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Appapillai Amirthalingam (அப்பாப்பிள்ளை அமிர்தலிங்கம், 26 August 1927 – 13 July 1989) was a leading Sri Lankan Tamil politician, Member of Parliament and Leader of the Opposition.
The A 32 road is an A-Grade trunk road in Sri Lanka.
The A 35 road is an A-Grade trunk road in Sri Lanka.
The A 5 road is an A-Grade trunk road in Sri Lanka.
The A9 Highway is a highway in Sri Lanka, which connects the central city of Kandy with Jaffna, a city on the northern tip of the island.
ABC Australia may refer to.
In ethics and governance, accountability is answerability, blameworthiness, liability, and the expectation of account-giving.
Action Against Hunger (or Action Contre La Faim (ACF) in French) is a global humanitarian organization which originated in France and is committed to ending world hunger.
Airbus SE is a European corporation, registered in the Netherlands and trading shares in France, Germany and Spain.
The Airbus A320 family consists of short- to medium-range, narrow-body, commercial passenger twin-engine jet airliners manufactured by Airbus.
The Airbus A330 is a medium- to long-range wide-body twin-engine jet airliner made by Airbus.
The Airbus A340 is a long-range, four-engine, wide-body commercial passenger jet airliner that was developed and produced by the European aerospace company Airbus.
Akkaraipattu massacre happened on 19 February 1986 when approximately 80 Sri Lankan Tamil farm workers were allegedly killed by the Sri Lankan Army personnel and their bodies burned in the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka.
Alfred Thangarajah Duraiappah (15 June 1926 – 27 July 1975) was a Sri Lankan Tamil lawyer, politician, Mayor of Jaffna and Member of Parliament.
The Allaipiddy massacre or Allaipiddy murders refers to the May 13, 2006 killing of 13 minority Tamil civilians in separate incidents in three villages in the islet of Kayts in northern Sri Lanka.
There are allegations that war crimes were committed by the Sri Lankan military and the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War, particularly during the final months of the Eelam War IV phase in 2009.
Amnesty International (commonly known as Amnesty or AI) is a London-based non-governmental organization focused on human rights.
Ampara (අම්පාර, அம்பாறை) is the main town of Ampara District, governed by an Urban Council.
Ananthi Sasitharan (translit; born 10 September 1971) is a Sri Lankan Tamil activist, politician and provincial minister.
Annamalai Varadaraja Perumal is a politician from Sri Lanka.
Anton Balasingham Stanislaus (translit; 4 March 1938 – 14 December 2006; known as Anton Balasingham) was a Sri Lankan Tamil journalist, rebel and chief political strategist and chief negotiator for the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a separatist Tamil militant organisation in Sri Lanka.
The Anuradhapura massacre occurred in Sri Lanka in 1985 and was carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
General Anuruddha Leuke Ratwatte (14 July 1938 – 24 November 2011), frequently referred to as Anuruddha Ratwatte, was a Sri Lankan soldier and politician.
The Asian Tribune is an online newspaper that provides news and editorial on the current affairs of Asia, with a special emphasis on South Asia but mostly concentrates its news on the current Civil conflict in Sri Lanka.
The assassination of Rajiv Gandhi, former Prime Minister of India, occurred as a result of a suicide bombing in Sriperumbudur, near Chennai, in Tamil Nadu, India on Tuesday, 21 May 1991.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
On August 14, 2006, a convoy carrying the Pakistani High Commissioner to Sri Lanka, Bashir Wali Mohamed, was attacked by a claymore antipersonnel mine concealed within an auto rickshaw.
An auto rickshaw is a motorized development of the traditional pulled rickshaw or cycle rickshaw.
Balasegaram Kandiah, also known as Balraj, was the senior commander of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).
Ban Ki-moon (born 13 June 1944) is a South Korean politician and diplomat who was the eighth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 2007 to December 2016.
The Bandaranaike Airport attack was an assault by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) on Bandaranaike International Airport, on July 24, 2001.
Batticaloa (மட்டக்களப்பு, Maṭṭakkaḷappu; මඩකලපුව, Madakalapuwa) is a major city in the Eastern Province, Sri Lanka, and its former capital.
The Battle of Aanandapuram was a land battle fought between the Sri Lankan Military, 58 Division, 53 Division and Task Force 8 and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) for the control of the last stronghold held by the LTTE.
The Battle of Mullaitivu (codenamed Operation Unceasing Waves by the Tamil Tigers), was a battle that occurred between 18–25 July 1996 for the control of the town of Mullaitivu in Sri Lanka.
The Battle of Pooneryn was a battle fought on 11 November 1993 for the town of Pooneryn.
The Battle of Thoppigala was a battle between the Sri Lanka Army and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) fought during a period of the first half of 2007 over control of the LTTE-dominated peak of Thoppigala (also known as Baron's Cap), located 40 km northwest of Batticaloa, in eastern Sri Lanka.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Black July (translit; කළු ජූලිය Kalu Juliya) is the common name used to refer to the anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Sri Lanka during July 1983.
The Black Tigers (Tamil: கரும்புலிகள்) were a wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a militant Sri Lankan Tamil separatist organization.
Bloomberg L.P. is a privately held financial, software, data, and media company headquartered in Midtown Manhattan, New York City.
The bombing of SLNS Sooraya and SLNS Ranasuru was an attack carried out on 19 April 1995 by LTTE suicide frogmen of the Sea Tigers, who attacked and sank two Sri Lanka Navy gun boats moored in the harbor of Trincomalee, Sri Lanka by planting explosives on them.
A boycott is an act of voluntary and intentional abstention from using, buying, or dealing with a person, organization, or country as an expression of protest, usually for moral, social, political, or environmental reasons.
Brigadier is a military rank, the seniority of which depends on the country.
Ceylon (Sinhala: බ්රිතාන්ය ලංකාව, Brithānya Laṃkāva; Tamil: பிரித்தானிய இலங்கை, Birithaniya Ilangai) was a British Crown colony between 1815 and 1948.
Theravada Buddhism is the religion of 70.2% of the population of Sri Lanka.
Bunding, also called a bund wall, is a constructed retaining wall around storage "where potentially polluting substances are handled, processed or stored, for the purposes of containing any unintended escape of material from that area until such time as a remedial action can be taken." Guidance Note on Storage and Transfer of Materials for Scheduled Activities page 7.
Vallipuram Vasanthan (வல்லிப்புரம் வசந்தன்; 1 January 1966 – 5 July 1987; commonly known by the nom de guerre Captain Miller) was a Sri Lankan Tamil rebel and member of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a separatist Tamil militant organisation in Sri Lanka.
CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.
The Ceylon Citizenship Act No.
The Ceylon Civil Service, popularly known by its acronym CCS, was the premier civil service of the Government of Ceylon under British colonial rule and in the immediate post-independence period.
Chalai Lagoon is a lagoon in Mullaitivu District, north-east Sri Lanka.
