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Starch

Index Starch

Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds. [1]

237 relations: Acetylated distarch adipate, Acetylation, Acid, Acorn, Acrylamide, Adenosine diphosphate, Adenosine triphosphate, Adhesive, Adhesive tape, Aerosol spray, Alpha-glucan, water dikinase, Amyl alcohol, Amylase, Amylomaize, Amylopectin, Amyloplast, Amylose, Ancient Egypt, Anti-set-off spray powder, Arracacia xanthorrhiza, Arrowroot, Asparagus, Asteraceae, B-amylase, Baking, Banana, Barley, Bean, Beer, Biofuel, Bioplastic, Birefringence, Borax, Bread, Breadfruit, Brewing, Buckwheat, Canna (plant), Carbohydrate, Carbon dioxide, Cassava, Cellobiose, Cellobiose phosphorylase, Cellulose, Cereal, Chestnut, Chickpea, Chitin, Clothing, Coated paper, ..., Codex Alimentarius, Colocasia, Colocasia esculenta, Common Era, Cooking, Corn ethanol, Corn starch, Corn syrup, Corrugated fiberboard, Cotton, CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, Dextrin, Dextrose equivalent, Dietary fiber, Digestion, Drilling fluid, Dropped ceiling, Drywall, Duodenum, Dust, E number, Enzyme, Erythritol, Erythronium japonicum, Ethanol, Excipient, Extinction cross, Fermentation, Flour, Foam peanut, Food extrusion, Food processing, Fructan, Fructose, Fruit, Garlic, Germanic languages, Glucose, Glucose 1-phosphate, Glucose syrup, Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase, Glutinous rice, Glycogen, Glycogen branching enzyme, Glycosidic bond, Greek language, Gypsum, Halva, Heat of combustion, Helix, High-fructose corn syrup, Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates, Hydrolysis, Hydrophile, Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate, Inulin, Iodide, Iodine, Iodine test, Ironing, Isoamylase, Jelly bean, Kudzu, Large intestine, Laundry, Lentil, Lipid, List of root vegetables, Maize, Malt, Maltese cross, Malting process, Maltitol, Maltodextrin, Maltose, Mannitol, Mashing, Mass fraction (chemistry), Metabolism, Microscope, Millet, Millstone, Modified starch, Mozambique, Mung bean, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Natural History (Pliny), Ngalue, Noodle, Nucleic acid, Oat, Occupational Safety and Health Administration, Onion, Osmosis, Oxalis tuberosa, Oxidizing agent, Pancake, Pancreas, Papermaking, Papyrus, Pasta, Pea, Pentyl group, Peptidoglycan, Permissible exposure limit, Perspiration, Petticoat, Phosphate, Phosphoglucan, water dikinase, Phosphorylation, Photosynthesis, Plant, Pliny the Elder, Polarization (waves), Polylactic acid, Polymer, Polysaccharide, Porridge, Potassium iodide, Potato, Potato starch, Printing, Protein, Protein isoform, Recommended exposure limit, Redox, Reducing agent, Resistant starch, Retrogradation (starch), Rhizome, Rice, Ruff (clothing), Rye, Sago, Saliva, Science (journal), Seed, Set-off (printing), Shirt, Short-chain fatty acid, Sizing, Small intestine, Sodium carbonate, Sodium hydroxide, Sorbitol, Sorghum, Staling, Staple food, Starch analysis, Starch gelatinization, Starch production, Starch synthase, Sucrose, Sugar alcohol, Sweet potato, Syneresis (chemistry), Tablet (pharmacy), Tacca leontopetaloides, Talc, Tapioca, Textile printing, Tortilla, Triiodide, Tuber, Typha, Uridine diphosphate glucose, Usi (food), Vicia faba, Viscosity, Voice of America, Wallpaper paste, Warp and weft, Water, Water caltrop, Waxy corn, Waxy potato starch, Weaving, Wet strength, Wet-milling, Wheat, Wheatpaste, Whisky, Wine gum, Xanthosoma sagittifolium, Xylose isomerase, Yam (vegetable), Yarn. Expand index (187 more) »

Acetylated distarch adipate

Acetylated distarch adipate (E1422), is a starch that is treated with acetic anhydride and adipic acid anhydride to resist high temperatures.

