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# State (computer science)

In information technology and computer science, a program is described as stateful if it is designed to remember preceding events or user interactions; the remembered information is called the state of the system. [1]

## Accumulator (computing)

In a computer's central processing unit (CPU), an accumulator is a register in which intermediate arithmetic and logic results are stored.

## Automata theory

Automata theory is the study of abstract machines and automata, as well as the computational problems that can be solved using them.

## Bit

The bit (a portmanteau of binary digit) is a basic unit of information used in computing and digital communications.

## Bit field

A bit field is a data structure used in computer programming.

## Cache (computing)

In computing, a cache, is a hardware or software component that stores data so future requests for that data can be served faster; the data stored in a cache might be the result of an earlier computation, or the duplicate of data stored elsewhere.

## Combinational logic

In digital circuit theory, combinational logic (sometimes also referred to as time-independent logic) is a type of digital logic which is implemented by Boolean circuits, where the output is a pure function of the present input only.

## Communication protocol

In telecommunication, a communication protocol is a system of rules that allow two or more entities of a communications system to transmit information via any kind of variation of a physical quantity.

## Computer

A computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically via computer programming.

## Computer memory

In computing, memory refers to the computer hardware integrated circuits that store information for immediate use in a computer; it is synonymous with the term "primary storage".

## Computer program

A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.

## Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

## Countable set

In mathematics, a countable set is a set with the same cardinality (number of elements) as some subset of the set of natural numbers.

## Data (computing)

Data (treated as singular, plural, or as a mass noun) is any sequence of one or more symbols given meaning by specific act(s) of interpretation.

## Declarative programming

In computer science, declarative programming is a programming paradigm—a style of building the structure and elements of computer programs—that expresses the logic of a computation without describing its control flow.

## Digital signal

A digital signal is a signal that is being used to represent data as a sequence of discrete values; at any given time it can only take on one of a finite number of values.

## Discrete system

A discrete system is a system with a countable number of states.

## Encryption

In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.

## Finite set

In mathematics, a finite set is a set that has a finite number of elements.

## Finite-state machine

A finite-state machine (FSM) or finite-state automaton (FSA, plural: automata), finite automaton, or simply a state machine, is a mathematical model of computation.

## Firewall (computing)

In computing, a firewall is a network security system that monitors and controls incoming and outgoing network traffic based on predetermined security rules.

## Flip-flop (electronics)

In electronics, a flip-flop or latch is a circuit that has two stable states and can be used to store state information.

## Formal language

In mathematics, computer science, and linguistics, a formal language is a set of strings of symbols together with a set of rules that are specific to it.

## Hard disk drive

A hard disk drive (HDD), hard disk, hard drive or fixed disk is an electromechanical data storage device that uses magnetic storage to store and retrieve digital information using one or more rigid rapidly rotating disks (platters) coated with magnetic material.

## Hibernation (computing)

Hibernation (or suspend to disk) in computing is powering down a computer while retaining its state.

## Imperative programming

In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.

## Information technology

Information technology (IT) is the use of computers to store, retrieve, transmit, and manipulate data, or information, often in the context of a business or other enterprise.

## Logic gate

In electronics, a logic gate is an idealized or physical device implementing a Boolean function; that is, it performs a logical operation on one or more binary inputs and produces a single binary output.

## Loudness

In acoustics, loudness is the subjective perception of sound pressure.

## Microprocessor

A microprocessor is a computer processor that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit on a single integrated circuit (IC), or at most a few integrated circuits.

## Model of computation

In computer science, and more specifically in computability theory and computational complexity theory, a model of computation is a model which describes how a set of outputs are computed given a set of inputs.

## Non-volatile memory

Non-volatile memory (NVM) or non-volatile storage is a type of computer memory that can retrieve stored information even after having been power cycled.

## Parsing

Parsing, syntax analysis or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language, computer languages or data structures, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.

## Processor register

In computer architecture, a processor register is a quickly accessible location available to a computer's central processing unit (CPU).

## Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

Programming paradigms are a way to classify programming languages based on their features.

## Semiconductor memory

Semiconductor memory is a digital electronic data storage device, often used as computer memory, implemented with semiconductor electronic devices on an integrated circuit (IC).

## Sequential logic

In digital circuit theory, sequential logic is a type of logic circuit whose output depends not only on the present value of its input signals but on the sequence of past inputs, the input history.

## State space

In the theory of discrete dynamical systems, a state space is the set of all possible configurations of a system.

## Stateless protocol

In computing, a stateless protocol is a communications protocol in which no information is retained by either sender or receiver, meaning that they are agnostic of the state of one another.

## Stream (computing)

In computer science, a stream is a sequence of data elements made available over time.

## Television set

A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television.

## Variable (computer science)

In computer programming, a variable or scalar is a storage location (identified by a memory address) paired with an associated symbolic name (an identifier), which contains some known or unknown quantity of information referred to as a value.

## References

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