Chandrika Bandaranaike Kumaratunga (චන්ද්රිකා බණ්ඩාරනායක කුමාරතුංග,சந்திரிகா பண்டாரநாயக்க குமாரதுங்க; born 29 June 1945) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the fifth President of Sri Lanka, from 12 November 1994 to 19 November 2005.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Chencholai bombing (also spelt as Sencholai) took place on August 14, 2006 when the Sri Lankan Air Force bombed what it said was a rebel LTTE training camp, killing 61 girls aged 16 to 18.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
The civil service is independent of government and composed mainly of career bureaucrats hired on professional merit rather than appointed or elected, whose institutional tenure typically survives transitions of political leadership.
Colombo (translit,; translit) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka.
The Central Bank bombing was one of the deadliest terrorist attacks carried out by the LTTE during the Separatist civil war in Sri Lanka between the government and the Tamil Tigers.
Colonel ("kernel", abbreviated Col., Col or COL) is a senior military officer rank below the brigadier and general officer ranks.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Commander of the Army is the title of the professional head of the Sri Lanka Army.
The Constitution of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Śrī Laṃkā āndukrama vyavasthāva, Ilaṅkai araciyalamaippiṉ) has been the constitution of the island nation of Sri Lanka since its original promulgation by the National State Assembly on 7 September 1978.
A covert operation is a military operation that intended to conceal the identity of or allow plausible denial by the sponsor.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
The Criminal Investigation Department (Sinhala: අපරාධ විමර්ෂණ දෙපාර්තමේන්තුව, Tamil: குற்றப் புலனாய்வுத் துறை) (known as CID) of the Sri Lanka Police is responsible for carrying out investigations throughout the island into serious crimes, including murders, rape and organized crime cases of a very serious nature that require special skills and complex detection.
David Buell Sabapathy Jeyaraj (born May 21, 1954; commonly known as D. B. S. Jeyaraj) is a Tamil Canadian freelance journalist of Sri Lankan origin.
The Daily News is an English-language newspaper in Sri Lanka.
Lieutenant General Denzil Lakshman Kobbekaduwa, RWP, RSP, VSV, USP, rcds, psc, SLAC (ඩෙන්සිල් ලක්ෂ්මණ් කොබ්බෑකඩුව; 27 July 1940 – 8 August 1992) was a Sri Lankan General.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
Sri Lankabhimanya Dingiri Banda Wijetunga (ඩිංගිරි බණ්ඩා විජේතුංග,டிங்கிரி பண்ட விஜேதுங்க; 15 February 1916 – 21 September 2008) was the fourth President of Sri Lanka from 1 May 1993 to 12 November 1994, Prime Minister of Sri Lanka from 3 March 1989 to 7 May 1993 and the Governor of North Western province, Sri Lanka from 1988 to 1989.
Disarmament is the act of reducing, limiting, or abolishing weapons.
The districts of Sri Lanka are divided into administrative sub-units known as divisional secretariats.
The Eastern Province (கிழக்கு மாகாணம் Kil̮akku Mākāṇam; නැගෙනහිර පළාත Næ̆gĕnahira Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
Eastern University massacre also known as Vantharamulai (also Vantharoomulai) campus massacre refers to the arrest and subsequent mass murder of 158 minority Sri Lankan Tamil refugees who had taken refuge in the Eastern University campus close to the city Batticaloa on September 5, 1990.
Economic discrimination is discrimination based on economic factors.
Economic sanctions are commercial and financial penalties applied by one or more countries against a targeted country, group, or individual.
With an economy worth $93.45 billion $298.310 billion PPP and a per capita GDP of about $4,310, $13,480 PPP as of 2018 Sri Lanka has mostly had strong growth rates in recent years.
The Eelam People's Revolutionary Liberation Front (EPRLF) is a Sri Lankan political party and a former militant separatist group.
The Eelam Revolutionary Organisation of Students (EROS), also known as the Eelam Revolutionary Organisers, is a former Tamil militant group in Sri Lanka.
Eelam War IV is the name given to the fourth phase of armed conflict between the Sri Lankan military and the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), which is currently proscribed as a terrorist organisation by 32 countries.
Elephant Pass, (අලිමංකඩ Alimankada) Northern Province, Sri Lanka is located in the gateway of Jaffna Peninsula.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
Erik Solheim (born 18 January 1955 in Oslo, Norway) is a Norwegian diplomat and former politician, and the current Executive Director of the United Nations Environment Programme.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
The expulsion of the Muslims from the Northern province was an act of ethnic cleansing carried out by the Tamil militant Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) organisation in October 1990.
Federalism is the mixed or compound mode of government, combining a general government (the central or 'federal' government) with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system.
Fluency (also called volubility and eloquency) is the property of a person or of a system that delivers information quickly and with expertise.
In international human rights law, a forced disappearance (or enforced disappearance) occurs when a person is secretly abducted or imprisoned by a state or political organization or by a third party with the authorization, support, or acquiescence of a state or political organization, followed by a refusal to acknowledge the person's fate and whereabouts, with the intent of placing the victim outside the protection of the law.
Four Four Bravo was the call sign of a fifteen-man Sri Lankan Army patrol, deployed in the Jaffna Peninsula on July 23, 1983.
Galle (ගාල්ල; காலி) is a major city in Sri Lanka, situated on the southwestern tip, 119 km from Colombo.
Dissanayake Mudiyanse Ralahamilage Lionel Gamini Dissanayake (known as Gamini Dissanayake; ලයනල් ගාමිණි දිසානායක,காமினி திஸாநாயக்க; 20 March 1942 – 24 October 1994) was a prominent Sri Lankan politician, a powerful minister of the United National Party, and Leader of the Opposition.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
Gomarankadawala is a tiny village in the Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka, where 6 Sinhalese civilians were gunned down by suspected LTTE cadres in an incident known as the Gomarankadawala massacre.
The Gonagala Massacre was a massacre that occurred on 18 September 1999, in the small village of Gonagala, located in the Ampara District of Sri Lanka.
Lieutenant Colonel Nandasena Gotabaya Rajapaksa, RWP, RSP, psc, GR (ගෝඨාභය රාජපක්ෂ) (born 20 June 1949) is a retired officer of the Sri Lanka Army, a former Secretary to Ministry of Defence and Urban Development of Sri Lanka.
The Government of Sri Lanka (GoSL) (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා රජය Śrī Laṃkā Rajaya) is a semi-presidential system determined by the Sri Lankan Constitution.
Grandpass is a suburb in Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Group of Eleven (G11) is a forum, constituted by mostly developing countries aimed at easing their debt burden (See also: government debt), narrowing the income gap with rich countries and lifting their people out of poverty.
Habeas corpus (Medieval Latin meaning literally "that you have the body") is a recourse in law through which a person can report an unlawful detention or imprisonment to a court and request that the court order the custodian of the person, usually a prison official, to bring the prisoner to court, to determine whether the detention is lawful.
High commissioner is the title of various high-ranking, special executive positions held by a commission of appointment.
Home Guard is a title given to various military organizations at various times, with the implication of an emergency or reserve force raised for local defense.