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Acetylation

Acetylation (or in IUPAC nomenclature ethanoylation) describes a reaction that introduces an acetyl functional group into a chemical compound.

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Acid

An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).

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Acorn

The acorn, or oak nut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives (genera Quercus and Lithocarpus, in the family Fagaceae).

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Acrylamide

Acrylamide (or acrylic amide) is a chemical compound with the chemical formula C3H5NO.

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Adenosine diphosphate

Adenosine diphosphate (ADP), also known as adenosine pyrophosphate (APP), is an important organic compound in metabolism and is essential to the flow of energy in living cells.

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Adenosine triphosphate

Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is a complex organic chemical that participates in many processes.

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Adhesive

An adhesive, also known as glue, cement, mucilage, or paste, is any substance applied to one surface, or both surfaces, of two separate items that binds them together and resists their separation.

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Adhesive tape

Adhesive tape refers to any one of a variety of combinations of backing materials coated with an adhesive.

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Aerosol spray

Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of liquid particles.

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Alpha-glucan, water dikinase

In enzymology, an alpha-glucan, water dikinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, alpha-glucan, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are AMP, phospho-alpha-glucan, and phosphate.

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Amyl alcohol

An amyl alcohol is any of 8 alcohols with the formula C5H12OH.

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Amylase

An amylase is an enzyme that catalyses the hydrolysis of starch into sugars.

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Amylomaize

Amylomaize was a term coined in the late 1940s by Robert P. Bear of Bear Hybrids Corn Company in Decatur, Illinois to describe his discovery and commercial breeding of a cornstarch with high (>50%) amylose content, also called high amylose starch.

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Amylopectin

Amylopectin is a water-soluble polysaccharide and highly branched polymer of α-glucose units found in plants.

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Amyloplast

Amyloplasts are non-pigmented organelles found in some plant cells.

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Amylose

Amylose is a polysaccharide made of α-D-glucose units, bonded to each other through α(1→4) glycosidic bonds.

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Ancient Egypt

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.

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Anti-set-off spray powder

In printing, anti-set-off spray powder is used to make an air gap between printed sheets of paper.

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Arracacia xanthorrhiza

Arracacia xanthorrhiza is a root vegetable originally from the Andes, somewhat intermediate between the carrot and celery root.

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Arrowroot

Arrowroot is a starch obtained from the rhizomes (rootstock) of several tropical plants, traditionally Maranta arundinacea, but also Florida arrowroot from Zamia integrifolia, and tapioca from cassava (Manihot esculenta), which is often labelled as arrowroot.

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Asparagus

Asparagus, or garden asparagus, folk name sparrow grass, scientific name Asparagus officinalis, is a spring vegetable, a flowering perennial plant species in the genus Asparagus.

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Asteraceae

Asteraceae or Compositae (commonly referred to as the aster, daisy, composite,Great Basin Wildflowers, Laird R. Blackwell, 2006, p. 275 or sunflower family) is a very large and widespread family of flowering plants (Angiospermae).

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B-amylase

Beta-amylase (saccharogen amylase, glycogenase) is an enzyme with the systematic name 4-alpha-D-glucan maltohydrolase.

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Baking

Baking is a method of cooking food that uses prolonged dry heat, normally in an oven, but also in hot ashes, or on hot stones.

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Banana

A banana is an edible fruit – botanically a berry – produced by several kinds of large herbaceous flowering plants in the genus Musa.

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Barley

Barley (Hordeum vulgare), a member of the grass family, is a major cereal grain grown in temperate climates globally.

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Bean

A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.

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Beer

Beer is one of the oldest and most widely consumed alcoholic drinks in the world, and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.

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Biofuel

A biofuel is a fuel that is produced through contemporary biological processes, such as agriculture and anaerobic digestion, rather than a fuel produced by geological processes such as those involved in the formation of fossil fuels, such as coal and petroleum, from prehistoric biological matter.

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Bioplastic

Bioplastics are plastics derived from renewable biomass sources, such as vegetable fats and oils, corn starch, or microbiota.

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Birefringence

Birefringence is the optical property of a material having a refractive index that depends on the polarization and propagation direction of light.

