312 relations: Abbas Shiblak, Ad hoc, Adoption, African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child, Agorism, Al-Kateb v Godwin, Albert Einstein, Algeria, Algerian nationality law, Almaty, American Convention on Human Rights, American Samoa, Americas, Amman, Angelina Jolie, António Guterres, Apostasy in Islam, Arab League, Arabic, Armenians, Asia-Pacific, Australia, Babylonian captivity, Bahrain, Bangkok, Bangladesh, Barbara Hendricks, BBC, Belgium, Best interests, Bhutan, Bhutanese refugees, Bidoon (social class), Birth certificate, British National (Overseas), British nationality law, British nationality law and Hong Kong, British Overseas citizen, British Overseas Territories citizen, British passport, British protected person, Brunei, Bruneian International Certificate of Identity, Brussels, Cabinet of Turkey, Cambodia, Canada, Canadian Armed Forces, Canadian Citizenship Act 1946, Carla Del Ponte, ..., Central Asia, Certificate of identity, Charles de Gaulle Airport, Chōsen-seki, Chief Executive of Hong Kong, China, Christmas Island Immigration Reception and Processing Centre, Citizenship, Citizenship in North Korea, Classical antiquity, Commonwealth Law Reports, Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness, Convention on the Rights of the Child, Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons, Costa Rica, Council of Europe, Crimea, Crimean Tatars, Customary international law, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Dakar, De facto, Declaration of the Rights of the Child, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Desmond Tutu, Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Double counting (fallacy), East Jerusalem, Eliana Rubashkyn, Empire of Japan, Enes Kanter, Espionage, Estonia, Estonian language, Ethiopia, Ethnic group, Europe, European Convention on Nationality, European Network on Statelessness, Fethullah Gülen, Foreign Affairs Manual, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, Fridtjof Nansen, Gallic Wars, Garry Davis, Gauls, Gaza Strip, Gülen movement, Geneva, George Papandreou, Germans, Germany, Giannos Kranidiotis, Greco-Roman world, Greek nationality law, Greeks, Haitians in the Dominican Republic, High Court of Australia, History of the Jews in Germany, Home Secretary, Hong Kong, Hong Kong Document of Identity for Visa Purposes, Hong Kong International Airport, Hong Kong residents, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport, Horn of Africa, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, House of Lords, Hukou system, Human Rights Law Network, Hungary, Identity document, Illegal immigration, India, Indian Citizenship Act, Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Inter-Parliamentary Union, International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, International Court of Justice, International Law Commission, International non-governmental organization, International Organization for Migration, International recognition of the State of Palestine, International Refugee Organization, Iraq, Iraq War, Ireland, Irish nationality law, Islamic views on slavery, Israel, Israelites, Ivory Coast, Japan–North Korea relations, Japanese nationality law, Joel Slater, Jordan, Juan Mari Brás, Jus sanguinis, Jus soli, Kashmir conflict, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kowloon, Kuwait, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Latvian language, League of Nations, Lebanon, LGBT, Libya, List of former United States citizens who relinquished their nationality, List of Law Reports in Australia, List of people who have lived at airports, List of Sultans of Brunei, Literacy, Lost Canadians, Lost in Transit, Louise Arbour, Madeleine Albright, Malay language, Malays (ethnic group), Malaysia, Mauritania, Mehran Karimi Nasseri, Middle East, Mike Gogulski, Minister for Foreign Affairs (Greece), Ministry of the Interior and Administrative Reconstruction, Morocco, Moscow, Multiple citizenship, Myanmar, Nairobi, Nansen International Office for Refugees, Nansen passport, National Basketball Association, Nationality law of the People's Republic of China, Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002, Naturalization, Nauru Regional Processing Centre, Nepal, New Zealand, Nobel Peace Prize, Nomad, Non-citizens (Latvia), Non-governmental organization, North Africa, North Korea, Northern Cyprus, Nuremberg Laws, Open Society Foundations, Oslo Accords, Pakistan, Palawan State University, Palestinian Authority passport, Palestinian territories, Palestinians, Palestinians in Lebanon, Palestinians in Syria, People's Republic of China Permit for Proceeding to Hong Kong and Macao, People's Union for Civil Liberties, Permanent residence (United States), Permanent residency, Philippines, Port of entry, Pretoria, Prima facie, Puerto Ricans, Puerto Rico, Qatar, Queen Elizabeth Hospital (Hong Kong), Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, Refugee, Refugee law, Refugees International, Renunciation of citizenship, Residency (domicile), Reuters, Right of abode (United Kingdom), Right of abode in Hong Kong, Rohingya people, Roman citizenship, Romani people, Romania, Rosalyn Higgins, Baroness Higgins, San José, Costa Rica, Saudi Arabia, Schengen Area, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Senegal, Sheremetyevo International Airport, Shirin Ebadi, Six-Day War, Slavery, Slovakia, South Africa, South Korea, South Korean nationality law, Southern Africa, Sovereign state, Sovereignty, Soviet Union, Special administrative regions of China, Sports Illustrated, Sri Lanka, State of Palestine, Subsidy, Succession of states, Surin Pitsuwan, Syria, Taiwan, Tajiks, Terrorism, Thailand, The Guardian, The Holocaust, The Man Without a Country, The Terminal, The Vancouver Sun, Theodoros Pangalos (politician), Thomas Jolley, Thrace, Toronto Raptors, Transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong, Transgender, Tribe (Native American), Turkey, Uncontacted peoples, Underclass, UNICEF, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Economic and Social Council, United Nations General Assembly, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, United States, United States Department of State, United States v. Wong Kim Ark, Universal Declaration of Human Rights, UNRWA, Venezuela, Voluntaryism, Württemberg, WebCite, West Africa, West Bank, Western Hemisphere, Western Sahara, World Passport, World War II, Yugoslavia, Zahra Kamalfar, Zeid Raad Al Hussein, 2016 Turkish coup d'état attempt, 20th century. Expand index (262 more) » « Shrink index
Abbas Shiblak (born 6 January 1944) is a Middle-Eastern academic, historian, Research Associate at the Refugee Studies Centre (RSC), University of Oxford (a post he has held since 1992), free-lance writer, former diplomat and an advocate of human rights.
