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Index Starfish

Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea. [1]

284 relations: Aboriginal Australians, Abyssal zone, Adenine, Algae, Alkaloid, Ambon Island, Amide, Ammonia, Anatomical terms of motion, Anus, Aposematism, Aquatic respiration, Archenteron, Arthropod, Asexual reproduction, Asexual reproduction in starfish, Asterias, Asterias amurensis, Asterina (starfish), Asterozoa, Astropecten, Astropecten polyacanthus, Autotomy, Basket star, Benthic zone, Bilateria, Biodiversity, Bioindicator, Biological activity, Biological life cycle, Biological specificity, Bipinnaria, Bivalvia, Blastoid, Blastula, Brachiolaria, Brisingida, Brittle star, Budding, Business administration, Calcareous, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Cambrian, Carbon dioxide, Carnivore, Cecum, Central nervous system, Ceramide, Charonia, ..., Cholesterol, Chordate, Cilium, Circulatory system, Clade, Clam, Class (biology), Coconut milk, Coelom, Collagen, Common starfish, Community (ecology), Computer network, Connective tissue, Coral, Coral reef, Crinoid, Crown-of-thorns starfish, Cryptasterina hystera, Cryptasterina pentagona, Culcita (echinoderm), Cyril Walker (palaeontologist), David Ward (palaeontologist), Dermis, Detritivore, Deuterostome, Devonian, Early Jurassic, Ecdysozoa, Echinaster, Echinaster sepositus, Echinoderm, Echinozoa, Ecology, Edward Tregear, Egg incubation, Electrolyte, Embryo, Endangered species, Endoskeleton, Enzyme, Epidermis (zoology), Esophagus, Estuary, Extinction event, Fatty acid, Feces, Fertilisation, Filter feeder, Fish, Florida, Forcipulatida, Fossil, Fragmentation (reproduction), French Polynesia, Fresh water, Fromia monilis, Galactose, Gamete, Gas exchange, Gastrointestinal tract, Gastropoda, Gastrulation, Georg Eberhard Rumphius, Glucose, Glycosidic bond, Gonad, Goniasteridae, Gonochorism, Grazing, Greek language, Gull, Hawaii, Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville, Henricia, High-altitude nuclear explosion, Hippasteria phrygiana, HMS Starfish (1895), HMS Starfish (1916), HMS Starfish (19S), Hydraulics, Indonesia, Intertidal zone, Invasive species, Kelp forest, Keystone species, Labidiaster annulatus, Lagerstätte, Larva, Leather star, Leptasterias hexactis, Leptasterias tenera, Ligament, Lipid, List of globally invasive species, Luidia, Madreporite, Malay language, Marine invertebrates, Marine pollution, Meiosis, Metamorphosis, Microalgae, Middle Jurassic, Military deception, Military history, Model organism, Molecular clock, Mucus, Myoepithelial cell, Mytilus (bivalve), Neontology, Nepanthia belcheri, Nephrozoa, Nervous system, Neuropeptide, New Zealand, Nickelodeon, Notomyotida, Novodinia antillensis, Ocean acidification, Omnivore, Oocyte, Opportunism, Orchitophrya stellarum, Order (biology), Ordovician, Oreaster reticulatus, Ornament (art), Osmoregulation, Ossicle (echinoderm), Ovotestis, Oyster, Pacific Ocean, Palastericus, Paleozoic, Papula, Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Parts-per notation, Parvulastra parvivipara, Patiria pectinifera, Patrick Star, Paxilla (ossicle), Paxillosida, Pedicellaria, Permian, Peter Watts (author), PH, Phagocyte, Pheromone, Photoreceptor cell, Phylogenetic tree, Phylogenetics, Phytoplankton, Pigment, Pisaster, Pisaster brevispinus, Pisaster ochraceus, Plankton, Pom-pom, Predation, Protoreaster nodosus, Protostome, Pseudocopulation, Pteraster militaris, Pteraster tesselatus, Rectum, Reef starfish, Regeneration (biology), Robert T. Paine (zoologist), Rod Beckstrom, Royal Navy, Salinity, Sand dollar, Sand star, Saponin, Sea cucumber, Sea daisy, Sea otter, Sea star wasting disease, Sea urchin, Seagrass, Secondary metabolite, Sequential hermaphroditism, Simple eye in invertebrates, Sister group, Smithsonian Institution, Snail, Software, Sonar, South Island, Souvenir, Spawn (biology), Speciation, Sphincter, Sphingosine, Spinulosida, Spiralia, Sponge, SpongeBob SquarePants, Starfish Prime, Starfish site, Starfish Software, Stegnaster, Stem cell, Steroid, Stomach, Substrate (biology), Sulfation, Symmetry in biology, Tamarind, Tasmania, Taxon, Television show, Tessellation, Tetrodotoxin, The Blitz, The Starfish and the Spider, Tide pool, Triassic, Tube feet, United States, Valvatida, Velatida, Vibrio, Virgin Islands, Washington (state), Wasting, Water column, Water vascular system, William Jenkyn Thomas, World War II, Xenacoelomorpha, Yolk. Expand index (234 more) »

