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State of matter

Index State of matter

In physics, a state of matter is one of the distinct forms in which matter can exist. [1]

168 relations: Absolute zero, Absorption (electromagnetic radiation), Albert Einstein, Amorphous solid, Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Antiferromagnetism, Aqueous solution, Atom, Baryon asymmetry, BBC News, Big Bang, Black hole, Boiling point, Bonding in solids, Bose–Einstein condensate, Brown dwarf, Caffeine, Carl Wieman, CERN, Classical element, Color–flavor locking, Condensed matter physics, Cooling curve, Copolymer, Corona, Cosmology, Covalent bond, Critical point (thermodynamics), Crystal, Crystal structure, Cubic crystal system, Curie temperature, Decaffeination, Degenerate matter, Deposition (phase transition), Dover Publications, Down quark, Electric spark, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Emission spectrum, Energy level, Eric Allin Cornell, Excited state, Fermion, Fermionic condensate, Ferrimagnetism, Ferromagnetism, Flame, Fluid, ..., Fluorescent lamp, Gas, General relativity, Geometrical frustration, Glass, Glass transition, Gluon, Gravitational singularity, Gravity, Ground state, Hadron, Hagedorn temperature, Hall effect, Helium, Helium-3, Helium-4, Hidden states of matter, Ice, Ideal gas, Invariant mass, Ion, Ionic liquid, Iron, Isotopes of lithium, JILA, John Wiley & Sons, Jupiter, Kinetic energy, Kraton (polymer), Lambda point, Lightning, Liquid, Liquid crystal, Liquid-crystal display, List of states of matter, Magnet, Magnetic domain, Magnetic field, Magnetic moment, Magnetite, Magnetization, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Matter, McGraw-Hill Education, Melting point, Mesophase, Metallic hydrogen, Metastability, Molecule, Nanometre, Nature (journal), Neon sign, Neutron, Neutron star, Nickel(II) oxide, Oil, Order and disorder, Orientational glass, Oxford University Press, Para-Azoxyanisole, Particle accelerator, Pauli exclusion principle, Phase (matter), Phase transition, Photon, Physical Review B, Physics, Planck temperature, Plasma (physics), Plasma display, Plastic crystal, Pressure, QCD matter, Quantum spin Hall effect, Quantum spin liquid, Quantum vortex, Quark, Quark–gluon plasma, Radioactive decay, Rollin film, Rubidium, Rydberg matter, Satyendra Nath Bose, Scientific American, Silicate, Solar mass, Solid, Spacetime, Spin (physics), Spin glass, Strange matter, Strange quark, String theory, Strong interaction, Strontium, Sublimation (phase transition), Superconductivity, Supercooling, Supercritical carbon dioxide, Supercritical fluid, Supercritical fluid extraction, Superfluidity, Superheating, Temperature, Temperature gradient, Thermal conductivity, Thermal equilibrium, Thermodynamic state, Titanium, Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit, Transition metal, Triple point, Universe, University of Colorado Boulder, Vapor, Vapor pressure, Viscosity, White dwarf. Expand index (118 more) »

Absolute zero

Absolute zero is the lower limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale, a state at which the enthalpy and entropy of a cooled ideal gas reach their minimum value, taken as 0.

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Absorption (electromagnetic radiation)

In physics, absorption of electromagnetic radiation is the way in which the energy of a photon is taken up by matter, typically the electrons of an atom.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Amorphous solid

In condensed matter physics and materials science, an amorphous (from the Greek a, without, morphé, shape, form) or non-crystalline solid is a solid that lacks the long-range order that is characteristic of a crystal.

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Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics

The Annual Review of Astronomy and Astrophysics is an annual peer reviewed scientific journal published by Annual Reviews.

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Antiferromagnetism

In materials that exhibit antiferromagnetism, the magnetic moments of atoms or molecules, usually related to the spins of electrons, align in a regular pattern with neighboring spins (on different sublattices) pointing in opposite directions.

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Aqueous solution

An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.

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Atom

An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.

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Baryon asymmetry

In physics, the baryon asymmetry problem, also known as the matter asymmetry problem or the matter-antimatter asymmetry problem, is the observed imbalance in baryonic matter (the type of matter experienced in everyday life) and antibaryonic matter in the observable universe.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Big Bang

The Big Bang theory is the prevailing cosmological model for the universe from the earliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale evolution.

