113 relations: Affricate consonant, Alveolar and postalveolar approximants, Alveolar consonant, Amdo Tibetan, Approximant consonant, Arabic numerals, Aspirated consonant, Back vowel, Balti language, Baltistan, Barry Sautman, Bilabial consonant, Bodish languages, Brahmic scripts, Central consonant, Central Tibetan language, China, Chinese language, Classical Tibetan, Close vowel, Close-mid vowel, Compulsory education, Conservative (language), Constituent (linguistics), Copula (linguistics), Dental, alveolar and postalveolar lateral approximants, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Dharamshala, East Asia, Education in Tibet, Egyptian Hieroglyphs, Ergative–absolutive language, Francesco della Penna, Fricative consonant, Front vowel, Gemination, Genitive case, Glottal consonant, Glottal stop, Government of China, Grammatical particle, Head-directionality parameter, Heinrich August Jäschke, Hindi, Humanism, I-mutation, India, Indology, International Mother Language Day, Isaac Jacob Schmidt, ..., Kham, Khams Tibetan, Kitamura Hajime, Ladakh, Ladakhi language, Languages of Bhutan, Lateral consonant, Latin alphabet, Leh, Lhasa, Linguistic typology, Macerata, Measure word, Middle school, Minimal pair, Moravian Church, Motilal Banarsidass, Mount Everest, Nasal consonant, Nelumbo nucifera, Nepal, Norman Baker, Old Chinese, Old Tibetan, Open vowel, Open-mid vowel, Order of Friars Minor Capuchin, Palatal consonant, Pitch-accent language, Primary education, Rahul Sankrityayan, Register (sociolinguistics), Religious text, Retroflex consonant, Romanization, Roundedness, Sanskrit, Sándor Kőrösi Csoma, Secondary school, Shambhala Publications, Sino-Tibetan languages, Stop consonant, Tertiary education, Theos Casimir Bernard, Tibet, Tibet Autonomous Region, Tibetan alphabet, Tibetan Braille, Tibetan pinyin, Tibetic languages, Tibeto-Kanauri languages, Tibetology, Tone (linguistics), Upper Mustang, Urdu, Velar consonant, Voice (phonetics), Voice of America, Voiceless dental and alveolar lateral fricatives, Voicelessness, Welsh language, Wylie transliteration, Zulu language. Expand index (63 more) » « Shrink index
An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).
The alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.
The Amdo language (also called Am kä) is the Tibetic language spoken by the majority of Amdo Tibetans, mainly in Qinghai and some parts of Sichuan (Ngawa Tibetan and Qiang Autonomous Prefecture) and Gansu (Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture).
Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.
Arabic numerals, also called Hindu–Arabic numerals, are the ten digits: 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, based on the Hindu–Arabic numeral system, the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world today.
In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of breath that accompanies either the release or, in the case of preaspiration, the closure of some obstruents.
A back vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in spoken languages.
Balti (Nastaʿlīq script) is a Tibetic language spoken in the Baltistan region of Gilgit-Baltistan, Pakistan, the Nubra Valley of Leh district, and in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir, India.
Baltistan (بلتستان, script also known as Baltiyul or Little Tibet (script), is a mountainous region on the border of Pakistan and India in the Karakoram mountains just south of K2 (the world's second-highest mountain). Baltistan borders Gilgit to the west, Xinjiang (China) in the north, Ladakh on the southeast and the Kashmir Valley on the southwest. Its average altitude is over. Prior to 1947, Baltistan was part of the princely state of Jammu and Kashmir, having been conquered by Raja Gulab Singh's armies in 1840. Baltistan and Ladakh were administered jointly under one wazarat (district) of the state. Baltistan retained its identity in this set-up as the Skardu tehsil, with Kargil and Leh being the other two tehsils of the district. After the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir acceded to India, Gilgit Scouts overthrew the Maharaja's governor in Gilgit and (with Azad Kashmir's irregular forces) captured Baltistan. The Gilgit Agency and Baltistan have been governed by Pakistan ever since. The Kashmir Valley and the Kargil and Leh tehsils were retained by India. A small portion of Baltistan, including the village of Turtuk in the Nubra Valley, was incorporated into Ladakh after the Indo-Pakistani War of 1971. The region is inhabited primarily by Balti people of Tibetan descent. Millennia-old Tibetan culture, customs, norms, language and script still exist, although the vast majority of the population follows Islam. Baltistan is strategically significant to Pakistan and India; the Kargil and Siachen Wars were fought there. The region is the setting for Greg Mortenson's book, Three Cups of Tea.
