217 relations: Absolute monarchy, Advocacy group, Agriculture, Amazon rainforest, American English, Anarchism, Anarchy, Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Andean civilizations, Antonio Gramsci, Architecture, Art, Athenian democracy, Athens, Autocracy, Autonomous administrative division, Base and superstructure, Biopolitics, Biopower, Bourgeoisie, Bremen (state), Bureaucracy, Cameralism, Capital (economics), Capitalism, Carthage, Centralisation, Ceuta, Christian anarchism, Christian Church, Cicero, City, City-state, Civil authority, Civil society, Civilian control of the military, Civilization, Civilizing mission, Civitas, Classical antiquity, Classical Athens, Classless society, Commonwealth, Communist society, Complex society, Confederation, Consensus decision-making, Constitution, Corporate statism, ..., David Samuels (political scientist), Democracy, Direct democracy, Divine right of kings, Division of labour, Domestication, Earth, Economic inequality, Economy, Empire, English Civil War, Estates of the realm, Ethnic and religious composition of Austria-Hungary, Ethnic group, Extra Ecclesiam nulla salus, Failed state, False consciousness, Family, Federal republic, Federated state, Federation, Fertile Crescent, Feudalism, Force (law), Free City of Danzig, Free City of Frankfurt, Free City of Lübeck, Free State of Fiume, Friedrich Engels, Gibraltar, Government, Hegemony, Herding, Historical materialism, History of Hamburg, History of India, History of the world, Hong Kong, House of Habsburg, Hunter-gatherer, Ideology, Inca Empire, Indigenous peoples, Industrial Revolution, Interlocking directorate, International law, International relations, Jacques Ellul, Japanese colonial empire, Jürgen Habermas, Jean Bodin, Joe Painter, Joel S. Migdal, Jus gentium, Karl Marx, Kinship, Law, Legitimacy (political), Leibniz Institute of European History, List of national legal systems, List of words having different meanings in American and British English (A–L), Literacy, London independence, Lord, Louis Althusser, Louis XIV of France, Marx/Engels Collected Works, Marxism, Mathematical statistics, Mathematics, Max Weber, Merriam-Webster, Mesoamerica, Mesopotamia, Michel Foucault, Middle English, Military, Military organization, Modern history, Monaco, Monarch, Monopoly, Monopoly on violence, Montevideo Convention, Monument, Morality, Multinational state, Nation, Nation state, Nationalism, Nationalization, Neo-Marxism, Neolithic, New Oxford American Dictionary, Niccolò Machiavelli, Nicos Poulantzas, Nomad, Novgorod Republic, Old French, Oxford English Dictionary, Phenomenon, Pierre Clastres, Pluralism (political theory), Police, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Political philosophy, Politics, Polyarchy, Power (social and political), Prehistory, Privatization, Pskov Republic, Public sphere, Quipu, Ralph Miliband, Rational-legal authority, Regulation, Religion, Republic, Republic of Florence, Republic of Genoa, Republic of Pisa, Republic of Ragusa, Republic of Venice, Res publica, Right to property, Robert A. Dahl, Robert Filmer, Roman law, Rule of law, Rzeczpospolita, School, Science, Separation of church and state, Singapore, Social class, Social contract, Social inequality, Social stratification, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Stateless society, Statism, Structural functionalism, Structuralism, The Beast (Revelation), The Communist Manifesto, The Prince, Theda Skocpol, Thirteen Colonies, Thomas Hobbes, Tim Ingold, Trade, Tribe, Uncontacted peoples, United Nations, United States, University of Minnesota Press, Urban secession, Utopian socialism, Vassal, Vatican City, Vichy France, Warlord, Welfare state, Writing. Expand index (167 more) » « Shrink index
Absolute monarchy, is a form of monarchy in which one ruler has supreme authority and where that authority is not restricted by any written laws, legislature, or customs.
Advocacy groups (also known as pressure groups, lobby groups, campaign groups, interest groups, or special interest groups) use various forms of advocacy in order to influence public opinion and/or policy.
Agriculture is the cultivation of land and breeding of animals and plants to provide food, fiber, medicinal plants and other products to sustain and enhance life.
