140 relations: Abstand and ausbau languages, Académie française, Accent (sociolinguistics), Act of Abjuration, An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, Antwerp, Armenian language, Attica, Autonomy and heteronomy, Beijing dialect, Bokmål, Bosnia and Herzegovina, British English, Brussels, Bulgaria, Bulgarian language, Burgundian Netherlands, China, Chinese classics, Chinese language, Cicero, Classical Chinese, Classical language, Classical Latin, Commerce, County of Flanders, County of Holland, Court of Chancery, Crete, Croatia, Cyclades, Dacia, Danish language, Dante Alighieri, Darod, Dáil Éireann, Dental and alveolar flaps, Dental, alveolar and postalveolar trills, Dialect, Dialect continuum, Dictionary, Duchy of Brabant, Dutch language, Dutch Language Union, Dutch orthography, Dutch Republic, English language, Fall of Antwerp, Florentine dialect, Francesco Guicciardini, ..., French language, Gaul, German language, Giovanni Boccaccio, Government, Hakka Chinese, Hindi, Hindustani language, Hispania, Ionian Islands, Irish language, Italian language, Italian literature, Italian unification, Ivar Aasen, Japanese language, Kingdom of Italy, Koiné language, Korean language, Language secessionism, Languages of Italy, Latin alphabet, Linguistic description, List of historic states of Italy, List of Somali poets, Literary language, Macedonian language, Mandarin (late imperial lingua franca), Mandarin Chinese, Middle Ages, Middle Dutch, Min Chinese, Modern Greek, Montenegro, Mudug, Mutual intelligibility, Nation state, National language, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nonstandard dialect, North Germanic languages, Norway, Norwegian language, Nynorsk, Official language, Orthography, Oslo, Pakistan, Peloponnese, Petrarch, Pluricentric language, Portuguese language, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Received Pronunciation, Register (sociolinguistics), Republic of Macedonia, Rhotic consonant, Rio de Janeiro, Roman Empire, Romanesco dialect, Rome, Royal Spanish Academy, Russian language, São Paulo, Serbia, Shtokavian, Singapore, Socialist Republic of Macedonia, Sociolect, Somali language, Somalia, Southern Netherlands, Spanish language, Standard Chinese, Standard English, Standardization, Statenvertaling, Swedish language, Taiwan, Tuscan dialect, Upper class, Urdu, Varieties of Chinese, Variety (linguistics), Vulgar Latin, Webster's Dictionary, Written language, Written vernacular Chinese, Wu Chinese, Yue Chinese. Expand index (90 more) » « Shrink index
In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.
The Académie française is the pre-eminent French council for matters pertaining to the French language.
In sociolinguistics, an accent is a manner of pronunciation peculiar to a particular individual, location, or nation.
The Act of Abjuration (Plakkaat van Verlatinghe, literally 'placard of abjuration'), is de facto the declaration of independence by many of the provinces of the Netherlands from Spain in 1581, during the Dutch Revolt.
An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ("The Official Standard"), often shortened to An Caighdeán, is an artificial standard for the spelling and grammar of the Irish language, to be used in official publications and taught in most schools in the state.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
The Armenian language (reformed: հայերեն) is an Indo-European language spoken primarily by the Armenians.
Attica (Αττική, Ancient Greek Attikḗ or; or), or the Attic peninsula, is a historical region that encompasses the city of Athens, the capital of present-day Greece.
Autonomy and heteronomy are complementary attributes of a language variety describing its functional relationship with related varieties.
The Beijing dialect, also known as Pekingese, is the prestige dialect of Mandarin spoken in the urban area of Beijing, China.
Bokmål (literally "book tongue") is an official written standard for the Norwegian language, alongside Nynorsk.
Bosnia and Herzegovina (or; abbreviated B&H; Bosnian and Serbian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH) / Боснa и Херцеговина (БиХ), Croatian: Bosna i Hercegovina (BiH)), sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe located on the Balkan Peninsula.