The Hongdu JL-8 (Nanchang JL-8), also known as the Karakorum-8 or K-8 for short, is a two-seat intermediate jet trainer and light attack aircraft designed in the People's Republic of China by China Nanchang Aircraft Manufacturing Corporation.
Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights.
Human shields may be civilians used against their will to deter attacks on military targets during an international armed conflict or they may be civilians who voluntarily protect either military or civilian targets from attack.
The Israel Aircraft Industries Kfir (כְּפִיר, "Lion Cub") is an Israeli-built all-weather, multirole combat aircraft based on a modified French Dassault Mirage 5 airframe, with Israeli avionics and an Israeli-built version of the General Electric J79 turbojet engine.
Independence is a condition of a nation, country, or state in which its residents and population, or some portion thereof, exercise self-government, and usually sovereignty, over the territory.
Independent Television Network Limited (also known as ITN Ltd) is a Sri Lankan state governed television and radio broadcaster located in Wickramasinhapura, Battaramulla, Sri Lanka.
India Today is a 24-hour English language television network based in Noida, Uttar Pradesh that carries news, current affairs and business programming in India.
The Indian Air Force (IAF; IAST: Bhāratīya Vāyu Senā) is the air arm of the Indian armed forces.
General elections were held in India in 1991 to elect the members of the 10th Lok Sabha.
The Indian intervention in the Sri Lankan Civil War was the deployment of the Indian Peace Keeping Force in Sri Lanka intended to perform a peacekeeping role.
Indian Peace Keeping Force (IPKF) was the Indian military contingent performing a peacekeeping operation in Sri Lanka between 1987 and 1990.
Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka are Tamil people of Indian origin in Sri Lanka.
The Indo-Sri Lanka Peace Accord was an accord signed in Colombo on 29 July 1987, between Indian Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi and Sri Lankan President J. R. Jayewardene.
An insurgency is a rebellion against authority (for example, an authority recognized as such by the United Nations) when those taking part in the rebellion are not recognized as belligerents (lawful combatants).
The Interim Self Governing Authority was a proposal issued on October 2003 by the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) of Sri Lanka for power sharing in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who is forced to flee his or her home but who remains within his or her country's borders.
The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-governmental organization.
International human rights law (IHRL) is the body of international law designed to promote human rights on social, regional, and domestic levels.
International humanitarian law (IHL) is the law that regulates the conduct of war (jus in bello).
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
Iqbal Athas (born c. 1944) is a Sri Lankan journalist.
Independent Television News (ITN) is a British-based news and content provider.
Junius Richard Jayewardene (ජුනියස් රිචඩ් ජයවර්ධන,ஜூனியஸ் ரிச்சட் ஜயவர்தனா; 17 September 1906 – 1 November 1996), commonly abbreviated in Sri Lanka as J. R., was the leader of Sri Lanka from 1977 to 1989, serving as Prime Minister from 1977 to 1978 and as the second President of Sri Lanka from 1978 till 1989.
Jaffna is the capital city of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
Jaffna Fort (translit; යාපනය බලකොටුව Yapanaya Balakotuwa) is a fort built by the Portuguese at Jaffna, Sri Lanka in 1618 under Phillippe de Oliveira following the Portuguese invasion of Jaffna.
Jaffna Peninsula (யாழ்ப்பாணக் குடாநாடு, Yāḻppāṇa kuṭānāṭu) or (யாழ் குடாநாடு, Yāḻ kuṭānāṭu) is an area in Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
Jagath Jayasuriya, VSV, USP, ndc, psc is a retired Sri Lanka Army general, and a former Chief of Defence Staff of the Sri Lankan military and Commander of the Sri Lankan Army.
Major General Janaka Perera, RWP, RSP, VSV, USP, VSP, rcds, psc, CR (1 February 1946 – 6 October 2008) was a Sri Lankan General and politician.
The Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna (People's Liberation Front), often abbreviated as JVP (ජනතා විමුක්ති පෙරමුණ; மக்கள் விடுதலை முன்னணி) is a communist and Marxist–Leninist party and political movement in Sri Lanka.
The Jathika Hela Urumaya (ජාතික හෙළ උරුමය, ஜாதிக ஹெல உறுமய, often approximated in English as National Heritage Party) is a right-wing nationalist political party in Sri Lanka.
Jaya Sri Maha Bodhi (Sinhala: ජය ශ්රී මහා බොධිය) is a sacred fig tree in the Mahamewna Gardens, Anuradhapura, Sri Lanka.
Joseph Pararajasingham (யோசப் பரராஜசிங்கம்; 26 November 1934 – 25 December 2005) was a Sri Lankan Tamil civil servant, journalist, businessman and politician.
, officially, were a part of the Japanese Special Attack Units of military aviators who initiated suicide attacks for the Empire of Japan against Allied naval vessels in the closing stages of the Pacific campaign of World War II, designed to destroy warships more effectively than possible with conventional air attacks.
is a prefecture located in Kantō region of Japan.
Kandy (මහනුවර Mahanuwara, pronounced; கண்டி, pronounced) is a major city in Sri Lanka located in the Central Province.
The Kebithigollewa massacre occurred on 15 June 2006 when 60 civilians were allegedly killed by an LTTE claymore attack on a bus.
The Kent and Dollar Farm massacres was one of the earliest massacres of Sinhalese civilians carried out by the LTTE during the Sri Lankan Civil War.
Kilinochchi (கிளிநொச்சி, IAST Kilinocci, කිලිනොච්චි) is the main town of Kilinochchi District, Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
Kilinochchi District (கிளிநொச்சி மாவட்டம் Kiḷinocci Māvaṭṭam; කිලිනොච්චි දිස්ත්රික්කය) is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country.
Kokkadichcholai (கொக்கட்டிச்சோலை) is a village in Batticaloa District within the Eastern Province of Sri Lanka.
Kuala Lumpur, officially the Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur (Wilayah Persekutuan Kuala Lumpur), or commonly known as KL, is the national capital of Malaysia as well as its largest city in the country.
Kumarapuram massacre also known as 1996 Trincomalee massacre or 1996 Killiveddy massacre refers to the murder of 24 minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians including 13 women and 9 children below the age of 12 allegedly by the Sri Lankan security forces on February 11, 1996 in a village called Kumarapuram in the eastern district of Trincomalee.
The Kumudini or Kumuthini boat massacre (Tamil:குமுதினி படகுப் படுகொலைகள்) happened on 15 May 1985 when at least 23 minority Sri Lankan Tamil men, women and children on a ferry boat named Kumudini sailing from the island of Delft to the island of Nainathievu were killed by Sri Lankan Navy personnel.
Sri Lankabhimanya Lakshman Kadirgamar, PC (லக்ஷமன் கதிர்காமர்; ලක්ශමන් කදිර්ගාමර්, 12 April 1932 – 12 August 2005) was a Sri Lankan Tamil lawyer and statesmen.
A land mine is an explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.
The Lanka Sama Samaja Party (literally Lanka Equal Society Party, in Sinhala: ලංකා සම සමාජ පක්ෂය, in Tamil: லங்கா சமசமாஜக் கட்சி) is a Trotskyist political party in Sri Lanka.