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Black hole

A black hole is a region of spacetime exhibiting such strong gravitational effects that nothing—not even particles and electromagnetic radiation such as light—can escape from inside it.

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Boiling point

The boiling point of a substance is the temperature at which the vapor pressure of the liquid equals the pressure surrounding the liquid and the liquid changes into a vapor.

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Bonding in solids

Solids can be classified according to the nature of the bonding between their atomic or molecular components.

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Bose–Einstein condensate

A Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) is a state of matter of a dilute gas of bosons cooled to temperatures very close to absolute zero.

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Brown dwarf

Brown dwarfs are substellar objects that occupy the mass range between the heaviest gas giant planets and the lightest stars, having masses between approximately 13 to 75–80 times that of Jupiter, or approximately to about.

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Caffeine

Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class.

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Carl Wieman

Carl Edwin Wieman (born March 26, 1951) is an American physicist and educationist at Stanford University.

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CERN

The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.

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Classical element

Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.

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Color–flavor locking

Color–flavor locking (CFL) is a phenomenon that is expected to occur in ultra-high-density strange matter, a form of quark matter.

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Condensed matter physics

Condensed matter physics is the field of physics that deals with the macroscopic and microscopic physical properties of matter.

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Cooling curve

A cooling curve is a line graph that represents the change of phase of matter, typically from a gas to a solid or a liquid to a solid.

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Copolymer

When two or more different monomers unite together to polymerize, the product is called a copolymer and the process is called copolymerization.

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Corona

A corona (Latin, 'crown') is an aura of plasma that surrounds the Sun and other stars.

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Cosmology

Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.

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Covalent bond

A covalent bond, also called a molecular bond, is a chemical bond that involves the sharing of electron pairs between atoms.

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Critical point (thermodynamics)

In thermodynamics, a critical point (or critical state) is the end point of a phase equilibrium curve.

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Crystal

A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Crystal structure

In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.

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Cubic crystal system

In crystallography, the cubic (or isometric) crystal system is a crystal system where the unit cell is in the shape of a cube.

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Curie temperature

In physics and materials science, the Curie temperature (TC), or Curie point, is the temperature above which certain materials lose their permanent magnetic properties, to be replaced by induced magnetism.

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Decaffeination

Decaffeination is the removal of caffeine from coffee beans, cocoa, tea leaves, and other caffeine-containing materials.

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Degenerate matter

Degenerate matter is a highly dense state of matter in which particles must occupy high states of kinetic energy in order to satisfy the Pauli exclusion principle.

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Deposition (phase transition)

Deposition is a thermodynamic process, a phase transition in which gas transforms into solid without passing through the liquid phase.

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Dover Publications

Dover Publications, also known as Dover Books, is an American book publisher founded in 1941 by Hayward Cirker and his wife, Blanche.

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Down quark

The down quark or d quark (symbol: d) is the second-lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle, and a major constituent of matter.

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Electric spark

An electric spark is an abrupt electrical discharge that occurs when a sufficiently high electric field creates an ionized, electrically conductive channel through a normally-insulating medium, often air or other gases or gas mixtures.

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Electromagnetic radiation

In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.

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Electron

The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.

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Emission spectrum

The emission spectrum of a chemical element or chemical compound is the spectrum of frequencies of electromagnetic radiation emitted due to an atom or molecule making a transition from a high energy state to a lower energy state.

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Energy level

A quantum mechanical system or particle that is bound—that is, confined spatially—can only take on certain discrete values of energy.

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Eric Allin Cornell

Eric Allin Cornell (born December 19, 1961) is an American physicist who, along with Carl E. Wieman, was able to synthesize the first Bose–Einstein condensate in 1995.

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Excited state

In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).

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Fermion

In particle physics, a fermion is a particle that follows Fermi–Dirac statistics.

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Fermionic condensate

A fermionic condensate is a superfluid phase formed by fermionic particles at low temperatures.

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Ferrimagnetism

In physics, a ferrimagnetic material is one that has populations of atoms with opposing magnetic moments, as in antiferromagnetism; however, in ferrimagnetic materials, the opposing moments are unequal and a spontaneous magnetization remains.

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Ferromagnetism

Ferromagnetism is the basic mechanism by which certain materials (such as iron) form permanent magnets, or are attracted to magnets.

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Flame

A flame (from Latin flamma) is the visible, gaseous part of a fire.

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Fluid

In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.