Aboriginal Australians

Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).

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Abyssal zone

The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.

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Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.

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Ambon Island

Ambon Island is part of the Maluku Islands of Indonesia.

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An amide (or or), also known as an acid amide, is a compound with the functional group RnE(O)xNR′2 (R and R′ refer to H or organic groups).

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Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.

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Anatomical terms of motion

Motion, the process of movement, is described using specific anatomical terms.

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The anus (from Latin anus meaning "ring", "circle") is an opening at the opposite end of an animal's digestive tract from the mouth.

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Aposematism (from Greek ἀπό apo away, σῆμα sema sign) is a term coined by Edward Bagnall PoultonPoulton, 1890.

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Aquatic respiration

Aquatic respiration is the process whereby an aquatic animal obtains oxygen from water.

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The primary gut that forms during gastrulation in the developing zygote is known as the archenteron or the digestive tube.

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An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Asexual reproduction in starfish

Asexual reproduction in starfish takes place by fission or through autotomy of arms.

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Asterias is a genus of the Asteriidae family of sea stars.

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Asterias amurensis

Asterias amurensis, also known as the Northern Pacific seastar and Japanese common starfish, is a seastar native to the coasts of northern China, Korea, Russia and Japan.

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Asterina (starfish)

Asterina is a genus of asteroideans in the family Asterinidae.

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The Asterozoa are a superclass in the phylum Echinodermata.

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Astropecten is a genus of sea stars of the family Astropectinidae.

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Astropecten polyacanthus

Astropecten polyacanthus, the sand sifting starfish or comb sea star, is a sea star of the family Astropectinidae. It is the most widespread species in the genus Astropecten, found throughout the Indo-Pacific region. The armspread is up to. The specific epithet "polyacanthus" comes from the Latin meaning "many thorned". JulianRocks.net. Retrieved 2012-04-07.

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Autotomy (from the Greek auto- "self-" and tome "severing", αὐτονομία) or self-amputation is the behaviour whereby an animal sheds or discards one or more of its own appendages, usually as a self-defense mechanism to elude a predator's grasp or to distract the predator and thereby allow escape.

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Basket star

Basket stars, sometimes referred to as a Shetland Argus, are a taxon of brittle stars.

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Benthic zone

The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.

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The Bilateria or bilaterians, or triploblasts, are animals with bilateral symmetry, i.e., they have a head (anterior) and a tail (posterior) as well as a back (dorsal) and a belly (ventral); therefore they also have a left side and a right side.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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A bioindicator is any species (an indicator species) or group of species whose function, population, or status can reveal the qualitative status of the environment.

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Biological activity

In pharmacology, biological activity or pharmacological activity describes the beneficial or adverse effects of a drug on living matter.

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Biological life cycle

In biology, a biological life cycle (or just life cycle when the biological context is clear) is a series of changes in form that an organism undergoes, returning to the starting state.