Ad hoc is a Latin phrase meaning literally "for this".
Adoption is a process whereby a person assumes the parenting of another, usually a child, from that person's biological or legal parent or parents, and, in so doing, permanently transfers all rights and responsibilities, along with filiation, from the biological parent or parents.
The African Charter on the Rights and Welfare of the Child (also called the ACRWC or Children's Charter) was adopted by the Organisation of African Unity (OAU) in 1990 (in 2001, the OAU legally became the African Union) and was entered into force in 1999.
Agorism is a libertarian social philosophy that advocates creating a society in which all relations between people are voluntary exchanges by means of counter-economics, thus engaging with aspects of peaceful revolution.
Al-Kateb v Godwin, was a decision of the High Court of Australia, which ruled on 6 August 2004 that the indefinite detention of a stateless person was lawful.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Algeria (الجزائر, familary Algerian Arabic الدزاير; ⴷⵣⴰⵢⴻⵔ; Dzayer; Algérie), officially the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a sovereign state in North Africa on the Mediterranean coast.
The Algerian nationality law was first enacted in March 1963 after Algeria had achieved independence from France in July 1962.
Almaty (Алматы, Almaty; Алматы), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата) and Verny (Верный Vernyy), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,797,431 people, about 8% of the country's total population.
The American Convention on Human Rights, also known as the Pact of San José, is an international human rights instrument.
American Samoa (Amerika Sāmoa,; also Amelika Sāmoa or Sāmoa Amelika) is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the South Pacific Ocean, southeast of Samoa.
The Americas (also collectively called America)"America." The Oxford Companion to the English Language.
Amman (عمّان) is the capital and most populous city of Jordan, and the country's economic, political and cultural centre.
Angelina Jolie (born Angelina Jolie Voight, June 4, 1975) is an American actress, filmmaker, and humanitarian.
António Manuel de Oliveira Guterres GCC GCL (born 30 April 1949) is a Portuguese politician and diplomat who is serving as the ninth Secretary-General of the United Nations.
Apostasy in Islam (ردة or ارتداد) is commonly defined as the conscious abandonment of Islam by a Muslim in word or through deed.
The Arab League (الجامعة العربية), formally the League of Arab States (جامعة الدول العربية), is a regional organization of Arab states in and around North Africa, the Horn of Africa and Arabia.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Asia-Pacific or Asia Pacific (abbreviated as APAC, Asia-Pac, AsPac, APJ, JAPA or JAPAC) is the part of the world in or near the Western Pacific Ocean.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Babylonian captivity or Babylonian exile is the period in Jewish history during which a number of people from the ancient Kingdom of Judah were captives in Babylonia.
Bahrain (البحرين), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain (مملكة البحرين), is an Arab constitutional monarchy in the Persian Gulf.
Bangkok is the capital and most populous city of the Kingdom of Thailand.
Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ, lit. "The country of Bengal"), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh (গণপ্রজাতন্ত্রী বাংলাদেশ), is a country in South Asia.
Barbara Hendricks (born November 20, 1948) is an African-American operatic soprano and concert singer.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Best interests or best interests of the child is a child rights principle, which derives from Article 3 of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, which says that “in all actions concerning children, whether undertaken by public or private social welfare institutions, courts of law, administrative authorities or legislative bodies, the best interests of the child shall be a primary consideration”.
Bhutan, officially the Kingdom of Bhutan (Druk Gyal Khap), is a landlocked country in South Asia.
Bhutanese refugees are Lhotshampas ("southerners"), a group of Nepali language-speaking Bhutanese people, including the Kirat, Tamang, Magar, Brahman, Chhetri and Gurung peoples.
The Bidoon (بدون Bidūn originally as bidoon jinsiyya بدون جنسية, "without nationality" alternately spelt as Bidun, Bedoon, and Bedun) is a social class in countries of the Gulf Cooperation Council and Iraq.
A birth certificate is a vital record that documents the birth of a child.
British National (Overseas), commonly known as BN(O), is one of the major classes of British nationality under British nationality law.
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality.
British nationality law as it pertains to Hong Kong has been unusual ever since Hong Kong became a British colony in 1842.
In British nationality law, the status of British Overseas citizen (BOC) is one of several categories of British national.
The status of British Overseas Territories citizen (BOTC) relates to persons holding British nationality by virtue of a connection with a British Overseas Territory (BOT).
British passports are passports issued by the United Kingdom to those holding any form of British nationality.
A British protected person (BPP) is a member of a class of certain persons under the British Nationality Act 1981 associated with former protected states, protectorates, mandated and trust territories under British control.
Brunei, officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace (Negara Brunei Darussalam, Jawi), is a sovereign state located on the north coast of the island of Borneo in Southeast Asia.
The Bruneian International Certificate of Identity (ICI) is an international travel document issued by the Immigration and National Registration Department to Bruneian permanent residents who are stateless.
Brussels (Bruxelles,; Brussel), officially the Brussels-Capital Region (All text and all but one graphic show the English name as Brussels-Capital Region.) (Région de Bruxelles-Capitale, Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest), is a region of Belgium comprising 19 municipalities, including the City of Brussels, which is the de jure capital of Belgium.
