217 relations: Aachen, Aachen (district), Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin, Administrative divisions of East Germany, Administrative divisions of Nazi Germany, Alliance 90/The Greens, Allied-occupied Germany, Alsace-Lorraine, Amt (country subdivision), Armin Laschet, Arts centre, Austria, Austro-Prussian War, Baden-Württemberg, Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, Bavaria, Bürgerschaft of Bremen, Berlin, Bicameralism, Bodo Ramelow, Borough, Boundary delimitation, Brandenburg, Bremen, Bremen (state), Bremerhaven, Bundesautobahn 8, Bundesrat of Germany, Bundestag, Cabinet (government), Carsten Sieling, Christian Democratic Union of Germany, Christian Social Union in Bavaria, Christian Tomuschat, City-state, Coats of arms of German states, Composition of the German state parliaments, Confederation, Congress of Vienna, Constitution, County executive, Cuxhaven, Daniel Günther, David P. Currie, Düsseldorf, De facto, Deutsche Mark, Diet (assembly), Dietmar Woidke, Districts of Germany, ..., Dresden, Duchy of Nassau, East Berlin, East Germany, Elections in Germany, Electorate of Hesse, Equalization payments, Erfurt, Euro, Federal Constitutional Court, Federal republic, Federalism in Germany, Federated state, Federation, Flags of German states, Flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland during and after World War II, Franco-Prussian War, Frankfurt Documents, Free City of Frankfurt, Free City of Lübeck, Free Democratic Party (Germany), Free state (government), Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, Free State of Oldenburg, Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe, French Revolution, Friedrich Ebert Foundation, German Confederation, German Empire, German Reich, German reunification, Germany, Germersheim (district), Gleichschaltung, Grand coalition (Germany), Greater Hamburg Act, Gross domestic product, Hamburg, Hamburg Parliament, Hanover, Hanover Region, Hans Apel, Hanseatic League, Hesse, Hinterland, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Empire, House of Commons of the United Kingdom, Hugo Preuß, Industrial park, ISO 3166-2:DE, Kiel, Kingdom of Hanover, Kingdom of Prussia, Kleinstaaterei, Koblenz (region), Konrad Adenauer, Landespolizei, Landtag, Landtag of Baden-Württemberg, Landtag of Bavaria, Landtag of Brandenburg, Landtag of Hesse, Landtag of Lower Saxony, Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia, Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate, Landtag of Saarland, Landtag of Saxony-Anhalt, Landtag of Schleswig-Holstein, Landtag of the Free State of Saxony, Landtag of Thuringia, Lüchow-Dannenberg, Legislature, Lippe (district), List of administrative divisions by country, List of cities and towns in Germany, List of districts of Germany, List of German states by GRP, List of states in the Holy Roman Empire, List of states of the Weimar Republic, List of territorial entities where German is an official language, Loanword, London and Paris Conferences, Lower Saxony, Magdeburg, Mainz, Majority, Malu Dreyer, Manuela Schwesig, Markus Söder, Mecklenburg, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Meinhard Miegel, Michael Kretschmer, Michael Müller (politician), Minister-president, Munich, Municipality, Napoleonic Wars, Nazi Party, New states of Germany, North German Confederation, North Rhine-Westphalia, Oder–Neisse line, Old states of Germany, Palatinate (region), Parlamentarischer Rat, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Parliamentary republic, Peter Tschentscher, Potsdam, Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont, Province of Schleswig-Holstein, Prussia, Quorum, Referendum, Regierungsbezirk, Regierungsbezirk Montabaur, Reiner Haseloff, Republic of Baden, Rhenish Hesse, Rhine-Neckar, Rhineland, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saar Protectorate, Saar Statute referendum, 1955, Saar Treaty, Saarbrücken, Saarbrücken (district), Saarland, Saxe-Coburg, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Schwerin, Senate, South Baden, State government, Stephan Weil, Stuttgart, Suzerainty, The Left (Germany), Thuringia, Tobias Hans, Town privileges, Treaty of Versailles, Trier (region), Unicameralism, Unincorporated area, United States, Volker Bouffier, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Weimar Constitution, Weimar Republic, West Berlin, West Germany, Western European Union, Western Pomerania, Westphalia, Wiesbaden, Willy Brandt, Winfried Kretschmann, World War II, Worms, Germany. Expand index (167 more) » « Shrink index
Aachen or Bad Aachen, French and traditional English: Aix-la-Chapelle, is a spa and border city.
The district of Aachen (Städteregion Aachen) is a district in the west of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The Abgeordnetenhaus of Berlin (House of Representatives) is the state parliament (Landtag) of Berlin, Germany according to the city-state's constitution.
The administrative divisions of the German Democratic Republic (commonly referred to as East Germany) were constituted in two different forms during the country's history.
The Gaue (Singular: Gau) were the de facto administrative sub-divisions of Nazi Germany, eclipsing the de jure Länder (states) of Weimar Germany in 1934.
Alliance 90/The Greens, often simply Greens (Bündnis 90/Die Grünen or Grüne), is a green political party in Germany that was formed from the merger of the German Green Party (founded in West Germany in 1980 and merged with the East Greens in 1990) and Alliance 90 (founded during the Revolution of 1989–1990 in East Germany) in 1993.
Upon the defeat of Nazi Germany in World War II, the victorious Allies asserted their joint authority and sovereignty over 'Germany as a whole', defined as all territories of the former German Reich which lay west of the Oder–Neisse line, having declared the extinction of Nazi Germany at the death of Adolf Hitler (see 1945 Berlin Declaration).
The Imperial Territory of Alsace-Lorraine (Reichsland Elsaß-Lothringen or Elsass-Lothringen, or Alsace-Moselle) was a territory created by the German Empire in 1871, after it annexed most of Alsace and the Moselle department of Lorraine following its victory in the Franco-Prussian War.