British English is the standard dialect of English language as spoken and written in the United Kingdom.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
In the history of the Low Countries, the Burgundian Netherlands (Pays-Bas Bourguignons., Bourgondische Nederlanden, Burgundeschen Nidderlanden, Bas Payis borguignons) were a number of Imperial and French fiefs ruled in personal union by the House of Valois-Burgundy and their Habsburg heirs in the period from 1384 to 1482.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
Chinese is a group of related, but in many cases mutually unintelligible, language varieties, forming a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
Classical Chinese, also known as Literary Chinese, is the language of the classic literature from the end of the Spring and Autumn period through to the end of the Han Dynasty, a written form of Old Chinese.
A classical language is a language with a literature that is classical.
Classical Latin is the modern term used to describe the form of the Latin language recognized as standard by writers of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire.
Commerce relates to "the exchange of goods and services, especially on a large scale.” Commerce includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural and technological systems that operate in any country or internationally.
The County of Flanders (Graafschap Vlaanderen, Comté de Flandre) was a historic territory in the Low Countries.
The County of Holland was a State of the Holy Roman Empire and from 1432 part of the Burgundian Netherlands, from 1482 part of the Habsburg Netherlands and from 1648 onward, Holland was the leading province of the Dutch Republic, of which it remained a part until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The Court of Chancery was a court of equity in England and Wales that followed a set of loose rules to avoid the slow pace of change and possible harshness (or "inequity") of the common law.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Croatia (Hrvatska), officially the Republic of Croatia (Republika Hrvatska), is a country at the crossroads of Central and Southeast Europe, on the Adriatic Sea.
The Cyclades (Κυκλάδες) are an island group in the Aegean Sea, southeast of mainland Greece and a former administrative prefecture of Greece.
In ancient geography, especially in Roman sources, Dacia was the land inhabited by the Dacians.
Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.
Durante degli Alighieri, commonly known as Dante Alighieri or simply Dante (c. 1265 – 1321), was a major Italian poet of the Late Middle Ages.
The Darod (Daarood, دارود) is a Somali clan.
Dáil Éireann (lit. Assembly of Ireland) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes the President of Ireland and Seanad Éireann (the upper house).
The alveolar tap or flap is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages.
The alveolar trill is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages.
The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
A dictionary, sometimes known as a wordbook, is a collection of words in one or more specific languages, often arranged alphabetically (or by radical and stroke for ideographic languages), which may include information on definitions, usage, etymologies, pronunciations, translation, etc.
The Duchy of Brabant was a State of the Holy Roman Empire established in 1183.
The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.
The Dutch Language Union (Dutch:, NTU) is an international regulatory institution that governs issues regarding the Dutch language.
Dutch orthography uses the Latin alphabet and has evolved to suit the needs of the Dutch language.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The Siege of Antwerp took place during the Eighty Years' War from July 1584 until August 1585.
The Florentine dialect or vernacular (Dialetto fiorentino or vernacolo) is a Tuscan variety of Romance spoken in the Italian city of Florence.
Francesco Guicciardini (6 March 1483 – 22 May 1540) was an Italian historian and statesman.
French (le français or la langue française) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family.
Gaul (Latin: Gallia) was a region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine.
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Giovanni Boccaccio (16 June 1313 – 21 December 1375) was an Italian writer, poet, correspondent of Petrarch, and an important Renaissance humanist.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Hakka, also rendered Kejia, is one of the major groups of varieties of Chinese, spoken natively by the Hakka people throughout southern China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and throughout the diaspora areas of East Asia, Southeast Asia, and in overseas Chinese communities around the world.
Hindi (Devanagari: हिन्दी, IAST: Hindī), or Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: मानक हिन्दी, IAST: Mānak Hindī) is a standardised and Sanskritised register of the Hindustani language.
Hindustani (हिन्दुस्तानी, ہندوستانی, ||lit.
Hispania was the Roman name for the Iberian Peninsula.
The Ionian Islands (Modern Greek: Ιόνια νησιά, Ionia nisia; Ancient Greek, Katharevousa: Ἰόνιοι Νῆσοι, Ionioi Nēsoi; Isole Ionie) are a group of islands in Greece.
The Irish language (Gaeilge), also referred to as the Gaelic or the Irish Gaelic language, is a Goidelic language (Gaelic) of the Indo-European language family originating in Ireland and historically spoken by the Irish people.
