sri Lanka, from 205-161 BCE.
An emerging market is a country that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not meet standards to be a developed market.
Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Thousands of people have disappeared in Sri Lanka since the 1980s.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
An entrenched clause or entrenchment clause of a basic law or constitution is a provision that makes certain amendments either more difficult or impossible to pass, making such amendments inadmissible.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
ESPNcricinfo (formerly known as Cricinfo or CricInfo) is a sports news website exclusively for the game of cricket.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
An evergreen forest is forest made up of evergreen trees.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
The executive is the organ exercising authority in and holding responsibility for the governance of a state.
The Executive Council of Ceylon was the Executive Council created in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) by the British colonial administration on the recommendations of the Colebrooke-Cameron Commission along with the Legislative Council of Ceylon in March 1833.
An executive president is a president who exercises active executive power in certain systems of government.
Sri Lanka currently has over of designated expressways serving the southern part of the country.
The expulsion of the Muslims from the Northern province was an act of ethnic cleansing carried out by the Tamil militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) organisation in October 1990.
Fa Hien Cave, also Pahiyangala Cave is situated in the district of Kalutara, Western Province, Sri Lanka and according to a rural legend, named after an alleged resident during historical times, namely Buddhist monk Faxian (also Fa-Hien, or Fa Hsien).
Faxian (337 – c. 422) was a Chinese Buddhist monk who travelled by foot from China to India, visiting many sacred Buddhist sites in what are now Xinjiang, Pakistan, India, Nepal, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka between 399-412 to acquire Buddhist texts.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
The Federation of American Scientists (FAS) is a 501(c)(3) organization with the stated intent of using science and scientific analysis to attempt to make the world more secure.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (August 13, 1926 – November 25, 2016) was a Cuban communist revolutionary and politician who governed the Republic of Cuba as Prime Minister from 1959 to 1976 and then as President from 1976 to 2008.
Finance is a field that is concerned with the allocation (investment) of assets and liabilities (known as elements of the balance statement) over space and time, often under conditions of risk or uncertainty.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
Flickr (pronounced "flicker") is an image hosting service and video hosting service.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.
Forbes is an American business magazine.
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.
Fourth Buddhist Council is the name of two separate Buddhist council meetings.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Dom Francisco de Almeida, also known as "the Great Dom Francisco" (c. 1450–1 March 1510), was a Portuguese nobleman, soldier and explorer.
Free education is education funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition funding.
In economics, a free market is an idealized system in which the prices for goods and services are determined by the open market and consumers, in which the laws and forces of supply and demand are free from any intervention by a government, price-setting monopoly, or other authority.
Freedom from Torture (previously known as The Medical Foundation for the Care of Victims of Torture) is a British registered charity which provides therapeutic care for survivors of torture who seek protection in the UK.
The constitution of Sri Lanka states under Chapter II, Article 9, "The Republic of Sri Lanka shall give to Buddhism the foremost place and accordingly it shall be the duty of the State to protect and foster the Buddha Sasana, while assuring to all religions the rights granted by Articles 10 and 14(1)(e)." Articles 10 and 14(1)(e) provide all citizens the freedom to adopt, practice and teach any religion of their choice.
Freedom of the press or freedom of the media is the principle that communication and expression through various media, including printed and electronic media, especially published materials, should be considered a right to be exercised freely.
A fringing reef is one of the four main types of coral reef recognized by most coral reef scientists.
The Fulbright Program, including the Fulbright–Hays Program, is one of several United States Cultural Exchange Programs whose goal is to improve intercultural relations, cultural diplomacy, and intercultural competence between the people of the United States and other countries through the exchange of persons, knowledge, and skills.
Ganapathipillai Gangaser Ponnambalam (கணபதி காங்கேசர் பொன்னம்பலம்; 8 November 1901 – 9 February 1977) was a Ceylon Tamil lawyer, politician and cabinet minister.
Galle (ගාල්ල; காலி) is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the southwestern tip, 119 km from Colombo.
The Galle Trilingual Inscription is a stone tablet (stele) inscription in three languages, Chinese, Tamil and Persian, that was erected in 1409 in Galle, Sri Lanka to commemorate the second visit to the island by the Chinese admiral Zheng He.
Gallup, Inc. is an American research-based, global performance-management consulting company.
Gamperaliya is a 1963 Sri Lankan drama film directed by Dr.
Gampola (Sinhala:ගම්පොල, Tamil:கம்பளை) is a town located in Kandy District, Central Province, Sri Lanka, governed by an Urban Council.
Gautama Buddha (c. 563/480 – c. 483/400 BCE), also known as Siddhārtha Gautama, Shakyamuni Buddha, or simply the Buddha, after the title of Buddha, was an ascetic (śramaṇa) and sage, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
A general election is an election in which all or most members of a given political body are chosen.
Geographical renaming is the changing of the name of a geographical feature or area.
In economics, the Gini coefficient (sometimes expressed as a Gini ratio or a normalized Gini index) is a measure of statistical dispersion intended to represent the income or wealth distribution of a nation's residents, and is the most commonly used measurement of inequality.
The Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) is a yearly report published by the World Economic Forum.
Golu Hadawatha (Translation: The Silent Heart) was a popular 1968 Sinhalese language romance movie directed by Maestro Lester James Peiris.
Google Maps is a web mapping service developed by Google.
A Government Agent (GA) or a District Secretary is a Sri Lankan civil servant of the Sri Lanka Administrative Service appointed by the central government to govern a certain district of the country.
A government budget is a financial statement presenting the government's proposed revenues and spending for a financial year.
The Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා රජය Śrī Laṃkā Rajaya) is a semi-presidential system determined by the Sri Lankan Constitution.
The Governor of Ceylon was the representative in Ceylon of the British Crown from 1795 to 1948.
A Grama Niladhari ("village officer") is a Sri Lankan public official appointed by the central government to carry out administrative duties in a grama niladhari division, which is a sub-unit of a divisional secretariat.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Rebellion of 1817–18, also known as the 1818 Uva–Wellassa uprising (after the two places it had started), or simply the Uva rebellion, was the third Kandyan War with the British, in what is now Sri Lanka.
The green-billed coucal (Centropus chlororhynchos) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes, which also includes the roadrunners, the anis, and the cuckoos.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
The Group of 77 (G77) at the United Nations is a coalition of developing nations, designed to promote its members' collective economic interests and create an enhanced joint negotiating capacity in the United Nations.
The Gulf of Mannar is a large shallow bay forming part of the Laccadive Sea in the Indian Ocean.
The Hajj (حَجّ "pilgrimage") is an annual Islamic pilgrimage to Mecca, the holiest city for Muslims, and a mandatory religious duty for Muslims that must be carried out at least once in their lifetime by all adult Muslims who are physically and financially capable of undertaking the journey, and can support their family during their absence.
A head of government (or chief of government) is a generic term used for either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, (commonly referred to as countries, nations or nation-states) who often presides over a cabinet, a group of ministers or secretaries who lead executive departments.
A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona that officially represents the national unity and legitimacy of a sovereign state.
The hectare (SI symbol: ha) is an SI accepted metric system unit of area equal to a square with 100 meter sides, or 10,000 m2, and is primarily used in the measurement of land.
Hemileia vastatrix is a fungus of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales) that causes coffee leaf rust (CLR), a disease that is devastating to susceptible coffee plantations.
High Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is an amalgamation of two mobile protocols, High Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA) and High Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), that extends and improves the performance of existing 3G mobile telecommunication networks using the WCDMA protocols.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
Hindu mythology are mythical narratives found in Hindu texts such as the Vedic literature, epics like Mahabharata and Ramayana, the Puranas, the regional literatures Sangam literature and Periya Puranam.
Hinduism is an Indian religion and dharma, or a way of life, widely practised in the Indian subcontinent.
Hinduism has a long tradition in Sri Lanka.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
The Human Development Index (HDI) is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development.
Human rights are moral principles or normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, December 13, 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy,, Retrieved August 14, 2014 that describe certain standards of human behaviour and are regularly protected as natural and legal rights in municipal and international law.
Major human rights groups such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, as well as the United States Department of State and the European Union, have expressed concern about the state of human rights in Sri Lanka.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Hurulu Forest Reserve of Sri Lanka was designated as a biosphere reserve in January 1977.
The ibises (collective plural ibis; classical plurals ibides and ibes) are a group of long-legged wading birds in the family Threskiornithidae, that inhabit wetlands, forests and plains.
The IBSF World Billiards Championship (previously known as the World Amateur Billiards Championship) is the premier, international, non-professional tournament for the game of English billiards.
The ICC World Twenty20 (also referred to as the World T20, and colloquially as the T20 World Cup) is the international championship of Twenty20 International cricket.
Idiyappam (இடியப்பம், ഇടിയപ്പം, ಇಡಿಯಪ್ಪಂ) is a traditional South Asian cuisine, originating from the Indian subcontinent, consisting of rice flour pressed into noodle form and then steamed.
Illankai Tamil Arasu Kachchi (ITAK) (இலங்கைத் தமிழரசுக் கட்சி, ඉලංගෙයි තමිළ් අරසු කච්චි) is a Sri Lankan political party which represents the Sri Lankan Tamil ethnic minority in the country.
Ilmenite, also known as Manaccanite, is a titanium-iron oxide mineral with the idealized formula.
Independent Television Network Limited (also known as ITN Ltd) is a Sri Lankan state governed television and radio broadcaster located in Wickramasinhapura, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka.
The following is an alphabetical list of topics related to Sri Lanka.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
India–Sri Lanka relations have been friendly, but were controversially affected by the Sri Lankan Civil War and by the failure of Indian intervention during the war.
The Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War was the deployment of the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka intended to perform a peacekeeping role.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The Indian pangolin, thick-tailed pangolin, or scaly anteater (Manis crassicaudata) is a pangolin found on the Indian subcontinent.
Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990.
The Indian Plate or India Plate is a major tectonic plate straddling the equator in the eastern hemisphere.