Barry Sautman (or Barry Victor Sautman) (born in 1949) is a professor with the Division of Social Science at the Hong Kong University of Science and Technology.
In phonetics, a bilabial consonant is a consonant articulated with both lips.
Bodish, named for the Tibetan ethnonym Bod, is a proposed grouping consisting of the Tibetic languages and associated Sino-Tibetan languages spoken in Tibet, North India, Nepal, Bhutan, and North Pakistan.
The Brahmic scripts are a family of abugida or alphabet writing systems.
A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.
Central Tibetan, also known as Dbus, Ü or Ü-Tsang, is the most widely spoken Tibetic language and the basis of Standard Tibetan.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Classical Tibetan refers to the language of any text written in Tibetic after the Old Tibetan period; though it extends from the 7th century until the modern day, it particularly refers to the language of early canonical texts translated from other languages, especially Sanskrit.
A close vowel, also known as a high vowel (in American terminology), is any in a class of vowel sound used in many spoken languages.
A close-mid vowel (also mid-close vowel, high-mid vowel, mid-high vowel or half-close vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
Compulsory education refers to a period of education that is required of all people and is imposed by government.
In linguistics, a conservative form, variety, or modality is one that has changed relatively little over its history, or which is relatively resistant to change.
In syntactic analysis, a constituent is a word or a group of words that functions as a single unit within a hierarchical structure.
In linguistics, a copula (plural: copulas or copulae; abbreviated) is a word used to link the subject of a sentence with a predicate (a subject complement), such as the word is in the sentence "The sky is blue." The word copula derives from the Latin noun for a "link" or "tie" that connects two different things.
The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
Dharamshala (also spelled Dharamsala) is the second winter capital of the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and a municipal corporation in Kangra district.
East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural "The East Asian cultural sphere evolves when Japan, Korea, and what is today Vietnam all share adapted elements of Chinese civilization of this period (that of the Tang dynasty), in particular Buddhism, Confucian social and political values, and literary Chinese and its writing system." terms.
Education in Tibet is the public responsibility of the Ministry of Education of the People's Republic of China.
Egyptian Hieroglyphs may refer to.
Ergative–absolutive languages, or ergative languages are languages that share a certain distinctive pattern relating to the subjects (technically, arguments) of verbs.
Francesco Orazio Olivieri della Penna (1680 – July 20, 1745) was a Capuchin missionary to Tibet who became prefect of the Tibetan Mission.
Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.
A front vowel is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages, its defining characteristic being that the highest point of the tongue is positioned relatively in front in the mouth without creating a constriction that would make it a consonant.
Gemination, or consonant elongation, is the pronouncing in phonetics of a spoken consonant for an audibly longer period of time than that of a short consonant.
In grammar, the genitive (abbreviated); also called the second case, is the grammatical case that marks a word, usually a noun, as modifying another word, also usually a noun.
Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.
The glottal stop is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages, produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract or, more precisely, the glottis.
The central government of the People's Republic of China is divided among several state organs.
In grammar the term particle (abbreviated) has a traditional meaning, as a part of speech that cannot be inflected, and a modern meaning, as a function word associated with another word or phrase to impart meaning.
In linguistics, the head directionality is a proposed parameter that classifies languages according to whether they are head-initial (the head of a phrase precedes its complements) or head-final (the head follows its complements).