The Cabinet of Turkey (Türkiye Kabinesi) or Council of Ministers (Bakanlar Kurulu) is the body that exercises supreme executive authority in Turkey.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
The Canadian Armed Forces (CAF; Forces armées canadiennes, FAC), or Canadian Forces (CF) (Forces canadiennes, FC), are the unified armed forces of Canada, as constituted by the National Defence Act, which states: "The Canadian Forces are the armed forces of Her Majesty raised by Canada and consist of one Service called the Canadian Armed Forces." This unified institution consists of sea, land, and air elements referred to as the Royal Canadian Navy (RCN), Canadian Army, and Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).
The Canadian Citizenship Act (Loi sur la citoyenneté canadienne), S.C. 1946, c. 15, is an Act of the Parliament of Canada which separated Canadian citizenship from British nationality.
Carla Del Ponte (born February 9, 1947) is a former Chief Prosecutor of two United Nations international criminal law tribunals.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
A certificate of identity, sometimes called an alien's passport, is a travel document issued by a country to non-citizens (also called aliens) residing within their borders who are stateless persons or otherwise unable to obtain a passport from their state of nationality (generally refugees).
Paris Charles de Gaulle Airport (Aéroport de Paris-Charles-de-Gaulle), also known as Roissy Airport (name of the local district), is the largest international airport in France and the second largest in Europe.
is an alternative nationality assigned to ethnic Koreans in Japan who have neither Japanese nor South Korean citizenship.
The Chief Executive of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region is the representative of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region and head of the Government of Hong Kong in China.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Christmas Island Immigration Reception and Processing Centre or commonly just Christmas Island Immigration Detention Centre, is an Australian immigration detention facility located on Christmas Island in the Indian Ocean.
Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the custom or law as being a legal member of a sovereign state or belonging to a nation.
Citizenship in North Korea is a status given to individuals recognised as North Korean by the government of the country.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
The Commonwealth Law Reports (CLR) are the authorised reports of decisions of the High Court of Australia.
The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is an international treaty adopted in 1979 by the United Nations General Assembly.
The Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness is a 1961 United Nations multilateral treaty whereby sovereign states agree to reduce the incidence of statelessness.
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (commonly abbreviated as the CRC or UNCRC) is a human rights treaty which sets out the civil, political, economic, social, health and cultural rights of children.
The Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees, also known as the 1951 Refugee Convention, is a United Nations multilateral treaty that defines who is a refugee, and sets out the rights of individuals who are granted asylum and the responsibilities of nations that grant asylum.
The Convention relating to the Status of Stateless Persons is a 1954 United Nations multilateral treaty that aims to protect stateless individuals.
Costa Rica ("Rich Coast"), officially the Republic of Costa Rica (República de Costa Rica), is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the west, the Caribbean Sea to the east, and Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island.
The Council of Europe (CoE; Conseil de l'Europe) is an international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy and the rule of law in Europe.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
Crimean Tatars or Crimeans (Crimean Tatar: Qırımtatarlar, qırımlar, Kırım Tatarları, Крымские Татары, крымцы, Кримськi Татари, кримцi) are a Turkic ethnic group that formed in the Crimean Peninsula during the 13th–17th centuries, primarily from the Turkic tribes that moved to the land now known as Crimea in Eastern Europe from the Asian steppes beginning in the 10th century, with contributions from the pre-Cuman population of Crimea.
Customary international law is an aspect of international law involving the principle of custom.
Cyprus (Κύπρος; Kıbrıs), officially the Republic of Cyprus (Κυπριακή Δημοκρατία; Kıbrıs Cumhuriyeti), is an island country in the Eastern Mediterranean and the third largest and third most populous island in the Mediterranean.
The Czech Republic (Česká republika), also known by its short-form name Czechia (Česko), is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast.
Dakar is the capital and largest city of Senegal.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Declaration of the Rights of the Child, sometimes known as the Geneva Declaration of the Rights of the Child, is an international document promoting child rights, drafted by Eglantyne Jebb and adopted by the League of Nations in 1924, and adopted in an extended form by the United Nations in 1959.
The Democratic Republic of the Congo (République démocratique du Congo), also known as DR Congo, the DRC, Congo-Kinshasa or simply the Congo, is a country located in Central Africa.
Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African Anglican cleric and theologian known for his work as an anti-apartheid and human rights activist.
The Dissolution of Czechoslovakia (Rozdělení Československa, Rozdelenie Česko-Slovenska), which took effect on 1 January 1993, was an event that saw the self-determined split of the federal state of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, entities that had arisen before as the Czech Socialist Republic and the Slovak Socialist Republic in 1969 within the framework of Czechoslovak federalisation.
The Dominican Republic (República Dominicana) is a sovereign state located in the island of Hispaniola, in the Greater Antilles archipelago of the Caribbean region.
Double counting is a fallacy in which, when counting events or occurrences in probability or in other areas, a solution counts events two or more times, resulting in an erroneous number of events or occurrences which is higher than the true result.
East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem is the sector of Jerusalem that was occupied by Jordan in 1948 and had remained out of the Israeli-held West Jerusalem at the end of the 1948–49 Arab–Israeli War and has been occupied by Israel since the 1967 Arab-Israeli War.
Eliana Rubashkyn (אליאנה רובשקין)(born 25 June 1988) is a Colombian–born, former stateless, New Zealander, known internationally for being the first birth-assigned male to female trans woman legally recognised as a woman under international law without undergoing sex reassignment surgery, although she is medically intersexual.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Enes Kanter (born May 20, 1992) is a Turkish professional basketball player for the New York Knicks of the National Basketball Association (NBA).
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia (የኢትዮጵያ ፌዴራላዊ ዲሞክራሲያዊ ሪፐብሊክ, yeʾĪtiyoṗṗya Fēdēralawī Dēmokirasīyawī Rīpebilīk), is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Convention on Nationality (E.T.S. No. 166) was signed in Strasbourg on 6 November 1997.
European Network on Statelessness (also known as ENS) is a non-governmental organisation working to eradicate statelessness in Europe.
