154 relations: Alessandro Valignano, Alveolar consonant, Analytic language, Approximant consonant, Aspirated consonant, Beijing, Beijing dialect, Bopomofo, Broadcasting, Cantonese, Channel NewsAsia, Chen Shui-bian, China, Chinatown, Manhattan, Chinese characters, Chinese Civil War, Chinese culture, Chinese emigration, Chinese honorifics, Chinese in New York City, Chinese language, Chinese Language Standardisation Council of Malaysia, Chinese literature, Chinese postal romanization, Chinese speech synthesis, Classical Chinese, Colloquialism, Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation, Comparison of Cantonese and Standard Chinese, Comparison of national standards of Chinese, Complementary distribution, Compound (linguistics), Confucius, Consonant, Court (royal), Demonstrative, Diminutive, East Asia, Erhua, Ethnic minorities in China, Formosan languages, Fricative consonant, Geography of Taiwan, Government, Grammar, Greek language, Guangdong, Guangdong National Language Regulations, Hakka Chinese, Han Chinese, ..., Han dynasty, Head-directionality parameter, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Inflection, Isolating language, Kuomintang, Labial consonant, Languages of Singapore, Latin, Law, Lee Kuan Yew, Lee Teng-hui, Lingua franca, Linguistics, List of ethnic groups in China and Taiwan, Lu Xun, Macau, Mainland Chinese Braille, Malaysia, Malaysian Mandarin, Mandarin (late imperial lingua franca), Mandarin Chinese, Mantri, Martial law, Migration in China, Ming dynasty, Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China, Murmured voice, Nanjing, Nanjing dialect, Nasal consonant, National language, National Languages Committee, Northern and Southern dynasties, Official language, Old Chinese, Old National Pronunciation, Orthoepy, Overseas Chinese, Palatal consonant, Philippine Mandarin, Philippines, Phoneme, Phonology, Pinyin, Portuguese language, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Promote Mandarin Council, Pronunciation, Putonghua Proficiency Test, Qing dynasty, Qu Qiubai, R-colored vowel, Republic of China (1912–1949), Retrocession Day, Retroflex consonant, Rime dictionary, Romanization of Chinese, Sanskrit, Science, Second language, Semivowel, Shanghai Cooperation Organisation, Simplified Chinese characters, Singapore, Singaporean Mandarin, Slang, South China Morning Post, Southeast Asia, Speak Mandarin Campaign, Special administrative regions of China, Standard language, State Council of the People's Republic of China, Stative verb, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Taiwan, Taiwan independence movement, Taiwan under Japanese rule, Taiwanese Braille, Taiwanese Hokkien, Taiwanese Mandarin, T–V distinction, Television, Tone (linguistics), Topic-prominent language, Traditional Chinese characters, Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, Transfer of sovereignty over Macau, Treaty of Shimonoseki, Two-cell Chinese Braille, United States, Urban area, Urbanization, Varieties of Chinese, Velar consonant, Vocabulary, Wa State, Written vernacular Chinese, Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, Xinhua News Agency, Zhonghua minzu, Zhu Wenxiong. Expand index (104 more) » « Shrink index
Alessandro Valignano (Chinese: 范禮安 Fàn Lǐ’ān) (February 1539 – January 20, 1606) was an Italian Jesuit missionary born in Chieti, part of the Kingdom of Naples, who helped supervise the introduction of Catholicism to the Far East, and especially to Japan.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
In linguistic typology, an analytic language is a language that primarily conveys relationships between words in sentences by way of helper words (particles, prepositions, etc.) and word order, as opposed to utilizing inflections (changing the form of a word to convey its role in the sentence).
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Beijing dialect, also known as Pekingese, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China.
Zhuyin fuhao, Zhuyin, Bopomofo (ㄅㄆㄇㄈ) or Mandarin Phonetic Symbols is the major Chinese transliteration system for Taiwanese Mandarin.
Broadcasting is the distribution of audio or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium, but typically one using the electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves), in a one-to-many model.
The Cantonese language is a variety of Chinese spoken in the city of Guangzhou (historically known as Canton) and its surrounding area in southeastern China.
Channel NewsAsia (abbreviated CNA) is a 24-hour television news channel and news agency based in Singapore, broadcasting free-to-air domestically and by cable television and satellite television to 28 territories in Asia, the Middle East and Australia.