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Borax

Borax, also known as sodium borate, sodium tetraborate, or disodium tetraborate, is an important boron compound, a mineral, and a salt of boric acid.

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Bread

Bread is a staple food prepared from a dough of flour and water, usually by baking.

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Breadfruit

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is a species of flowering tree in the mulberry and jackfruit family (Moraceae) originating in the South Pacific and eventually spreading to the rest of Oceania. British and French navigators introduced a few Polynesian seedless varieties to Caribbean islands during the late 18th century, and today it is grown in some 90 countries throughout South and Southeast Asia, the Pacific Ocean, the Caribbean, Central America and Africa. Its name is derived from the texture of the moderately ripe fruit when cooked, similar to freshly baked bread and having a potato-like flavor. According to DNA fingerprinting studies, breadfruit has its origins in the region of Oceania from New Guinea through the Indo-Malayan Archipelago to western Micronesia. The trees have been widely planted in tropical regions elsewhere, including lowland Central America, northern South America, and the Caribbean. In addition to the fruit serving as a staple food in many cultures, the trees' light, sturdy timber has been used for outriggers, ships and houses in the tropics.

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Brewing

Brewing is the production of beer by steeping a starch source (commonly cereal grains, the most popular of which is barley) in water and fermenting the resulting sweet liquid with yeast.

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Buckwheat

Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum), also known as common buckwheat, Japanese buckwheat and silverhull buckwheat, is a plant cultivated for its grain-like seeds and as a cover crop.

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Canna (plant)

Canna (or canna lily, although not a true lily) is a genus of 10 species of flowering plants.

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Carbohydrate

A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water); in other words, with the empirical formula (where m may be different from n).

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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Cassava

Manihot esculenta, commonly called cassava, manioc, yuca, mandioca and Brazilian arrowroot, is a woody shrub native to South America of the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.

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Cellobiose

Cellobiose is a disaccharide with the formula C12H22O11.

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Cellobiose phosphorylase

In enzymology, a cellobiose phosphorylase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are cellobiose and phosphate, whereas its two products are alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate and D-glucose.

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Cellulose

Cellulose is an organic compound with the formula, a polysaccharide consisting of a linear chain of several hundred to many thousands of β(1→4) linked D-glucose units.

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Cereal

A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.

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Chestnut

The chestnut (Castanea) group is a genus of eight or nine species of deciduous trees and shrubs in the beech family Fagaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere.

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Chickpea

The chickpea or chick pea (Cicer arietinum) is a legume of the family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.

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Chitin

Chitin (C8H13O5N)n, a long-chain polymer of ''N''-acetylglucosamine, is a derivative of glucose.

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Clothing

Clothing (also known as clothes and attire) is a collective term for garments, items worn on the body.

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Coated paper

Coated paper is paper which has been coated by a mixture of materials or a polymer to impart certain qualities to the paper, including weight, surface gloss, smoothness or reduced ink absorbency.

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Codex Alimentarius

The Codex Alimentarius is a collection of internationally recognized standards, codes of practice, guidelines, and other recommendations relating to foods, food production, and food safety.

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Colocasia

Colocasia is a genus of flowering plants in the family Araceae, native to southeastern Asia and the Indian subcontinent.

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Colocasia esculenta

Colocasia esculenta is a tropical plant grown primarily for its edible corms, the root vegetables most commonly known as taro.

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Common Era

Common Era or Current Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era – an alternative to the Dionysian AD and BC system.

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Cooking

Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.

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Corn ethanol

Corn ethanol is ethanol produced from corn that is used as a biomass.

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Corn starch

Corn starch, cornstarch, cornflour or maize starch or maize is the starch derived from the corn (maize) grain.

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Corn syrup

Corn syrup is a food syrup which is made from the starch of corn (called maize in some countries) and contains varying amounts of maltose and higher oligosaccharides, depending on the grade.

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Corrugated fiberboard

Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated sheet and one or two flat linerboards.

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Cotton

Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.

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CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics

The CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics is a comprehensive one-volume reference resource for science research, currently in its 98th edition (with 2560 pages, June 23, 2017, Editor-in-Chief John R. Rumble).