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Biological specificity

In biology, biological specificity is the tendency of a characteristic such as a behavior or a biochemical variation to occur in a particular species.

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A bipinnaria is the first stage in the larval development of most starfish, and is usually followed by a brachiolaria stage.

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Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.

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Blastoids (class Blastoidea) are an extinct type of stemmed echinoderm.

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The blastula (from Greek βλαστός (blastos), meaning "sprout") is a hollow sphere of cells, referred to as blastomeres, surrounding an inner fluid-filled cavity called the blastocoele formed during an early stage of embryonic development in animals.

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A brachiolaria is the second stage of larval development in many starfishes it follows the bipinnaria.

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The Brisingids are deep-sea-dwelling starfish in the order Brisingida.

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Brittle star

Brittle stars or ophiuroids are echinoderms in the class Ophiuroidea closely related to starfish.

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Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.

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Business administration

Business administration is management of a business.

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Calcareous is an adjective meaning "mostly or partly composed of calcium carbonate", in other words, containing lime or being chalky.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Carbon dioxide

Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.

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A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.

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The cecum or caecum (plural ceca; from the Latin caecus meaning blind) is an intraperitoneal pouch that is considered to be the beginning of the large intestine.

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Central nervous system

The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord.

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Ceramides are a family of waxy lipid molecules.

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Charonia is a genus of very large sea snail, commonly known as Triton's trumpet or Triton snail.

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Cholesterol (from the Ancient Greek chole- (bile) and stereos (solid), followed by the chemical suffix -ol for an alcohol) is an organic molecule.

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A chordate is an animal belonging to the phylum Chordata; chordates possess a notochord, a hollow dorsal nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, an endostyle, and a post-anal tail, for at least some period of their life cycle.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Circulatory system

The circulatory system, also called the cardiovascular system or the vascular system, is an organ system that permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients (such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and from the cells in the body to provide nourishment and help in fighting diseases, stabilize temperature and pH, and maintain homeostasis.

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A clade (from κλάδος, klados, "branch"), also known as monophyletic group, is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants, and represents a single "branch" on the "tree of life".

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Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.

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Class (biology)

In biological classification, class (classis) is a taxonomic rank, as well as a taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank.

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Coconut milk

Coconut milk is the liquid that comes from the grated meat of a mature coconut.

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The coelom is the main body cavity in most animals and is positioned inside the body to surround and contain the digestive tract and other organs.

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Collagen is the main structural protein in the extracellular space in the various connective tissues in animal bodies.

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Common starfish

The common starfish or common sea star (Asterias rubens) is the most common and familiar starfish in the north-east Atlantic.

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Community (ecology)

In ecology, a community is a group or association of populations of two or more different species occupying the same geographical area and in a particular time, also known as a biocoenosis The term community has a variety of uses.

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Computer network

A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.

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Connective tissue

Connective tissue (CT) is one of the four basic types of animal tissue, along with epithelial tissue, muscle tissue, and nervous tissue.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Coral reef

Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.

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Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).

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Crown-of-thorns starfish

The crown-of-thorns starfish, Acanthaster planci, is a large, multiple-armed starfish that usually preys upon hard, or stony, coral polyps (Scleractinia).

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Cryptasterina hystera

File:Cryptasterina hystera.jpg|Cryptasterina hystera Cryptasterina hystera is a species of starfish.

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Cryptasterina pentagona

Cryptasterina pentagona is a species of starfish in the family Asterinidae.

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Culcita (echinoderm)

Culcita is a genus of cushion stars.

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Cyril Walker (palaeontologist)

Cyril Alexander Walker (8 February 1939 – 6 May 2009) was a British palaeontologist, curator of fossil birds in the Natural History Museum.

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David Ward (palaeontologist)

David J. Ward (born 10 October 1948 in London) is a British palaeontologist.

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The dermis or corium is a layer of skin between the epidermis (with which it makes up the cutis) and subcutaneous tissues, that primarily consists of dense irregular connective tissue and cushions the body from stress and strain.

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Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).

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Deuterostomes (taxonomic term: Deuterostomia; meaning "second mouth" in Greek) are any members of a superphylum of animals.