The Amazon rainforest (Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Selva Amazónica, Amazonía or usually Amazonia; Forêt amazonienne; Amazoneregenwoud), also known in English as Amazonia or the Amazon Jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest in the Amazon biome that covers most of the Amazon basin of South America.
American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Anarchy is the condition of a society, entity, group of people, or a single person that rejects hierarchy.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
The Andean civilizations were a patchwork of different cultures and peoples that developed from the Andes of Colombia southward down the Andes to northern Argentina and Chile, plus the coastal deserts of Peru and northern Chile.
Antonio Francesco Gramsci (22 January 1891 – 27 April 1937) was an Italian Marxist philosopher and politician.
Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings or any other structures.
Art is a diverse range of human activities in creating visual, auditory or performing artifacts (artworks), expressing the author's imaginative, conceptual idea, or technical skill, intended to be appreciated for their beauty or emotional power.
Athenian democracy developed around the fifth century BC in the Greek city-state (known as a polis) of Athens, comprising the city of Athens and the surrounding territory of Attica, and is often described as the first known democracy in the world.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
An autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power (social and political) is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (except perhaps for the implicit threat of a coup d'état or mass insurrection).
An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subdivision or dependent territory of a country that has a degree of self-governance, or autonomy, from an external authority.
In Marxist theory, human society consists of two parts: the base (or substructure) and superstructure.
Biopolitics is an intersectional field between biology and politics.
Biopower (or biopouvoir in French) is a term coined by French scholar, historian, and social theorist Michel Foucault.
The bourgeoisie is a polysemous French term that can mean.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states.
Bureaucracy refers to both a body of non-elective government officials and an administrative policy-making group.
Cameralism (German: Kameralismus) was a German science and technology of administration in the 18th and early 19th centuries.
In economics, capital consists of an asset that can enhance one's power to perform economically useful work.
Capitalism is an economic system based upon private ownership of the means of production and their operation for profit.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
Centralisation (British), or centralization (both British and American), is the process by which the activities of an organization, particularly those regarding planning and decision-making, become concentrated within a particular location or group, keeping all of the important decision-making powers within the head office or the centre of the organisation.
Ceuta (also;; Berber language: Sebta) is an Spanish autonomous city on the north coast of Africa, separated by 14 kilometres from Cadiz province on the Spanish mainland by the Strait of Gibraltar and sharing a 6.4 kilometre land border with M'diq-Fnideq Prefecture in the Kingdom of Morocco.
Christian anarchism is a movement in political theology that claims anarchism is inherent in Christianity and the Gospels.
"Christian Church" is an ecclesiological term generally used by Protestants to refer to the whole group of people belonging to Christianity throughout the history of Christianity.
Marcus Tullius Cicero (3 January 106 BC – 7 December 43 BC) was a Roman statesman, orator, lawyer and philosopher, who served as consul in the year 63 BC.
A city is a large human settlement.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Civil authority or civilian authority, also known as civilian government, is the practical implementation of a State, other than its military units, that enforces law and order.
Civil society is the "aggregate of non-governmental organizations and institutions that manifest interests and will of citizens".
Civilian control of the military is a doctrine in military and political science that places ultimate responsibility for a country's strategic decision-making in the hands of the civilian political leadership, rather than professional military officers.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
The mission civilisatrice (in English "civilizing mission") was a rationale for intervention or colonization, purporting to contribute to the spread of civilization, and used mostly in relation to the Westernization of indigenous peoples in the 15th - 20 th centuries.
In the history of Rome, the Latin term civitas (plural civitates), according to Cicero in the time of the late Roman Republic, was the social body of the cives, or citizens, united by law (concilium coetusque hominum jure sociati).
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The city of Athens (Ἀθῆναι, Athênai a.tʰɛ̂ː.nai̯; Modern Greek: Ἀθῆναι, Athínai) during the classical period of Ancient Greece (508–322 BC) was the major urban center of the notable polis (city-state) of the same name, located in Attica, Greece, leading the Delian League in the Peloponnesian War against Sparta and the Peloponnesian League.
Classless society refers to a society in which no one is born into a social class.
A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good.
In Marxist thought, communist society or the communist system is the type of society and economic system postulated to emerge from technological advances in the productive forces, representing the ultimate goal of the political ideology of Communism.