The Lessons Learnt and Reconciliation Commission (LLRC, උගත් පාඩම් හා ප්රතිසන්ධාන කොමිෂන් සභාව Ugath Padam Ha Prathisandhana Komishan Sabhava), கற்றுக்கொண்ட பாடங்கள் மற்றும் நல்லிணக்க ஆணைக்குழு) was a commission of inquiry appointed by Sri Lankan President Mahinda Rajapaksa in May 2010 after the 26-year-long civil war in Sri Lanka. The commission was mandated to investigate the facts and circumstances which led to the failure of the ceasefire agreement made operational on 27 February 2002, the lessons that should be learnt from those events and the institutional, administrative and legislative measures which need to be taken in order to prevent any recurrence of such concerns in the future, and to promote further national unity and reconciliation among all communities. After an 18-month inquiry, the commission submitted its report to the President on 15 November 2011. The report was made public on 16 December 2011, after being tabled in the parliament. The commission concluded that the Sri Lankan military didn't deliberately target civilians but the rebel Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) repeatedly violated international humanitarian law. According to the commission the military gave the "highest priority" to protecting civilians whereas the Tamil Tigers had had "no respect for human life". The commission admitted that civilians had been killed by the Sri Lankan military, albeit accidentally, contradicting the government's line that there were zero civilian casualties. The commission did, however, receive some eyewitness evidence alleging abuse by the military which warranted further investigation and, if necessary, the prosecution of perpetrators. The commission acknowledged that hospitals had been shelled, resulting "considerable civilian casualties", but it did not say who was responsible for the shelling. The commission blamed Sinhalese and Tamil politicians for causing the civil war: the Sinhalese politicians failed to offer a solution acceptable to the Tamil people and the Tamil politicians fanned militant separatism. The commission has been heavily criticised by international human rights groups, the UN Panel of Experts and others due its limited mandate, alleged lack of independence and its failure to meet minimum international standards or offer protection to witnesses. These critics believed that the Sri Lankan government was using the commission as a tool to prevent an independent international investigation of alleged abuses. As a consequence of this Amnesty International, Human Rights Watch and the International Crisis Group refused to appear before the commission.
The Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (translit, translit, commonly known as the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers) was a Tamil militant organization that was based in northeastern Sri Lanka.
The Latin term bellum civile was first used of the Roman civil wars that began in the last third of the second century BC.
Following is a list of Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups.
The Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (LRRP) (Sinhala: දිගු දුර විහිදුම් බලකාය Digu Dura Vihidum Balakaya) (Tamil:ஆழ ஊடுருவித்தாக்கும் படையணி) is a covert operation (black ops) unit of the Sri Lanka Army.
The M18A1 Claymore is a directional anti-personnel mine developed for the United States Armed Forces.
Maankulam or Mankulam is located in northern Sri Lanka, about 3.5 hours drive south of City of Jaffna.
Gopalaswamy Mahendraraja (1956 – 28 December 1994), also known as Mahattaya was a member of Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam who was killed for leaking secrets to India's RAW.
Percy Mahendra Rajapaksa, MP (පර්සි මහේන්ද්ර රාජපක්ෂ; born 18 November 1945), more commonly known as Mahinda Rajapaksa (මහින්ද රාජපක්ෂ, மஹிந்த ராஜபக்ஷ) is a Sri Lankan politician who served as the sixth President of Sri Lanka from 19 November 2005 to 9 January 2015.
The Mailapitiya National War Memorial in Mailapitiya, Kandy is dedicated to all military and police personal killed in the Sri Lankan Civil War.
Pallewatte Gamaralalage Maithripala Yapa Sirisena (මෛත්රීපාල සිරිසේන; மைத்திரிபால சிறிசேன; born 3 September 1951) is a Sri Lankan politician and the 7th and current President of Sri Lanka, in office since January 2015.
Mallavi is a town in the Mullaitivu District, Sri Lanka.
Manchester is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England, with a population of 530,300.
Mangala Pinsiri Samaraweera (මංගල පින්සිරි සමරවීර, மங்கள சமரவீர;; born April 21, 1956), better known as Mangala Samaraweera, is an MP of UNP party Sri Lanka and Minister of Finance and Media, appointed 2017.
Mannar District (மன்னார் மாவட்டம் Maṉṉār Māvaṭṭam; මන්නාරම දිස්ත්රික්කය) is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country.
Mass suicide is a form of suicide, occurring when a group of people simultaneously kill themselves.
Mavil Aru (Mother River) is a waterway that supplies water to some regions of eastern Sri Lanka.
Mediation is a dynamic, structured, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques.
The Mikoyan MiG-27 (Микоян МиГ-27; NATO reporting name: Flogger-D/J) is a variable-geometry ground-attack aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union and later license-produced in India by Hindustan Aeronautics as the Bahadur ("Valiant").
The Mil Mi-17 (NATO reporting name: Hip) is a Russian helicopter in production at two factories in Kazan and Ulan-Ude.
The Mil Mi-24 (Миль Ми-24; NATO reporting name: Hind) is a large helicopter gunship, attack helicopter and low-capacity troop transport with room for eight passengers.
The military history of Pakistan (تاريخ عسكری پاكِستان.) encompasses an immense panorama of conflicts and struggles extending for more than 2,000 years across areas constituting modern Pakistan, and the greater South Asia.
The Millennium City incident refers to a military scandal that took place within the Millennium City housing scheme, Athurugiriya, Sri Lanka on 2 January 2002.
The Ministry of Defence (Sinhala: රාජ්ය ආරක්ෂක අමාත්යාංශය Rājya Ārakshaka Amathyanshaya; Tamil: பாதுகாப்பு அமைச்சகம்) is the cabinet ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka responsible for implementation of government defence policy and acts as the overall headquarters of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces.
The Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Sinhala: විදේශ කටයුතු අමාත්යාංශය Vidhesha Katayuthu Amathyanshaya; Tamil: வெளிநாட்டலுவல்கள் அமைச்சு) (also known as the Foreign Ministry or External Affairs Ministry) is a cabinet ministry of the Government of Sri Lanka responsible for conducting and managing Sri Lanka's foreign relations through oversight of its missions abroad via the Sri Lanka Overseas Service, as well as drafting and general implementation of the nation's foreign policy.
Missing in action (MIA) is a casualty classification assigned to combatants, military chaplains, combat medics, and prisoners of war who are reported missing during wartime or ceasefire.
Rear Admiral Conan Anthony Mohan Jayamaha, RWP, VSV, USP, psc, SLN (12 January 1949–8 August 1992) was a Sri Lankan Admiral.
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is now used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation associated with the asymmetric heating of land and sea.
The Muhamalai Forward Defence Line was the Army Defence Line separating the Sri Lankan Army and LTTE militia in North Central Kilinochchi from South Central Jaffna.
Mullaitivu (முல்லைத்தீவு Mullaittīvu, මූලදූව) is the main town of Mullaitivu District, situated on the north-eastern coast of Northern Province, Sri Lanka.
The Mylanthanai massacre happened on August 9, 1992 when 35 minority Sri Lankan Tamils, including 14 children, at Mylanthanai in Batticaloa District in Sri Lanka, were killed.