Italian (or lingua italiana) is a Romance language.
Italian literature is written in the Italian language, particularly within Italy.
Italian unification (Unità d'Italia), or the Risorgimento (meaning "the Resurgence" or "revival"), was the political and social movement that consolidated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of the Kingdom of Italy in the 19th century.
Ivar Andreas Aasen (5 August 1813 – 23 September 1896) was a Norwegian philologist, lexicographer, playwright, and poet.
is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
In linguistics, a koiné language, koiné dialect, or simply koiné (Ancient Greek κοινή, "common ") is a standard language or dialect that has arisen as a result of contact between two or more mutually intelligible varieties (dialects) of the same language.
The Korean language (Chosŏn'gŭl/Hangul: 조선말/한국어; Hanja: 朝鮮말/韓國語) is an East Asian language spoken by about 80 million people.
Language secessionism (also known as linguistic secessionism or linguistic separatism) is an attitude supporting the separation of a language variety from the language to which it has hitherto been considered to belong, in order to make this variety considered as a distinct language.
There are approximately thirty-four living spoken languages and related dialects in Italy; most of which are indigenous evolutions of Vulgar Latin, and are therefore classified as Romance languages.
The Latin alphabet or the Roman alphabet is a writing system originally used by the ancient Romans to write the Latin language.
In the study of language, description or descriptive linguistics is the work of objectively analyzing and describing how language is actually used (or how it was used in the past) by a group of people in a speech community.
Italy, up until the Italian unification in 1860, was a conglomeration of city-states, republics, and other independent entities.
This is a list of Somali poets.
A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.
Macedonian (македонски, tr. makedonski) is a South Slavic language spoken as a first language by around two million people, principally in the Republic of Macedonia and the Macedonian diaspora, with a smaller number of speakers throughout the transnational region of Macedonia.
Mandarin was the common spoken language of administration of the Chinese empire during the Ming and Qing dynasties.
Mandarin is a group of related varieties of Chinese spoken across most of northern and southwestern China.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle Dutch is a collective name for a number of closely related West Germanic dialects (whose ancestor was Old Dutch) spoken and written between 1150 and 1500.
Min or Miin (BUC: Mìng ngṳ̄) is a broad group of Chinese varieties spoken by over 70 million people in the southeastern Chinese province of Fujian as well as by migrants from this province in Guangdong (around Chaozhou-Swatou, or Chaoshan area, Leizhou peninsula and Part of Zhongshan), Hainan, three counties in southern Zhejiang, Zhoushan archipelago off Ningbo, some towns in Liyang, Jiangyin City in Jiangsu province, and Taiwan.
Modern Greek (Νέα Ελληνικά or Νεοελληνική Γλώσσα "Neo-Hellenic", historically and colloquially also known as Ρωμαίικα "Romaic" or "Roman", and Γραικικά "Greek") refers to the dialects and varieties of the Greek language spoken in the modern era.
Montenegro (Montenegrin: Црна Гора / Crna Gora, meaning "Black Mountain") is a sovereign state in Southeastern Europe.
Mudug (Mudug) is an administrative region (gobol) in north-central Somalia.
In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
A national language is a language (or language variant, e.g. dialect) that has some connection—de facto or de jure—with people and the territory they occupy.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
A nonstandard dialect is a dialect that does not have the institutional support or sanction that a standard dialect has.
The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.
Nynorsk (translates to New Norwegian or New Norse) is one of the two written standards of the Norwegian language, the other being Bokmål.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Peloponnese or Peloponnesus (Πελοπόννησος, Peloponnisos) is a peninsula and geographic region in southern Greece.
Francesco Petrarca (July 20, 1304 – July 18/19, 1374), commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was a scholar and poet of Renaissance Italy who was one of the earliest humanists.
A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.
Portuguese (português or, in full, língua portuguesa) is a Western Romance language originating from the regions of Galicia and northern Portugal in the 9th century.
Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.
Received Pronunciation (RP) is an accent of Standard English in the United Kingdom and is defined in the Concise Oxford English Dictionary as "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England", although it can be heard from native speakers throughout England and Wales.
In linguistics, a register is a variety of a language used for a particular purpose or in a particular social setting.