The Indian subcontinent is a southern region and peninsula of Asia, mostly situated on the Indian Plate and projecting southwards into the Indian Ocean from the Himalayas.
Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka are Tamil people of Indian origin in Sri Lanka.
The Indo-Australian Plate is a major tectonic plate that includes the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean, and extends northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters.
The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was an accord signed in Colombo on 29 July 1987, between Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayewardene.
The Indomalayan realm is one of the eight biogeographic realms.
International Futures (IFs) is a global integrated assessment model designed to help in thinking strategically and systematically about key global systems (economic, demographic, education, health, environment, technology, domestic governance, infrastructure, agriculture, energy and environment) housed at the Frederick S. Pardee Center for International Futures.
The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., consisting of "189 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth, and reduce poverty around the world." Formed in 1945 at the Bretton Woods Conference primarily by the ideas of Harry Dexter White and John Maynard Keynes, it came into formal existence in 1945 with 29 member countries and the goal of reconstructing the international payment system.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The Iron Age is the final epoch of the three-age system, preceded by the Stone Age (Neolithic) and the Bronze Age.
The irrigation works in ancient Sri Lanka, the earliest dating from about 300 BCE, in the reign of King Pandukabhaya and under continuous development for the next thousand years, were some of the most complex irrigation systems of the ancient world.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
Islam is a minority religion in Sri Lanka.
An island country is a country whose primary territory consists of one or more islands or parts of islands.
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks (traditionally elephants') and teeth of animals, that can be used in art or manufacturing.
Junius Richard Jayewardene (ජුනියස් රිචඩ් ජයවර්ධන,ஜூனியஸ் ரிச்சட் ஜயவர்தனா; 17 September 1906 – 1 November 1996), commonly abbreviated in Sri Lanka as J. R., was the leader of Sri Lanka from 1977 to 1989, serving as Prime Minister from 1977 to 1978 and as the second President of Sri Lanka from 1978 till 1989.
The jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus), also known as jack tree, fenne, jakfruit, or sometimes simply jack or jak, is a species of tree in the fig, mulberry, and breadfruit family (Moraceae) native to southwest India.
Jaffna is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
The Jaffna Kingdom (யாழ்ப்பாண அரசு) (1215–1624 CE), also known as Kingdom of Aryacakravarti, of modern northern Sri Lanka was a historic monarchy that came into existence around the town of Jaffna on the Jaffna peninsula traditionally thought to be established after the invasion of Magha, who is credited with the founding of the Jaffna kingdom and is said to have been from Kalinga, in India.
Jaffna Peninsula (யாழ்ப்பாணக் குடாநாடு, Yāḻppāṇa kuṭānāṭu) or (யாழ் குடாநாடு, Yāḻ kuṭānāṭu) is an area in Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
Sir James Emerson Tennent, 1st Baronet FRS (7 April 1804 – 6 March 1869), born James Emerson, was a British politician and traveller born in Ireland.
The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (People's Liberation Front), often abbreviated as JVP (ජනතා විමුක්ති පෙරමුණ; மக்கள் விடுதலை முன்னணி) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist party and political movement in Sri Lanka.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The is a governmental agency that coordinates official development assistance (ODA) for the government of Japan.
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi (Sinhala: ජය ශ්රී මහා බොධිය) is a sacred fig tree in the Mahamewna Gardens, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
The judiciary (also known as the judicial system or court system) is the system of courts that interprets and applies the law in the name of the state.
Kadawunu Poronduwa (Sinhala: කඩවුනු පොරොන්දුව, "The Broken Promise") was the first film to be made in the Sinhala language; it is generally considered to have heralded the coming of Sinhala Cinema.
Kala Wewa, built by the King Datusena in 307 B.C, is a twin reservoir complex (Kala Wewa & Balalu Wewa) which has a capacity of 123 million cubic meters.
Kalinga is a historical region of India.
Kalinga Magha (கலிங்க மாகன் / கலிங்க மாகோன், කාලිංග මාඝ, କଳିଙ୍ଗ ମଘା) also known as Magha the Tyrant and Kulankayan Cinkai Ariyan, is an invader who is remembered primarily for his aggressive conquest.
Kandy (මහනුවර Mahanuwara, pronounced; கண்டி, pronounced) is a major city in Sri Lanka located in the Central Province.
The Kandy Esala Perahera (the Esala procession of Kandy) also known as The Festival of the Tooth is a grand festival celebrated with elegant costumes and is held in July and August in Kandy, Sri Lanka.
The Kandyan Convention (Sinhala: උඩරට ගිවිසුම Udarata Giwisuma) was an agreement signed on 10 March 1815 between the British and the Chiefs of the Kandyan Kingdom, British Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) for the deposition of King Sri Vikrama Rajasinha and ceding of the Kingdom's territory to British rule.
Kandyan dance (Sinhala: උඩරට නැටුම්) encompasses various dance forms native to the area called Kandy of the central hills region in Sri Lanka.
The Kandyan Treaty of 1638 was a treaty between the Kingdom of Kandy, in Sri Lanka, and the Dutch Republic signed by King Rajasinghe II for the Kingdom of Kandy and Adam Westerwold and William Jacobsz Coster, a commander and vice commander of the Dutch Naval Forces respectively, for the Dutch East India Company.
The Kandyan Wars (or the Kandian Wars) refers generally to the period of warfare between the British colonial forces and the Kingdom of Kandy, on the island of what is now Sri Lanka, between 1796 and 1818.
Kanneliya-Dediyagala-Nakiyadeniya or KDN is a forest complex in southern Sri Lanka.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
Deshabandu Karu Jayasuriya (කරු ජයසුරිය; born 29 September 1940) is a Sri Lankan politician who has been Speaker of the Parliament of Sri Lanka since 2015.
Kashyapa I, also known as Kasyapa I, was a king of Sri Lanka, who ruled the country from 473 to 495 CE.
Katchatheevu (translit, translit) is an uninhabited island administered by Sri Lanka and was a disputed territory claimed by India until 1976.
Kavan Tissa, also known as Kavantissa, Kaha Wan Thissa,(that means who has the color of golden body).
Kegalle (කෑගල්ල; கேகாலை) is a large town in Sabaragamuwa Province of Sri Lanka.
The Kingdom of Dambadeniya was a medieval kingdom in what is present day Sri Lanka.
Gampola is a town located near Kandy in the Central Province of Sri Lanka.
The Kingdom of Kandy was an independent monarchy of the island of Sri Lanka, located in the central and eastern portion of the island.
The Kingdom of Kotte (Sinhala: කෝට්ටේ රාජධානිය Kottay Rajadhaniya), centered on Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte, was a kingdom that flourished in Sri Lanka during the 15th century.
The Kingdom of Polonnaruwa was the Sinhalese kingdom from which Sri Lankan kings ruled the island from the 11th century until 1310 CE.
The Kingdom of Sitawaka (Sinhala: සීතාවක) was a kingdom located in south-central Sri Lanka.
The Kingdom of Tambapanni, also referred to as Kingdom of Thambapanni, was the first kingdom in ancient Sri Lanka and the Kingdom of Rajarata.
Kiribath (milk rice) is a traditional Sri Lankan dish made from rice.
Kolam is a form of drawing that is drawn by using rice flour/chalk/chalk powder/rock powder often using naturally/synthetically colored powders in the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Telangana, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and some parts of Goa, Maharashtra as well as Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand and a few other Asian countries.
Kottu, also known as Koththu Rotti or Kothu Roti (Sinhala: කොත්තුරොටි; Tamil: கொத்துரொட்டி; meaning chopped bread), is a Sri Lankan dish made from godhamba roti (a type of Sri Lankan roti) and vegetables, egg and/or meat, and spices.
Kubera (कुबेर) also known as Kuvera or Kuber, is the Lord of Wealth and the god-king of the semi-divine Yakshas in Hindu mythology.
Kumar Chokshanada Sangakkara (කුමාර් සංගක්කාර;குமார் சங்கக்கார;born 27 October 1977) is a former Sri Lankan international cricketer and former captain of the Sri Lankan national team.
Kurunegala (කුරුණෑගල, குருணாகல்) is a major city in Sri Lanka.
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
Land grabbing is the contentious issue of large-scale land acquisitions: the buying or leasing of large pieces of land by domestic and transnational companies, governments, and individuals.
Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.
Lanka is the name given in Hindu epics to the island fortress capital of the legendary asura king Ravana in the epics of the Ramayana and the Mahabharata.
The Lanka Sama Samaja Party (literally Lanka Equal Society Party, in Sinhala: ලංකා සම සමාජ පක්ෂය, in Tamil: லங்கா சமசமாஜக் கட்சி) is a Trotskyist political party in Sri Lanka.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
Lasantha Manilal Wickrematunge (5 April 1958 – 8 January 2009) was a Sri Lankan journalist, politician and human rights activist who was assassinated in January 2009.
The Netherlands uses civil law.
The terms right-hand traffic (RHT) and left-hand traffic (LHT) refer to the practice, in bidirectional traffic situations, to keep to the right side or to the left side of the road, respectively.
The Legislative Council of Ceylon was the legislative body of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) established in 1833, along with the Executive Council of Ceylon, on the recommendations of the Colebrooke-Cameron Commission.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
The leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the five species in the genus Panthera, a member of the Felidae.
The Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC, උගත් පාඩම් හා ප්රතිසන්ධාන කොමිෂන් සභාව Ugath Padam Ha Prathisandhana Komishan Sabhava), கற்றுக்கொண்ட பாடங்கள் மற்றும் நல்லிணக்க ஆணைக்குழு) was a commission of inquiry appointed by Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa in May 2010 after the 26-year-long civil war in Sri Lanka. The commission was mandated to investigate the facts and circumstances which led to the failure of the ceasefire agreement made operational on 27 February 2002, the lessons that should be learnt from those events and the institutional, administrative and legislative measures which need to be taken in order to prevent any recurrence of such concerns in the future, and to promote further national unity and reconciliation among all communities. After an 18-month inquiry, the commission submitted its report to the President on 15 November 2011. The report was made public on 16 December 2011, after being tabled in the parliament. The commission concluded that the Sri Lankan military didn't deliberately target civilians but the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) repeatedly violated international humanitarian law. According to the commission the military gave the "highest priority" to protecting civilians whereas the Tamil Tigers had had "no respect for human life". The commission admitted that civilians had been killed by the Sri Lankan military, albeit accidentally, contradicting the government's line that there were zero civilian casualties. The commission did, however, receive some eyewitness evidence alleging abuse by the military which warranted further investigation and, if necessary, the prosecution of perpetrators. The commission acknowledged that hospitals had been shelled, resulting "considerable civilian casualties", but it did not say who was responsible for the shelling. The commission blamed Sinhalese and Tamil politicians for causing the civil war: the Sinhalese politicians failed to offer a solution acceptable to the Tamil people and the Tamil politicians fanned militant separatism. The commission has been heavily criticised by international human rights groups, the UN Panel of Experts and others due its limited mandate, alleged lack of independence and its failure to meet minimum international standards or offer protection to witnesses. These critics believed that the Sri Lankan government was using the commission as a tool to prevent an independent international investigation of alleged abuses. As a consequence of this Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and the International Crisis Group refused to appear before the commission.
Sri Lankabhimanya Lester James Peries (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකාභිමාන්ය ලෙස්ටර් ජේම්ස් පීරිස්; 5 April 1919 – 29 April 2018) was a Sri Lankan film director, screenwriter, and film producer.
Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality.
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (translit, translit, commonly known as the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers) was a Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.
The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the United States Library of Congress, freely available for use by researchers.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
This is a list of A-grade highways in Sri Lanka sorted by route number.
The following is a list of attacks on civilians attributed to armed groups under the control of the Sri Lankan government - Army, Navy, Air Force, Police and paramilitary groups (Home Guards/Civil Defence Force, EPDP, PLOTE, TMVP etc.). This list does not contain assassinations which are listed in a separate article.
The following is a list of beaches in Sri Lanka, an island nation south of India in the Indian Ocean.
Sri Lanka is a tropical island situated close to the southern tip of India.
Japanese festivals and Barua festivals often involve Buddhist culture, as do pagoda festivals held as fairs held at Buddhist temples in Myanmar.
This is a list of the world's countries and their dependent territories by area, ranked by total area.
This is a list of all the countries by the Human Development Index as included in a United Nations Development Programme's Human Development Report.
This article includes a list of countries and dependent territories sorted by their real gross domestic product growth rate; the rate of growth of the value of all final goods and services produced within a state in a given year.
This is a list of designated terrorist groups by national governments, former governments, and inter-governmental organizations, where the proscription has a significant effect on the group's activities.
This is a list of women who have been elected or appointed head of state or government of their respective countries since the mid-20th century.
This is a list of island countries.
This is a list of the mammal species recorded in Sri Lanka.
Note that this partial list contains some authors whose works of fantastic fiction would today be called science fiction, even if they predate or did not work in that genre.
The Sinhalese monarch was the head of state of the Sinhala Kingdom.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Lonely Planet is the largest travel guide book publisher in the world.
Looting, also referred to as sacking, ransacking, plundering, despoiling, despoliation, and pillaging, is the indiscriminate taking of goods by force as part of a military or political victory, or during a catastrophe, such as war, natural disaster (where law and civil enforcement are temporarily ineffective), or rioting.
Lourenço de Almeida (c.1480 - March 1508) was a Portuguese explorer and military commander.
Lovamahapaya is a building situated between Ruwanweliseya and Sri Mahabodiya in the ancient city of Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
In telecommunication, Long-Term Evolution (LTE) is a standard for high-speed wireless communication for mobile devices and data terminals, based on the GSM/EDGE and UMTS/HSPA technologies.
A lunar calendar is a calendar based upon the monthly cycles of the Moon's phases (synodic months), in contrast to solar calendars, whose annual cycles are based only directly upon the solar year.
Madhya Vidyalaya (English: Central College) is a type of state school in Sri Lanka.
Madol Doova (Sinhala: මඩොල් දූව is a children's novel and coming-of-age story written by Sri Lankan writer Martin Wickramasinghe and first published in 1947. The book recounts the misadventures of Upali Giniwella and his friends on the Southern coast of Sri Lanka during the 1890s. It later describes the efforts of Upali and his friend Jinna to lead their lives in a small deserted island. The novel has been translated into several languages, and was made into a film of the same name in 1976.
Madurai is one of the major cities in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu.
The Hambantota Port (also known as the Port of Hambantota) is a maritime port in Hambantota, Sri Lanka.
Maha Shivaratri a Hindu festival celebrated annually in honour of the god Shiva.
Mahagama Sekera (Sinhala:මහගම සේකර) (7 April 1929 – 14 January 1976) Sri Lankan poet, lyricist, playwright, novelist, artist, translator and filmmaker.
The Mahavamsa ("Great Chronicle", Pali Mahāvaṃsa) (5th century CE) is an epic poem written in the Pali language.
The Mahaweli River (මහවැලි ගඟ, literally "Great Sandy River"; மகாவலி ஆறு), is a long river, ranking as the longest river in Sri Lanka.
Denagamage Praboth Mahela de Silva Jayawardene (මහේල ජයවර්ධන; born 27 May 1977), known as Mahela Jayawardene, is a former Sri Lankan cricketer.
Mahinda (Sanskrit Mahendra; born third century BCE in Ujjain, modern Madhya Pradesh, India) was a Buddhist monk depicted in Buddhist sources as bringing Buddhism to Sri Lanka.
Percy Mahendra Rajapaksa, MP (පර්සි මහේන්ද්ර රාජපක්ෂ; born 18 November 1945), more commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa (මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ, மஹிந்த ராஜபக்ஷ) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the sixth President of Sri Lanka from 19 November 2005 to 9 January 2015.
Mahinda V was King of Anuradhapura in the 11th century.
Mahogany is a kind of wood—the straight-grained, reddish-brown timber of three tropical hardwood species of the genus Swietenia, indigenous to the AmericasBridgewater, Samuel (2012).
A main battle tank (MBT), also known as a battle tank or universal tank, is a tank that fills the armor-protected direct fire and maneuver role of many modern armies.
Pallewatte Gamaralalage Maithripala Yapa Sirisena (මෛත්රීපාල සිරිසේන; மைத்திரிபால சிறிசேன; born 3 September 1951) is a Sri Lankan politician and the 7th and current President of Sri Lanka, in office since January 2015.
The Malay Peninsula (Tanah Melayu, تانه ملايو; คาบสมุทรมลายู,, မလေး ကျွန်းဆွယ်, 马来半岛 / 馬來半島) is a peninsula in Southeast Asia.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Man and the Biosphere Programme (MAB) is an intergovernmental scientific programme, launched in 1971 by UNESCO, that aims to establish a scientific basis for the improvement of relationships between people and their environments.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Mannar (மன்னார், මන්නාරම), formerly spelled Manar, is a large town and the main town of Mannar District, Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
Maritime Silk Road or Maritime Silk Route refer to the maritime section of historic Silk Road that connects China to Southeast Asia, Indonesian archipelago, Indian subcontinent, Arabian peninsula, Somalia and all the way to Egypt and finally Europe, that flourished between 2nd-century BCE and 15th-century CE.
Market capitalization (market cap) is the market value of a publicly traded company's outstanding shares.
A market economy is an economic system in which the decisions regarding investment, production, and distribution are guided by the price signals created by the forces of supply and demand.
Lama Hewage Don Martin Wickramasinghe commonly Martin Wickramasinghe, MBE (මාර්ටින් වික්රමසිංහ) (29 May 1890 – 23 July 1976) was a Sri Lankan novelist.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
The Matale rebellion, also known as the Rebellion of 1848, took place in Ceylon against the British colonial government under Governor Lord Torrington, 7th Viscount Torrington.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
The Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology (Max-Planck-Institut für evolutionäre Anthropologie, shortened to MPI EVA) is a research institute based in Leipzig, Germany, founded in 1997.
The Maya Rata, also known as the Kingdom of Dakkinadesa, was a medieval era Sinhalese kingdom located in Western part of Sri Lanka.
In many countries, a mayor (from the Latin maior, meaning "bigger") is the highest-ranking official in a municipal government such as that of a city or a town.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
A melodrama is a dramatic work in which the plot, which is typically sensational and designed to appeal strongly to the emotions, takes precedence over detailed characterization.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
Mesua ferrea, the Sri Lankan ironwood, Indian rose chestnut, or cobra's saffron, is a species in the family Calophyllaceae.
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
Philip Michael Ondaatje, (born 12 September 1943), is a Sri Lankan-born Canadian poet, fiction writer, essayist, novelist, editor and filmmaker.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Mihintale is a mountain peak near Anuradhapura in Sri Lanka.
The Mil Mi-24 (Миль Ми-24; NATO reporting name: Hind) is a large helicopter gunship, attack helicopter and low-capacity troop transport with room for eight passengers.
The Ming–Kotte War was a military conflict between the expeditionary forces of the Chinese Ming empire with the Sinhalese Kotte kingdom, located in the southern territories of present-day Sri Lanka.
A minister is a politician who heads a government department, making and implementing decisions on policies in conjunction with the other ministers.
The Ministry of Defence (Sinhala: රාජ්ය ආරක්ෂක අමාත්යාංශය Rājya Ārakshaka Amathyanshaya; Tamil: பாதுகாப்பு அமைச்சகம்) is the cabinet ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka responsible for implementation of government defence policy and acts as the overall headquarters of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces.
The Ministry Of Education (also known as the Education Ministry) (Sinhala: අධ්යාපන අමාත්යාංශය Adhyapana Amathyanshaya) is a ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka that directs the formulation and implementation of policies related to primary and secondary education in Sri Lanka.