Nanayakkarapathirage Martin Perera, better known as Dr.
The Nager Kovil school bombing refers to a disputed incident in the Sri Lankan Civil War.
Nakhon Pathom (นครปฐม) is a city (thesaban nakhon) in central Thailand, the former capital of Nakhon Pathom Province.
Nanthi Kadal (நந்திக்கடல் Nantikkaṭal) is a lagoon in Mullaitivu District, north-east Sri Lanka.
The National Defense University (NDU) is an institution of higher education funded by the United States Department of Defense, intended to facilitate high-level training, education, and the development of national security strategy.
The Navaly Church bombing was the bombing of the Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in Navaly (or Navali) in the Jaffna peninsula by the Sri Lankan Air Force during the Sri Lankan Civil War.
Navanethem "Navi" Pillay (born 23 September 1941) is a South African jurist who served as the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 2008 to 2014.
Neelakandan Tiruchelvam (நீலகண்டன் திருச்செல்வம்; 31 January 1944 – 29 July 1999) was a Sri Lankan Tamil lawyer, academic, politician and Member of Parliament.
The NorthEast Secretariat on Human Rights (NESOHR) was established on July 9, 2004, in Kilinochchi as part of the 2002 Norway-facilitated peace process to improve human rights in the north east of Sri Lanka.
New Internationalist (NI) is an independent, non-profit, publishing co-operative, based in Oxford, United Kingdom.
The North Eastern Province was one of the provinces of Sri Lanka.
The Northern Province (வட மாகாணம் Vaṭa Mākāṇam; උතුරු පළාත Uturu Paḷāta) is one of the nine provinces of Sri Lanka, the first level administrative division of the country.
Northern Provincial Council (வட மாகாண சபை Vaṭa Mākāṇa Capai; NPC) is the provincial council for the Northern Province in Sri Lanka.
Not to be confused with the North American Aerospace Defense Command, also abbreviated NORAD. The Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (Norad) is a directorate under the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Operation Poomalai (Pūmālai, lit. "Flower Garland"), also known as Eagle Mission 4, was the codename assigned to a mission undertaken by the Indian Air Force to air-drop supplies over the besieged town of Jaffna in Sri Lanka on 4 June 1987 in support of Tamil Tigers during the Sri Lankan Civil War.
Operation Riviresa (Operation Sunrays), was a combined military operation launched by the Sri Lankan Armed Forces in Jaffna.
The origins of the Sri Lankan Civil War lie in the continuous political rancor between the majority Sinhalese and the minority Sri Lankan Tamils.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
The Padahuthurai bombing or Illuppaikadavai bombing happened on January 2, 2007, when the Sri Lanka Air Force bombed what they claimed to be rebel LTTE naval base in Illuppaikadavai in Northern Sri Lanka.
Palaly Military Base is a military base located in Palaly, Northern Province of Sri Lanka, and the largest on the Jaffna Peninsula.
The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية) is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle, with much of its violence aimed at Israeli civilians.
The Palliyagodella massacre was carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE) against the mostly Muslim population of the Palliyagodella village located on border region of the northern part of Sri Lanka that were controlled by the Tigers at the time.
Lieutenant General Parami Sugandika Bandara Kulatunga RSP, VSV, USP, GW (Sinhala:පාරමී කුලතුංග) (9 October 1951 in Kandy – 26 June 2006) was Deputy Chief of Staff of the Sri Lanka Army, its third highest-ranking officer.
Paranthan is a town in Kilinochchi District, Sri Lanka.
The Parliament of Ceylon was the legislative body of British Ceylon & Dominion of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) established in 1947 by the Soulbury Constitution, prior to independence on 4 February 1948.
The Parliament of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා පාර්ලිමේන්තුව Shri Lanka Parlimenthuwa, Tamil: இலங்கை நாடாளுமன்றம்) is the supreme legislative body of Sri Lanka.
A peace movement is a social movement that seeks to achieve ideals such as the ending of a particular war (or all wars), minimize inter-human violence in a particular place or type of situation, and is often linked to the goal of achieving world peace.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
The People's Alliance (PA) was a front of political parties in Sri Lanka, formed in 1994.
The People's Liberation Organisation of Tamil Eelam (PLOTE) is a former Tamil militant group that had become a pro-government paramilitary group and political party.
The Permanent Peoples' Tribunal is an international opinion tribunal founded in Bologna (Italy) on June 24, 1979 at the initiative of Senator Lelio Basso.
Don Philip Rupasinghe Gunawardena (11 January 1901 – 26 March 1972) introduced Trotskyism to Sri Lanka, where he is a National Hero, known as 'the Father of Socialism' and as 'the Lion of Boralugoda'.
Phuket (ภูเก็ต,, Talang or Tanjung Salang) is one of the southern provinces (''changwat'') of Thailand.
The term pogrom has multiple meanings, ascribed most often to the deliberate persecution of an ethnic or religious group either approved or condoned by the local authorities.
A police station (sometimes called a "station house" in the US) is a building which serves to accommodate police officers and other members of staff.
The policy of standardization was a policy implemented by the Sri Lankan government in 1971 to rectify disparities created in university enrollment in Sri Lanka under Colonial rule.
Ponnambalam Arunachalam (translit; 14 September 1853 – 9 January 1924) was a Ceylon Tamil civil servant and a member of the Executive Council of Ceylon and Legislative Council of Ceylon.
Pooneryn (Poonakari) is a strategically important village in the northern province of Sri Lanka situated just below the Jaffna Peninsula.
Air-to-air combat is the engagement of flying machines in warfare in which one or more aircraft tries to destroy one or more other aircraft.
Shanmugalingam Sivashankar (சண்முகலிங்கம் சிவசங்கரன்; 1962 – 18 May 2009; commonly known by the nom de guerre Pottu Amman) was a Sri Lankan Tamil rebel and leading member of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, a separatist Tamil militant organisation in Sri Lanka.
The President of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka (ශ්රී ලංකා ජනාධිපති Śrī Laṃkā Janādhipathi; இலங்கை சனாதிபதி Ilankai janātipati) is the executive head of state and head of government of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka and commander-in-chief of the Sri Lankan Armed Forces.
In Sri Lanka, provinces (translit; translit) are the first level administrative division.
A tribunal of inquiry is an official review of events or actions ordered by a government body.
Public service is a service which is provided by government to people living within its jurisdiction, either directly (through the public sector) or by financing provision of services.
Rajavarothiam Sampanthan (இராஜவரோதயம் சம்பந்தன்; රාජවරෝදියම් සම්බන්දන්; born 5 February 1933) is a Sri Lankan Tamil politician and lawyer who has led the Tamil National Alliance since 2001.
Ramaswamy Venkataraman (4 December 191027 January 2009) was an Indian lawyer, Indian independence activist and politician who served as a Union Minister and as the eighth President of India.
Rajiv Ratna Gandhi (20 August 1944 – 21 May 1991) was an Indian politician who served as the 6th Prime Minister of India from 1984 to 1989.