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The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.

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Early Jurassic

The Early Jurassic epoch (in chronostratigraphy corresponding to the Lower Jurassic series) is the earliest of three epochs of the Jurassic period.

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Ecdysozoa is a group of protostome animals, including Arthropoda (insects, chelicerata, crustaceans, and myriapods), Nematoda, and several smaller phyla.

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Echinaster is a genus of starfish in the family Echinasteridae in the order Spinulosida.

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Echinaster sepositus

Echinaster sepositus, the Mediterranean red sea star (sometimes only red sea star, but this name is also used for other species), is a species of starfish from the East Atlantic, including the Mediterranean Sea.

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Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.

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Echinozoa is a subphylum of free-living echinoderms in which the body is essentially globoid with meridional symmetry.

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Ecology (from οἶκος, "house", or "environment"; -λογία, "study of") is the branch of biology which studies the interactions among organisms and their environment.

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Edward Tregear

Edward Robert Tregear (1846–1931) was a New Zealand public servant and scholar.

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Egg incubation

Incubation refers to the process by which certain oviparous (egg-laying) animals hatch their eggs; it also refers to the development of the embryo within the egg.

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An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.

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An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.

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Endangered species

An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.

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An endoskeleton (From Greek ἔνδον, éndon.

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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Epidermis (zoology)

In zoology, the epidermis is an epithelium (sheet of cells) that covers the body of an eumetazoan (animal more complex than a sponge).

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The esophagus (American English) or oesophagus (British English), commonly known as the food pipe or gullet (gut), is an organ in vertebrates through which food passes, aided by peristaltic contractions, from the pharynx to the stomach.

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An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.

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Extinction event

An extinction event (also known as a mass extinction or biotic crisis) is a widespread and rapid decrease in the biodiversity on Earth.

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Fatty acid

In chemistry, particularly in biochemistry, a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid with a long aliphatic chain, which is either saturated or unsaturated.

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Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.

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Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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Filter feeder

Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.

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Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.

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Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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The Forcipulatida are an order of sea stars, containing three families and 49 genera.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Fragmentation (reproduction)

Fragmentation or clonal fragmentation in multi cellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning in which an organism is split into fragments.

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French Polynesia

French Polynesia (Polynésie française; Pōrīnetia Farāni) is an overseas collectivity of the French Republic; collectivité d'outre-mer de la République française (COM), sometimes unofficially referred to as an overseas country; pays d'outre-mer (POM).

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Fresh water

Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.

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Fromia monilis

Fromia monilis, common name necklace starfish or tiled starfish, is a species of starfish belonging to the family Goniasteridae.

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Galactose (galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 30% as sweet as sucrose.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gas exchange

Gas exchange is the physical process by which gases move passively by diffusion across a surface.

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Gastrointestinal tract

The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.

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The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.

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Gastrulation is a phase early in the embryonic development of most animals, during which the single-layered blastula is reorganized into a multilayered structure known as the gastrula.

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Georg Eberhard Rumphius

Georg Eberhard Rumphius (originally: Rumpf; baptized c. November 1, 1627 – June 15, 1702) was a German-born botanist employed by the Dutch East India Company in what is now eastern Indonesia, and is best known for his work Herbarium Amboinense produced in the face of severe personal tragedies, including the death of his wife and a daughter in an earthquake, going blind from glaucoma, loss of his library and manuscripts in major fire, and losing early copies of his book when the ship carrying it was sunk.

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Glucose is a simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

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Glycosidic bond

In chemistry, a glycosidic bond or glycosidic linkage is a type of covalent bond that joins a carbohydrate (sugar) molecule to another group, which may or may not be another carbohydrate.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Goniasteridae are the largest family of sea stars, included in the order Valvatida.

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In biology, gonochorism (Greek offspring + disperse) or unisexualism or gonochory describes the state of having just one of at least two distinct sexes in any one individual organism.

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Grazing is a method of feeding in which a herbivore feeds on plants such as grasses, or other multicellular organisms such as algae.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.