The Ministry of Ports and Aviation is Sri Lanka's organization responsible for the development and operation of the country's shipping, port and aviation activities.
Minneriya tank is a reservoir in Sri Lanka made by an old civilisation; the Anuradhapura Kingdom.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
Mongabay.com is a web site that publishes news on environmental science, energy, and green design, and features extensive information on tropical rainforests, including pictures and deforestation statistics for countries of the world.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
Mortality rate, or death rate, is a measure of the number of deaths (in general, or due to a specific cause) in a particular population, scaled to the size of that population, per unit of time.
Ikhtiyar al-Din Muhammad bin Bakhtiyar Khilji, also known as Malik Ghazi Ikhtiyar 'l-Din Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji or Muhammad Bakhtiyar Khilji or simply Bakhtiyar Khilji (died 1206), a military general of Qutb al-Din Aibak, was responsible for the destruction of Nalanda university.
Muhammad Junaid Muhammad Lafir (27 May 1930 - 26 April 1981) also known as M J M Lafir was a former World Champion snooker player from Sri Lanka.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
A music genre is a conventional category that identifies some pieces of music as belonging to a shared tradition or set of conventions.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Deshabandu Muttiah Muralitharan (முத்தையா முரளீதரன், මුත්තයියා මුරලිදරන්; also spelt Muralidaran; born 1972) is a former Sri Lankan cricketer who was rated the greatest Test match bowler ever by Wisden Cricketers' Almanack in 2002.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
The Naga people were believed to be an ancient tribe who once inhabited Sri Lanka.
Nalanda was a Mahavihara, a large Buddhist monastery, in the ancient kingdom of Magadha (modern-day Bihar) in India.
Nanda Malini (Sinhala:නන්දා මාලනී) (born 23 August 1943) is a Sri Lankan singer.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
National Museum of Colombo, also known as the Sri Lanka National Museum is one of two museums in Colombo.
The National Railway or National Air Line Railroad was a planned railroad between New York City and Washington, D.C. in the United States around 1870.
A National school (ජාතික පාසල, Jathika Pasala, தேசியப் பாடசாலை) in Sri Lanka is a school that is funded and administered by the Ministry of Education of the central government as opposed to Provincial schools run by the local provincial council.
A national sport is considered to be an intrinsic part of the culture of a nation.
The National University of Malaysia (abbreviation: UKM; Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia; abbreviated UKM) is a public university located in Bangi, Selangor which is at south of Kuala Lumpur.
Natural rubber, also called India rubber or caoutchouc, as initially produced, consists of polymers of the organic compound isoprene, with minor impurities of other organic compounds, plus water.
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement defined as exactly.
Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is a South African jurist who served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2008 to 2014.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nidhanaya (The Treasure) is a 1972 Sinhalese language film Dr.
The 19th Amendment (19A) to the Constitution of Sri Lanka was passed by the 225-member Sri Lankan Parliament with 215 voting in favor, one against, one abstained and seven were absent, on 28 April 2015.
The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) is a group of states that are not formally aligned with or against any major power bloc.
Norman Myers (born 24 August 1934) is a British environmentalist specialising in biodiversity and also noted for his work on environmental refugees.
North Central Province (උතුරු මැද පළාත Uturumeda Palata, வட மத்திய மாகாணம் Wada Maththiya Maakaanam) is a province of Sri Lanka.
The North Eastern Province was one of the provinces of Sri Lanka.
North Western Province (වයඹ පළාත Wayamba Palata, வட மேல் மாகாணம் Vada Mael Maakaanam) is a province of Sri Lanka.
The Northern Province (வட மாகாணம் Vaṭa Mākāṇam; උතුරු පළාත Uturu Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
Nova Science Publishers is an academic publisher of books, encyclopedias, handbooks, e-books and journals, based in Hauppauge, New York.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
Odisha (formerly Orissa) is one of the 29 states of India, located in eastern India.
Off spin is a type of finger spin bowling in the sport of cricket.
The Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (commonly known as the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR)) is a United Nations agency that works to promote and protect the human rights that are guaranteed under international law and stipulated in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of 1948.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes from around the world participate in a variety of competitions.
Oral literature or folk literature corresponds in the sphere of the spoken (oral) word to literature as literature operates in the domain of the written word.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
Pali, or Magadhan, is a Middle Indo-Aryan language native to the Indian subcontinent.
The Palk Strait (பாக்கு சலசந்தி / பாக்கு நீரிணை, Sinhala: පෝක් සමුද්ර සන්ධිය Pok Samudra Sandhiya) is a strait between the Tamil Nadu state of India and the Mannar district of the Northern Province of the island nation of Sri Lanka.
The Pallava dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that existed from 275 CE to 897 CE, ruling a portion of southern India.
Palm-leaf manuscripts are manuscripts made out of dried palm leaves.
Pandukabhaya (474 BC – 367 BC) was King of Upatissa Nuwara and the first monarch of the Anuradhapura Kingdom and 6th over all of the island of Sri Lanka since the arrival of the Vijaya, he reigned from 437 BC to 367 BC.
The Pandyan dynasty was an ancient Tamil dynasty, one of the three Tamil dynasties, the other two being the Chola and the Chera.
The Panic of 1847 was a minor British banking crisis associated with the end of the 1840s railway industry boom and the failure of many non-banks.
Parakrama Samudra (or King Parakrama's sea or the Sea of King Parakrama) is a shallow reservoir, consisting of three separate reservoirs connected by narrow channels in Polonnaruwa, Sri Lanka.
Parākramabāhu I (Pali Mahā Parākaramabāhu 1123–1186) was king of the Kingdom of Polonnaruwa from 1153-86.
Parâkramabâhu VI (1410/1412/1415–1467) was a king in the Sri Lankan kingdom of Kotte.
The Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා පාර්ලිමේන්තුව Shri Lanka Parlimenthuwa, Tamil: இலங்கை நாடாளுமன்றம்) is the supreme legislative body of Sri Lanka.
A parliamentary system is a system of democratic governance of a state where the executive branch derives its democratic legitimacy from its ability to command the confidence of the legislative branch, typically a parliament, and is also held accountable to that parliament.
A Parsi (or Parsee) means "Persian" in the "Persian Language", which today mainly refers to a member of a Zoroastrian community, one of two (the other being Iranis) mainly located in India, with a few in Pakistan.
Parsi theatre is a generic term for an influential theatre tradition, staged by Parsis, and theatre companies largely-owned by the Parsi business community, which flourished between 1850 and 1930s.
The Pāli Canon is the standard collection of scriptures in the Theravada Buddhist tradition, as preserved in the Pāli language.
Peacekeeping refers to activities intended to create conditions that favour lasting peace.
The peafowl include three species of birds in the genera Pavo and Afropavo of the Phasianidae family, the pheasants and their allies.
Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae.
Per capita income or average income measures the average income earned per person in a given area (city, region, country, etc.) in a specified year.
Peradeniya (Sinhala:පේරාදෙණිය IAST pēradeniya) is a suburb of the city of Kandy, about 50,000 inhabitants in Sri Lanka.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
The Pew Research Center is a nonpartisan American fact tank based in Washington, D.C. It provides information on social issues, public opinion, and demographic trends shaping the United States and the world.
Pidurutalagala (පිදුරුතලාගල, pronounced, Straw Plateau Rock), or Mount Pedro in English, is an ultra prominent peak, and the tallest mountain in Sri Lanka, at.
A pirivena (plural: piriven) is a monastic college (similar to a seminary) for the education of Buddhist priests in Sri Lanka.
A plantation economy is an economy based on agricultural mass production, usually of a few commodity crops grown on large farms called plantations.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
The policy of standardization was a policy implemented by the Sri Lankan government in 1971 to rectify disparities created in university enrollment in Sri Lanka under Colonial rule.
Poḷonnaruwa (Sinhalese: පොළොන්නරුව, Poḷonnaruwa or Puḷattipura, Tamil: பொலன்னறுவை, Polaṉṉaṟuvai or Puḷatti nakaram) is the main town of Polonnaruwa District in North Central Province, Sri Lanka.
Ponnambalam Arunachalam (translit; 14 September 1853 – 9 January 1924) was a Ceylon Tamil civil servant and a member of the Executive Council of Ceylon and Legislative Council of Ceylon.
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, and have the capability of interbreeding.
Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that protect against predators.
The Port of Colombo (known as Port of Kolomtota during the early 14th Century Kotte Kingdom) is the largest and busiest port in Sri Lanka.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic (República Portuguesa),In recognized minority languages of Portugal: Portugal is the oldest state in the Iberian Peninsula and one of the oldest in Europe, its territory having been continuously settled, invaded and fought over since prehistoric times.
Portuguese Ceylon (Ceilão Português, Sinhala: පෘතුගීසි ලංකාව Puruthugisi Lankawa) was the control of the Kingdom of Kotte by the Portuguese Empire, in present-day Sri Lanka, after the country's Crisis of the Sixteenth Century and into the Kandyan period.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Portuguese creoles are creole languages which have Portuguese as their substantial lexifier.
Poya is the name given to the Lunar monthly Buddhist holiday of Uposatha in Sri Lanka, where it is a civil and bank holiday.
Precious coral, or red coral, is the common name given to a genus of marine corals, Corallium.
The President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා ජනාධිපති Śrī Laṃkā Janādhipathi; இலங்கை சனாதிபதி Ilankai janātipati) is the executive head of state and head of government of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and commander-in-chief of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces.
A presidential system is a democratic and republican system of government where a head of government leads an executive branch that is separate from the legislative branch.
The Press Freedom Index is an annual ranking of countries compiled and published by Reporters Without Borders based upon the organisation's own assessment of the countries' press freedom records in the previous year.
The Prime Minister of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා අග්රාමාත්ය; இலங்கை பிரதமர்) is the most senior member of parliament in the cabinet of ministers in Sri Lanka which is collectively accountable for their policies and actions to parliament.
The Prime Minister's Office is a ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka.