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Fluorescent lamp

A fluorescent lamp, or fluorescent tube, is a low-pressure mercury-vapor gas-discharge lamp that uses fluorescence to produce visible light.

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Gas

Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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Geometrical frustration

In condensed matter physics, the term geometrical frustration (or in short: frustration) refers to a phenomenon, where atoms tend to stick to non-trivial positions or where, on a regular crystal lattice, conflicting inter-atomic forces (each one favoring rather simple, but different structures) lead to quite complex structures.

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Glass

Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.

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Glass transition

The glass–liquid transition, or glass transition, is the gradual and reversible transition in amorphous materials (or in amorphous regions within semicrystalline materials), from a hard and relatively brittle "glassy" state into a viscous or rubbery state as the temperature is increased.

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Gluon

A gluon is an elementary particle that acts as the exchange particle (or gauge boson) for the strong force between quarks.

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Gravitational singularity

A gravitational singularity or spacetime singularity is a location in spacetime where the gravitational field of a celestial body becomes infinite in a way that does not depend on the coordinate system.

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Ground state

The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.

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Hadron

In particle physics, a hadron (ἁδρός, hadrós, "stout, thick") is a composite particle made of quarks held together by the strong force in a similar way as molecules are held together by the electromagnetic force.

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Hagedorn temperature

The Hagedorn temperature is the temperature in theoretical physics where hadronic matter (i.e. ordinary matter) is no longer stable, and must either "evaporate" or convert into quark matter; as such, it can be thought of as the "boiling point" of hadronic matter.

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Hall effect

The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and to an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the current.

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Helium

Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.

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Helium-3

Helium-3 (He-3, also written as 3He, see also helion) is a light, non-radioactive isotope of helium with two protons and one neutron (common helium having two protons and two neutrons).

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Helium-4

Helium-4 is a non-radioactive isotope of the element helium.

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Hidden states of matter

A hidden state of matter is a state of matter which cannot be reached under ergodic conditions, and is therefore distinct from known thermodynamic phases of the material.,Stojchevska et al., Ultrafast switching to a stable hidden quantum state in an electronic crystal, Science 344, 177, (2014) Examples exist in condensed matter systems, and are typically reached by the non-ergodic conditions created through laser photo excitation.

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Ice

Ice is water frozen into a solid state.

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Ideal gas

An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.

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Invariant mass

The invariant mass, rest mass, intrinsic mass, proper mass, or in the case of bound systems simply mass, is the portion of the total mass of an object or system of objects that is independent of the overall motion of the system.

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Ion

An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).

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Ionic liquid

An ionic liquid (IL) is a salt in the liquid state.

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Iron

Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.

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Isotopes of lithium

Naturally occurring lithium (3Li) is composed of two stable isotopes, lithium-6 and lithium-7, with the latter being far more abundant: about 92.5 percent of the atoms.

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JILA

JILA, formerly known as the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics, is a physical science research institute in the United States.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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Jupiter

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.

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Kinetic energy

In physics, the kinetic energy of an object is the energy that it possesses due to its motion.

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Kraton (polymer)

Kraton is the trade name given to a number of high performance elastomers manufactured by Kraton Polymers, and used as synthetic replacements for rubber.

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Lambda point

The Lambda point is the temperature at which normal fluid helium (helium I) makes the transition to superfluid helium II (approximately 2.17 K at 1 atmosphere).

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Lightning

Lightning is a sudden electrostatic discharge that occurs typically during a thunderstorm.

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Liquid

A liquid is a nearly incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure.

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Liquid crystal

Liquid crystals (LCs) are matter in a state which has properties between those of conventional liquids and those of solid crystals.

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Liquid-crystal display

A liquid-crystal display (LCD) is a flat-panel display or other electronically modulated optical device that uses the light-modulating properties of liquid crystals.

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List of states of matter

Classically, states of matter are distinguished by changes in specific heat capacity, pressure, and temperature.

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Magnet

A magnet is a material or object that produces a magnetic field.

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Magnetic domain

A magnetic domain is a region within a magnetic material in which the magnetization is in a uniform direction.

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Magnetic field

A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.

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Magnetic moment

The magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.

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Magnetite

Magnetite is a rock mineral and one of the main iron ores, with the chemical formula Fe3O4.

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Magnetization

In classical electromagnetism, magnetization or magnetic polarization is the vector field that expresses the density of permanent or induced magnetic dipole moments in a magnetic material.

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.

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Matter

In the classical physics observed in everyday life, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by having volume.