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Hawaii (Hawaii) is the 50th and most recent state to have joined the United States, having received statehood on August 21, 1959.

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Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville

Henri Marie Ducrotay de Blainville (12 September 1777 – 1 May 1850) was a French zoologist and anatomist.

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Henricia is a large genus of slender-armed sea stars belonging to the family Echinasteridae.

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High-altitude nuclear explosion

High-altitude nuclear explosions are the result of nuclear weapons testing.

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Hippasteria phrygiana

Hippasteria phrygiana is a sea star species, member of the Goniasteridae family.

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HMS Starfish (1895)

HMS Starfish was a which served with the Royal Navy.

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HMS Starfish (1916)

HMS Starfish was an destroyer which served with the Royal Navy.

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HMS Starfish (19S)

HMS Starfish was a first-batch S-class submarine (often called the Swordfish class) built for the Royal Navy during the 1930s.

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Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.

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Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.

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Intertidal zone

The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide (in other words, the area between tide marks).

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Invasive species

An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.

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Kelp forest

Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.

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Keystone species

A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.

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Labidiaster annulatus

Labidiaster annulatus is a species of starfish in the family Heliasteridae.

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A Lagerstätte (from Lager 'storage, lair' Stätte 'place'; plural Lagerstätten) is a sedimentary deposit that exhibits extraordinary fossils with exceptional preservation—sometimes including preserved soft tissues.

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A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.

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Leather star

The leather star (Dermasterias imbricata) is a starfish in the family Asteropseidae found at depths to 100 m off the western seaboard of North America.

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Leptasterias hexactis

Leptasterias hexactis is a species of starfish in the family Asteriidae, commonly known as the six-rayed star.

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Leptasterias tenera

Leptasterias tenera is a species of starfish in the family Asteriidae.

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A ligament is the fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones.

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In biology and biochemistry, a lipid is a biomolecule that is soluble in nonpolar solvents.

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List of globally invasive species

This is a list of 100 of the "worst" invasive species in the Global Invasive Species Database,.

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Luidia is a genus of starfish in the family Luidiidae (Sladen, 1889) in which it is the only genus.

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The madreporite is a lightcolored calcareous opening used to filter water into the water vascular system of echinoderms.

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Malay language

Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.

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Marine invertebrates

Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats.

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Marine pollution

Marine pollution occurs when harmful, or potentially harmful, effects result from the entry into the ocean of chemicals, particles, industrial, agricultural, and residential waste, noise, or the spread of invasive organisms.

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Meiosis (from Greek μείωσις, meiosis, which means lessening) is a specialized type of cell division that reduces the chromosome number by half, creating four haploid cells, each genetically distinct from the parent cell that gave rise to them.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Microalgae or microphytes are microscopic algae, typically found in freshwater and marine systems, living in both the water column and sediment.

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Middle Jurassic

The Middle Jurassic is the second epoch of the Jurassic Period.

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Military deception

Military deception refers to attempts to mislead enemy forces during warfare.

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Military history

Military history is a humanities discipline within the scope of general historical recording of armed conflict in the history of humanity, and its impact on the societies, their cultures, economies and changing local and international relationships.

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Model organism

A model organism is a non-human species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms.

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Molecular clock

The molecular clock is a technique that uses the mutation rate of biomolecules to deduce the time in prehistory when two or more life forms diverged.

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Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Myoepithelial cell

Myoepithelial cells (sometimes referred to as myoepithelium) are cells usually found in glandular epithelium as a thin layer above the basement membrane but generally beneath the luminal cells.

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Mytilus (bivalve)

Mytilus is a cosmopolitan genus of medium to large-sized edible, mainly saltwater mussels, marine bivalve molluscs in the family Mytilidae.

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Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.

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Nepanthia belcheri

Nepanthia belcheri is a species of starfish in the family Asterinidae.

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Nephrozoa is a major clade of bilaterians, divided into the protostomes and the deuterostomes, containing almost all animal phyla and over a million extant species.

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules (peptides) used by neurons to communicate with each other.

