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Standard German phonology

Index Standard German phonology

The phonology of Standard German is the standard pronunciation or accent of the German language. [1]

128 relations: Aachen, Affricate consonant, Alemannic German, Allophone, Alveolar consonant, Apical consonant, Approximant consonant, Aspirated consonant, Assimilation (phonology), Babbling, Back vowel, Bavarian language, Bühnendeutsch, Cardinal vowels, Central vowel, Checked and free vowels, Close vowel, Close-mid front unrounded vowel, Close-mid vowel, Complementary distribution, Conditional mood, Consonant cluster, Continuant, Cot–caught merger, Council for German Orthography, Dental consonant, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Denti-alveolar consonant, Deutschlandfunk, Diminutive, Diphthong, Duden, Dutch language, Final-obstruent devoicing, Flap consonant, Formant, Fortis and lenis, Fortition, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, German dialects, German language, German orthography, Germanic umlaut, Giuseppe Verdi, Glottal consonant, Hiberno-English, History of German, I masnadieri, Idiolect, ..., Interjection, Intervocalic consonant, Labial consonant, Labialization, Laminal consonant, Lateral consonant, Liquid consonant, Loanword, Low German, Luxembourgish, Manner of articulation, Max Mangold, Middle High German, Monophthongization, Nasal consonant, Old English, Old High German, Open vowel, Open-mid front unrounded vowel, Open-mid vowel, Optimality Theory, Palatal consonant, Palato-alveolar consonant, Part of speech, Phone (phonetics), Phoneme, Phonemic awareness, Phonetics, Phonological change, Phonological history of English high front vowels, Phonology, Phonotactics, Place of articulation, Prefix, Prepositional adverb, Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩, Relative articulation, Rhineland, Rhotic consonant, Ripuarian language, Roundedness, Sandhi, Schwa, Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen, Scots language, Sibilant, Sonorant, Speech-language pathology, Spelling pronunciation, Standard German, Stop consonant, Stress (linguistics), Strong inflection, Suffix, Swiss German, Syllable, Tenseness, The North Wind and the Sun, The Robbers, Theodor Siebs, Underlying representation, Upper German, Uvular consonant, Velar consonant, Verb, Voice (phonetics), Voiced palatal fricative, Voiced uvular fricative, Voiced velar fricative, Voiceless bilabial fricative, Voiceless palatal fricative, Voiceless velar fricative, Voicelessness, Vowel, Vowel length, WAV, Westdeutscher Rundfunk, Yiddish. Expand index (78 more) »

Aachen

Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Alemannic German

Alemannic (German) is a group of dialects of the Upper German branch of the Germanic language family.

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Allophone

In phonology, an allophone (from the ἄλλος, állos, "other" and φωνή, phōnē, "voice, sound") is one of a set of multiple possible spoken sounds, or phones, or signs used to pronounce a single phoneme in a particular language.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Apical consonant

An apical consonant is a phone (speech sound) produced by obstructing the air passage with the tip of the tongue.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Aspirated consonant

In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.

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Assimilation (phonology)

In phonology, assimilation is a common phonological process by which one sound becomes more like a nearby sound.

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Babbling

Babbling is a stage in child development and a state in language acquisition during which an infant appears to be experimenting with uttering articulate sounds, but does not yet produce any recognizable words.

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Back vowel

A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.

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Bavarian language

Bavarian (also known as Bavarian Austrian or Austro-Bavarian; Boarisch or Bairisch; Bairisch; bajor) is a West Germanic language belonging to the Upper German group, spoken in the southeast of the German language area, much of Bavaria, much of Austria and South Tyrol in Italy.

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Bühnendeutsch

Bühnendeutsch ("stage German") or Bühnenaussprache ("stage pronunciation") is a unified set of pronunciation rules for the German literary language used in the theatre of the German ''Sprachraum''.

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Cardinal vowels

Cardinal vowels are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages.

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Central vowel

A central vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Checked and free vowels

In phonetics and phonology, checked vowels are those that commonly stand in a stressed closed syllable; and free vowels are those that commonly stand in a stressed open syllable.

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Close vowel

A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.