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McGraw-Hill Education

McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.

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Melting point

The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.

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Mesophase

In physics, a mesophase is a state of matter intermediate between liquid and solid.

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Metallic hydrogen

Metallic hydrogen is a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves like an electrical conductor.

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Metastability

In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.

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Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Nanometre

The nanometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: nm) or nanometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one billionth (short scale) of a metre (m).

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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Neon sign

In the signage industry, neon signs are electric signs lighted by long luminous gas-discharge tubes that contain rarefied neon or other gases.

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Neutron

| magnetic_moment.

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Neutron star

A neutron star is the collapsed core of a large star which before collapse had a total of between 10 and 29 solar masses.

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Nickel(II) oxide

Nickel(II) oxide is the chemical compound with the formula.

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Oil

An oil is any nonpolar chemical substance that is a viscous liquid at ambient temperatures and is both hydrophobic (does not mix with water, literally "water fearing") and lipophilic (mixes with other oils, literally "fat loving").

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Order and disorder

In physics, the terms order and disorder designate the presence or absence of some symmetry or correlation in a many-particle system.

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Orientational glass

In solid-state physics, an orientational glass is a molecular solid in which crystalline long-range order coexists with quenched disorder in some rotational degree of freedom.

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Oxford University Press

Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.

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Para-Azoxyanisole

para-Azoxyanisole (PAA) is an organic, aromatic compound.

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Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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Pauli exclusion principle

The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.

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Phase (matter)

In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.

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Phase transition

The term phase transition (or phase change) is most commonly used to describe transitions between solid, liquid and gaseous states of matter, and, in rare cases, plasma.

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Photon

The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).

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Physical Review B

Physical Review B: Condensed Matter and Materials Physics (also known as PRB) is a peer-reviewed, scientific journal, published by the American Physical Society (APS).

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Physics

Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.

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Planck temperature

Planck temperature, denoted by TP, is the unit of temperature in the system of natural units known as Planck units.

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Plasma (physics)

Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.

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Plasma display

A plasma display panel (PDP) is a type of flat panel display common to large TV displays or larger.

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Plastic crystal

A plastic crystal is a crystal composed of weakly interacting molecules that possess some orientational or conformational degree of freedom.

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Pressure

Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.

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QCD matter

Quark matter or QCD matter refers to any of a number of theorized phases of matter whose degrees of freedom include quarks and gluons.

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Quantum spin Hall effect

The quantum spin Hall state is a state of matter proposed to exist in special, two-dimensional, semiconductors that have a quantized spin-Hall conductance and a vanishing charge-Hall conductance.

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Quantum spin liquid

In condensed matter physics, quantum spin liquid is a state that can be achieved in a system of interacting quantum spins.

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Quantum vortex

In physics, a quantum vortex represents a quantized flux circulation of some physical quantity.

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Quark

A quark is a type of elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter.

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Quark–gluon plasma

A quark–gluon plasma (QGP) or quark soup is a state of matter in quantum chromodynamics (QCD) which exists at extremely high temperature and/or density.

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Radioactive decay

Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.

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Rollin film

A Rollin film, named after Bernard V. Rollin, is a 30 nm-thick liquid film of helium in the helium II state.

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Rubidium

Rubidium is a chemical element with symbol Rb and atomic number 37.

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Rydberg matter

Rydberg matter is an exotic phase of matter formed by Rydberg atoms; it was predicted around 1980 by É. A. Manykin, M. I. Ozhovan and P. P. Poluéktov.

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Satyendra Nath Bose

Satyendra Nath Bose, (সত্যেন্দ্র নাথ বসু Sôtyendronath Bosu,; 1 January 1894 – 4 February 1974) was an Indian physicist specialising in theoretical physics.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Silicate

In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.

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Solar mass

The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.

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Solid

Solid is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being liquid, gas, and plasma).

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Spacetime

In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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Spin (physics)

In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.