Muhammed Fethullah Gülen Hocaefendi (– the honorific Hoca Efendi, used among followers, translates to "respected teacher"); born 27 April 1941 is a Turkish preacher, former imam,Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh, The Gülen Movement: A Sociological Analysis of a Civic Movement Rooted in Moderate Islam, p 26.
The Foreign Affairs Manual (FAM) is published by the United States Department of State and can be accessed on the Department's website.
The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.
Fridtjof Nansen (10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes.
Sol Gareth "Garry" Davis (July 27, 1921 – July 24, 2013) was an international peace activist who created the World Passport, a fantasy travel document based on his interpretation of Article 13(2), Universal Declaration of Human Rights and on the concept of world citizenship.
The Gauls were Celtic people inhabiting Gaul in the Iron Age and the Roman period (roughly from the 5th century BC to the 5th century AD).
The Gaza Strip (The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza...". قطاع غزة), or simply Gaza, is a self-governing Palestinian territory on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, that borders Egypt on the southwest for and Israel on the east and north along a border.
The Gülen movement (Gülen hareketi, in Turkish) is a transnational Islamic social movement that professes advocation of universal access to education, civil society, and peace, inspired by the religious teachings of Fethullah Gülen, a Turkish preacher who has lived in the United States since 1999.
Geneva (Genève, Genèva, Genf, Ginevra, Genevra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich) and the most populous city of the Romandy, the French-speaking part of Switzerland.
George Andreas Papandreou (Γεώργιος Ανδρέας Παπανδρέου,, shortened to Giorgos (Γιώργος); born 16 June 1952) is a Greek American politician who served as Prime Minister of Greece from 2009 to 2011.
Germans (Deutsche) are a Germanic ethnic group native to Central Europe, who share a common German ancestry, culture and history.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Giannos Kranidiotis (Greek: Γιάννος Κρανιδιώτης; September 25, 1947, Nicosia, Cyprus — September 14, 1999, Bucharest, Romania) was a Greek diplomat and politician.
The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans. It is also better known as the Classical Civilisation. In exact terms the area refers to the "Mediterranean world", the extensive tracts of land centered on the Mediterranean and Black Sea basins, the "swimming-pool and spa" of the Greeks and Romans, i.e. one wherein the cultural perceptions, ideas and sensitivities of these peoples were dominant. This process was aided by the universal adoption of Greek as the language of intellectual culture and commerce in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, and of Latin as the tongue for public management and forensic advocacy, especially in the Western Mediterranean. Though the Greek and the Latin never became the native idioms of the rural peasants who composed the great majority of the empire's population, they were the languages of the urbanites and cosmopolitan elites, and the lingua franca, even if only as corrupt or multifarious dialects to those who lived within the large territories and populations outside the Macedonian settlements and the Roman colonies. All Roman citizens of note and accomplishment regardless of their ethnic extractions, spoke and wrote in Greek and/or Latin, such as the Roman jurist and Imperial chancellor Ulpian who was of Phoenician origin, the mathematician and geographer Claudius Ptolemy who was of Greco-Egyptian origin and the famous post-Constantinian thinkers John Chrysostom and Augustine who were of Syrian and Berber origins, respectively, and the historian Josephus Flavius who was of Jewish origin and spoke and wrote in Greek.
Nationality law of Greece is based on the principle of jus sanguinis.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Haitians in the Dominican Republic (Dominico-Haitians) are citizens of ethnic Haitian descent.
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia.
Jewish settlers founded the Ashkenazi Jewish community in the Early (5th to 10th centuries CE) and High Middle Ages (circa 1000–1299 CE).
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for the Home Department, normally referred to as the Home Secretary, is a senior official as one of the Great Offices of State within Her Majesty's Government and head of the Home Office.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Document of Identity for Visa Purposes is a biometric travel document issued by the Hong Kong Immigration Department to residents of Hong Kong who are unable to obtain a national passport.
Hong Kong International Airport is the main airport in Hong Kong.
Hong Kong residents, also called Residents of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, according to the Hong Kong Basic Law include permanent residents and non-permanent residents.
The Hong Kong Special Administrative Region Passport is a passport issued only to the permanent residents of Hong Kong who also hold Chinese citizenship.
The Horn of Africa is a peninsula in East Africa that juts into the Guardafui Channel, lying along the southern side of the Gulf of Aden and the southwest Red Sea.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The House of Lords of the United Kingdom, also known as the House of Peers, is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Hukou is a system of household registration in mainland China and Taiwan, although the system itself is more properly called "huji", and has origins in ancient China.
The Human Rights Law Network (HRLN) is a collective of Indian lawyers and social activists who provide legal support to the vulnerable and disadvantaged sections of society.
Hungary (Magyarország) is a country in Central Europe that covers an area of in the Carpathian Basin, bordered by Slovakia to the north, Ukraine to the northeast, Austria to the northwest, Romania to the east, Serbia to the south, Croatia to the southwest, and Slovenia to the west.
An identity document (also called a piece of identification or ID, or colloquially as papers) is any document which may be used to prove a person's identity.
Illegal immigration is the illegal entry of a person or a group of persons across a country's border, in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country, with the intention to remain in the country, as well as people who remain living in another country when they do not have the legal right to do so.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Citizenship Act of 1924, also known as the Snyder Act, was proposed by Representative Homer P. Snyder (R) of New York and granted full U.S. citizenship to the indigenous peoples of the United States, called "Indians" in this Act.
Indian Tamils of Sri Lanka are Tamil people of Indian origin in Sri Lanka.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Inter-Parliamentary Union (IPU; Union Interparlementaire) is a global inter-parliamentary institution established in 1889 by Frédéric Passy (France) and William Randal Cremer (United Kingdom).
The International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (ICERD) is a United Nations convention.