Chen Shui-bian (born October 12, 1950) is a retired Taiwanese politician and lawyer who served as President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) from 2000 to 2008.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Manhattan's Chinatown is a neighborhood in Lower Manhattan, New York City, bordering the Lower East Side to its east, Little Italy to its north, Civic Center to its south, and Tribeca to its west.
Chinese characters are logograms primarily used in the writing of Chinese and Japanese.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
Chinese culture is one of the world's oldest cultures, originating thousands of years ago.
Waves of Chinese emigration (also known as the Chinese diaspora) have happened throughout history.
Chinese honorifics are words and phrases that indicate social respect or deference in the spoken or written language.
The New York metropolitan area is home to the largest ethnic Chinese population outside of Asia, constituting the largest metropolitan Asian American group in the United States and the largest Asian-national metropolitan diaspora in the Western Hemisphere.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
The Chinese Language Standardisation Council of MalaysiaAlthough Malaysian English generally prefers -ise, Yufan's official site is ambiguous between -ise and -ize in its name.
The history of Chinese literature extends thousands of years, from the earliest recorded dynastic court archives to the mature vernacular fiction novels that arose during the Ming Dynasty to entertain the masses of literate Chinese.
Postal romanization was a system of transliterating Chinese place names developed by the Imperial Post Office in the early 1900s.
Chinese speech synthesis is the application of speech synthesis to the Chinese language (usually Standard Chinese).
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
Everyday language, everyday speech, common parlance, informal language, colloquial language, general parlance, or vernacular (but this has other meanings too), is the most used variety of a language, which is usually employed in conversation or other communication in informal situations.
The Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation was the organization established by Beiyang Government in 1912 select ancillary phonetic symbols for Mandarin, (Zhuyin was the product) and set the standard Guoyu pronunciation of basic Chinese characters.
Cantonese and Standard Chinese, also known as Mandarin, are both varieties of Chinese (Sinitic languages).
The Chinese language enjoys the status as official language in China, Hong Kong, Macau, Singapore and Taiwan.
In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.
In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.
Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history.
In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.
A court is an extended royal household in a monarchy, including all those who regularly attend on a monarch, or another central figure.
Demonstratives (abbreviated) are words, such as this and that, used to indicate which entities are being referred to and to distinguish those entities from others.
A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Erhua; also called erhuayin or erization, refers to a phonological process that adds r-coloring or the "ér" (儿) sound (transcribed in IPA as) to syllables in spoken Mandarin Chinese.
Ethnic minorities in China are the non-Han Chinese population in the People's Republic of China (PRC).
"Formosan languages" is a cover term for the languages of the indigenous peoples of Taiwan, all of which belong to the Austronesian language family.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
In linguistics, grammar (from Greek: γραμματική) is the set of structural rules governing the composition of clauses, phrases, and words in any given natural language.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Guangdong is a province in South China, located on the South China Sea coast.
The Guangdong National Language Regulations (廣東省國家通用語言文字規定) is a set of laws enacted by the Guangdong provincial government in the People's Republic of China in 2012 to promote the use of Standard Mandarin Chinese in broadcast and print media at the expense of the local standard Cantonese and other related dialects.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
The Han Chinese,.