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Dextrin

Dextrins are a group of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates produced by the hydrolysis of starch or glycogen.

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Dextrose equivalent

Dextrose equivalent (DE) is a measure of the amount of reducing sugars present in a sugar product, expressed as a percentage on a dry basis relative to dextrose.

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Dietary fiber

Dietary fiber or roughage is the indigestible portion of food derived from plants.

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Digestion

Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.

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Drilling fluid

In geotechnical engineering, drilling fluid is used to aid the drilling of boreholes into the earth.

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Dropped ceiling

A dropped ceiling is a secondary ceiling, hung below the main (structural) ceiling.

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Drywall

Drywall (also known as plasterboard, wallboard, gypsum panel, sheet rock, or gypsum board) is a panel made of calcium sulfate dihydrate (gypsum), with or without additives, typically extruded between thick sheets of facer and backer paper, utilized in the construction of interior walls and ceilings.

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Duodenum

The duodenum is the first section of the small intestine in most higher vertebrates, including mammals, reptiles, and birds.

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Dust

Dust are fine particles of matter.

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E number

E numbers are codes for substances that are permitted to be used as food additives for use within the European Union and EFTA.

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Enzyme

Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Erythritol

Erythritol ((2R,3S)-butane-1,2,3,4-tetrol) is a sugar alcohol (or polyol) that has been approved for use as a food additive in the United States and throughout much of the world.

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Erythronium japonicum

Erythronium japonicum, known as Asian fawnlily, is a pink-flowered species trout lily, belonging to the Lily family and native to Japan, Korea, the Russian Far East (Sakhalin Island, Kuril Islands) and northeastern China (Jilin and Liaoning).

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Ethanol

Ethanol, also called alcohol, ethyl alcohol, grain alcohol, and drinking alcohol, is a chemical compound, a simple alcohol with the chemical formula.

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Excipient

An excipient is a substance formulated alongside the active ingredient of a medication, included for the purpose of long-term stabilization, bulking up solid formulations that contain potent active ingredients in small amounts (thus often referred to as "bulking agents", "fillers", or "diluents"), or to confer a therapeutic enhancement on the active ingredient in the final dosage form, such as facilitating drug absorption, reducing viscosity, or enhancing solubility.

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Extinction cross

The extinction cross is an optical phenomenon that is seen when trying to extinguish a laser beam or non-planar white light using crossed polarizers.

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Fermentation

Fermentation is a metabolic process that consumes sugar in the absence of oxygen.

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Flour

Flour is a powder made by grinding raw grains or roots and used to make many different foods.

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Foam peanut

Foam peanuts, also known as packing peanuts, or packing noodles are a common loose-fill packaging and cushioning material used to prevent damage to fragile objects during shipping.

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Food extrusion

Food extrusion is a form of extrusion used in food processing.

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Food processing

Food processing is the transformation of cooked ingredients, by physical or chemical means into food, or of food into other forms.

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Fructan

A fructan is a polymer of fructose molecules.

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Fructose

Fructose, or fruit sugar, is a simple ketonic monosaccharide found in many plants, where it is often bonded to glucose to form the disaccharide sucrose.

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Fruit

In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.

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Garlic

Garlic (Allium sativum) is a species in the onion genus, Allium.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Glucose

Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glucose 1-phosphate

Glucose 1-phosphate (also called cori ester) is a glucose molecule with a phosphate group on the 1'-carbon.

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Glucose syrup

Glucose syrup, also known as confectioner's glucose, is a syrup made from the hydrolysis of starch.

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Glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase

In enzymology, a glucose-1-phosphate adenylyltransferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ATP and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, whereas its two products are diphosphate and ADP-glucose.

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Glutinous rice

Glutinous rice (Oryza sativa var. glutinosa; also called sticky rice, sweet rice or waxy rice) is a type of rice grown mainly in Southeast and East Asia and the eastern parts of South Asia, which has opaque grains, very low amylose content, and is especially sticky when cooked.

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Glycogen

Glycogen is a multibranched polysaccharide of glucose that serves as a form of energy storage in humans, animals, fungi, and bacteria.

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Glycogen branching enzyme

1,4-alpha-glucan-branching enzyme, also known as brancher enzyme or glycogen-branching enzyme is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the GBE1 gene.