Macedonia (translit), officially the Republic of Macedonia, is a country in the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.
Rio de Janeiro (River of January), or simply Rio, is the second-most populous municipality in Brazil and the sixth-most populous in the Americas.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Romanesco is a variety of regional Italian spoken in the Metropolitan City of Rome Capital, especially in the core city.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
The Royal Spanish Academy (Spanish: Real Academia Española, generally abbreviated as RAE) is Spain's official royal institution with a mission to ensure the stability of the Spanish language.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
São Paulo is a municipality in the southeast region of Brazil.
Serbia (Србија / Srbija),Pannonian Rusyn: Сербия; Szerbia; Albanian and Romanian: Serbia; Slovak and Czech: Srbsko,; Сърбия.
Shtokavian or Štokavian (štokavski / штокавски) is the prestige dialect of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language, and the basis of its Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, and Montenegrin standards.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
The Socialist Republic of Macedonia (Macedonian: Социјалистичка Република Македонија, Socijalistička Republika Makedonija) was one of the six constituent countries of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, and a socialist nation state of the Macedonians.
In sociolinguistics, a sociolect or social dialect is a variety of language (a register) used by a socioeconomic class, a profession, an age group or other social group.
Somali Retrieved on 21 September 2013 (Af-Soomaali) is an Afroasiatic language belonging to the Cushitic branch.
Somalia (Soomaaliya; aṣ-Ṣūmāl), officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe Federal Republic of Somalia is the country's name per Article 1 of the.
The Southern Netherlands, also called the Catholic Netherlands, was the part of the Low Countries largely controlled by Spain (1556–1714), later Austria (1714–1794), and occupied then annexed by France (1794–1815).
Spanish or Castilian, is a Western Romance language that originated in the Castile region of Spain and today has hundreds of millions of native speakers in Latin America and Spain.
Standard Chinese, also known as Modern Standard Mandarin, Standard Mandarin, or simply Mandarin, is a standard variety of Chinese that is the sole official language of both China and Taiwan (de facto), and also one of the four official languages of Singapore.
Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.
Standardization or standardisation is the process of implementing and developing technical standards based on the consensus of different parties that include firms, users, interest groups, standards organizations and governments Standardization can help to maximize compatibility, interoperability, safety, repeatability, or quality.
The Statenvertaling (States Translation) or Statenbijbel (States Bible) was the first translation of the Bible from the original Hebrew, Aramaic and Greek languages to Dutch, ordered by the government of the Protestant Dutch Republic and first published in 1637.
Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tuscan (dialetto toscano) is a set of Italo-Dalmatian varieties mainly spoken in Tuscany, Italy.
The upper class in modern societies is the social class composed of people who hold the highest social status, and usuall are also the wealthiest members of society, and also wield the greatest political power.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Chinese, also known as Sinitic, is a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family consisting of hundreds of local language varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible.
In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.
Vulgar Latin or Sermo Vulgaris ("common speech") was a nonstandard form of Latin (as opposed to Classical Latin, the standard and literary version of the language) spoken in the Mediterranean region during and after the classical period of the Roman Empire.
Webster's Dictionary is any of the dictionaries edited by Noah Webster in the early nineteenth century, and numerous related or unrelated dictionaries that have adopted the Webster's name.
A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language by means of a writing system.
Written Vernacular Chinese is the forms of written Chinese based on the varieties of Chinese spoken throughout China, in contrast to Classical Chinese, the written standard used during imperial China up to the early twentieth century.
Wu (Shanghainese:; Suzhou dialect:; Wuxi dialect) is a group of linguistically similar and historically related varieties of Chinese primarily spoken in the whole Zhejiang province, city of Shanghai, and the southern half of Jiangsu province, as well as bordering areas.
Yue or Yueh is one of the primary branches of Chinese spoken in southern China, particularly the provinces of Guangdong and Guangxi, collectively known as Liangguang.
Language standard, Language standardization, Literary standard, Schriftsprache, Standard dialect, Standard languages, Standard register (linguistics), Standard varieties, Standard variety, Standardised dialect, Standardised language, Standardization (linguistics), Standardized dialect, Standardized language, Standardology.