The Han dynasty was the second imperial dynasty of China (206 BC–220 AD), preceded by the Qin dynasty (221–206 BC) and succeeded by the Three Kingdoms period (220–280 AD). Spanning over four centuries, the Han period is considered a golden age in Chinese history. To this day, China's majority ethnic group refers to themselves as the "Han Chinese" and the Chinese script is referred to as "Han characters". It was founded by the rebel leader Liu Bang, known posthumously as Emperor Gaozu of Han, and briefly interrupted by the Xin dynasty (9–23 AD) of the former regent Wang Mang. This interregnum separates the Han dynasty into two periods: the Western Han or Former Han (206 BC–9 AD) and the Eastern Han or Later Han (25–220 AD). The emperor was at the pinnacle of Han society. He presided over the Han government but shared power with both the nobility and appointed ministers who came largely from the scholarly gentry class. The Han Empire was divided into areas directly controlled by the central government using an innovation inherited from the Qin known as commanderies, and a number of semi-autonomous kingdoms. These kingdoms gradually lost all vestiges of their independence, particularly following the Rebellion of the Seven States. From the reign of Emperor Wu (r. 141–87 BC) onward, the Chinese court officially sponsored Confucianism in education and court politics, synthesized with the cosmology of later scholars such as Dong Zhongshu. This policy endured until the fall of the Qing dynasty in 1911 AD. The Han dynasty saw an age of economic prosperity and witnessed a significant growth of the money economy first established during the Zhou dynasty (c. 1050–256 BC). The coinage issued by the central government mint in 119 BC remained the standard coinage of China until the Tang dynasty (618–907 AD). The period saw a number of limited institutional innovations. To finance its military campaigns and the settlement of newly conquered frontier territories, the Han government nationalized the private salt and iron industries in 117 BC, but these government monopolies were repealed during the Eastern Han dynasty. Science and technology during the Han period saw significant advances, including the process of papermaking, the nautical steering ship rudder, the use of negative numbers in mathematics, the raised-relief map, the hydraulic-powered armillary sphere for astronomy, and a seismometer for measuring earthquakes employing an inverted pendulum. The Xiongnu, a nomadic steppe confederation, defeated the Han in 200 BC and forced the Han to submit as a de facto inferior partner, but continued their raids on the Han borders. Emperor Wu launched several military campaigns against them. The ultimate Han victory in these wars eventually forced the Xiongnu to accept vassal status as Han tributaries. These campaigns expanded Han sovereignty into the Tarim Basin of Central Asia, divided the Xiongnu into two separate confederations, and helped establish the vast trade network known as the Silk Road, which reached as far as the Mediterranean world. The territories north of Han's borders were quickly overrun by the nomadic Xianbei confederation. Emperor Wu also launched successful military expeditions in the south, annexing Nanyue in 111 BC and Dian in 109 BC, and in the Korean Peninsula where the Xuantu and Lelang Commanderies were established in 108 BC. After 92 AD, the palace eunuchs increasingly involved themselves in court politics, engaging in violent power struggles between the various consort clans of the empresses and empresses dowager, causing the Han's ultimate downfall. Imperial authority was also seriously challenged by large Daoist religious societies which instigated the Yellow Turban Rebellion and the Five Pecks of Rice Rebellion. Following the death of Emperor Ling (r. 168–189 AD), the palace eunuchs suffered wholesale massacre by military officers, allowing members of the aristocracy and military governors to become warlords and divide the empire. When Cao Pi, King of Wei, usurped the throne from Emperor Xian, the Han dynasty would eventually collapse and ceased to exist.
In linguistics, the head directionality is a proposed parameter that classifies languages according to whether they are head-initial (the head of a phrase precedes its complements) or head-final (the head follows its complements).
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
In grammar, inflection or inflexion – sometimes called accidence – is the modification of a word to express different grammatical categories such as tense, case, voice, aspect, person, number, gender, and mood.
An isolating language is a type of language with a very low morpheme per word ratio and no inflectional morphology whatsoever.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.
According to the Constitution of Singapore, the single national language of Singapore is Malay, which plays a symbolic role, as Malays are constitutionally recognized as the indigenous peoples of Singapore, and it is the government's duty to protect their language and heritage.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Lee Kuan Yew GCMG CH SPMJ (16 September 1923 – 23 March 2015), commonly referred to by his initials LKY, was the first Prime Minister of Singapore, governing for three decades.
Lee Teng-hui (born 15 January 1923) is a Taiwanese politician.
A lingua franca, also known as a bridge language, common language, trade language, auxiliary language, vernacular language, or link language is a language or dialect systematically used to make communication possible between people who do not share a native language or dialect, particularly when it is a third language that is distinct from both native languages.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
Multiple ethnic groups populate China, where "China" is taken to mean areas controlled by either of the two states using "China" in their formal names, the People's Republic of China (China) and the Republic of China (Taiwan).
Lu Xun (Wade–Giles romanisation: Lu Hsün) was the pen name of Zhou Shuren (25 September 1881 – 19 October 1936), a leading figure of modern Chinese literature.
Macau, officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory on the western side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
(Mainland) Chinese Braille is a braille script used for Standard Mandarin in China.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malaysian Mandarin is a variety of Mandarin Chinese spoken in Malaysia by ethnic Chinese in Malaysia.