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Glycosidic bond

In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gypsum

Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.

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Halva

Halva (halawa, alva, haleweh, halava, helava, helva, halwa, halua, aluva, chalva, chałwa) is any of various dense, sweet confections served across the Middle East, South Asia, Central Asia, West Asia, the Caucasus, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, the Balkans, Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Malta and the Jewish diaspora.

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Heat of combustion

The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it.

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Helix

A helix, plural helixes or helices, is a type of smooth space curve, i.e. a curve in three-dimensional space.

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High-fructose corn syrup

High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) (also called glucose-fructose, isoglucose and glucose-fructose syrup) is a sweetener made from corn starch that has been processed by glucose isomerase to convert some of its glucose into fructose.

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Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates

Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates (HSHs) are mixtures of several sugar alcohols (a type of sugar substitute).

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Hydrolysis

Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.

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Hydrophile

A hydrophile is a molecule or other molecular entity that is attracted to water molecules and tends to be dissolved by water.

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Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate

Hydroxypropyl distarch phosphate (HDP) is a modified resistant starch.

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Inulin

Inulins are a group of naturally occurring polysaccharides produced by many types of plants, industrially most often extracted from chicory.

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Iodide

An iodide ion is the ion I−.

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Iodine

Iodine is a chemical element with symbol I and atomic number 53.

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Iodine test

The iodine test is used to test for the presence of starch.

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Ironing

Ironing is the use of a heated tool (an iron) to remove wrinkles from fabric.

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Isoamylase

Isoamylase (debranching enzyme, glycogen alpha-1,6-glucanohydrolase) is an enzyme with systematic name glycogen 6-alpha-D-glucanohydrolase.

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Jelly bean

Jelly beans are small bean-shaped sugar candies with soft candy shells and thick gel interiors.

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Kudzu

Kudzu (also called Japanese arrowroot) is a group of plants in the genus Pueraria, in the pea family Fabaceae, subfamily Faboideae.

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Large intestine

The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.

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Laundry

Laundry refers to the washing of clothing and other textiles.

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Lentil

The lentil (Lens culinaris or Lens esculenta) is an edible pulse.

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Lipid

In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of root vegetables

Root vegetables are plant roots and tubers eaten by humans as food.

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Maize

Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.

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Malt

Malt is germinated cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as "malting".

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Maltese cross

The Maltese cross is the cross symbol associated with the Order of St. John since 1567, with the Knights Hospitaller and the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, and by extension with the island of Malta.

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Malting process

The malting process converts raw grain into malt.

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Maltitol

Maltitol is a sugar alcohol (a polyol) used as a sugar substitute.

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Maltodextrin

Maltodextrin is a polysaccharide that is used as a food additive.

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Maltose

Maltose, also known as maltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond. In the isomer isomaltose, the two glucose molecules are joined with an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the two-unit member of the amylose homologous series, the key structural motif of starch. When beta-amylase breaks down starch, it removes two glucose units at a time, producing maltose. An example of this reaction is found in germinating seeds, which is why it was named after malt. Unlike sucrose, it is a reducing sugar.

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Mannitol

Mannitol is a type of sugar alcohol which is also used as a medication.

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Mashing

In brewing and distilling, mashing is the process of combining a mix of grain (typically malted barley with supplementary grains such as corn, sorghum, rye, or wheat), known as the "grain bill", and water, known as "liquor", and heating this mixture.

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Mass fraction (chemistry)

In chemistry, the mass fraction w_i is the ratio of one substance with mass m_i to the mass of the total mixture m_\text, defined as The symbol Y_i is also used to denote mass fraction.

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Metabolism

Metabolism (from μεταβολή metabolē, "change") is the set of life-sustaining chemical transformations within the cells of organisms.

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Microscope

A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.

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Millet

Millets (/ˈmɪlɪts/) are a group of highly variable small-seeded grasses, widely grown around the world as cereal crops or grains for fodder and human food.

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Millstone

Millstones or mill stones are stones used in gristmills, for grinding wheat or other grains.

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Modified starch

Modified starch, also called starch derivatives, are prepared by physically, enzymatically, or chemically treating native starch to change its properties.