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Close-mid front unrounded vowel

The close-mid front unrounded vowel, or high-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Close-mid vowel

A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Complementary distribution

In linguistics, complementary distribution, as distinct from contrastive distribution and free variation, is the relationship between two different elements of the same kind in which one element is found in one set of environments and the other element is found in a non-intersecting (complementary) set of environments.

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Conditional mood

The conditional mood (abbreviated) is a grammatical mood used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition, possibly counterfactual.

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Consonant cluster

In linguistics, a consonant cluster, consonant sequence or consonant compound is a group of consonants which have no intervening vowel.

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Continuant

In phonology, a continuant is a speech sound produced without a complete closure in the oral cavity, namely fricatives, approximants and vowels.

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Cot–caught merger

The cot–caught merger (also known as the low back merger or the merger) is a phonemic merger that has taken place in some varieties of English, between the phonemes which are conventionally represented in the IPA as (which is usually written with au, aw, al or ough as in caught and thought) and (which is usually written with o as in cot and lot).

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Council for German Orthography

The Rat für deutsche Rechtschreibung ("Council for German Orthography" or "Council for German Spelling"), or RdR, is the main international body regulating German orthography.

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Dental consonant

A dental consonant is a consonant articulated with the tongue against the upper teeth, such as,,, and in some languages.

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Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Denti-alveolar consonant

In linguistics, a denti-alveolar consonant or dento-alveolar consonant is a consonant that is articulated with a flat tongue against the alveolar ridge and upper teeth, such as and in languages such as Spanish and French.

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Deutschlandfunk

Deutschlandfunk (DLF) is a German public broadcasting radio station, broadcasting national news and current affairs.

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Diminutive

A diminutive is a word that has been modified to convey a slighter degree of its root meaning, to convey the smallness of the object or quality named, or to convey a sense of intimacy or endearment.

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Diphthong

A diphthong (or; from Greek: δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally "two sounds" or "two tones"), also known as a gliding vowel, is a combination of two adjacent vowel sounds within the same syllable.

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Duden

The Duden is a dictionary of the German language, first published by Konrad Duden in 1880.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Final-obstruent devoicing

Final-obstruent devoicing or terminal devoicing is a systematic phonological process occurring in languages such as Catalan, German, Dutch, Breton, Russian, Turkish, and Wolof.

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Flap consonant

In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another.

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Formant

A formant, as defined by James Jeans, is a harmonic of a note that is augmented by a resonance.

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Fortis and lenis

In linguistics, fortis and lenis (Latin for "strong" and "weak"), sometimes identified with '''tense''' and '''lax''', are pronunciations of consonants with relatively greater and lesser energy.

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Fortition

Fortition is a consonantal change from a 'weak' sound to a 'strong' one, the opposite of the more common lenition.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Front vowel

A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.

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German dialects

German dialect is dominated by the geographical spread of the High German consonant shift, and the dialect continua that connect German to the neighbouring varieties of Low Franconian (Dutch) and Frisian.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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German orthography

German orthography is the orthography used in writing the German language, which is largely phonemic.

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Germanic umlaut

The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.

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Giuseppe Verdi

Giuseppe Fortunino Francesco Verdi (9 or 10 October 1813 – 27 January 1901) was an Italian opera composer.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Hiberno-English

Hiberno‐English (from Latin Hibernia: "Ireland") or Irish English is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken within the island of Ireland (including both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland).

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History of German

The history of the German language as separate from common West Germanic begins in the Early Middle Ages with the High German consonant shift.

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I masnadieri

I masnadieri (The Bandits or The Robbers) is an opera in four acts by Giuseppe Verdi to an Italian libretto by Andrea Maffei, based on Die Räuber by Friedrich von Schiller.

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Idiolect

Idiolect is an individual's distinctive and unique use of language, including speech.

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Interjection

In linguistics, an interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling or reaction.

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Intervocalic consonant

In phonetics and phonology, an intervocalic consonant is a consonant that occurs in the middle of a word, between two vowels.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Labialization

Labialization is a secondary articulatory feature of sounds in some languages.

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Laminal consonant

A laminal consonant is a phone produced by obstructing the air passage with the blade of the tongue, the flat top front surface just behind the tip of the tongue on the top.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Liquid consonant

In phonetics, liquids or liquid consonants are a class of consonants consisting of lateral consonants like 'l' together with rhotics like 'r'.