Prince Vijaya (විජය කුමරු) was a legendary king of Sri Lanka, mentioned in the Pali chronicles, including Mahavamsa.
The Principality of Ruhuna, also referred to as the Kingdom of Ruhuna, is a region of present-day Southern and Eastern Sri Lanka.
A privately held company, private company, or close corporation is a business company owned either by non-governmental organizations or by a relatively small number of shareholders or company members which does not offer or trade its company stock (shares) to the general public on the stock market exchanges, but rather the company's stock is offered, owned and traded or exchanged privately.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Priyasath Dep PC is a Sri Lankan judge and lawyer and the 45th Chief Justice of Sri Lanka.
Progressivism is the support for or advocacy of improvement of society by reform.
Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems by which divisions into an electorate are reflected proportionately into the elected body.
Proscription (proscriptio) is, in current usage, a "decree of condemnation to death or banishment" (OED) and can be used in a political context to refer to state-approved murder or banishment.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
In Sri Lanka, provinces (translit; translit) are the first level administrative division.
A public university is a university that is predominantly funded by public means through a national or subnational government, as opposed to private universities.
Pune, formerly spelled Poona (1857–1978), is the second largest city in the Indian state of Maharashtra, after Mumbai.
Purchasing power parity (PPP) is a neoclassical economic theory that states that the exchange rate between two countries is equal to the ratio of the currencies' respective purchasing power.
The purple-faced langur (Trachypithecus vetulus), also known as the purple-faced leaf monkey, is a species of Old World monkey that is endemic to Sri Lanka.
Tamil Puthandu (Tamil: தமிழ்புத்தாண்டு), also known as Puthuvarusham or Tamil New Year, is the first day of year on the Tamil calendar.
Puttu pronounced, (Malayalam: പുട്ട്), (Tamil: புட்டு), (Kannada: ಪುಟ್ಟು), (Sinhala පිට්ටු) is a breakfast dish from the Indian subcontinent, eaten in Kerala, some parts of Tamil Nadu, Coorg and canara region of Karnataka, and Sri Lanka.
Radio Ceylon (ලංකා ගුවන් විදුලි සේවය Lanka Guwan Viduli Sevaya, இலங்கை வானொலி, ilankai vanoli) is the oldest radio station in Asia.
Rail transport in Sri Lanka is an intercity network connecting major population centres and commuter rail serving Colombo commuters.
Raja Raja Cholan I (or Rajaraja Cholan I) born as Arul Mozhi Varman known as Raja Raja Cholan was a Chola Emperor from present day South India who ruled over the Chola kingdom of Ancient Tamilnadu (parts of southern India), parts of northern India, two third's of Sri Lankan territory (Eezham), Maldives and parts of East Asia, between 985 and 1014 CE.
Rajarata (Sinhala: රජරට) (Tamil: ரஜரட) was one of three historical regions of the island of Sri Lanka for about 1,700 years from the 6th century BCE to the early 13th century CE.
Rajasimha II, also known as Rajasingha II (pre coronation, Prince Mahastana), was a Sinhalese King, reigned 1629 – 6 December 1687; third king of the kingdom of Kandy in Sri Lanka.
Rajendra Chola I or Rajendra I was a Chola emperor of India who succeeded his father Rajaraja Chola I to the throne in 1014 CE.
Ramadan (رمضان,;In Arabic phonology, it can be, depending on the region. also known as Ramazan, romanized as Ramzan, Ramadhan, or Ramathan) is the ninth month of the Islamic calendar, and is observed by Muslims worldwide as a month of fasting (Sawm) to commemorate the first revelation of the Quran to Muhammad according to Islamic belief.
Ramayana (रामायणम्) is an ancient Indian epic poem which narrates the struggle of the divine prince Rama to rescue his wife Sita from the demon king Ravana.
Ranil Wickremesinghe, MP (රනිල් වික්රමසිංහ, ரணில் விக்ரமசிங்க; born 24 March 1949) is a Sri Lankan politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka since 9 January 2015.As Leader of the United National Party since 1994 and the Member of Parliament for Colombo District since 1977.
Ranmuthu Duwa (Island of Treasures) was the first colour full-length Sinhalese language film to be produced in Sri Lanka in 1962.
Ratnapura ("City of Gems" in Sinhala and Tamil) is a major city in Sri Lanka.
Ravana (IAST: Rāvaṇa;; Sanskrit: रावण) is a character in the Hindu epic Ramayana where he is depicted as the Rakshasa king of Lanka.
Red soil is a type of soil that develops in a warm, temperate, moist climate under deciduous or mixed forest, having thin organic and organic-mineral layers overlying a yellowish-brown leached layer resting on an illuvium red layer.
The red-faced malkoha (Phaenicophaeus pyrrhocephalus) is a member of the cuckoo order of birds, the Cuculiformes.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
Rekava (Sinhalese language word means "Line of Destiny") is a 1956 film based on village life and their mythical beliefs in Sri Lanka (then Ceylon).
The Sacred Relic of the tooth of Buddha (Pali danta dhātuya) is venerated in Sri Lanka as a cetiya "relic" of Gautama Buddha, on whose teachings Buddhism was founded.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
Repatriation is the process of returning an asset, an item of symbolic value or a person - voluntarily or forcibly - to its owner or their place of origin or citizenship.
The Report of the Secretary-General's Panel of Experts on Accountability in Sri Lanka was a 2011 report produced by a panel of experts appointed by United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) Ban Ki-moon to advise him on the issue of accountability with regard to any alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
A reservoir (from French réservoir – a "tank") is a storage space for fluids.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).
Rienzi Crusz (born 17 October 1925) is a Canadian poet born in Galle, Ceylon (now Sri Lanka).
Right-wing politics hold that certain social orders and hierarchies are inevitable, natural, normal or desirable, typically supporting this position on the basis of natural law, economics or tradition.
The Rigveda (Sanskrit: ऋग्वेद, from "praise" and "knowledge") is an ancient Indian collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns along with associated commentaries on liturgy, ritual and mystical exegesis.
General Sir Robert Brownrigg, 1st Baronet, GCB (1759 – 27 April 1833) was a British statesman and soldier.
Rohan Gunaratna (born 1961) is a Singaporean analyst on security affairs.
Patabendi Don Nandasiri Wijeweera (පටබැඳි දොන් නන්දසිරි විජෙවීර; 14 July 1943 – 13 November 1989) known as Rohana Wijeweera, was a Sri Lankan Marxist politician, rebel and the founding leader of the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
Roti (also known as chapati) is a flatbread native to the Indian subcontinent made from stoneground wholemeal flour, traditionally known as atta, and water that is combined into a dough.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Rugby union, commonly known in most of the world as rugby, is a contact team sport which originated in England in the first half of the 19th century.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
The ruling party or governing party in a democratic parliamentary system is the incumbent political party or coalition of the majority in parliament, that administers the affairs of state.
Russell Alan Mittermeier (born November 8, 1949) is a primatologist and herpetologist.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Ruwanwelisaya is a stupa, a hemispherical structure containing relics, in Sri Lanka, considered sacred to many Buddhists all over the world.
Samuel James Veluppillai Chelvanayakam (translit; 31 March 1898 – 26 April 1977) was a Ceylon Tamil lawyer, politician and Member of Parliament.
Sundaram Mathura-Nayagam was a pioneer of Sinhala cinema, producing the first ever Sinhala talkie, Kadawunu Poronduwa.
Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (සොලමන් වෙස්ට් රිජ්වේ ඩයස් බණ්ඩාරනායක,சாலமன் வெஸ்ட் ரிட்ஜ்வே டயஸ் பண்டாரநாயக்கா; 8 January 1899 – 26 September 1959), frequently referred to as S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, was the fourth Prime Minister of Ceylon (later Sri Lanka) and founder of the left wing and Sinhala nationalist Sri Lanka Freedom Party, serving as Prime Minister from 1956 until his assassination by a robed Buddhist monk in 1959.
The Sabaragamuwa Province, (සබරගමුව පළාත Sabaragamuwa Palata, சபரகமுவ மாகாணம் Sabaragamuwa Maakaanam) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
Deshabandu Sanath Teran Jayasuriya (සනත් ටෙරාන් ජයසූරිය; born 30 June 1969) is a former Sri Lankan cricketer and a former captain of the Sri Lankan national team.
The Sangam literature (Tamil: சங்க இலக்கியம், Sanga ilakkiyam) is the ancient Tamil literature of the period in the history of ancient southern India (known as the Thamizhagam or the Tamilagam) spanning from c. 300 BCE to 300 CE.
Sangha (saṅgha; saṃgha; සංඝයා; พระสงฆ์; Tamil: சங்கம்) is a word in Pali and Sanskrit meaning "association", "assembly", "company" or "community" and most commonly refers in Buddhism to the monastic community of bhikkhus (monks) and bhikkhunis (nuns).
Saṅghamittā (Saṅghamitrā in Sanskrit) was the eldest daughter of Emperor Ashoka (304 BC – 232 BC) and his first wife, Devi.
Sanni yakuma, sometimes known as Daha ata sanniya is a traditional Sinhalese exorcism ritual.
Satyagraha सत्याग्रह; satya: "truth", graha: "insistence" or "holding firmly to") or holding onto truth or truth force – is a particular form of nonviolent resistance or civil resistance. The term satyagraha was coined and developed by Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948). He deployed satyagraha in the Indian independence movement and also during his earlier struggles in South Africa for Indian rights. Satyagraha theory influenced Martin Luther King Jr.'s and James Bevel's campaigns during the Civil Rights Movement in the United States, and many other social justice and similar movements. Someone who practices satyagraha is a satyagrahi.
The Schools of Buddhism are the various institutional and doctrinal divisions of Buddhism that have existed from ancient times up to the present.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
Sena and Guttika were two Tamil chiefs from South India who invaded the kingdom of Anuradhapura and killed King Suratissa.
Serendipity means an unplanned, fortuitous discovery.
The Shafi‘i (شافعي, alternative spelling Shafei) madhhab is one of the four schools of Islamic law in Sunni Islam.