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New Zealand

New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.

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Nickelodeon (often shortened to Nick) is an American basic cable and satellite television network launched on December 1, 1977 as the first cable channel for children.

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The Notomyotida are an order of sea stars containing at least 75 species in eight genera of the monotypic family, Benthopectinidae.

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Novodinia antillensis

Novodinia antillensis, the velcro sea star, is a species of starfish in the family Brisingidae.

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Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

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Omnivore is a consumption classification for animals that have the capability to obtain chemical energy and nutrients from materials originating from plant and animal origin.

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An oocyte, oöcyte, ovocyte, or rarely ocyte, is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction.

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Opportunism is the conscious policy and practice of taking advantage of circumstances – with little regard for principles, or with what the consequences are for others.

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Orchitophrya stellarum

Orchitophrya stellarum is a species of single-celled marine ciliates, a member of the class Oligohymenophorea.

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Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.

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The Ordovician is a geologic period and system, the second of six periods of the Paleozoic Era.

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Oreaster reticulatus

Oreaster reticulatus, commonly known as the red cushion sea star or the West Indian sea star, is a species of marine invertebrate, a starfish in the family Oreasteridae.

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Ornament (art)

In architecture and decorative art, ornament is a decoration used to embellish parts of a building or object.

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Osmoregulation is the active regulation of the osmotic pressure of an organism's body fluids, detected by osmoreceptors, to maintain the homeostasis of the organism's water content; that is, it maintains the fluid balance and the concentration of electrolytes (salts in solution) to keep the fluids from becoming too diluted or concentrated.

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Ossicle (echinoderm)

Ossicles are small calcareous elements embedded in the dermis of the body wall of echinoderms.

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An ovotestis is a gonad with both testicular and ovarian aspects.

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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Pacific Ocean

The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.

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Palastericus is an extinct genus of sea star from the Lower Devonian.

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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Papulae (sing. papula), also known as dermal branchiae or skin gills, are projections of the coelom of Asteroidea that serve in respiration and waste removal.

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Paralytic shellfish poisoning

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the four recognized syndromes of shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve mollusks (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops).

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Parts-per notation

In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.

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Parvulastra parvivipara

Parvulastra parvivipara is a very small species of starfish in the family Asterinidae.

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Patiria pectinifera

Patiria pectinifera, the blue bat star, is a species of starfish in the family Asterinidae.

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Patrick Star

Patrick Star is a fictional character in the American animated television series SpongeBob SquarePants.

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Paxilla (ossicle)

A paxilla (plural. paxillae) is a small umbrella-shaped structure sometimes found on Echinoderms, particularly in starfish (class Asteroidea) such as Luidia, Astropecten and Goniaster that immerse themselves in sediment.

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The Paxillosida are a large order of sea stars.

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A pedicellaria (plural: pedicellariae) is a small wrench- or claw-shaped appendage with movable jaws, called valves, commonly found on echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata), particularly in sea stars (class Asteroidea) and sea urchins (class Echinoidea).

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The Permian is a geologic period and system which spans 47 million years from the end of the Carboniferous Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Triassic period 251.902 Mya.

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Peter Watts (author)

Peter Watts (born 1958) is a Canadian science fiction author and former marine-mammal biologist.

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In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.

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Phagocytes are cells that protect the body by ingesting harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells.

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A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.

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Photoreceptor cell

A photoreceptor cell is a specialized type of neuroepithelial cell found in the retina that is capable of visual phototransduction.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, phylogenetics (Greek: φυλή, φῦλον – phylé, phylon.

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Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.

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A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption.

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Pisaster is a genus of Pacific sea stars that includes three species, P. brevispinus, P. giganteus, and P. ochraceus.

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Pisaster brevispinus

Pisaster brevispinus, commonly called the pink sea star, giant pink sea star, or short-spined sea star, is a species of sea star from the northeast Pacific Ocean.

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Pisaster ochraceus

Pisaster ochraceus, generally known as the purple sea star, ochre sea star, or ochre starfish, is a common starfish found among the waters of the Pacific Ocean.