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Mozambique

Mozambique, officially the Republic of Mozambique (Moçambique or República de Moçambique) is a country in Southeast Africa bordered by the Indian Ocean to the east, Tanzania to the north, Malawi and Zambia to the northwest, Zimbabwe to the west, and Swaziland and South Africa to the southwest.

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Mung bean

The mung bean (Vigna radiata), alternatively known as the green gram, maash, or moong Sanskrit मुद्ग / mŪgd, is a plant species in the legume family.

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National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health

The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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Ngalue

Ngalue Cave is an archaeological site located in the Niassa province of Mozambique.

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Noodle

Noodles are a staple food in many cultures.

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Nucleic acid

Nucleic acids are biopolymers, or small biomolecules, essential to all known forms of life.

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Oat

The oat (Avena sativa), sometimes called the common oat, is a species of cereal grain grown for its seed, which is known by the same name (usually in the plural, unlike other cereals and pseudocereals).

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Occupational Safety and Health Administration

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is an agency of the United States Department of Labor.

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Onion

The onion (Allium cepa L., from Latin cepa "onion"), also known as the bulb onion or common onion, is a vegetable that is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Allium.

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Osmosis

Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a selectively permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides.

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Oxalis tuberosa

Oxalis tuberosa is a perennial herbaceous plant that overwinters as underground stem tubers.

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Oxidizing agent

In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.

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Pancake

A pancake (or hotcake, griddlecake, or flapjack) is a flat cake, often thin and round, prepared from a starch-based batter that may contain eggs, milk and butter and cooked on a hot surface such as a griddle or frying pan, often frying with oil or butter.

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Pancreas

The pancreas is a glandular organ in the digestive system and endocrine system of vertebrates.

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Papermaking

The art, science, and technology of papermaking addresses the methods, equipment, and materials used to make paper and cardboard, these being used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes and useful products.

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Papyrus

Papyrus is a material similar to thick paper that was used in ancient times as a writing surface.

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Pasta

Pasta is a staple food of traditional Italian cuisine, with the first reference dating to 1154 in Sicily.

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Pea

The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.

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Pentyl group

In organic chemistry, pentyl is a five-carbon alkyl functional group (substituent) with chemical formula -C5H11.

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Peptidoglycan

Peptidoglycan, also known as murein, is a polymer consisting of sugars and amino acids that forms a mesh-like layer outside the plasma membrane of most bacteria, forming the cell wall.

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Permissible exposure limit

The permissible exposure limit (PEL or OSHA PEL) is a legal limit in the United States for exposure of an employee to a chemical substance or physical agent such as loud noise.

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Perspiration

Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.

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Petticoat

A petticoat or underskirt is an article of clothing, a type of undergarment worn under a skirt or a dress.

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Phosphate

A phosphate is chemical derivative of phosphoric acid.

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Phosphoglucan, water dikinase

In enzymology, a phosphoglucan, water dikinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, phospho-alpha-glucan, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are AMP, O-phospho-phospho-alpha-glucan, and phosphate.

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Phosphorylation

In chemistry, phosphorylation of a molecule is the attachment of a phosphoryl group.

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Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).

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Plant

Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Polarization (waves)

Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.

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Polylactic acid

Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester derived from renewable resources, such as corn starch (in the United States and Canada), cassava roots, chips or starch (mostly in Asia), or sugarcane (in the rest of the world).

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Polymer

A polymer (Greek poly-, "many" + -mer, "part") is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits.

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Polysaccharide

Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

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Porridge

Porridge (also historically spelled porage, porrige, parritch) is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in water or milk.

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Potassium iodide

Potassium iodide is a chemical compound, medication, and dietary supplement.

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Potato

The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.

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Potato starch

Potato starch is starch extracted from potatoes.

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Printing

Printing is a process for reproducing text and images using a master form or template.

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Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

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Protein isoform

A protein isoform, or "protein variant" is a member of a set of highly similar proteins that originate from a single gene or gene family and are the result of genetic differences.

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Recommended exposure limit

A recommended exposure limit (REL) is an occupational exposure limit that has been recommended by the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) for adoption as a permissible exposure limit.

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Redox

Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.

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Reducing agent

A reducing agent (also called a reductant or reducer) is an element (such as calcium) or compound that loses (or "donates") an electron to another chemical species in a redox chemical reaction.