Heinrich August Jäschke (17 May 1817 in Herrnhut – 24 September 1883) was a German Tibetologist missionary and Bible translator.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
I-mutation (also known as umlaut, front mutation, i-umlaut, i/j-mutation or i/j-umlaut) is a type of sound change in which a back vowel is fronted or a front vowel is raised if the following syllable contains /i/, /ī/ or /j/ (a voiced palatal approximant, sometimes called yod, the sound of English in yes).
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indology or South Asian studies is the academic study of the history and cultures, languages, and literature of India and as such is a subset of Asian studies.
International Mother Language Day (IMLD) is a worldwide annual observance held on 21 February to promote awareness of linguistic and cultural diversity and promote multilingualism.
Isaac Jacob Schmidt (October 4, 1779 – August 27, 1847) was an Orientalist specializing in Mongolian and Tibetan.
Kham is a historical region of Tibet covering a land area largely divided between present-day Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan, with smaller portions located within Qinghai, Gansu and Yunnan provinces of China.
Khams Tibetan is the Tibetic language used by the majority of the people in Kham, which is now divided between the eastern part of Tibet Autonomous Region, the southern part of Qinghai, the western part of Sichuan, and the northwestern part of Yunnan, China.
Kitamura Hajime (北村甫, 1923–2004) was a Japanese linguist who particularly focused on the Lhasa dialect of Tibetan.
Ladakh ("land of high passes") is a region in the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir that currently extends from the Kunlun mountain range to the main Great Himalayas to the south, inhabited by people of Indo-Aryan and Tibetan descent.
The Ladakhi language, also called Bhoti or Bodhi, is a Tibetic language spoken in the Ladakh region of India.
There are two dozen languages of Bhutan, all members of the Tibeto-Burman language family except for Nepali, which is an Indo-Aryan language, and Bhutanese Sign Language.
A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
Leh is a town in the Leh district of the Indian state of Jammu and Kashmir.
Lhasa is a city and administrative capital of the Tibet Autonomous Region of the People's Republic of China.
Linguistic typology is a field of linguistics that studies and classifies languages according to their structural and functional features.
Macerata is a city and comune in central Italy, the county seat of the province of Macerata in the Marche region.
In linguistics, measure words are words (or morphemes) that are used in combination with a numeral to indicate an amount of something represented by some noun.
A middle school (also known as intermediate school or junior high school) is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school.
In phonology, minimal pairs are pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
The Moravian Church, formally named the Unitas Fratrum (Latin for "Unity of the Brethren"), in German known as Brüdergemeine (meaning "Brethren's Congregation from Herrnhut", the place of the Church's renewal in the 18th century), is one of the oldest Protestant denominations in the world with its heritage dating back to the Bohemian Reformation in the fifteenth century and the Unity of the Brethren (Czech: Jednota bratrská) established in the Kingdom of Bohemia.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
Mount Everest, known in Nepali as Sagarmāthā and in Tibetan as Chomolungma, is Earth's highest mountain above sea level, located in the Mahalangur Himal sub-range of the Himalayas.
In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.
Nelumbo nucifera, also known as Indian lotus, sacred lotus, bean of India, Egyptian bean or simply lotus, is one of two extant species of aquatic plant in the family Nelumbonaceae.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
Norman John Baker (born 26 July 1957) is a Liberal Democrat politician in the United Kingdom who was the Member of Parliament (MP) for Lewes in East Sussex from the 1997 general election to his defeat in 2015.
Old Chinese, also called Archaic Chinese in older works, is the oldest attested stage of Chinese, and the ancestor of all modern varieties of Chinese.
Old Tibetan refers to the period of Tibetan language reflected in documents from the adoption of writing by the Tibetan Empire in the mid-7th century to works of the early 11th century.
An open vowel is a vowel sound in which the tongue is positioned as far as possible from the roof of the mouth.
An open-mid vowel (also mid-open vowel, low-mid vowel, mid-low vowel or half-open vowel) is any in a class of vowel sound used in some spoken languages.
The Order of Friars Minor Capuchin (postnominal abbr. O.F.M.Cap.) is an order of friars within the Catholic Church, among the chief offshoots of the Franciscans.
Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).