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Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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A pom-pom – also spelled pom-pon, pompom or pompon – is a decorative ball or tuft of fibrous material.

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Protoreaster nodosus

Protoreaster nodosus, commonly known as the horned sea star or chocolate chip sea star, is a species of sea star found in the warm, shallow waters of the Indo-Pacific region.

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Protostomia (from Greek πρωτο- proto- "first" and στόμα stoma "mouth") is a clade of animals.

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Pseudocopulation describes behaviors similar to copulation that serve a reproductive function for one or both participants but do not involve actual sexual union between the individuals.

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Pteraster militaris

Pteraster militaris, the wrinkled star, is a species of starfish in the family Pterasteridae.

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Pteraster tesselatus

Pteraster tesselatus, the slime star or cushion star, is a species of starfish in the family Pterasteridae found in the North Pacific.

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The rectum is the final straight portion of the large intestine in humans and some other mammals, and the gut in others.

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Reef starfish

Reef starfish (Stichaster australis) is a species of starfish found in the South Pacific Ocean around New Zealand.

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Regeneration (biology)

In biology, regeneration is the process of renewal, restoration, and growth that makes genomes, cells, organisms, and ecosystems resilient to natural fluctuations or events that cause disturbance or damage.

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Robert T. Paine (zoologist)

Robert Treat "Bob" Paine III (April 13, 1933 – June 13, 2016) was an American ecologist, who spent most of his career at the University of Washington.

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Rod Beckstrom

Rod Beckstrom (born February 1961) is an American author, high-tech entrepreneur, and former CEO and President of ICANN.

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Royal Navy

The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.

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Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).

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Sand dollar

The term sand dollar (also known as a sea cookie or snapper biscuit in New Zealand, or pansy shell in South Africa) refers to species of extremely flattened, burrowing sea urchins belonging to the order Clypeasteroida.

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Sand star

The sand star, Luidia foliolata, is a species of starfish in the family Luidiidae found in the northeastern Pacific Ocean on sandy and muddy seabeds at depths to about.

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Saponins are a class of chemical compounds found in particular abundance in various plant species.

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Sea cucumber

Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.

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Sea daisy

Sea daisies (infraclass Concentricycloidea; order Peripodida) make up an unusual group of deep-sea taxa belonging to the phylum Echinodermata, with three species described in the genus Xyloplax.

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Sea otter

The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.

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Sea star wasting disease

Sea star wasting disease or starfish wasting syndrome is a disease of starfish and several other echinoderms that appears sporadically, causing mass mortality of those affected.

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Sea urchin

Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.

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Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.

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Secondary metabolite

Secondary metabolites are organic compounds that are not directly involved in the normal growth, development, or reproduction of an organism.

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Sequential hermaphroditism

Sequential hermaphroditism (called dichogamy in botany) is a type of hermaphroditism that occurs in many fish, gastropods, and plants.

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Simple eye in invertebrates

A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a type of eye form or optical arrangement that contains a single lens.

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Sister group

A sister group or sister taxon is a phylogenetic term denoting the closest relatives of another given unit in an evolutionary tree.

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Smithsonian Institution

The Smithsonian Institution, established on August 10, 1846 "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge," is a group of museums and research centers administered by the Government of the United States.

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Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.

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Computer software, or simply software, is a generic term that refers to a collection of data or computer instructions that tell the computer how to work, in contrast to the physical hardware from which the system is built, that actually performs the work.

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Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.

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South Island

The South Island (Māori: Te Waipounamu) is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island.

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A souvenir (from French, for a remembrance or memory), memento, keepsake, or token of remembrance is an object a person acquires for the memories the owner associates with it.

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Spawn (biology)

Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.

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Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.

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A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required by normal physiological functioning.

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Sphingosine (2-amino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol) is an 18-carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain, which forms a primary part of sphingolipids, a class of cell membrane lipids that include sphingomyelin, an important phospholipid.

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The Spinulosida are an order of sea stars containing at least 120 species in seven genera and two families.