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Spin glass

A spin glass is a disordered magnet, where the magnetic spins of the component atoms (the orientation of the north and south magnetic poles in three-dimensional space) are not aligned in a regular pattern. The term "glass" comes from an analogy between the magnetic disorder in a spin glass and the positional disorder of a conventional, chemical glass, e.g., a window glass. In window glass or any amorphous solid the atomic bond structure is highly irregular; in contrast, a crystal has a uniform pattern of atomic bonds. In ferromagnetic solid, magnetic spins all align in the same direction; this would be analogous to a crystal. The individual atomic bonds in a spin glass are a mixture of roughly equal numbers of ferromagnetic bonds (where neighbors have the same orientation) and antiferromagnetic bonds (where neighbors have exactly the opposite orientation: north and south poles are flipped 180 degrees). These patterns of aligned and misaligned atomic magnets create what are known as frustrated interactions - distortions in the geometry of atomic bonds compared to what would be seen in a regular, fully aligned solid. They may also create situations where more than one geometric arrangement of atoms is stable. Spin glasses and the complex internal structures that arise within them are termed "metastable" because they are "stuck" in stable configurations other than the lowest-energy configuration (which would be aligned and ferromagnetic). The mathematical complexity of these structures is difficult but fruitful to study experimentally or in simulations, with applications to artificial neural networks in computer science, in addition to physics, chemistry, and materials science.

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Strange matter

Strange matter is a particular form of quark matter, usually thought of as a "liquid" of up, down and strange quarks.

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Strange quark

The strange quark or s quark (from its symbol, s) is the third lightest of all quarks, a type of elementary particle.

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String theory

In physics, string theory is a theoretical framework in which the point-like particles of particle physics are replaced by one-dimensional objects called strings.

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Strong interaction

In particle physics, the strong interaction is the mechanism responsible for the strong nuclear force (also called the strong force or nuclear strong force), and is one of the four known fundamental interactions, with the others being electromagnetism, the weak interaction, and gravitation.

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Strontium

Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.

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Sublimation (phase transition)

Sublimation is the transition of a substance directly from the solid to the gas phase, without passing through the intermediate liquid phase.

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Superconductivity

Superconductivity is a phenomenon of exactly zero electrical resistance and expulsion of magnetic flux fields occurring in certain materials, called superconductors, when cooled below a characteristic critical temperature.

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Supercooling

Supercooling, also known as undercooling, is the process of lowering the temperature of a liquid or a gas below its freezing point without it becoming a solid.

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Supercritical carbon dioxide

Supercritical carbon dioxide (s) is a fluid state of carbon dioxide where it is held at or above its critical temperature and critical pressure.

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Supercritical fluid

A supercritical fluid (SCF) is any substance at a temperature and pressure above its critical point, where distinct liquid and gas phases do not exist.

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Supercritical fluid extraction

Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE) is the process of separating one component (the extractant) from another (the matrix) using supercritical fluids as the extracting solvent.

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Superfluidity

Superfluidity is the characteristic property of a fluid with zero viscosity which therefore flows without loss of kinetic energy.

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Superheating

In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.

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Temperature

Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.

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Temperature gradient

A temperature gradient is a physical quantity that describes in which direction and at what rate the temperature changes the most rapidly around a particular location.

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Thermal conductivity

Thermal conductivity (often denoted k, λ, or κ) is the property of a material to conduct heat.

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Thermal equilibrium

Two physical systems are in thermal equilibrium if there are no net flow of thermal energy between them when they are connected by a path permeable to heat.

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Thermodynamic state

For thermodynamics, a thermodynamic state of a system is its condition at a specific time, that is fully identified by values of a suitable set of parameters known as state variables, state parameters or thermodynamic variables.

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Titanium

Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.

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Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit

The Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff limit (or TOV limit) is an upper bound to the mass of cold, nonrotating neutron stars, analogous to the Chandrasekhar limit for white dwarf stars.

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Transition metal

In chemistry, the term transition metal (or transition element) has three possible meanings.

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Triple point

In thermodynamics, the triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which the three phases (gas, liquid, and solid) of that substance coexist in thermodynamic equilibrium.

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Universe

The Universe is all of space and time and their contents, including planets, stars, galaxies, and all other forms of matter and energy.

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University of Colorado Boulder

The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.

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Vapor

In physics a vapor (American) or vapour (British and Canadian) is a substance in the gas phase at a temperature lower than its critical temperature,R.

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Vapor pressure

Vapor pressure or equilibrium vapor pressure is defined as the pressure exerted by a vapor in thermodynamic equilibrium with its condensed phases (solid or liquid) at a given temperature in a closed system.

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Viscosity

The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.

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White dwarf

A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a stellar core remnant composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter.

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Aggregate state, List of phases, Physical state, Solids liquids and gases particle theory, State Of Matter, State of Matter, States of Matter, States of matter, Weakly symmetric matter.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/State_of_matter

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