The International Court of Justice (abbreviated ICJ; commonly referred to as the World Court) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations (UN).
The International Law Commission was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1948 for the "promotion of the progressive development of international law and its codification." It holds an annual session at the United Nations Office at Geneva.
An international non-governmental organization (INGO) has the same mission as a non-governmental organization (NGO), but it is international in scope and has outposts around the world to deal with specific issues in many countries.
The International Organization for Migration (IOM) is an intergovernmental organization that provides services and advice concerning migration to governments and migrants, including internally displaced persons, refugees, and migrant workers.
The international recognition of the State of Palestine has been the objective of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) since the Palestinian Declaration of Independence proclaimed the establishment of the State of Palestine on 15 November 1988 in Algiers, Algeria at an extraordinary session in exile of the Palestinian National Council.
The International Refugee Organization (IRO) was an intergovernmental organization founded on 20 April 1946 to deal with the massive refugee problem created by World War II.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
The Iraq WarThe conflict is also known as the War in Iraq, the Occupation of Iraq, the Second Gulf War, and Gulf War II.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Irish nationality law is contained in the provisions of the Irish Nationality and Citizenship Acts 1956 to 2004 and in the relevant provisions of the Irish Constitution.
Islamic views on slavery represent a complex and multifaceted body of Islamic thought,Brockopp, Jonathan E., “Slaves and Slavery”, in: Encyclopaedia of the Qurʾān, General Editor: Jane Dammen McAuliffe, Georgetown University, Washington DC.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Israelites (בני ישראל Bnei Yisra'el) were a confederation of Iron Age Semitic-speaking tribes of the ancient Near East, who inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods.
Ivory Coast, also known as Côte d'Ivoire and officially as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire, is a sovereign state located in West Africa.
Japan–North Korea relations (조일 관계、日朝関係) have not been formally established, but there have been diplomatic talks between the two governments to discuss the issue of kidnapped Japanese citizens and North Korea's nuclear program.
Japanese nationality is a legal designation and set of rights granted to those people who have met the criteria for citizenship by parentage or by naturalization.
Joel Laverne Slater (April 30, 1960 – March 26, 2008) was an American activist who renounced his U.S. citizenship in 1987 in Australia, voluntarily making himself stateless to protest U.S. foreign policy.
Jordan (الْأُرْدُنّ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (المملكة الأردنية الهاشمية), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia, on the East Bank of the Jordan River.
Juan Mari Brás (December 2, 1927 – September 10, 2010) was an advocate for Puerto Rican independence from the United States who founded the Puerto Rican Socialist Party (PSP).
Jus sanguinis (right of blood) is a principle of nationality law by which citizenship is not determined by place of birth but by having one or both parents who are citizens of the state.
Jus soli, meaning "right of the soil", commonly referred to as birthright citizenship, is the right of anyone born in the territory of a state to nationality or citizenship.
The Kashmir conflict is a territorial conflict primarily between India and Pakistan, having started just after the partition of India in 1947.
Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan,; kəzɐxˈstan), officially the Republic of Kazakhstan (Qazaqstan Respýblıkasy; Respublika Kazakhstan), is the world's largest landlocked country, and the ninth largest in the world, with an area of.
Kenya, officially the Republic of Kenya, is a country in Africa with its capital and largest city in Nairobi.
Kowloon is an urban area in Hong Kong comprising the Kowloon Peninsula and New Kowloon.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz Respublikasy; r; Қирғиз Республикаси.), or simply Kyrgyzstan, and also known as Kirghizia (Kyrgyzstan; r), is a sovereign state in Central Asia.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Latvian (latviešu valoda) is a Baltic language spoken in the Baltic region.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Lebanon (لبنان; Lebanese pronunciation:; Liban), officially known as the Lebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon is the most common phrase used by Lebanese government agencies.
LGBT, or GLBT, is an initialism that stands for lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
This is a list of notable former United States citizens who voluntarily relinquished their nationality.
This is a list of Law reports covering the decisions of Australian Courts.
This is a list of people notable for living for periods of more than a week in airports.
The Sultan of Brunei is the head of state and absolute monarch of Brunei.
Literacy is traditionally meant as the ability to read and write.
Lost Canadians are individuals who have believed themselves to be Canadian citizens or to be entitled to citizenship, but who are not/were not officially considered citizens due to particular and often obscure aspects or interpretations of Canadian nationality law.
Lost in Transit (original title: Tombés du ciel; literally "Fallen from the Sky") is a 1993 French film directed by Philippe Lioret.
Louise Arbour, (born February 10, 1947) is a Canadian lawyer, prosecutor and jurist.
Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (born May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Malays (Orang Melayu, Jawi: أورڠ ملايو) are an Austronesian ethnic group that predominantly inhabit the Malay Peninsula, eastern Sumatra and coastal Borneo, as well as the smaller islands which lie between these locations — areas that are collectively known as the Malay world.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mauritania (موريتانيا; Gànnaar; Soninke: Murutaane; Pulaar: Moritani; Mauritanie), officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania, is a country in the Maghreb region of Northwestern Africa.
Mehran Karimi Nasseri (مهران کریمی ناصری pronounced; born 1942), also known as Sir, Alfred Mehran, is an Iranian refugee who lived in the departure lounge of Terminal One in Charles de Gaulle Airport from 26 August 1988 until July 2006, when he was hospitalized for an unspecified ailment.
The Middle Easttranslit-std; translit; Orta Şərq; Central Kurdish: ڕۆژھەڵاتی ناوین, Rojhelatî Nawîn; Moyen-Orient; translit; translit; translit; Rojhilata Navîn; translit; Bariga Dhexe; Orta Doğu; translit is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia, Turkey (both Asian and European), and Egypt (which is mostly in North Africa).
Michael Jude Gogulski (born 8 August 1972) is a political activist and freelance translator.