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Resistant starch

Resistant starch (RS) is starch, including its degradation products, that escapes from digestion in the small intestine of healthy individuals.

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Retrogradation (starch)

Retrogradation is a reaction that takes place when the amylose and amylopectin chains in cooked, gelatinized starch realign themselves as the cooked starch cools.

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Rhizome

In botany and dendrology, a rhizome (from script "mass of roots", from rhizóō "cause to strike root") is a modified subterranean stem of a plant that sends out roots and shoots from its nodes.

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Rice

Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) or Oryza glaberrima (African rice).

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Ruff (clothing)

A ruff is an item of clothing worn in Western Europe from the mid-sixteenth century to the mid-seventeenth century.

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Rye

Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.

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Sago

Sago is a starch extracted from the spongy centre, or pith, of various tropical palm stems, especially that of Metroxylon sagu.

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Saliva

Saliva is a watery substance formed in the mouths of animals, secreted by the salivary glands.

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Science (journal)

Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.

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Seed

A seed is an embryonic plant enclosed in a protective outer covering.

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Set-off (printing)

In printing, set-off is the term given to the unwanted transfer of ink from one printed sheet to another.

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Shirt

A shirt is a cloth garment for the upper body (from the neck to the waist).

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Short-chain fatty acid

Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), also referred to as volatile fatty acids (VFAs), are fatty acids with two to six carbon atoms.

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Sizing

Sizing or size is any one of numerous substances that is applied to, or incorporated into, other materials — especially papers and textiles — to act as a protective filler or glaze.

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Small intestine

The small intestine or small bowel is the part of the gastrointestinal tract between the stomach and the large intestine, and is where most of the end absorption of food takes place.

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Sodium carbonate

Sodium carbonate, Na2CO3, (also known as washing soda, soda ash and soda crystals, and in the monohydrate form as crystal carbonate) is the water-soluble sodium salt of carbonic acid.

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Sodium hydroxide

Sodium hydroxide, also known as lye, is an inorganic compound with the formula NaOH. It is a white solid ionic compound consisting of sodium cations and hydroxide anions. Sodium hydroxide is a highly caustic base and alkali that decomposes proteins at ordinary ambient temperatures and may cause severe chemical burns. It is highly soluble in water, and readily absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide from the air. It forms a series of hydrates NaOH·n. The monohydrate NaOH· crystallizes from water solutions between 12.3 and 61.8 °C. The commercially available "sodium hydroxide" is often this monohydrate, and published data may refer to it instead of the anhydrous compound. As one of the simplest hydroxides, it is frequently utilized alongside neutral water and acidic hydrochloric acid to demonstrate the pH scale to chemistry students. Sodium hydroxide is used in many industries: in the manufacture of pulp and paper, textiles, drinking water, soaps and detergents, and as a drain cleaner. Worldwide production in 2004 was approximately 60 million tonnes, while demand was 51 million tonnes.

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Sorbitol

Sorbitol, less commonly known as glucitol, is a sugar alcohol with a sweet taste which the human body metabolizes slowly.

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Sorghum

Sorghum is a genus of flowering plants in the grass family Poaceae.

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Staling

Staling, or "going stale", is a chemical and physical process in bread and other foods that reduces their palatability.

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Staple food

A staple food, or simply a staple, is a food that is eaten routinely and in such quantities that it constitutes a dominant portion of a standard diet for a given people, supplying a large fraction of energy needs and generally forming a significant proportion of the intake of other nutrients as well.

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Starch analysis

Starch analysis or starch grain analysis is a technique that is useful in archaeological research to determine plant taxa.

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Starch gelatinization

Starch gelatinization is a process of breaking down the intermolecular bonds of starch molecules in the presence of water and heat, allowing the hydrogen bonding sites (the hydroxyl hydrogen and oxygen) to engage more water.

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Starch production

Starch production is an isolation of starch from plant sources.

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Starch synthase

In enzymology, a starch synthase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are ADP-glucose and a chain of D-glucose residues joined by 1,4-alpha-glycosidic bonds, whereas its two products are ADP and an elongated chain of glucose residues.