Sharia, Sharia law, or Islamic law (شريعة) is the religious law forming part of the Islamic tradition.
Sigiriya or Sinhagiri (Lion Rock සීගිරිය, சிகிரியா, pronounced see-gi-ri-yə) is an ancient rock fortress located in the northern Matale District near the town of Dambulla in the Central Province, Sri Lanka.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
The Silk Road was an ancient network of trade routes that connected the East and West.
The Sinhala Only Act, formally the Official Language Act No.
Sinhalese Buddhist nationalism is a political ideology which combines a focus upon Sinhalese culture and ethnicity with an emphasis upon Theravada Buddhism, which is the majority belief system of most of the Sinhalese in Sri Lanka.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
Sinhalese New Year, generally known as Aluth Avurudda (අලුත් අවුරුද්ද) in Sri Lanka, is a Sri Lankan holiday that celebrates the traditional New Year of the Sinhalese people in Sri Lanka.
The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.
Sinharaja Forest Reserve is a national park and a biodiversity hotspot in Sri Lanka.
The Sirima–Gandhi Pact or Srimavo-Gandhi Pact was an agreement that was signed between Sirimavo Bandaranaike, the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, and Indira Gandhi, the Prime Minister of India, on 28 June 1974.
The Sirima–Shastri Pact or Srimavo-Shastri Pact (also known as the Indo-Ceylon Agreement and Bandaranaike-Shastri Pact) was an agreement that was signed between Sirimavo Bandaranaike, the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka, and Lal Bahadur Shastri, the Prime Minister of India, on 30 October 1964.
Sirima Ratwatte Dias Bandaranaike (සිරිමා රත්වත්තේ ඩයස් බණ්ඩාරනායක, சிறிமா ரத்வத்தே டயஸ் பண்டாரநாயக்கே; 17 April 1916 – 10 October 2000), commonly known as Sirimavo Bandaranaike, was a Sri Lankan stateswoman.
SLNS Sayurala pennant number P623 (Sayurala, in English: Sea Waves) is the flagship and an advanced offshore patrol vessel (AOPV) of the Sri Lanka Navy.
The sloth bear (Melursus ursinus), also known as the labiated bear, is an insectivorous bear species native to the Indian subcontinent.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
Socialism is a range of economic and social systems characterised by social ownership and democratic control of the means of production as well as the political theories and movements associated with them.
Solomon (שְׁלֹמֹה, Shlomoh), also called Jedidiah (Hebrew Yədidya), was, according to the Hebrew Bible, Quran, Hadith and Hidden Words, a fabulously wealthy and wise king of Israel who succeeded his father, King David. The conventional dates of Solomon's reign are circa 970 to 931 BCE, normally given in alignment with the dates of David's reign. He is described as the third king of the United Monarchy, which would break apart into the northern Kingdom of Israel and the southern Kingdom of Judah shortly after his death. Following the split, his patrilineal descendants ruled over Judah alone. According to the Talmud, Solomon is one of the 48 prophets. In the Quran, he is considered a major prophet, and Muslims generally refer to him by the Arabic variant Sulayman, son of David. The Hebrew Bible credits him as the builder of the First Temple in Jerusalem, beginning in the fourth year of his reign, using the vast wealth he had accumulated. He dedicated the temple to Yahweh, the God of Israel. He is portrayed as great in wisdom, wealth and power beyond either of the previous kings of the country, but also as a king who sinned. His sins included idolatry, marrying foreign women and, ultimately, turning away from Yahweh, and they led to the kingdom's being torn in two during the reign of his son Rehoboam. Solomon is the subject of many other later references and legends, most notably in the 1st-century apocryphal work known as the Testament of Solomon. In the New Testament, he is portrayed as a teacher of wisdom excelled by Jesus, and as arrayed in glory, but excelled by "the lilies of the field". In later years, in mostly non-biblical circles, Solomon also came to be known as a magician and an exorcist, with numerous amulets and medallion seals dating from the Hellenistic period invoking his name.
The Soulbury Commission (Sinhala: සෝල්බරි කොමිෂන් සභාව Solbari Komishan Sabhawa), announced in 1944 was, like its predecessor, the Donoughmore Commission, a prime instrument of constitutional reform in British Ceylon.
South Asia or Southern Asia (also known as the Indian subcontinent) is a term used to represent the southern region of the Asian continent, which comprises the sub-Himalayan SAARC countries and, for some authorities, adjoining countries to the west and east.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
South India is the area encompassing the Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana as well as the union territories of Lakshadweep, Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Puducherry, occupying 19% of India's area.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern Province (දකුණු පළාත Dakunu Palata, தென் மாகாணம் Thaen Maakaanam) of Sri Lanka is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Speaker of the Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka is the presiding officer of the chamber.
The Special Task Force (STF) (Sinhala: විශේෂ කාර්ය බලකාය Visesha Karya Balakaya; Tamil: சிறப்பு அதிரடிப் படை) is an elite para-military forces unit of the Sri Lanka Police specializing in counter-terrorism and counter-insurgency operations.
Spoonbills are a genus, Platalea, of large, long-legged wading birds.
Athletics is a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, jumping, throwing, and walking.
Sri Jayawardenepura Kotte (commonly known as Kotte) is the official, administrative capital of Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lanka Air Force (SLAF) (Śrī Laṃkā guwan hamudāva; Ilaṅkai vimāṉappaṭai) is the air arm and the youngest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces.
The Sri Lanka Armed Forces is the overall unified military of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka encompassing the Sri Lanka Army, the Sri Lanka Navy,and the Sri Lanka Air Force; they are governed by the Ministry of Defence (MoD).
The Sri Lankan Army (Śrī Laṃkā yuddha hamudāva; Ilankai iraṇuvam) is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is the nation's army.
The Sri Lanka blue magpie or Ceylon magpie (Urocissa ornata) is a member of the crow family living in the hill forests of Sri Lanka, where it is endemic.
The Sri Lanka Broadcasting Corporation (SLBC) (ශ්රී ලංකා ගුවන් විදුලි සංස්ථාව, Shrī Lankā Guvan Viduli Sansthāva, இலங்கை ஒலிபரப்புக் கூட்டுத்தாபனம், Ilangkai Oliparappuk Kūṭṭuttāpaṉam) came into existence on 5 January 1967 when Radio Ceylon became a public corporation.
The Sri Lanka Civil Security Force (Sinhala: සිවිල් අාරක්ෂක බලකාය Sivil ārakshaka balakāya; Tamil: இலங்கை சிவில் பாதுகாப்பு) (also known as the Civil Defence Force) is a paramilitary militia tasked to serve as an auxiliary to the Sri Lanka Police.
The Sri Lankan Coast Guard (Śrī Laṃkā veralārakshaka depārtamēntuwa; இலங்கை கடலோர பாதுகாப்பு) is a Sri Lankan non-ministerial government department tasked with coast guard duties within the territorial waters of Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lanka Freedom Party (translit; translit) is one of the major political parties in Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lankan Kaffirs (cafrinhas in Portuguese, කාපිරි kāpiriyō in Sinhala, and காப்பிலி kāpili in Tamil) are an ethnic group in Sri Lanka who are partially descended from 16th century Portuguese traders and Bantu slaves who were brought by them to work as labourers and soldiers to fight against the Sinhala Kings.
Sri Lanka Matha (ශ්රී ලංකා මාතා Śrī Laṁkā Mātā; translit) is the national anthem of Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lanka Muslim Congress (translit; ශ්රී ලංකා මුස්ලිම් කොංග්රසය Sri Lanka Muslim Kongrasaya) is a political party in Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lanka national cricket team, nicknamed The Lions, is a full member of the International Cricket Council (ICC) with Test, One-Day International (ODI) and T20 International status.
The Sri Lankan Navy (Śrī Laṃkā nāvika hamudāva; Ilaṅkai kaṭaṟpaṭai) is the naval arm of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is classed as the country's most vital defence force due to its island geography.
The Sri Lanka Railway Department (more commonly known as Sri Lanka Railways (SLR)) (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා දුම්රිය සේවය Śrī Laṃkā Dumriya Sēvaya; Tamil: இலங்கை புகையிரத சேவைகள்) is Sri Lanka's railway owner and primary operator.
Sri Lanka Standard Time (SLST) (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකාවේ සම්මත වේලාව Shri Lankavay Sammatha Velava) is the time zone for Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan Creole Malay (also known as Sri Lankan Malay and Bahasa Melayu) is an Austronesian creole language formed through a mixture of Sinhala and Tamil with Malay.
Sri Lankan English (SLE, en-LK) or Ceylonese English is the English language as it is spoken in Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan Malays (also known in Sinhalese language as Ja Minissu meaning Javanese - a catch-all term historically used for all natives of the Malay Archipelago - are a group consisting of about 40,000 people who make up 0.20% of the Sri Lankan population. Their ancestors initially came to the country when both Sri Lanka and Indonesia were colonies of the Dutch, while a second wave (1796–1948) came from the Malay Peninsula, when both Malaya and Sri Lanka were in the British Empire. Significant Malay presence in Sri Lanka dated as early as 13th century, when Chandrabhanu Sridhamaraja, a Malay of Tambralinga managed to occupy northern part of the island in 1247, nonetheless the followers of Chandrabhanu would mostly assimilate to the local population. Many of the ancestors of present-day Sri Lankan Malays coming from soldiers posted by the Dutch which later continued by the British for colonial administration to Sri Lanka, who decided to settle on the island. Other immigrants were convicts or members of noble houses from Dutch East Indies (present day Indonesia) who were exiled to Sri Lanka and who never left. The main source of a continuing Malay identity is their common Malay language, the Islamic faith and their ancestral origin from the Malay Archipelago. Many Sri Lankan Malays have been celebrated as courageous soldiers, politicians, sportsmen, lawyers, accountants and doctors.