The Minister for Foreign Affairs (Υπουργός Εξωτερικών) is the senior minister at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece, established on 3 April 1833.
The Ministry of the Interior and Administrative Reconstruction (Υπουργείο Εσωτερικών και Διοικητικής Ανασυγκρότησης) is a government department of Greece.
Morocco (officially known as the Kingdom of Morocco, is a unitary sovereign state located in the Maghreb region of North Africa. It is one of the native homelands of the indigenous Berber people. Geographically, Morocco is characterised by a rugged mountainous interior, large tracts of desert and a lengthy coastline along the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. Morocco has a population of over 33.8 million and an area of. Its capital is Rabat, and the largest city is Casablanca. Other major cities include Marrakesh, Tangier, Salé, Fes, Meknes and Oujda. A historically prominent regional power, Morocco has a history of independence not shared by its neighbours. Since the foundation of the first Moroccan state by Idris I in 788 AD, the country has been ruled by a series of independent dynasties, reaching its zenith under the Almoravid dynasty and Almohad dynasty, spanning parts of Iberia and northwestern Africa. The Marinid and Saadi dynasties continued the struggle against foreign domination, and Morocco remained the only North African country to avoid Ottoman occupation. The Alaouite dynasty, the current ruling dynasty, seized power in 1631. In 1912, Morocco was divided into French and Spanish protectorates, with an international zone in Tangier, and regained its independence in 1956. Moroccan culture is a blend of Berber, Arab, West African and European influences. Morocco claims the non-self-governing territory of Western Sahara, formerly Spanish Sahara, as its Southern Provinces. After Spain agreed to decolonise the territory to Morocco and Mauritania in 1975, a guerrilla war arose with local forces. Mauritania relinquished its claim in 1979, and the war lasted until a cease-fire in 1991. Morocco currently occupies two thirds of the territory, and peace processes have thus far failed to break the political deadlock. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, especially over the military, foreign policy and religious affairs. Executive power is exercised by the government, while legislative power is vested in both the government and the two chambers of parliament, the Assembly of Representatives and the Assembly of Councillors. The king can issue decrees called dahirs, which have the force of law. He can also dissolve the parliament after consulting the Prime Minister and the president of the constitutional court. Morocco's predominant religion is Islam, and the official languages are Arabic and Berber, with Berber being the native language of Morocco before the Arab conquest in the 600s AD. The Moroccan dialect of Arabic, referred to as Darija, and French are also widely spoken. Morocco is a member of the Arab League, the Union for the Mediterranean and the African Union. It has the fifth largest economy of Africa.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
Multiple citizenship, dual citizenship, multiple nationality or dual nationality, is a person's citizenship status, in which a person is concurrently regarded as a citizen of more than one state under the laws of those states.
Myanmar, officially the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and also known as Burma, is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia.
Nairobi is the capital and the largest city of Kenya.
The Nansen International Office for Refugees (Office International Nansen pour les Réfugiés) was an organization established in 1930 by the League of Nations and named after Fridtjof Nansen, soon after his death, which was internationally in charge of refugees from war areas between 1930 and 1939.
Nansen passports, originally and officially stateless persons passports, were internationally recognized refugee travel documents from 1922 to 1938, first issued by the League of Nations to stateless refugees.
The National Basketball Association (NBA) is a men's professional basketball league in North America; composed of 30 teams (29 in the United States and 1 in Canada).
The Nationality Law of the People's Republic of China regulates nationality of the People's Republic of China.
The Nationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 (c. 41) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Naturalization (or naturalisation) is the legal act or process by which a non-citizen in a country may acquire citizenship or nationality of that country.
The Nauru Regional Processing Centre is an offshore Australian immigration detention facility, located on the South Pacific island nation of Nauru.
Nepal (नेपाल), officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (सङ्घीय लोकतान्त्रिक गणतन्त्र नेपाल), is a landlocked country in South Asia located mainly in the Himalayas but also includes parts of the Indo-Gangetic Plain.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is one of the five Nobel Prizes created by the Swedish industrialist, inventor, and armaments manufacturer Alfred Nobel, along with the prizes in Chemistry, Physics, Physiology or Medicine, and Literature.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
Non-citizens (nepilsoņi) in Latvian law are individuals who are not citizens of Latvia or any other country but, who, in accordance with the Latvian law "Regarding the status of citizens of the former USSR who possess neither Latvian nor other citizenship", have the right to a non-citizen passport issued by the Latvian government as well as other specific rights.
Non-governmental organizations, nongovernmental organizations, or nongovernment organizations, commonly referred to as NGOs, are usually non-profit and sometimes international organizations independent of governments and international governmental organizations (though often funded by governments) that are active in humanitarian, educational, health care, public policy, social, human rights, environmental, and other areas to effect changes according to their objectives.
North Africa is a collective term for a group of Mediterranean countries and territories situated in the northern-most region of the African continent.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
Northern Cyprus (Kuzey Kıbrıs), officially the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC; Kuzey Kıbrıs Türk Cumhuriyeti), is a partially recognised state that comprises the northeastern portion of the island of Cyprus.
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
Open Society Foundations (OSF), formerly the Open Society Institute, is an international grantmaking network founded by business magnate George Soros.
The Oslo Accords are a set of agreements between the Government of Israel and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO): the Oslo I Accord, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993; (DOP), 13 September 1993.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Palawan State University (PSU) is a government-funded university in Puerto Princesa, Palawan, Philippines.
The Palestinian Authority Passport/Travel Document جواز سفر (Jawaz Safar) is a passport/travel document issued since April 1995 by the Palestinian Authority to Palestinian residents of the Palestinian territories for the purpose of international travel.
Palestinian territories and occupied Palestinian territories (OPT or oPt) are terms often used to describe the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and the Gaza Strip, which are occupied or otherwise under the control of Israel.