Mandarin was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
Mantri (मन्त्री) is a word of Sanskrit origin (meaning sage, i.e. the "person who thinks and says" in that language, cf. Mantra), and it is used for a variety of public offices, from fairly humble to ministerial in rank.
Martial law is the imposition of direct military control of normal civilian functions of government, especially in response to a temporary emergency such as invasion or major disaster, or in an occupied territory. Martial law can be used by governments to enforce their rule over the public.
Internal migration in the People's Republic of China is one of the most extensive in the world according to the International Labour Organization.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ministry of Education (MOE) of the People's Republic of China is the agency of the State Council of the People's Republic of China that regulates all aspects of the educational system in mainland China, including compulsory basic education, vocational education, and tertiary education.
Murmur (also called breathy voice, whispery voice, soughing and susurration) is a phonation in which the vocal folds vibrate, as they do in normal (modal) voicing, but are adjusted to let more air escape which produces a sighing-like sound.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
Nanjing dialect, also known as Nankinese, or Nanjing Mandarin, is a dialect spoken in Nanjing, China.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
The National Languages Committee was established in 1928 by the Ministry of Education of the Taiwan (ROC) with the purpose of standardizing and popularizing the usage of Standard Chinese (also called Mandarin) in the Republic of China.
The Northern and Southern dynasties was a period in the history of China that lasted from 420 to 589, following the tumultuous era of the Sixteen Kingdoms and the Wu Hu states.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
The Old National Pronunciation was the system established for the phonology of standard Chinese as decided by the Commission on the Unification of Pronunciation from 1913 onwards, and published in the 1919 edition of the Guóyīn Zìdiǎn (國音字典, "Dictionary of National Pronunciation").
Orthoepy is the study of pronunciation of a particular language, within a specific oral tradition.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
Philippine Mandarin is a variety of Standard Mandarin Chinese widely spoken by Chinese Filipinos.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.
Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
The Promote Mandarin Council is an organisation established in 1979 as part of then-PM Lee Kuan Yew's programme to promote Mandarin as the preferred language amongst Chinese Singaporeans.
Pronunciation is the way in which a word or a language is spoken.
The Putonghua Proficiency Test or Putonghua Shuiping Ceshi (PSC) is an official test of spoken fluency in Standard Chinese intended for native speakers of Chinese language.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qu Qiubai (29 January 1899 – 18 June 1935) was a leader of the Communist Party of China in the late 1920s.
In phonetics, an r-colored or rhotic vowel (also called a retroflex vowel, vocalic r, or a rhotacized vowel) is a vowel that is modified in a way that results in a lowering in frequency of the third formant.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
Taiwan Retrocession Day is an annual observance and unofficial holiday in the Republic of China to commemorate the end of 50 years of Japanese rule of Taiwan and Penghu, and their handover to China on 25 October 1945.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
A rime dictionary, rhyme dictionary, or rime book is an ancient type of Chinese dictionary that collates characters by tone and rhyme, instead of by radical.
The Romanization of Chinese is the use of the Latin alphabet to write Chinese.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.
In phonetics and phonology, a semivowel or glide, also known as a non-syllabic vocoid, is a sound that is phonetically similar to a vowel sound but functions as the syllable boundary, rather than as the nucleus of a syllable.
The Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), or Shanghai Pact, is a Eurasian political, economic, and security organisation, the creation of which was announced on 15 June 2001 in Shanghai, China by the leaders of China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan; the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation Charter, formally establishing the organisation, was signed in June 2002 and entered into force on 19 September 2003.
Simplified Chinese characters are standardized Chinese characters prescribed in the Table of General Standard Chinese Characters for use in mainland China.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
Singaporean Mandarin is a variety of Mandarin Chinese widely spoken in Singapore.
Slang is language (words, phrases, and usages) of an informal register that members of special groups like teenagers, musicians, or criminals favor (over a standard language) in order to establish group identity, exclude outsiders, or both.
The South China Morning Post (also known as SCMP or The Post), with its Sunday edition, the Sunday Morning Post, is a Hong Kong English-language newspaper and Hong Kong's newspaper of record.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Speak Mandarin Campaign (SMC) is an initiative by the government of Singapore to encourage the Singaporean Chinese population to speak Standard Mandarin Chinese, one of the four official languages of Singapore.