In anthropology and archaeology, a complex society is a social formation that is described as a formative or developed state.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
Consensus decision-making is a group decision-making process in which group members develop, and agree to support a decision in the best interest of the whole.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
Corporate statism or state corporatism is a political culture and a form of corporatism whose adherents hold that the corporate group which is the basis of society is the state.
David J. Samuels is an American political scientist.
Democracy (δημοκρατία dēmokraa thetía, literally "rule by people"), in modern usage, has three senses all for a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting.
Direct democracy or pure democracy is a form of democracy in which people decide on policy initiatives directly.
The divine right of kings, divine right, or God's mandate is a political and religious doctrine of royal and political legitimacy.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Domestication is a sustained multi-generational relationship in which one group of organisms assumes a significant degree of influence over the reproduction and care of another group to secure a more predictable supply of resources from that second group.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Economic inequality is the difference found in various measures of economic well-being among individuals in a group, among groups in a population, or among countries.
An economy (from Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the production, distribution, or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents.
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.
The estates of the realm, or three estates, were the broad orders of social hierarchy used in Christendom (Christian Europe) from the medieval period to early modern Europe.
The ethno-linguistic composition of Austria-Hungary according to the census of 31 December 1910 was as follows.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The Latin phrase extra Ecclesiam nulla salus means: "outside the Church there is no salvation".
A failed state is a political body that has disintegrated to a point where basic conditions and responsibilities of a sovereign government no longer function properly (see also fragile state and state collapse).
False consciousness is a term used by sociologists and expounded by some Marxists for the way in which material, ideological, and institutional processes in capitalist society mislead members of the proletariat and other class actors.
Every person has his/her own family.mother reproduces with husband for children.In the context of human society, a family (from familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth), affinity (by marriage or other relationship), or co-residence (as implied by the etymology of the English word "family" from Latin familia 'family servants, domestics collectively, the servants in a household,' thus also 'members of a household, the estate, property; the household, including relatives and servants,' abstract noun formed from famulus 'servant, slave ') or some combination of these.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
A federated state (which may also be referred to by various terms such as a state, a province, a canton, a land) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The Fertile Crescent (also known as the "cradle of civilization") is a crescent-shaped region where agriculture and early human civilizations like the Sumer and Ancient Egypt flourished due to inundations from the surrounding Nile, Euphrates, and Tigris rivers.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
In law, force means unlawful violence, or lawful compulsion.
The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.
For almost five centuries, the German city of Frankfurt was a city-state within two major Germanic entities.
The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Free State of Fiume was an independent free state which existed between 1920 and 1924.
Friedrich Engels (. Random House Webster's Unabridged Dictionary.;, sometimes anglicised Frederick Engels; 28 November 1820 – 5 August 1895) was a German philosopher, social scientist, journalist and businessman.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, often a state.
Hegemony (or) is the political, economic, or military predominance or control of one state over others.
Herding is the act of bringing individual animals together into a group (herd), maintaining the group, and moving the group from place to place—or any combination of those.
Historical materialism is the methodological approach of Marxist historiography that focuses on human societies and their development over time, claiming that they follow a number of observable tendencies.
The history of Hamburg begins with its foundation in the 9th century as a mission settlement to convert the Saxons.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
The history of the world is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The House of Habsburg (traditionally spelled Hapsburg in English), also called House of Austria was one of the most influential and distinguished royal houses of Europe.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
An Ideology is a collection of normative beliefs and values that an individual or group holds for other than purely epistemic reasons.
The Inca Empire (Quechua: Tawantinsuyu, "The Four Regions"), also known as the Incan Empire and the Inka Empire, was the largest empire in pre-Columbian America, and possibly the largest empire in the world in the early 16th century.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Interlocking directorate refers to the practice of members of a corporate board of directors serving on the boards of multiple corporations.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
International relations (IR) or international affairs (IA) — commonly also referred to as international studies (IS) or global studies (GS) — is the study of interconnectedness of politics, economics and law on a global level.
Jacques Ellul (January 6, 1912 – May 19, 1994) was a French philosopher, sociologist, lay theologian, and professor who was a noted Christian anarchist.