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Sucrose

Sucrose is common table sugar.

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Sugar alcohol

Sugar alcohols (also called polyhydric alcohols, polyalcohols, alditols or glycitols) are organic compounds, typically derived from sugars, that comprise a class of polyols.

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Sweet potato

The sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is a dicotyledonous plant that belongs to the bindweed or morning glory family, Convolvulaceae.

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Syneresis (chemistry)

Syneresis (also spelled 'synæresis' or 'synaeresis'), in chemistry, is the extraction or expulsion of a liquid from a gel, as when serum drains from a contracting clot of blood.

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Tablet (pharmacy)

A tablet is a pharmaceutical dosage form.

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Tacca leontopetaloides

Tacca leontopetaloides is a species of flowering plant in the yam family Dioscoreaceae, that is native to tropical Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, northern Australia, New Guinea, Samoa, Micronesia, and Fiji.

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Talc

Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.

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Tapioca

Tapioca is a starch extracted from cassava root (Manihot esculenta).

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Textile printing

Textile printing is the process of applying colour to fabric in definite patterns or designs.

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Tortilla

A tortilla) is a type of thin, unleavened flatbread, typically made from corn or wheat. In Spanish, "tortilla" means "small torta", or "small cake". It was first made by the indigenous peoples of Mesoamerica prior to European contact. The Aztecs and other Nahuatl speakers call tortillas tlaxcalli.Nahuatl Dictionary. (1997). Wired Humanities Project. University of Oregon. Retrieved August 29, 2012, from.

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Triiodide

In chemistry, triiodide usually refers to the triiodide ion,.

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Tuber

Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.

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Typha

Typha is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae.

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Uridine diphosphate glucose

Uridine diphosphate glucose (uracil-diphosphate glucose, UDP-glucose) is a nucleotide sugar.

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Usi (food)

Usi, also referred to as starch, is a starch dish of the Urhobo people of Nigeria.

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Vicia faba

Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, or tic bean, is a species of flowering plant in the pea and bean family Fabaceae.

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Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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Voice of America

Voice of America (VOA) is a U.S. government-funded international radio broadcast source that serves as the United States federal government's official institution for non-military, external broadcasting.

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Wallpaper paste

Adhesive flakes that are mixed with water to produce wallpaper paste Wallpaper adhesive or wallpaper paste is a specific adhesive, based on modified starch or methylcellulose, used to fix wallpaper to walls.

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Warp and weft

Warp and weft are terms for the two basic components used in weaving to turn thread or yarn into fabric.

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Water

Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.

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Water caltrop

The water caltrop is any of three extant species of the genus Trapa: Trapa natans, Trapa bicornis and the endangered Trapa rossica.

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Waxy corn

Waxy corn (maize) was found in China in 1909.

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Waxy potato starch

Waxy potato starch is a variety of commercially available starch comprised almost entirely of amylopectin molecules, extracted from new potato varieties.

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Weaving

Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth.

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Wet strength

The wet strength of paper and paperboard is a measure of how well the web of fibers holding the paper together can resist a force of rupture when the paper is wet.

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Wet-milling

Wet-milling is a process in which feed material is steeped in water, with or without sulfur dioxide, to soften the seed kernel in order to help separate the kernel’s various components.

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Wheat

Wheat is a grass widely cultivated for its seed, a cereal grain which is a worldwide staple food.

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Wheatpaste

Wheat paste (also known as flour paste, or simply paste) is a gel or liquid adhesive made from wheat flour or starch and water.

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Whisky

Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.

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Wine gum

Wine gums (or winegums) are chewy, firm pastille-type sweets similar to gumdrops without the sugar coating, originating from the United Kingdom.

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Xanthosoma sagittifolium

Xanthosoma sagittifolium, the arrowleaf elephant ear or arrowleaf elephant's ear, is a species of tropical flowering plant in the genus Xanthosoma, which produces an edible, starchy corm.

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Xylose isomerase

In enzymology, a xylose isomerase is an enzyme that catalyzes the interconversion of D-xylose and D-xylulose.

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Yam (vegetable)

Yam is the common name for some plant species in the genus Dioscorea (family Dioscoreaceae) that form edible tubers.

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Yarn

Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery, or ropemaking.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starch

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