Rajiva Wijesinha, MA, DPhil (Sinhala: රජීව විජේසිංහ) (born 16 May 1954) is a Sri Lankan writer in English, distinguished for his political analysis as well as creative and critical work.
Sri Lankabhimanya Ranasinghe Premadasa (රණසිංහ ප්රේමදාස,ரணசிங்க பிரேமதாசா; 23 June 1924 – 1 May 1993) was the third President of Sri Lanka from 2 January 1989 to 1 May 1993.
Ranil Wickremesinghe, MP (රනිල් වික්රමසිංහ, ரணில் விக்ரமசிங்க; born 24 March 1949) is a Sri Lankan politician who has served as the Prime Minister of Sri Lanka since 9 January 2015.As Leader of the United National Party since 1994 and the Member of Parliament for Colombo District since 1977.
Rediff.com is an Indian news, information, entertainment and shopping web portal, founded in 1996 as "Rediff On The NeT".
The Report of the Secretary-General's Panel of Experts on Accountability in Sri Lanka was a 2011 report produced by a panel of experts appointed by United Nations Secretary-General (UNSG) Ban Ki-moon to advise him on the issue of accountability with regard to any alleged violations of international human rights and humanitarian law during the final stages of the Sri Lankan Civil War.
The Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW or RAW) (IAST: Anusaṃdhān Aur Viśleṣaṇ Viṃg) is the foreign intelligence agency of India.
The Unilateral Declaration of Independence (UDI) was a statement adopted by the Cabinet of Rhodesia on 11 November 1965, announcing that Rhodesia, a British territory in southern Africa that had governed itself since 1923, now regarded itself as an independent sovereign state.
Rohan Gunaratna (born 1961) is a Singaporean analyst on security affairs.
Suppayya Paramu Thamilselvan, commonly known as S. P. Tamilselvan, (sometimes transcribed as "Tamilchelvan"), Sunday Times, was the leader of the political wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam, an organisation fighting for a separate state for the ethnic Tamil minority in northern Sri Lanka from majority Sinhalese government.
Solomon West Ridgeway Dias Bandaranaike (සොලමන් වෙස්ට් රිජ්වේ ඩයස් බණ්ඩාරනායක,சாலமன் வெஸ்ட் ரிட்ஜ்வே டயஸ் பண்டாரநாயக்கா; 8 January 1899 – 26 September 1959), frequently referred to as S.W.R.D. Bandaranaike, was the fourth Prime Minister of Ceylon (later Sri Lanka) and founder of the left wing and Sinhala nationalist Sri Lanka Freedom Party, serving as Prime Minister from 1956 until his assassination by a robed Buddhist monk in 1959.
Field Marshal Gardihewa Sarath Chandralal Fonseka, RWP, RSP, VSV, USP, MP, rcds, psc (ගර්දිහේවා සරත් චන්ද්රලාල් ෆොන්සේකා, சரத் பொன்சேகா; born 18 December 1950), commonly known as Sarath Fonseka, is a Sri Lankan politician and senior military officer, being the first Sri Lankan Army officer to be promoted to the rank of Field Marshal.
The Sea Tigers (Tamil: கடற்புலிகள் Kaţaṛpulikaḷ) was the naval wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam during the Sri Lankan Civil War.
The Second Battle of Elephant Pass (code-named Operation Unceasing Waves III (ஓயாத அலைகள் மூன்று) by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam), was a battle fought in April 2000 for the control of the Sri Lankan military base in Elephant Pass, Jaffna.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
The right of people to self-determination is a cardinal principle in modern international law (commonly regarded as a jus cogens rule), binding, as such, on the United Nations as authoritative interpretation of the Charter's norms.
Shanmugam Kumaran Tharmalingam (செல்வராசா பத்மநாதன்; alias Selvarasa Pathmanathan, Kumaran Pathmanathan or simply KP) (born April 6, 1955) is a former prominent member of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), a separatist organisation proscribed as a terrorist organization by 32 countries which, until May 2009, was a party to the Sri Lankan Civil War, and sought to create an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
Seyed Ali Zahir Moulana (born 25 June 1956) is a Sri Lankan politician, former diplomat and local government activist.
Vaithilingam Sornalingam (September 1949 – 26 September 2001; வைத்தியலிங்கம் சொர்ணலிங்கம், alternative spellings include Vythilingam Sornalingam; often referred to by his nom de guerre Colonel Shankar) was founder of the air wing and marine division of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam and a relative of Velupillai Prabhakaran.
The Sinhala Only Act, formally the Official Language Act No.
Sinhalese, known natively as Sinhala (සිංහල; siṁhala), is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million.
The Sinhalese (Sinhala: සිංහල ජාතිය Sinhala Jathiya, also known as Hela) are an Indo-Aryan-speaking ethnic group native to the island of Sri Lanka.
A sluice (from the Dutch "sluis") is a water channel controlled at its head by a gate.
The Sooriyakanda mass grave is the mass burial ground of murdered school children from Embilipitiya Maha Vidyalaya (Embilipitiya High School) in Sri Lanka.
Thillaiyampalam Sivanesan (தில்லையம்பலம் சிவனேசன்; October 16, 1963http://www.interpol.int/public/Data/Wanted/Notices/Data/2006/76/2006_57476.asp Thillayampalam, Sivanesan – May 18, 2009), also known by his nom de guerre, Colonel Soosai, was the head of the Sea Tigers, the naval wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam.
The South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC) is the regional intergovernmental organization and geopolitical union of nations in South Asia.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
The Sri Lanka Air Force (SLAF) (Śrī Laṃkā guwan hamudāva; Ilaṅkai vimāṉappaṭai) is the air arm and the youngest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces.
The Sri Lanka Armed Forces is the overall unified military of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka encompassing the Sri Lanka Army, the Sri Lanka Navy,and the Sri Lanka Air Force; they are governed by the Ministry of Defence (MoD).
The Sri Lankan Army (Śrī Laṃkā yuddha hamudāva; Ilankai iraṇuvam) is the oldest and largest of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is the nation's army.
The Sri Lanka Monitoring Mission (SLMM) was a multinational body that existed from 2002 to 2008 to monitor the ceasefire between the Government of Sri Lanka and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE, also known as the Tamil Tigers) during the Sri Lankan Civil War.
The Sri Lankan Navy (Śrī Laṃkā nāvika hamudāva; Ilaṅkai kaṭaṟpaṭai) is the naval arm of the Sri Lanka Armed Forces and is classed as the country's most vital defence force due to its island geography.
The Sri Lanka Police (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා පොලීසිය Shrī Lanka Polīsiya; Tamil: இலங்கை காவல் Ilaṅkai Kāval) is the civilian national police force of the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lanka's Killing Fields was an investigatory documentary about the final weeks of the Sri Lankan Civil War broadcast by the British TV station Channel 4 on 14 June 2011.
The Sri Lankan Civil War was an armed conflict fought on the island of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan Moors (translit; translit formerly Ceylon Moors; colloquially referred to as Muslims or Moors) are an ethnic minority group in Sri Lanka, comprising 9.3% of the country's total population.