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Loanword

A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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Low German

Low German or Low Saxon (Plattdütsch, Plattdüütsch, Plattdütsk, Plattduitsk, Nedersaksies; Plattdeutsch, Niederdeutsch; Nederduits) is a West Germanic language spoken mainly in northern Germany and the eastern part of the Netherlands.

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Luxembourgish

Luxembourgish, Luxemburgish or Letzeburgesch (Luxembourgish: Lëtzebuergesch) is a West Germanic language that is spoken mainly in Luxembourg.

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Manner of articulation

In articulatory phonetics, the manner of articulation is the configuration and interaction of the articulators (speech organs such as the tongue, lips, and palate) when making a speech sound.

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Max Mangold

Max Mangold (born 8 May 1922 in the village of Pratteln near Basel, Switzerland, died 3 February 2015) taught phonetics, phonology and linguistic theory at the University of the Saarland in Germany.

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Middle High German

Middle High German (abbreviated MHG, Mittelhochdeutsch, abbr. Mhd.) is the term for the form of German spoken in the High Middle Ages.

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Monophthongization

Monophthongization is a sound change by which a diphthong becomes a monophthong, a type of vowel shift.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Open vowel

An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.

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Open-mid front unrounded vowel

The open-mid front unrounded vowel, or low-mid front unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Open-mid vowel

An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.

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Optimality Theory

In linguistics, Optimality Theory (frequently abbreviated OT; the term is normally capitalized by convention) is a linguistic model proposing that the observed forms of language arise from the optimal satisfaction of conflicting constraints.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Palato-alveolar consonant

In phonetics, palato-alveolar (or palatoalveolar) consonants are postalveolar consonants, nearly always sibilants, that are weakly palatalized with a domed (bunched-up) tongue.

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Part of speech

In traditional grammar, a part of speech (abbreviated form: PoS or POS) is a category of words (or, more generally, of lexical items) which have similar grammatical properties.

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Phone (phonetics)

In phonetics and linguistics, a phone is any distinct speech sound or gesture, regardless of whether the exact sound is critical to the meanings of words.

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Phoneme

A phoneme is one of the units of sound (or gesture in the case of sign languages, see chereme) that distinguish one word from another in a particular language.

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Phonemic awareness

Phonemic awareness is a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest mental units of sound that helps to differentiate units of meaning (morphemes).

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Phonetics

Phonetics (pronounced) is the branch of linguistics that studies the sounds of human speech, or—in the case of sign languages—the equivalent aspects of sign.

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Phonological change

In historical linguistics, phonological change is any sound change which alters the distribution of phonemes in a language.

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Phonological history of English high front vowels

The high and mid-height front vowels of English (vowels of i and e type) have undergone a variety of changes over time, often varying from dialect to dialect.

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Phonology

Phonology is a branch of linguistics concerned with the systematic organization of sounds in languages.

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Phonotactics

Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.

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Place of articulation

In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an articulatory gesture, an active articulator (typically some part of the tongue), and a passive location (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).

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Prefix

A prefix is an affix which is placed before the stem of a word.

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Prepositional adverb

A prepositional adverb is a word - mainly a particle - which is very similar in its form to a preposition but functions as an adverb.

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Pronunciation of English ⟨th⟩

In English, the digraph th represents in most cases one of two different phonemes: the voiced dental fricative (as in this) and the voiceless dental fricative (thing).

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Relative articulation

In phonetics and phonology, relative articulation is description of the manner and place of articulation of a speech sound relative to some reference point.

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Rhineland

The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.

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Rhotic consonant

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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Ripuarian language

Ripuarian (also Ripuarian Franconian or Ripuarisch Platt) is a German dialect group, part of the West Central German language group.

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Roundedness

In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.

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Sandhi

SandhiThe pronunciation of the word "sandhi" is rather diverse among English speakers.

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Schwa

In linguistics, specifically phonetics and phonology, schwa (rarely or; sometimes spelled shwa) is the mid central vowel sound (rounded or unrounded) in the middle of the vowel chart, denoted by the IPA symbol ə, or another vowel sound close to that position.