The Palestinian people (الشعب الفلسطيني, ash-sha‘b al-Filasṭīnī), also referred to as Palestinians (الفلسطينيون, al-Filasṭīniyyūn, פָלַסְטִינִים) or Palestinian Arabs (العربي الفلسطيني, al-'arabi il-filastini), are an ethnonational group comprising the modern descendants of the peoples who have lived in Palestine over the centuries, including Jews and Samaritans, and who today are largely culturally and linguistically Arab.
Palestinians in Lebanon include the Palestinian refugees, who fled to Lebanon during the 1948 Palestine war and their descendants, the Palestinian militias which resided in Lebanon in the 1970s and 1980s and Palestinian nationals who have recently moved to Lebanon.
Palestinians in Syria (الفلسطينيون في سوريا) are people of Palestinian origin, most of whom have been residing in Syria after they were expelled and displaced from their homeland during the 1948 Palestinian exodus.
A People's Republic of China Permit for Proceeding to Hong Kong and Macao or One-way Permit is a document issued by the People's Republic of China allowing residents of mainland China to leave the mainland permanently to settle in Hong Kong or Macau.
People's Union for Civil Liberties (PUCL) is a human rights body formed in India in 1976 by socialist leader Jayaprakash Narayan, as the People's Union for Civil Liberties and Democratic Rights (PUCLDR).
United States lawful permanent residency, informally known as having a green card, is the immigration status of a person authorized to live and work in the United States of America permanently.
Permanent residency refers to a person's resident status in a country of which they are not a citizen.
The Philippines (Pilipinas or Filipinas), officially the Republic of the Philippines (Republika ng Pilipinas), is a unitary sovereign and archipelagic country in Southeast Asia.
In general, a port of entry (POE) is a place where one may lawfully enter a country.
Pretoria is a city in the northern part of Gauteng, South Africa.
Prima facie is a Latin expression meaning on its first encounter or at first sight.
Puerto Ricans (Puertorriqueños; or boricuas) are people from Puerto Rico, the inhabitants and citizens of Puerto Rico, and their descendants.
Puerto Rico (Spanish for "Rich Port"), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico (Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, "Free Associated State of Puerto Rico") and briefly called Porto Rico, is an unincorporated territory of the United States located in the northeast Caribbean Sea.
Qatar (or; قطر; local vernacular pronunciation), officially the State of Qatar (دولة قطر), is a sovereign country located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula on the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula.
Queen Elizabeth Hospital, QE or QEH in short, is one of the largest acute general hospital in Hong Kong.
Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (born 26 February 1954) is a Turkish politician serving as President of Turkey since 2014.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
Refugee law is the branch of international law which deals with the rights and protection of refugees.
Refugees International is an independent humanitarian organization that advocates for better support for displaced people (including refugees and internally displaced people) and stateless people.
Renunciation is the voluntary act of relinquishing one's citizenship or nationality.
Residency is the act of establishing or maintaining a residence in a given place.
Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.
The right of abode is a status under United Kingdom immigration law that gives an right to live in the United Kingdom.
The right of abode in Hong Kong is the right to legally reside in Hong Kong without any limit or condition of stay being imposed by the Hong Kong Immigration Department.
The Rohingya people are a stateless Indo-Aryan-speaking people who reside in Rakhine State, Myanmar (also known as Burma).
Citizenship in ancient Rome was a privileged political and legal status afforded to free individuals with respect to laws, property, and governance.→.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rosalyn C. Higgins, Baroness Higgins, DBE, QC (born 2 June 1937, London) is a former President of the International Court of Justice (ICJ).
San José (literally meaning "Saint Joseph") is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica.
Saudi Arabia, officially the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), is a sovereign Arab state in Western Asia constituting the bulk of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Schengen Area is an area comprising 26 European states that have officially abolished passport and all other types of border control at their mutual borders.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations (UNSG or just SG) is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the six principal organs of the United Nations.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
Sheremetyevo International Airport (p) is an international airport located in Molzhaninovsky District, Northern Administrative Okrug, Moscow, Russia, northwest of central Moscow.
Shirin Ebadi (Širin Ebādi; born 21 June 1947) is an Iranian lawyer, a former judge and human rights activist and founder of Defenders of Human Rights Center in Iran.
The Six-Day War (Hebrew: מלחמת ששת הימים, Milhemet Sheshet Ha Yamim; Arabic: النكسة, an-Naksah, "The Setback" or حرب ۱۹٦۷, Ḥarb 1967, "War of 1967"), also known as the June War, 1967 Arab–Israeli War, or Third Arab–Israeli War, was fought between 5 and 10 June 1967 by Israel and the neighboring states of Egypt (known at the time as the United Arab Republic), Jordan, and Syria.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slovakia (Slovensko), officially the Slovak Republic (Slovenská republika), is a landlocked country in Central Europe.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
South Korean nationality law defines who is a South Korean citizen, as well as the procedures by which one may be naturalized into South Korean citizenship or renounce it.
Southern Africa is the southernmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics, and including several countries.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
Sovereignty is the full right and power of a governing body over itself, without any interference from outside sources or bodies.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The special administrative regions (SAR) are one type of provincial-level administrative divisions of China directly under Central People's Government, which enjoys the highest degree of autonomy, and no or less interference by either Central Government or the Communist Party of China.
Sports Illustrated is an American sports magazine owned by Meredith Corporation.
Sri Lanka (Sinhala: ශ්රී ලංකා; Tamil: இலங்கை Ilaṅkai), officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is an island country in South Asia, located in the Indian Ocean to the southwest of the Bay of Bengal and to the southeast of the Arabian Sea.