Parliamentary elections were held in Sri Lanka on December 5, 2001, just a little over a year after the last elections in October 2000.
Parliamentary elections were held in Sri Lanka on 2 April 2004.
The Sri Lankan presidential election of 1994 was the third presidential election of Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lankan presidential election of 1999 was the fourth presidential election of Sri Lanka.
The Sri Lankan presidential election of 2005 was the fifth presidential election of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan state-sponsored colonization schemes refers to the government program of settling mostly farmers from the densely populated wet zone in the sparsely populated areas of the dry zone in the North Central Province and the Eastern Province regions near tanks and reservoirs being built in major irrigation and hydro-power programs such as the Mahaweli project to create farming and fishing communities.
Sri Lankan Tamil militant groups rose to prominence in the 1970s to fight the state of Sri Lanka in order to create an independent Tamil Eelam in the north of Sri Lanka.
Sri Lankan Tamils (also) or Ceylon Tamils, also known as Eelam Tamils in Tamil, are members of the Tamil ethnic group native to the South Asian island state of Sri Lanka.
SriLankan Airlines (marketed as SriLankan) is the flag carrier of Sri Lanka and a member of the Oneworld airline alliance.
The State Council of Ceylon was the unicameral legislature for Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), established in 1931 by the Donoughmore Constitution.
Strategic Foresight Group (SFG) is a think tank based in India that works on global issues.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
The Supreme Court of Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා ශ්රේෂ්ඨාධිකරණය Sri Lanka Sreshthadikaranaya)(Tamil: இலங்கை உயர் நீதிமன்றம் Ilankai ucca nitimanram) is the highest court of Sri Lanka.
Swarnavahini (ස්වර්ණවාහිනී; literally Golden Channel) is a Sinhala language general entertainment and news television channel in Sri Lanka owned by EAP Broadcasting Company, a subsidiary of EAP Holdings.
The Tamil diaspora refers to descendants of the Tamil immigrants who emigrated from their native lands to other parts of the world.
Tamil Eelam (தமிழீழம் tamiḻ īḻam, generally rendered outside Tamil-speaking areas as தமிழ் ஈழம்) is a proposed independent state that Tamils in Sri Lanka and the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora aspire to create in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
The Tamil Eelam Liberation Army was a Sri Lankan Tamil rebel group.
The Tamil Eelam Liberation Organization (TELO) is an Eelam Tamil organisation campaigning for the establishment of an independent Tamil Eelam in the northeast of Sri Lanka.
Tamil (தமிழ்) is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Burghers, Douglas, and Chindians.
Tamil Makkal Viduthalai Pulikal (TMVP) (தமிழ் மக்கள் விடுதலைப்புலிகள், Tamil Peoples Liberation Tigers), previously known as the "Karuna Group", is a political party in Sri Lanka.
Tamil Nadu (• tamiḻ nāḍu ? literally 'The Land of Tamils' or 'Tamil Country') is one of the 29 states of India.
The Tamil National Alliance (தமிழ்த் தேசியக் கூட்டமைப்பு ISO 15919: tamiḻt tēciyakkūṭṭamaippu; TNA) is a political alliance in Sri Lanka that represents the country's Sri Lankan Tamil minority.
The Tamil New Tigers (TNT) was a militant Tamil organization founded by Velupillai Prabhakaran on May 22, 1972.
The Tamil United Liberation Front (தமிழர் ஐக்கிய விடுதலை முன்னணி, ද්රවිඩ එක්සත් විමුක්ති පෙරමුණ) is a political party in Sri Lanka which seeks independence for the Tamil-populated areas of Sri Lanka.
TamilNet is a news website that provides news and feature articles on current affairs in Sri Lanka, specifically related to the erstwhile Sri Lankan Civil War.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Tampalakamam massacre happened on February 3, 1998 when eight (8) minority Sri Lankan Tamil civilians were taken to the nearby police station and shot dead by Sri Lankan police and majority Sinhalese home guards.
Taraki Sivaram or Dharmeratnam Sivaram (11 August 1959 – 28 April 2005) was a popular Tamil journalist of Sri Lanka.
Sri Dalada Maligawa or the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic is a Buddhist temple in the city of Kandy, Sri Lanka.
The Daily Mirror is a daily English-language newspaper published in Colombo, Sri Lanka, by Wijeya Newspapers.
The Hindu is an Indian daily newspaper, headquartered at Chennai.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Nation is a weekly English-language newspaper in Sri Lanka.
The Observer is a British newspaper published on Sundays.
The Sunday Leader is an English-language Sri Lankan weekly newspaper published by Leader Publications (Private) Limited.
The Sunday Times is a weekly Sri Lankan broadsheet initially published by the now defunct Times Group, until 1991, when it was taken over by Wijeya Newspapers.
Thimphu (ཐིམ་ཕུ; formerly spelled as Thimbu or Thimpu) is the capital and largest city of the Kingdom of Bhutan.
The Thirteenth Amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka (13A) is amendment to the Constitution of Sri Lanka which created Provincial Councils in Sri Lanka.
Thirunelveli (pronounced Thiru-nel-veyli) is a town in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
Trincomalee (திருகோணமலை Tirukōṇamalai; ත්රිකුණාමළය Trikuṇāmalaya) also known as Gokanna, is the administrative headquarters of the Trincomalee District and major resort port city of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka.
Trincomalee Harbour is a seaport in Trincomalee Bay or Koddiyar Bay, a large natural harbour situated on the northeastern coast of Ceylon (Sri Lanka).
The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like restorative justice body assembled in South Africa after the end of apartheid.
Major General V. Udaya B. Nanayakkara, USP, Hdmc, SLE is a Sri Lankan general and a military engineer, who was the former Chief Field Engineer of the Sri Lanka Army, Brigade Commander 55-2 "Muhamale" Brigade and 21-4 "Paryanakulam " Brigade.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
A unilateral declaration of independence (UDI) is a formal process leading to the establishment of a new state by a subnational entity which declares itself independent and sovereign without a formal agreement with the national state from which it is seceding.
The United National Front is an electoral alliance in Sri Lanka, formed by the United National Party, the alliance currently represents 7 parties including the largest Muslim party Sri Lanka Muslim Congress and the Sinhala Nationalist Jathika Hela Urumaya.
The United National Party, often abbreviated as UNP (translit, translit), is a political party in Sri Lanka.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Commission on Human Rights (UNCHR) was a functional commission within the overall framework of the United Nations from 1946 until it was replaced by the United Nations Human Rights Council in 2006.
The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC) is a United Nations body whose mission is to promote and protect human rights around the world.
The United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA) is a United Nations (UN) body formed in December 1991 by General Assembly Resolution 46/182.