Sri Lankan Moors (translit; translit formerly Ceylon Moors; colloquially referred to as Muslims or Moors) are an ethnic minority group in Sri Lanka, comprising 9.3% of the country's total population.
The rupee (රුපියල්, ரூபாய்) (signs: රු, ரூ, Rs; code: LKR) is the currency of Sri Lanka, divided into 100 cents.
Sri Lankan state-sponsored colonization schemes refers to the government program of settling mostly farmers from the densely populated wet zone in the sparsely populated areas of the dry zone in the North Central Province and the Eastern Province regions near tanks and reservoirs being built in major irrigation and hydro-power programs such as the Mahaweli project to create farming and fishing communities.
Sri Lankan Tamil nationalism is the conviction of the Sri Lankan Tamil people, a minority ethnic group in the South Asian island country of Sri Lanka (formerly known as Ceylon), that they have the right to constitute an independent or autonomous political community.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
Sri Rajadhi Rajasinha (reigned 1782–1798) was a member of the Madurai royal family and succeeded his brother, Kirti Sri Rajasinha as King of Kandy in 1782.
Vijaya Rajasinha (reigned 1739–1747) was a member of the Madurai Nayak Dynasty and succeeded his brother-in-law Vira Narendra Sinha as the King of Kandy.
Sri Vikrama Rajasinha (1780 – January 30, 1832, born Kannasamy Nayaka) was the last of four Kings, to rule the last Sinhalese monarchy of the Kingdom of Kandy in Sri Lanka.
SriLankan Airlines (marketed as SriLankan) is the flag carrier of Sri Lanka and a member of the Oneworld airline alliance.
The State Council of Ceylon was the unicameral legislature for Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), established in 1931 by the Donoughmore Constitution.
A state religion (also called an established religion or official religion) is a religious body or creed officially endorsed by the state.
A steleAnglicized plural steles; Greek plural stelai, from Greek στήλη, stēlē.
Storks are large, long-legged, long-necked wading birds with long, stout bills.
A stupa (Sanskrit: "heap") is a mound-like or hemispherical structure containing relics (śarīra - typically the remains of Buddhist monks or nuns) that is used as a place of meditation.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.
A supermajority or supra-majority or a qualified majority, is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of one-half used for majority.
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා ශ්රේෂ්ඨාධිකරණය Sri Lanka Sreshthadikaranaya)(Tamil: இலங்கை உயர் நீதிமன்றம் Ilankai ucca nitimanram) is the highest court of Sri Lanka.
Suratissa was an early monarch of Sri Lanka of the Kingdom of Anuradhapura, based at the ancient capital of Anuradhapura from 247 BC to 237 BC.
Deshabandu Susanthika Jayasinghe (සුසන්තිකා ජයසිංහ; Tamil: சுசந்திகா ஜயசிங்ஹ) (born December 17, 1975) is a Sri Lankan sprint athlete specializing in the 100 and 200 metres.
Tamil Eelam (தமிழீழம் tamiḻ īḻam, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas as தமிழ் ஈழம்) is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
The Tamil National Alliance (தமிழ்த் தேசியக் கூட்டமைப்பு ISO 15919: tamiḻt tēciyakkūṭṭamaippu; TNA) is a political alliance in Sri Lanka that represents the country's Sri Lankan Tamil minority.
The Tamil United Liberation Front (தமிழர் ஐக்கிய விடுதலை முன்னணி, ද්රවිඩ එක්සත් විමුක්ති පෙරමුණ) is a political party in Sri Lanka which seeks independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Taprobana (Ταπροβανᾶ) or Taprobane (Ταπροβανῆ) was the name by which the Indian Ocean island of Sri Lanka was known to the ancient Greeks.
Taraki Sivaram or Dharmeratnam Sivaram (11 August 1959 – 28 April 2005) was a popular Tamil journalist of Sri Lanka.
Tarshish (תַּרְשִׁישׁ) occurs in the Hebrew Bible with several uncertain meanings, most frequently as a place (probably a large city or region) far across the sea from the Land of Israel and Phoenicia (Tarshish is currently the name of a village in Mount Lebanon District in Lebanon).
Tea production is one of the main sources of foreign exchange for Sri Lanka (formerly called Ceylon), and accounts for 2% of GDP, contributing over US $1.5 billion in 2013 to the economy of Sri Lanka.
Teak (Tectona grandis) is a tropical hardwood tree species placed in the flowering plant family Lamiaceae.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
Telugu (తెలుగు) is a South-central Dravidian language native to India.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
Sri Dalada Maligawa or the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a Buddhist temple in the city of Kandy, Sri Lanka.
Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (singles) or between two teams of two players each (doubles).
Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket and is considered its highest standard.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Thai Pongal (தைப்பொங்கல்)is a harvest festival dedicated to the Sun God.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Island is a daily English-language newspaper in Sri Lanka.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of fine art that uses live performers, typically actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific place, often a stage.
Theravāda (Pali, literally "school of the elder monks") is a branch of Buddhism that uses the Buddha's teaching preserved in the Pāli Canon as its doctrinal core.
Thesavalamai is the traditional law of the Sri Lankan Tamil inhabitants Jaffna peninsula, codified by the Dutch during their colonial rule in 1707.
Thorium is a weakly radioactive metallic chemical element with symbol Th and atomic number 90.
Tillakaratne Mudiyanselage Dilshan (තිලකරත්න ඩිල්ෂාන්; born Tuwan Mohammad Dilshan on 14 October 1976) is a former Sri Lankan cricketer and a former captain of the Sri Lanka national cricket team.
Upali Tissa Vitharana (born 30 August 1934) is a Sri Lankan physician, politician, former Member of Parliament and former cabinet minister.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
The Treaty of Amiens (French: la paix d'Amiens) temporarily ended hostilities between the French Republic and Great Britain during the French Revolutionary Wars.
, or commonly known as the Treaty of Peace with Japan, Peace Treaty of San Francisco, or San Francisco Peace Treaty), mostly between Japan and the Allied Powers, was officially signed by 48 nations on September 8, 1951, in San Francisco. It came into force on April 28, 1952 and officially ended the American-led Allied Occupation of Japan. According to Article 11 of the Treaty, Japan accepts the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts imposed on Japan both within and outside Japan. This treaty served to officially end Japan's position as an imperial power, to allocate compensation to Allied civilians and former prisoners of war who had suffered Japanese war crimes during World War II, and to end the Allied post-war occupation of Japan and return sovereignty to that nation. This treaty made extensive use of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to enunciate the Allies' goals. This treaty, along with the Security Treaty signed that same day, is said to mark the beginning of the San Francisco System; this term, coined by historian John W. Dower, signifies the effects of Japan's relationship with the United States and its role in the international arena as determined by these two treaties and is used to discuss the ways in which these effects have governed Japan's post-war history. This treaty also introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan due to its lack of specificity as to what country Taiwan was to be surrendered, and hence some supporters of Taiwan independence argue that sovereignty of Taiwan is still undetermined.
Trincomalee (திருகோணமலை Tirukōṇamalai; ත්රිකුණාමළය Trikuṇāmalaya) also known as Gokanna, is the administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.
The Tripiṭaka (Sanskrit) or Tipiṭaka (Pali), is the traditional term for the Buddhist scriptures.
A tropical climate in the Köppen climate classification is a non-arid climate in which all twelve months have mean temperatures of at least.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
An underdog is a person or group in a competition, usually in sports and creative works, who is popularly expected to lose.
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
A unitary state is a state governed as a single power in which the central government is ultimately supreme and any administrative divisions (sub-national units) exercise only the powers that the central government chooses to delegate.
The United Front was a political alliance in Sri Lanka, formed by the Sri Lanka Freedom Party (SLFP), the Lanka Sama Samaja Party (LSSP) and the Communist Party of Sri Lanka (CPSL) in 1968.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United National Party, often abbreviated as UNP (translit, translit), is a political party in Sri Lanka.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is an agency of United Nations and coordinates its environmental activities, assisting developing countries in implementing environmentally sound policies and practices.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon (قوة الأمم المتحدة المؤقتة في لبنان), or UNIFIL (يونيفيل) and also known as the UN, is a demilitarized zone created by the United Nations, with the adoption of Security Council Resolution 425 and 426 on 19 March 1978, to confirm Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon which Israel had invaded five days prior, restore international peace and security, and help the government of Lebanon restore its effective authority in the area.
The United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic and Chad (MINURCAT) was a United Nations peacekeeping mission established by the United Nations Security Council on September 25, 2007 to provide a multidimensional presence of up to 350 police and military personnel to eastern Chad and north-eastern Central African Republic The mission comes as a response to the dire situation of an estimated 230,000 refugees from Darfur who continue to flee into bordering eastern Chad and north-eastern Central African Republic (CAR).
The United Nations Public Administration Network mission statement is to promote the sharing of knowledge, experiences and best practices throughout the world in sound public policies, effective public administration and efficient civil services, through capacity-building and cooperation among the United Nations Member States, with emphasis on south-south cooperation and UNPAN's commitment to integrity and excellence.
The United Nations Stabilization Mission In Haiti (UNSTAMIH) (Mission des Nations Unies pour la stabilisation en Haïti), also known as MINUSTAH, an acronym of the French name, was a United Nations peacekeeping mission in Haiti that was in operation from 2004 to 2017.
The United People's Freedom Alliance, often abbreviated as UPFA (එක්සත් ජනතා නිදහස් සන්ධානය Eksath Janathā Nidahas Sandānaya, ஐக்கிய மக்கள் சுதந்திரக் கூட்டணி), is a political alliance in Sri Lanka founded by former Sri Lankan president Chandrika Kumaratunga in 2004.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The concept of universal suffrage, also known as general suffrage or common suffrage, consists of the right to vote of all adult citizens, regardless of property ownership, income, race, or ethnicity, subject only to minor exceptions.
The University Grants Commission (UGC) is the body responsible for funding most of the State Universities in Sri Lanka, and operates within the frame work of the Universities Act No.