A pitch-accent language is a language that has word-accents—that is, where one syllable in a word or morpheme is more prominent than the others, but the accentuated syllable is indicated by a particular pitch contour (linguistic tones) rather than by stress.
Primary education and elementary education is typically the first stage of formal education, coming after preschool and before secondary education (The first two grades of primary school, Grades 1 and 2, are also part of early childhood education).
Rahul Sankrityayan (9 April 1893 – 14 April 1963), is called the Father of Hindi Travelogue Travel literature.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Religious texts (also known as scripture, or scriptures, from the Latin scriptura, meaning "writing") are texts which religious traditions consider to be central to their practice or beliefs.
A retroflex consonant is a coronal consonant where the tongue has a flat, concave, or even curled shape, and is articulated between the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
In phonetics, vowel roundedness refers to the amount of rounding in the lips during the articulation of a vowel.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Sándor Csoma de Kőrös (born Sándor Csoma; 27 March 1784/811 April 1842) was a Hungarian philologist and Orientalist, author of the first Tibetan-English dictionary and grammar book.
A secondary school is both an organization that provides secondary education and the building where this takes place.
Shambhala Publications is an independent publishing company based in Boulder, Colorado.
The Sino-Tibetan languages, in a few sources also known as Trans-Himalayan, are a family of more than 400 languages spoken in East Asia, Southeast Asia and South Asia.
In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.
Tertiary education, also referred to as third stage, third level, and postsecondary education, is the educational level following the completion of a school providing a secondary education.
Theos Casimir Bernard (1908–1947) was an explorer, and author, known for his work on yoga and religious studies, particularly in Tibetan Buddhism.
Tibet is a historical region covering much of the Tibetan Plateau in Central Asia.
The Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR) or Xizang Autonomous Region, called Tibet or Xizang for short, is a province-level autonomous region of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Tibetan alphabet is an abugida used to write the Tibetic languages such as Tibetan, as well as Dzongkha, Sikkimese, Ladakhi, and sometimes Balti.
Tibetan Braille is the braille alphabet for writing the Tibetan language.
Pö yig Kigajor--> The SASM/GNC/SRC romanization of Tibetan, commonly known as Tibetan pinyin, is the official transcription system for the Tibetan language in the People's Republic of China for personal names and place names.
The Tibetic languages are a cluster of Sino-Tibetan languages descended from Old Tibetan, spoken across a wide area of eastern Central Asia bordering the Indian subcontinent, including the Tibetan Plateau and the Himalayas in Baltistan, Ladakh, Nepal, Sikkim, and Bhutan.
The Tibeto-Kanauri languages, also called Bodic, Bodish–Himalayish, and Western Tibeto-Burman, are a proposed intermediate level of classification of the Sino-Tibetan languages, centered on the Tibetic languages and the Kinnauri dialect cluster.
Tibetology refers to the study of things related to Tibet, including its history, religion, language, politics and the collection of Tibetan articles of historical, cultural and religious significance.
Tone is the use of pitch in language to distinguish lexical or grammatical meaning – that is, to distinguish or to inflect words.
Mustang (from the Tibetan möntang, मुस्तांग Mustāṃg "fertile plain"), formerly Kingdom of Lo, is a remote and isolated region of the Nepalese Himalayas.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).
Voice is a term used in phonetics and phonology to characterize speech sounds (usually consonants).
Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.
The voiceless alveolar lateral fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
In linguistics, voicelessness is the property of sounds being pronounced without the larynx vibrating.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
The Wylie transliteration scheme is a method for transliterating Tibetan script using only the letters available on a typical English language typewriter.
Zulu (Zulu: isiZulu) is the language of the Zulu people, with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa.
ISO 639:bo, ISO 639:bod, Lhasa Tibetan, Romanization of Tibetan, Standard Tibetan language, Tibetan language (standard), Tibetan numerals, Tibetan tongue, Uke Tibetan, Uke dialect, Uke language, Ügai, Ügai Tibetan, Üke, Üke Tibetan, Ükä, Ükä Tibetan, Üké, Ükê, Ükê Tibetan, བོད་ཡིག.