The Japanese colonial empire constituted the overseas colonies established by Imperial Japan in the Western Pacific and East Asia region from 1895.
Jürgen Habermas (born 18 June 1929) is a German sociologist and philosopher in the tradition of critical theory and pragmatism.
Jean Bodin (1530–1596) was a French jurist and political philosopher, member of the Parlement of Paris and professor of law in Toulouse.
Joe Painter FAcSS (born 1965) is a British geographer and academic.
Joel S. Migdal is the Robert F. Philip Professor of International Studies in the University of Washington's Henry M. Jackson School of International Studies.
The ius gentium or jus gentium (Latin for "law of nations") is a concept of international law within the ancient Roman legal system and Western law traditions based on or influenced by it.
Karl MarxThe name "Karl Heinrich Marx", used in various lexicons, is based on an error.
In anthropology, kinship is the web of social relationships that form an important part of the lives of all humans in all societies, although its exact meanings even within this discipline are often debated.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
In political science, legitimacy is the right and acceptance of an authority, usually a governing law or a régime.
The Leibniz Institute of European History (IEG) in Mainz, Germany, is an independent, public research institute that carries out and promotes historical research on the foundations of Europe in the early and late Modern period.
The contemporary legal systems of the world are generally based on one of four basic systems: civil law, common law, statutory law, religious law or combinations of these.
This is the List of words having different meanings in British and American English: A–L.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
London independence, sometimes shortened to Londependence, refers to a belief favouring full-fledged independence for London as a city-state separate from the United Kingdom.
Lord is an appellation for a person or deity who has authority, control, or power over others acting like a master, a chief, or a ruler.
Louis Pierre Althusser (16 October 1918 – 22 October 1990) was a French Marxist philosopher.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
Marx/Engels Collected Works (usually known as MECW) is the largest collection of translations into English of the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
Marxism is a method of socioeconomic analysis that views class relations and social conflict using a materialist interpretation of historical development and takes a dialectical view of social transformation.
Mathematical statistics is the application of mathematics to statistics, as opposed to techniques for collecting statistical data.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
Maximilian Karl Emil "Max" Weber (21 April 1864 – 14 June 1920) was a German sociologist, philosopher, jurist, and political economist.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Mesoamerica is an important historical region and cultural area in the Americas, extending from approximately central Mexico through Belize, Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, and northern Costa Rica, and within which pre-Columbian societies flourished before the Spanish colonization of the Americas in the 15th and 16th centuries.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Paul-Michel Foucault (15 October 1926 – 25 June 1984), generally known as Michel Foucault, was a French philosopher, historian of ideas, social theorist, and literary critic.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
Military organization or military organisation is the structuring of the armed forces of a state so as to offer military capability required by the national defense policy.
Modern history, the modern period or the modern era, is the linear, global, historiographical approach to the time frame after post-classical history.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
A monopoly (from Greek μόνος mónos and πωλεῖν pōleîn) exists when a specific person or enterprise is the only supplier of a particular commodity.
The monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force, also known as the monopoly on violence (Gewaltmonopol des Staates), is a core concept of modern public law, which goes back to Jean Bodin's 1576 work Les Six livres de la République and Thomas Hobbes' 1651 book Leviathan.
The Montevideo Convention on the Rights and Duties of States is a treaty signed at Montevideo, Uruguay, on December 26, 1933, during the Seventh International Conference of American States.
A monument is a type of—usually three-dimensional—structure that was explicitly created to commemorate a person or event, or which has become relevant to a social group as a part of their remembrance of historic times or cultural heritage, due to its artistic, historical, political, technical or architectural importance.
Morality (from) is the differentiation of intentions, decisions and actions between those that are distinguished as proper and those that are improper.
A multinational state is a sovereign state that comprises two or more nations.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A nation state (or nation-state), in the most specific sense, is a country where a distinct cultural or ethnic group (a "nation" or "people") inhabits a territory and have formed a state (often a sovereign state) that they predominantly govern.
Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Neo-Marxism is a broad term encompasing twentieth-century approaches that amend or extend Marxism and Marxist theory, typically by incorporating elements from other intellectual traditions such as critical theory, psychoanalysis, or existentialism (in the case of Jean-Paul Sartre).