University of California Press, otherwise known as UC Press, is a publishing house associated with the University of California that engages in academic publishing.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, or UMich), often simply referred to as Michigan, is a public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan.
The University of Michigan Press is part of Michigan Publishing at the University of Michigan Library.
The University of Moratuwa (also referred as Moratuwa University) (මොරටුව විශ්වවිද්යාලය Moratuwa Vishvavidyalaya, மொறட்டுவைப் பல்கலைக்கழகம்), located on the bank of the Bolgoda Lake in Katubedda, Moratuwa is the most sought after technological university in Sri Lanka.
The University of Peradeniya (පේරාදෙණිය විශ්ව විද්යාලය, பேராதனைப் பல்கலைக்கழகம்) is a state university in Sri Lanka, funded by the University Grants Commission.
*For the figure in Norse mythology, see Urðr The University Teachers for Human Rights (Jaffna) or UTHR(J) was formed in 1988 at the University of Jaffna, Jaffna in Sri Lanka as part of the national organization University Teachers for Human Rights.
Upasampadā (Pali) literally denotes "approaching or nearing the ascetic tradition." In more common parlance it specifically refers to the rite and ritual of ascetic vetting (ordination) by which a candidate, if deemed acceptable, enters the community as upasampadān (ordained) and authorised to undertake ascetic life.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
Uva Province (ඌව පළාත Uva Palata, ஊவா மாகாணம் Uva Maakaanam) is Sri Lanka's second least populated province, with 1,259,880 people, created in 1896.
Valagamba (Sinhala: වළගම්බා), also known as Vattagamani Abhaya and Valagambahu, was a king of the Anuradhapura Kingdom of Sri Lanka.
The Vanga Kingdom was an ancient seafaring thalassocracy during the Late Vedic period on the Indian Subcontinent, which originated in the region of Bengal.
The Vedda (වැද්දා, வேடர் Vēdar) are a minority indigenous group of people in Sri Lanka who, among other self-identified native communities such as Coast Veddas, Anuradhapura Veddas and Bintenne Veddas, are accorded indigenous status.
Victor Rathnayake (Sinhala:වික්ටර් රත්නායක; born 18 February 1942) is a popular Sri Lankan musician.
Vijayabahu I (born Prince Keerthi) (ruled 1055–1110) was a medieval king of Sri Lanka.
Vimaladharmasuriya I was a king of Kandy in Sri Lanka who ruled from 1590 to 1604.
Vimāna is the mythological flying palaces or chariots described in Hindu texts and Sanskrit epics.
Vira Alakesvara, also known as Vijayabahu VI, was the last King of Gampola who ruled from 1397 to 1409.
Sri Vira Parakrama Narendra Sinha (1707–1739 AD) was the last Sinhalese King of Sri Lanka of the Kingdom of Kandy.
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Viśhwákarma (meaning "all creating" in Sanskrit) is the deity of the creative power that holds the universe together according to the Rigveda and is considered to be the original creator, architect,divine engineer of the universe from before the advent of time, also the root concept of the later Upanishadic figures of Brahman and Purusha in the historical Vedic religion.
Volleyball is a team sport in which two teams of six players are separated by a net.
Sri Lankabhimanya Wannakuwatta Waduge Don Albert Perera(වන්නකුවත්ත වඩුගේ දොන් ඇල්බට් පෙරෙරා; 5 December 1927 – 3 November 2016) better known by his adopted name Amaradeva, was a prominent Sri Lankan vocalist, violinist and composer.
Wariyapola (වාරියපොල) is a town in the Kurunegala District, North Western province, Sri Lanka.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
The Western Province (බස්නාහිර පළාත Basnahira Palata; மேல் மாகாணம் Mael Maakaanam) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
Wilhelm Ludwig Geiger (21 July 1856 – 2 September 1943) was a German Orientalist in the fields of Indo-Iranian languages and the history of Iran and Sri Lanka.
Wilpattu National Park (Willu-pattu; Land of Lakes) is a park located on the island of Sri Lanka.
Wisden Cricketers' Almanack (or simply Wisden or colloquially "the Bible of Cricket") is a cricket reference book published annually in the United Kingdom.
The World Bank (Banque mondiale) is an international financial institution that provides loans to countries of the world for capital projects.
The World Economic Forum (WEF) is a Swiss nonprofit foundation, based in Cologny, Geneva, Switzerland.
The World Giving Index (WGI) is an annual report published by the Charities Aid Foundation, using data gathered by Gallup, and ranks over 140 countries in the world according to how charitable they are.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yaksha (Sanskrit: यक्ष yakṣa, Tamil: யகன் yakan, இயக்கன் iyakan, Odia: ଯକ୍ଷ jôkhyô, Pali: yakkha) are a broad class of nature-spirits, usually benevolent, but sometimes mischievous and sexually aggressive or capricious caretakers of the natural treasures hidden in the earth and tree roots.
Yala (යාල) National Park is the most visited and second largest national park in Sri Lanka, bordering the Indian Ocean.
Yapahuwa (Sinhalese language: යාපහුව) was one of the ephemeral capitals of medieval Sri Lanka.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
.lk (.ලංකා/.இலங்கை) is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Sri Lanka.
The 10th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 10 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 1948 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XIV Olympiad, was an international multi-sport event which was held in London, United Kingdom.
The Hartal 1953 was a country-wide demonstration of civil disobedience and strike, commonly known as a hartal, held in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) on 12 August 1953.
The 1962 Ceylonese coup d'état attempt (also known as the Colonels' coup) was a failed military coup planned in Sri Lanka (Ceylon).
The 1971 Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna insurrection (also known as the 1971 Revolt) was the first unsuccessful armed revolt conducted by the communist Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (JVP) against the Government of Ceylon under Prime Minister Sirimavo Bandaranaike.
The 1986 Asia Cup (also known as the John Player Gold Leaf Trophy), was the second Asia Cup tournament, and was held in Sri Lanka between March 30 and April 6.
The 1987–89 JVP insurrection (also known as the 1989 Revolt) was the second unsuccessful armed revolt conducted by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna against the Government of Sri Lanka under President J. R. Jayewardene.
The 1996 Cricket World Cup, also called the Wills World Cup 1996 after its official sponsors, ITC's Wills brand, was the sixth Cricket World Cup, organised by the International Cricket Council (ICC).
The 1997 Asia Cup (also known as the Pepsi Asia Cup 1997), was the sixth Asia Cup tournament, and the second to be held in Sri Lanka.
The 200 metres (also spelled 200 meters) is a sprint running event.
The 2000 Summer Olympic Games, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad and commonly known as Sydney 2000 or the Millennium Olympic Games/Games of the New Millennium, were an international multi-sport event which was held between 15 September and 1 October 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
The eighth edition of cricket's Asia Cup (also called Indian Oil Asia Cup) was held in Sri Lanka after a gap of 4 years.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The 2007 Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2007) was the 9th edition of the Cricket World Cup tournament that took place in the West Indies from 13 March to 28 April 2007, using the sport's One Day International (ODI) format.
The 2008 Asia Cup (also called STAR Cricket Asia Cup) took place in Pakistan in June 2008.
The 2009 ICC World Twenty20 was an international Twenty20 cricket tournament which took place in England in June 2009.
The 2011 ICC Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Cricket World Cup 2011) was the tenth Cricket World Cup.
The 2011 Cricket World Cup Final was a One Day International (ODI) match played between India and Sri Lanka at the Wankhede Stadium, Mumbai, on 2 April 2011.
The 2012 ICC World Twenty20 was the fourth ICC World Twenty20 competition, an international Twenty20 cricket tournament that took place in Sri Lanka from 18 September to 7 October 2012 which was won by the West Indies.
The 2014 Asia Cup (also known as Arise Asia Cup) was the twelfth edition of the Asia Cup cricket tournament.
The 2014 ICC World Twenty20 was the fifth ICC World Twenty20 competition, an international Twenty20 cricket tournament, that took place in Bangladesh from 16 March to 6 April 2014.
The 2016 Carrom World Championship, was the 7th edition of an international Carrom tournament governed by the International Carrom Federation, contested from 7 to 11 November 2016 in Birmingham, United Kingdom.
3G, short for third generation, is the third generation of wireless mobile telecommunications technology.
3G countries or Global Growth Generating countries are 11 countries which have been identified as sources of growth potential and of profitable investment opportunities.
The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event.
The 5th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 5 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The meridian 79° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
The meridian 82° east of Greenwich is a line of longitude that extends from the North Pole across the Arctic Ocean, Asia, the Indian Ocean, the Southern Ocean, and Antarctica to the South Pole.
Ceilan, Ceilao, Cejlon, Ceylon, Ceylonese, Choshalichak Kutiyarachu, Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Etymology of Sri Lanka, Flora and fauna of Sri Lanka, Free Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka, Free, Sovereign and Independent Republic of Sri Lanka, Hela Diva, Heladiva, Helaya, ISO 3166-1:LK, Ilankai, Ilankai Jananayaka, Ilankai Jananayaka Choshalichak Kutiyarachu, Ilaṅkai, Ilaṅkai Jaṉanāyaka Choṣhalichak Kuṭiyarachu, Independence of Sri Lanka, Island of Ceylon, Provincial capitals of Sri Lanka, Republic of Sri Lanka, S Lanka, Seilan, Shri Lamka Prajatantrika Samajaya di Janarajaya, Shri Lanka, Sielediva, Sir Lanka, Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Sri Lamka, Sri Lanak, Sri Lanca, Sri Lanka government, Sri Lankan Martial Arts, Sri Lankan Republic, Sri lanka, Sri lankan, Sri-Lanka, SriLanka, Srilanka, Srí Lanka, Srī Laṁkā Prajātāntrika Samājavādī Janarajaya, Sulloon, The Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, Tourist Sri Lanka, Venerable Island, Śrī Laṃkāva, இலங்கை, இலங்கை சனநாயக சோசலிசக் குடியரசு, ශ්රී ලංකා ප්රජාතාන්ත්රික සමාජවාදී ජනරජය.