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Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen

Schweizer Radio und Fernsehen (SRF; Swiss Radio and Television) is a Swiss broadcasting company, created on 1 January 2011, through the merger of radio company, Schweizer Radio DRS (SR DRS) and television company, Schweizer Fernsehen (SF).

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Scots language

Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).

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Sibilant

Sibilance is an acoustic characteristic of fricative and affricate consonants of higher amplitude and pitch, made by directing a stream of air with the tongue towards the sharp edge of the teeth, which are held close together; a consonant that uses sibilance may be called a sibilant.

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Sonorant

In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant or resonant is a speech sound that is produced with continuous, non-turbulent airflow in the vocal tract; these are the manners of articulation that are most often voiced in the world's languages.

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Speech-language pathology

Speech-language pathology is a field of expertise practiced by a clinician known as a speech-language pathologist (SLP), also sometimes referred to as a speech and language therapist or a speech therapist. SLP is considered a "related health profession" along with audiology, optometry, occupational therapy, clinical psychology, physical therapy, and others.

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Spelling pronunciation

A spelling pronunciation is the pronunciation of a word according to its spelling, at odds with a standard or traditional pronunciation.

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Standard German

Standard German, High German or more precisely Standard High German (Standarddeutsch, Hochdeutsch, or in Swiss Schriftdeutsch) is the standardized variety of the German language used in formal contexts, and for communication between different dialect areas.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Stress (linguistics)

In linguistics, and particularly phonology, stress or accent is relative emphasis or prominence given to a certain syllable in a word, or to a certain word in a phrase or sentence.

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Strong inflection

A strong inflection is a system of verb conjugation or noun/adjective declension which can be contrasted with an alternative system in the same language, which is then known as a weak inflection.

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Suffix

In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix) is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word.

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Swiss German

Swiss German (Standard German: Schweizerdeutsch, Schwyzerdütsch, Schwiizertüütsch, Schwizertitsch Mundart,Because of the many different dialects, and because there is no defined orthography for any of them, many different spellings can be found. and others) is any of the Alemannic dialects spoken in the German-speaking part of Switzerland and in some Alpine communities in Northern Italy bordering Switzerland.

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Syllable

A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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Tenseness

In phonology, tenseness or tensing is, most broadly, the pronunciation of a sound with greater muscular effort or constriction than is typical.

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The North Wind and the Sun

The North Wind and the Sun is one of Aesop's Fables (Perry Index 46).

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The Robbers

The Robbers (Die Räuber) is the first drama by German playwright Friedrich Schiller.

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Theodor Siebs

Theodor Siebs (26 August 1862 – 28 May 1941) was a German linguist most remembered today as the author of Deutsche Bühnenaussprache (German stage pronunciation) published in 1898.

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Underlying representation

In some models of phonology as well as morphophonology in the field of linguistics, the underlying representation (UR) or underlying form (UF) of a word or morpheme is the abstract form that a word or morpheme is postulated to have before any phonological rules have applied to it.

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Upper German

Upper German (German) is a family of High German languages spoken primarily in the southern German-speaking area (Sprachraum).

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Uvular consonant

Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Verb

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Voice (phonetics)

Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).

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Voiced palatal fricative

The voiced palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced uvular fricative

The voiced uvular fricative or approximant is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiced velar fricative

The voiced velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in various spoken languages.

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Voiceless bilabial fricative

The voiceless bilabial fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless palatal fricative

The voiceless palatal fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voiceless velar fricative

The voiceless velar fricative is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.

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Voicelessness

In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.

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Vowel

A vowel is one of the two principal classes of speech sound, the other being a consonant.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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WAV

Waveform Audio File Format (WAVE, or more commonly known as WAV due to its filename extension - both pronounced "wave") (rarely, Audio for Windows) is a Microsoft and IBM audio file format standard for storing an audio bitstream on PCs.

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Westdeutscher Rundfunk

Westdeutscher Rundfunk Köln (WDR, West German Broadcasting Cologne) is a German public-broadcasting institution based in the Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia with its main office in Cologne.

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Yiddish

Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Redirects here:

Ach-Laut, German Phonetics, German Phonology, German accent, German phonology, German pronounciation, German pronunciation, Ich-Laut, Ich-Laut and ach-Laut, Ich-laut, Stress in German.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Standard_German_phonology

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