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
The New Oxford university American Dictionary (NOAD) is a single-volume dictionary of American English compiled by American editors at the Oxford University Press.
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli (3 May 1469 – 21 June 1527) was an Italian diplomat, politician, historian, philosopher, humanist, and writer of the Renaissance period.
Nicos Poulantzas (Νίκος Πουλαντζάς; 21 September 1936 – 3 October 1979) was a Greek-French Marxist political sociologist.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
A phenomenon (Greek: φαινόμενον, phainómenon, from the verb phainein, to show, shine, appear, to be manifest or manifest itself, plural phenomena) is any thing which manifests itself.
Pierre Clastres (17 May 1934 – 29 July 1977) was a French anthropologist and ethnologist.
Classical pluralism is the view that politics and decision making are located mostly in the framework of government, but that many non-governmental groups use their resources to exert influence.
A police force is a constituted body of persons empowered by a state to enforce the law, to protect people and property, and to prevent crime and civil disorder.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Political philosophy, or political theory, is the study of topics such as politics, liberty, justice, property, rights, law, and the enforcement of laws by authority: what they are, why (or even if) they are needed, what, if anything, makes a government legitimate, what rights and freedoms it should protect and why, what form it should take and why, what the law is, and what duties citizens owe to a legitimate government, if any, and when it may be legitimately overthrown, if ever.
Politics (from Politiká, meaning "affairs of the cities") is the process of making decisions that apply to members of a group.
In Western European political science, the term polyarchy poly "many", arkhe "rule") was used by Robert Dahl to describe a form of government in which power is invested in multiple people. It takes the form of neither a dictatorship nor a democracy. This form of government was first implemented in the United States and France and was gradually adopted by many other countries (Dahl, p. 234, 1989). According to Dahl, the fundamental democratic principle is “the continuing responsiveness of the government to the preferences of its citizens, considered as political equals” with unimpaired opportunities (Dahl, 1971). A polyarchy is a state that has certain procedures that are necessary conditions for following the democratic principle. In semblance, the word polycracy describes the same form of government, although from a slightly different premise: a polycracy is a state ruled by more than one person, as opposed to a monocracy. The word is derived from Greek poly which means "many" and kratos which means "rule" or "strength.".
In social science and politics, power is the ability to influence or outright control the behaviour of people.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
Privatization (also spelled privatisation) is the purchase of all outstanding shares of a publicly traded company by private investors, or the sale of a state-owned enterprise to private investors.
Pskov, known at various times as the Principality of Pskov (Псковское княжество, Pskovskoye knyazhestvo) or the Pskov Republic (Псковская Республика, Pskovskaya Respublika), was a medieval state on the south shore of Lake Pskov.
The public sphere (German Öffentlichkeit) is an area in social life where individuals can come together to freely discuss and identify societal problems, and through that discussion influence political action.
Quipu (also spelled khipu) or talking knots, were recording devices fashioned from strings historically used by a number of cultures, particularly in the region of Andean South America.
Ralph Miliband (born Adolphe Miliband; 7 January 1924 – 21 May 1994) was a British sociologist who was known as a prominent Marxist author.
Rational-legal authority (also known as rational authority, legal authority, rational domination, legal domination, or bureaucratic authority) is a form of leadership in which the authority of an organization or a ruling regime is largely tied to legal rationality, legal legitimacy and bureaucracy.
Regulation is an abstract concept of management of complex systems according to a set of rules and trends.
Religion may be defined as a cultural system of designated behaviors and practices, world views, texts, sanctified places, prophecies, ethics, or organizations, that relates humanity to supernatural, transcendental, or spiritual elements.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
The Republic of Florence, also known as the Florentine Republic (Repubblica Fiorentina), was a medieval and early modern state that was centered on the Italian city of Florence in Tuscany.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Pisa (Repubblica di Pisa) was a de facto independent state centered on the Tuscan city of Pisa during the late 10th and 11th centuries.
The Republic of Ragusa was a maritime republic centered on the city of Dubrovnik (Ragusa in Italian, German and Latin; Raguse in French) in Dalmatia (today in southernmost Croatia) that carried that name from 1358 until 1808.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Res publica is a Latin phrase, loosely meaning 'public affair'.