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The Spiralia are a morphologically diverse clade of protostome animals, including within their number the molluscs, annelids, platyhelminths and other taxa.

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Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.

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SpongeBob SquarePants

SpongeBob SquarePants is an American animated television series created by marine biologist and animator Stephen Hillenburg for Nickelodeon.

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Starfish Prime

Starfish Prime was a July 9, 1962 high-altitude nuclear test conducted by the United States, a joint effort of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and the Defense Atomic Support Agency.

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Starfish site

Starfish sites were large-scale night-time decoys created during the Blitz to simulate burning British cities.

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Starfish Software

Starfish Software was founded in 1994 by Philippe Kahn and Sonia Lee, as a spin-off from the Simplify business unit from Borland and Kahn's severance from Borland.

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Stegnaster is a genus of sea stars of the family Asterinidae, endemic to New Zealand.

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Stem cell

Stem cells are biological cells that can differentiate into other types of cells and can divide to produce more of the same type of stem cells.

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A steroid is a biologically active organic compound with four rings arranged in a specific molecular configuration.

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The stomach (from ancient Greek στόμαχος, stomachos, stoma means mouth) is a muscular, hollow organ in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and many other animals, including several invertebrates.

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Substrate (biology)

In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.

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Sulfation or sulfurylation (not to be confused with sulfonation) in biochemistry is the enzyme-catalyzed conjugation of a sulfo group (not a sulfate or sulfuryl group) to another molecule.

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Symmetry in biology

Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.

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Tamarind (Tamarindus indica) is a leguminous tree in the family Fabaceae indigenous to tropical Africa.

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Tasmania (abbreviated as Tas and known colloquially as Tassie) is an island state of Australia.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Television show

A television show (often simply TV show) is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, or internet and typically viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are typically placed between shows.

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A tessellation of a flat surface is the tiling of a plane using one or more geometric shapes, called tiles, with no overlaps and no gaps.

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Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.

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The Blitz

The Blitz was a German bombing offensive against Britain in 1940 and 1941, during the Second World War.

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The Starfish and the Spider

The Starfish and the Spider: The Unstoppable Power of Leaderless Organizations is a 2006 book by Ori Brafman (author of the 2010 book Click: The Magic of Instant Connections) and Rod Beckstrom is an exploration of the implications of the recent rise of decentralized organizations such as Grokster and YouTube.

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Tide pool

Tide pools or rock pools are shallow pools of seawater that form on the rocky intertidal shore.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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Tube feet

Tube feet are small active tubular projections on the oral face of an echinoderm, whether the arms of a starfish, or the undersides of sea urchins, sand dollars and sea cucumbers.

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United States

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.

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The Valvatida are an order of starfish in the class Asteroidea, which contains 695 species in 172 genera in 17 families.

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The Velatida are an order of sea stars containing about 200 species in five families.

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Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.

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Virgin Islands

The Virgin Islands are the western island group of the Leeward Islands, which are the northern part of the Lesser Antilles, and form the border between the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean.

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Washington (state)

Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.

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In medicine, wasting, also known as wasting syndrome, refers to the process by which a debilitating disease causes muscle and fat tissue to "waste" away.

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Water column

A water column is a conceptual column of water from the surface of a sea, river or lake to the bottom sediment.

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Water vascular system

The water vascular system is a hydraulic system used by echinoderms, such as sea stars and sea urchins, for locomotion, food and waste transportation, and respiration.

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William Jenkyn Thomas

William Jenkyn Thomas (5 July 1870 – 14 March 1959) was a Welsh author best known for his The Welsh Fairy Book.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Xenacoelomorpha is a basal bilaterian phylum of small and very simple animals, grouping the xenoturbellids with the acoelomorphs.

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Among animals which produce one, the yolk (also known as the vitellus) is the nutrient-bearing portion of the egg whose primary function is to supply food for the development of the embryo.

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Asteroidea, Asteroidea (Starfish), Asteroidia, Comet starfish, Sea Star, Sea star, Sea stars, Seastar, Seastarr, Seastars, Star fish, Star fishes.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Starfish

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