The United People's Freedom Alliance, often abbreviated as UPFA (එක්සත් ජනතා නිදහස් සන්ධානය Eksath Janathā Nidahas Sandānaya, ஐக்கிய மக்கள் சுதந்திரக் கூட்டணி), is a political alliance in Sri Lanka founded by former Sri Lankan president Chandrika Kumaratunga in 2004.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
The United States diplomatic cables leak, widely known as Cablegate, began on Sunday, 28 November 2010 when WikiLeaks—a non-profit organization that publishes submissions from anonymous whistleblowers—began releasing classified cables that had been sent to the U.S. State Department by 274 of its consulates, embassies, and diplomatic missions around the world.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The UNROW Human Rights Impact Litigation Clinic is a student litigation and advocacy project at American University's Washington College of Law.
The Uppsala Conflict Data Program (UCDP) is a data collection project on organized violence housed at Uppsala University in Sweden that has been collecting information on armed conflict since 1946 and making it publicly available through its annual report, States in Armed Conflict. Beginning in Since 2004, the constantly-updated UCDP is also publicly available.
Vishwanath Pratap Singh (25 June 1931 – 27 November 2008), was an Indian politician and government official, the 7th Prime Minister of India from 1989 to 1990.
Operation Liberation or the Vadamarachchi Operation was the military offensive carried out by the Sri Lankan military in May and June 1987 to recapture the territory of Vadamarachchi in the Jaffna peninsula from the LTTE (Tamil Tigers).
The Vaharai bombing is a disputed event in the Sri Lankan civil war.
The Vakarai (Lithuanian for the West) is an internationally distributed Lithuanian-American newspaper.
Vakarai or Vaharai (වාකරේ, வாகரை), The Sinhala name වාකර is pronounced 'vākara'.It is a town in the Batticaloa District of Sri Lanka, located about 65 km Northwest of Batticaloa.
The Vankalai massacre was a massacre of a family of four minority Sri Lankan Tamils at the hands of the Sri Lankan military personnel from the village of Vankalai in Mannar District, Sri Lanka on June 8, 2006.
The Vanni, also spelled Wanni, is the name given to the mainland area of the Northern Province of Sri Lanka.
Vavuniya (translit) is a large town in the Northern Province, Sri Lanka, governed by an Urban Council.
Vavuniya District (வவுனியா மாவட்டம் Vavuṉiyā Māvaṭṭam; වවුනියා දිස්ත්රික්කය) is one of the 25 districts of Sri Lanka, the second level administrative division of the country.
Vellalars (also, Velalars, Vellalas) is a Tamil caste found mainly in the Indian states of Tamil Nadu, Kerala and in northeastern parts of Sri Lanka.
Thiruvenkadam Velupillai Prabhakaran (வேலுப்பிள்ளை பிரபாகரன்;, 26 November 1954 19 May 2009) was the founder and leader of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (the LTTE or the Tamil Tigers), a militant organization that sought to create an independent Tamil state in the north and east of Sri Lanka.
A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.
Vidataltivu (விடத்தல் தீவு, විධත්තල්තීවූ) is a coastal town in the Mannar District of northern Sri Lanka.
Major General Vijaya Wimalaratne RWP, RSP, VSV, USP, psc, GR (විජය විමලරත්න; 25 August 1940 - 8 August 1992) was a Sri Lankan army officer and one of the most distinguished generals in Sri Lanka.
Vinayagamoorthy Muralitharan (nom de guerre: Colonel Karuna Amman; விநாயகமூர்த்தி முரளிதரன், born 1966) is a Sri Lankan politician and former militant.
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
Brigadier-General Sir William Henry Manning, (19 July 1863 – 1 January 1932) was a British Indian Army officer and colonial administrator.
The Gal Oya riots or Gal Oya massacre were the first ethnic riots that targeted the minority Tamils in the Dominion of Ceylon.
1958 anti-Tamil pogrom and riots in Ceylon, also known as the 58 riots, refer to the first island wide ethnic riots and pogrom to target the minority Tamils in the Dominion of Ceylon after it became an independent country from Britain in 1948.
The 1977 anti-Tamil pogrom in Sri Lanka followed the 1977 general elections in Sri Lanka where the Sri Lankan Tamil nationalistic Tamil United Liberation Front won a plurality of minority Sri Lankan Tamil votes in which it stood for secession.
The 1987–89 JVP insurrection (also known as the 1989 Revolt) was the second unsuccessful armed revolt conducted by the Janatha Vimukthi Peramuna against the Government of Sri Lanka under President J. R. Jayewardene.
The 1990 Batticaloa massacre, also known as the Sathurukondan massacre (சத்துருக்கொண்டான் படுகொலை), was a massacre of at least 184 minority Sri Lankan Tamil refugees, including infants, from three villages in the Batticaloa District by the Sri Lankan Army on September 9, 1990.
The 1990 massacre of Sri Lankan Police officers was a mass murder of Sri Lankan Police officers that took place on 11 June 1990.
The Battle of Kilinochchi (codenamed Operation Unceasing Waves II by the Tamil Tigers) was a battle that occurred in September 1998 for the control of the city of Kilinochchi in Sri Lanka (geographical coordinates). The battle was fought between the Sri Lankan Army (SLA) and the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).
The Puthukkudiyiruppu bombing was a series of aerial attacks carried out against Sri Lankan Tamil civilians by the Sri Lankan Air Force on September 15 in the year 1999 killing over 21 including schoolchildren and women as well as inflicting serious injuries upon many more.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC on 26 December with the epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
The 2006 Digampathaha (දිගම්පතහ, திகம்பதஹ) truck bombing, also known as Habarana massacre, was a suicide truck bombing carried out by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam against a convoy of 15 military buses on 16 October 2006 at Digampathaha (Incorrectly reported as Digampathana), in between the towns of Dambulla and Habarana, in Sri Lanka.
The 2006 Trincomalee Massacre of NGO Workers, also known as the Muttur Massacre, took place on August 4 or 5, 2006, when 17 employees of the French INGO Action Against Hunger (known internationally as Action Contre la Faim, or ACF) were shot at close range in the city of Muttur, Sri Lanka, close to Trincomalee.
The incident referred to as Trincomalee massacre in 2006 happened when five minority Sri Lankan Tamil high school students playing by the beach were briefly detained and then shot dead.
The 2008–2009 SLA Northern offensive was an armed conflict in the northern Province of Sri Lanka between the military of Sri Lanka and the separatist Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE).
The 2009 suicide air raid on Colombo was an unsuccessful kamikaze-style suicide attack launched by the air wing of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam on February 20, 2009, targeting military locations in and around Colombo, Sri Lanka.
The Tamil genocide resolution of 2015 was passed by the Northern Provincial Council on 10 February 2015 seeking an UN inquiry to investigate the genocide of the Tamil people in Sri Lanka by successive Sri Lankan Governments, and direct appropriate measures at the International Criminal Court outlining the Tamil people had no faith in the domestic commission.
Civil war in Sri Lanka, End of the Sri Lankan Civil War, Ethnic conflict in Sri Lanka, Ethnic problem in Sri Lanka, Ethnic strife in Sri Lanka, LTTE Insurgency, Sri Lanka War, Sri Lanka civil war, Sri Lanka's civil war, Sri Lankan civil war, Sri lanka civil war, Srilankan Civil War, Terrorist Movement of Sri Lankan, The Sri Lankan Civil War.