Palestine (فلسطين), officially the State of Palestine (دولة فلسطين), is a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East claiming the West Bank (bordering Israel and Jordan) and Gaza Strip (bordering Israel and Egypt) with East Jerusalem as the designated capital, although its administrative center is currently located in Ramallah.
A subsidy is a form of financial aid or support extended to an economic sector (or institution, business, or individual) generally with the aim of promoting economic and social policy.
Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.
Surin Pitsuwan (สุรินทร์ พิศสุวรรณ; Surin Abdul Halim bin Ismail Pitsuwan; Yawi: سورين عبدالحاليم بن اسماعيل ڤيتسووان; 28 October 1949 – 30 November 2017) was a Thai politician.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Tajik (تاجيک: Tājīk, Тоҷик) is a general designation for a wide range of native Persian-speaking people of Iranian origin, with current traditional homelands in present-day Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Uzbekistan.
Terrorism is, in the broadest sense, the use of intentionally indiscriminate violence as a means to create terror among masses of people; or fear to achieve a financial, political, religious or ideological aim.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
"The Man Without a Country" is a short story by American writer Edward Everett Hale, first published in The Atlantic in December 1863.
The Terminal is a 2004 American comedy-drama film directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Tom Hanks and Catherine Zeta-Jones.
The Vancouver Sun is a daily newspaper first published in the Canadian province of British Columbia on 12 February 1912.
Theodoros Pangalos (Θεόδωρος Πάγκαλος, born 17 August 1938) is a Greek politician, and leading member of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement.
Thomas Glenn Jolley (January 26, 1944 – March 20, 2014) was an anti-Vietnam War protester who renounced his U.S. citizenship in Canada.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
The Toronto Raptors are a Canadian professional basketball team based in Toronto, Ontario.
The transfer of sovereignty over Hong Kong from the United Kingdom to China, referred to as "the Handover" internationally or "the Return" in Mainland China, took place on 1 July 1997.
Transgender people have a gender identity or gender expression that differs from their assigned sex.
In the United States, an Indian tribe, Native American tribe, tribal nation or similar concept is any extant or historical clan, tribe, band, nation, or other group or community of Indigenous peoples in the United States.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
Uncontacted people, also referred to as isolated people or lost tribes, are communities who live, or have lived, either by choice (people living in voluntary isolation) or by circumstance, without significant contact with modern civilization.
The underclass is the segment of the population that occupies the lowest possible position in a class hierarchy, below the core body of the working class.
The United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) is a United Nations (UN) program headquartered in New York City that provides humanitarian and developmental assistance to children and mothers in developing countries.
The United Arab Emirates (UAE; دولة الإمارات العربية المتحدة), sometimes simply called the Emirates (الإمارات), is a federal absolute monarchy sovereign state in Western Asia at the southeast end of the Arabian Peninsula on the Persian Gulf, bordering Oman to the east and Saudi Arabia to the south, as well as sharing maritime borders with Qatar to the west and Iran to the north.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC; Conseil économique et social des Nations unies, CESNU) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, responsible for coordinating the economic, social, and related work of 15 UN specialized agencies, their functional commissions and five regional commissions.
The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; Assemblée Générale AG) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations (UN), the only one in which all member nations have equal representation, and the main deliberative, policy-making and representative organ of the UN.
UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, is a United Nations programme with the mandate to protect refugees, forcibly displaced communities and stateless people, and assist in their voluntary repatriation, local integration or resettlement to a third country.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Department of State (DOS), often referred to as the State Department, is the United States federal executive department that advises the President and represents the country in international affairs and foreign policy issues.
United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898),.
The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is a historic document that was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly at its third session on 10 December 1948 as Resolution 217 at the Palais de Chaillot in Paris, France.
Created in December 1949, the United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) is a relief and human development agency which supports more than 5 million registered Palestinian refugees, and their descendants, who fled or were expelled from their homes during the 1948 Palestine war as well as those who fled or were expelled during and following the 1967 Six Day war.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Voluntaryism (. Collins English Dictionary.; sometimes voluntarism) is a philosophy which holds that all forms of human association should be voluntary, a term coined in this usage by Auberon Herbert in the 19th century, and gaining renewed use since the late 20th century, especially among libertarians.
Württemberg is a historical German territory.
WebCite is an on-demand archiving service, designed to digitally preserve scientific and educationally important material on the web by making snapshots of Internet contents as they existed at the time when a blogger, or a scholar or a Wikipedia editor cited or quoted from it.
West Africa, also called Western Africa and the West of Africa, is the westernmost region of Africa.
The West Bank (الضفة الغربية; הגדה המערבית, HaGadah HaMa'aravit) is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, the bulk of it now under Israeli control, or else under joint Israeli-Palestinian Authority control.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
Western Sahara (الصحراء الغربية, Taneẓroft Tutrimt, Spanish and French: Sahara Occidental) is a disputed territory in the Maghreb region of North Africa, partially controlled by the self-proclaimed Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic and partially Moroccan-occupied, bordered by Morocco proper to the north, Algeria to the northeast, Mauritania to the east and south, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west.
The World Passport is a fantasy travel document sold by the World Service Authority, a non-profit organization founded by Garry Davis in 1954.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija/Југославија; Jugoslavija; Југославија; Pannonian Rusyn: Югославия, transcr. Juhoslavija)Jugosllavia; Jugoszlávia; Juhoslávia; Iugoslavia; Jugoslávie; Iugoslavia; Yugoslavya; Югославия, transcr. Jugoslavija.
Zahra Kamalfar is an Iranian refugee living in Canada.
Prince Zeid bin Ra’ad Zeid al-Hussein (زيد ابن رعد حسین; born 26 January 1964) is the current United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, having taken up this post in September 2014.
On 15 July 2016, a coup d'état was attempted in Turkey against state institutions, including the government and President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan.
The 20th century was a century that began on January 1, 1901 and ended on December 31, 2000.