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.
A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.
The State Council, constitutionally synonymous with the Central People's Government since 1954 (particularly in relation to local governments), is the chief administrative authority of the People's Republic of China.
In linguistics, a stative verb is one that describes a state of being, in contrast to a dynamic verb, which describes an action.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement to pursue formal independence of Taiwan, Goals for independence have arisen from international law in relation to the 1952 Treaty of San Francisco.
Taiwan under Japanese rule is the period between 1895 and 1945 in which the island of Taiwan (including the Penghu Islands) was a dependency of the Empire of Japan, after Qing China lost the First Sino-Japanese War to Japan and ceded Taiwan Province in the Treaty of Shimonoseki.
Taiwanese Braille is the braille script used in Taiwan for Taiwanese Mandarin (Guoyu).
Taiwanese Hokkien (translated as Taiwanese Min Nan), also known as Taiwanese/Taiwanese language in Taiwan (/), is a branched-off variant of Hokkien spoken natively by about 70% of the population of Taiwan.
Taiwanese Mandarin is a dialect of Chinese and the de facto official language of Taiwan.
In sociolinguistics, a T–V distinction (from the Latin pronouns tu and vos) is a contrast, within one language, between various forms of addressing one's conversation partner or partners that are specialized for varying levels of politeness, social distance, courtesy, familiarity, age or insult toward the addressee.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
A topic-prominent language is a language that organizes its syntax to emphasize the topic–comment structure of the sentence.
Traditional Chinese characters (Pinyin) are Chinese characters in any character set that does not contain newly created characters or character substitutions performed after 1946.
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in Mainland China, took place on 1 July 1997.
The transfer of sovereignty of Macau from the Portuguese Republic to the People's Republic of China (PRC) occurred on 20 December 1999.
The was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel, Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.
Two-cell Chinese Braille was designed in the 1970s and is used in parallel with traditional Chinese Braille in China.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
An urban area is a human settlement with high population density and infrastructure of built environment.
Urbanization refers to the population shift from rural to urban residency, the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas, and the ways in which each society adapts to this change.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
A vocabulary is a set of familiar words within a person's language.
Wa State (Wa: Mēng Vax or Meung Va;; Burmese: ဝပြည်နယ်) is an unrecognised state in Myanmar (Burma) that is currently subsumed under the official Wa Special Region 2 of northern Shan State.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.
Xiandai Hanyu Cidian, also known as A Dictionary of Current Chinese or is an important one-volume dictionary of Standard Mandarin Chinese published by the Commercial Press, now into its 7th (2016) edition.
Xinhua News Agency (English pronunciation: J. C. Wells: Longman Pronunciation Dictionary, 3rd ed., for both British and American English) or New China News Agency is the official state-run press agency of the People's Republic of China.
Zhonghua minzu, translated as "Chinese nation" or "Chinese races", is a key political term that is entwined with modern Chinese history of nation-building and race.
Zhu Wenxiong was a Chinese linguist and scholar of the early 20th century.
Beifangfangyan, Chinese Mandarin Chinese, Chinese, Standard, Formal Chinese, Guan Chinese, Guo-yu, Guoryu, Guānhuà, Gwoyu, Huayu, Kouan-houa, Kuo-Yu, Kuo-Yue, Kuo-Yü, Kuo-yu, Kuo-yue, Kuo-yü, Kuoyu, Kuoyue, Kuoyü, Modern Chinese, Modern Chinese language, Modern Standard Chinese, Modern Standard Mandarin, P'u-t'ung-hua, Pei-fang-hua, Pu tong hua, Pu-tong-hua, Pulonghua, Puthonghua, Putonghua, Putonghua language, Putonghuà, Putonghùa, Putunghua, Putunghwa, Pǔtōnghuà, Standard Chinese (language), Standard Chinese dialects, Standard Chinese language, Standard Mainland Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin (linguistics), Standard Mandarin Chinese, Standard Mandarin Chinese (language), Standard Mandarin Chinese language, Standard Mandarin language, Standard Modern Chinese, Standard Spoken Chinese, Standard mandarin, 北方話, 北方话, 华语, 普通話, 普通话, 现代标准汉语, 現代標準漢語, 華語.