The right to property or right to own property (cf. ownership) is often classified as a human right for natural persons regarding their possessions.
Robert Alan Dahl (December 17, 1915 Inwood, Iowa, U.S. – February 5, 2014 Hamden, Connecticut, U.S.) was a political theorist and Sterling Professor of Political Science at Yale University.
Sir Robert Filmer (c. 1588 – 26 May 1653) was an English political theorist who defended the divine right of kings.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
The rule of law is the "authority and influence of law in society, especially when viewed as a constraint on individual and institutional behavior; (hence) the principle whereby all members of a society (including those in government) are considered equally subject to publicly disclosed legal codes and processes".
Rzeczpospolita Polska is a traditional and official name of the Polish State – Rzeczpospolita Polska (Res Publica Poloniae, Republic of Poland).
A school is an institution designed to provide learning spaces and learning environments for the teaching of students (or "pupils") under the direction of teachers.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
The separation of church and state is a philosophic and jurisprudential concept for defining political distance in the relationship between religious organizations and the nation state.
Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a sovereign city-state and island country in Southeast Asia.
A social class is a set of subjectively defined concepts in the social sciences and political theory centered on models of social stratification in which people are grouped into a set of hierarchical social categories, the most common being the upper, middle and lower classes.
In both moral and political philosophy, the social contract is a theory or model that originated during the Age of Enlightenment.
Social inequality occurs when resources in a given society are distributed unevenly, typically through norms of allocation, that engender specific patterns along lines of socially defined categories of persons.
Social stratification is a kind of social differentiation whereby a society groups people into socioeconomic strata, based upon their occupation and income, wealth and social status, or derived power (social and political).
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
A stateless society is a society that is not governed by a state, or, especially in common American English, has no government.
In political science, statism is the belief that the state should control either economic or social policy, or both, to some degree.
Structural functionalism, or simply functionalism, is "a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability".
In sociology, anthropology, and linguistics, structuralism is the methodology that implies elements of human culture must be understood by way of their relationship to a larger, overarching system or structure.
The Beast (Θηρίον, Thērion) may refer to one of two beasts described in the Book of Revelation.
The Communist Manifesto (originally Manifesto of the Communist Party) is an 1848 political pamphlet by German philosophers Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.
The Prince (Il Principe) is a 16th-century political treatise by the Italian diplomat and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli.
Theda Skocpol (born May 4, 1947) is an American sociologist and political scientist, who is currently the Victor S. Thomas Professor of Government and Sociology at Harvard University.
The Thirteen Colonies were a group of British colonies on the east coast of North America founded in the 17th and 18th centuries that declared independence in 1776 and formed the United States of America.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Timothy Ingold, FBA, FRSE (born 1 November 1948), Who's Who 2014, A & C Black, 2014; online edn, Oxford University Press, 2014 is a British anthropologist, and Chair of Social Anthropology at the University of Aberdeen.
Trade involves the transfer of goods or services from one person or entity to another, often in exchange for money.
A tribe is viewed developmentally, economically and historically as a social group existing outside of or before the development of states.
Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with modern civilization.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.
Urban secession is a city's secession from its surrounding region, to form a new political unit.
Utopian socialism is a label used to define the first currents of modern socialist thought as exemplified by the work of Henri de Saint-Simon, Charles Fourier, Étienne Cabet and Robert Owen.
A vassal is a person regarded as having a mutual obligation to a lord or monarch, in the context of the feudal system in medieval Europe.
Vatican City (Città del Vaticano; Civitas Vaticana), officially the Vatican City State or the State of Vatican City (Stato della Città del Vaticano; Status Civitatis Vaticanae), is an independent state located within the city of Rome.
Vichy France (Régime de Vichy) is the common name of the French State (État français) headed by Marshal Philippe Pétain during World War II.
A warlord is a leader able to exercise military, economic, and political control over a subnational territory within a sovereign state due to their ability to mobilize loyal armed forces.
The welfare state is a concept of government in which the state plays a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens.
Writing is a medium of human communication that represents language and emotion with signs and symbols.
Estado, Forms of state, Modern state, Organized state, Origin of states, Origins of the State, Political society, Political state, State (politics), State apparatus, State organization, Statehood, The State, The state.