Amt is a type of administrative division governing a group of municipalities, today only in Germany, but formerly also common in other countries of Northern Europe.
Armin Laschet (born 18 February 1961) is a German politician.
An art centre or arts center is distinct from an art gallery or art museum.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
The Austro-Prussian War or Seven Weeks' War (also known as the Unification War, the War of 1866, or the Fraternal War, in Germany as the German War, and also by a variety of other names) was a war fought in 1866 between the Austrian Empire and the Kingdom of Prussia, with each also being aided by various allies within the German Confederation.
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France.
The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
The Bremische Bürgerschaft (Parliament of Bremen) is the legislative branch of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen in Germany.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
A bicameral legislature divides the legislators into two separate assemblies, chambers, or houses.
Bodo Ramelow (born 16 February 1956 in Osterholz-Scharmbeck) is a German politician of the Left Party who has been Minister President of Thuringia since 2014.
A borough is an administrative division in various English-speaking countries.
Boundary delimitation (or simply delimitation) is the drawing of boundaries, particularly of electoral precincts, states, counties or other municipalities.
Brandenburg (Brannenborg, Lower Sorbian: Bramborska, Braniborsko) is one of the sixteen federated states of Germany.
The City Municipality of Bremen (Stadtgemeinde Bremen) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany, which belongs to the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (also called just "Bremen" for short), a federal state of Germany.
The Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen) is the smallest and least populous of Germany's 16 states.
Bremerhaven (literally "Bremen's harbour", Low German: Bremerhoben) is a city at the seaport of the Free Hanseatic City of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
is an autobahn in southern Germany that runs 497 km (309 mi) from the Luxembourg A13 motorway at Schengen via Neunkirchen, Pirmasens, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, Ulm, Augsburg and Munich to the Austrian West Autobahn near Salzburg.
The German Bundesrat (literally "Federal Council") is a legislative body that represents the sixteen Länder (federated states) of Germany at the national level.
The Bundestag ("Federal Diet") is the German federal parliament.
A cabinet is a body of high-ranking state officials, typically consisting of the top leaders of the executive branch.
Carsten Günter Erich Sieling (born 13 January 1959) is a German politician of the SPD.
The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands, CDU) is a Christian democratic and liberal-conservative political party in Germany.
The Christian Social Union in Bavaria is a Christian-democratic and conservative political party in Germany.
Christian Tomuschat (born 23 July 1936 in Stettin, Germany (now Szczecin, Poland)) is a German jurist.
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
These are the coats of arms of the states (''Länder'') of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Germany's federal system comprises 16 state parliaments (the German terms are: Landtag in large states, Bürgerschaft in Bremen and Hamburg, Abgeordnetenhaus in Berlin), each including directly elected representatives.
A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign states, united for purposes of common action often in relation to other states.
The Congress of Vienna (Wiener Kongress) also called Vienna Congress, was a meeting of ambassadors of European states chaired by Austrian statesman Klemens von Metternich, and held in Vienna from November 1814 to June 1815, though the delegates had arrived and were already negotiating by late September 1814.
A constitution is a set of fundamental principles or established precedents according to which a state or other organization is governed.
A county executive is the head of the executive branch of government in a United States county.
Cuxhaven is an independent town and seat of the Cuxhaven district, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Daniel Günther (born 24 July 1973) is a German politician of Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU).
David P. Currie (1936–2007) was the Edward H. Levi Distinguished Professor of Law at the University of Chicago, noted for his histories of the Constitution in Congress and the Supreme Court, his casebooks on federal courts and conflict of laws, and his award-winning teaching at the Law School.
Düsseldorf (Low Franconian, Ripuarian: Düsseldörp), often Dusseldorf in English sources, is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and the seventh most populous city in Germany. Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre, renowned for its fashion and trade fairs.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
The Deutsche Mark ("German mark"), abbreviated "DM" or, was the official currency of West Germany from 1948 until 1990 and later the unified Germany from 1990 until 2002.
In politics, a diet is a formal deliberative assembly.
Dietmar Woidke (born 22 October 1961) is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany.
In most German states, the primary administrative subdivision is a Landkreis ("rural district"); the exceptions are the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, where the term is simply Kreis.
Dresden (Upper and Lower Sorbian: Drježdźany, Drážďany, Drezno) is the capital city and, after Leipzig, the second-largest city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany.
The Duchy of Nassau (German: Herzogtum Nassau), or simply Nassau, was an independent state between 1806 and 1866, located in what is now the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse.
East Berlin existed from 1949 to 1990 and consisted of the Soviet sector of Berlin established in 1945.
East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; Deutsche Demokratische Republik, DDR), existed from 1949 to 1990 and covers the period when the eastern portion of Germany existed as a state that was part of the Eastern Bloc during the Cold War period.
Elections in Germany include elections to the Bundestag (Germany's federal parliament), the Landtags of the various states, and local elections.
The Electorate of Hesse (Kurfürstentum Hessen), also known as Hesse-Kassel or Kurhessen) was a state elevated by Napoleon in 1803 from the Landgraviate of Hesse-Kassel. When the Holy Roman Empire was abolished in 1806, the Prince-Elector of Hesse chose to remain an Elector, even though there was no longer an Emperor to elect. In 1807, with the Treaties of Tilsit the area was annexed to the Kingdom of Westphalia, but in 1814 the Congress of Vienna restored the electorate. The state was the only electorate within the German Confederation, consisting of several detached territories to the north of Frankfurt which survived until it was annexed by Prussia in 1866 following the Austro-Prussian War. It comprised a total land area of, and its population in 1864 was 745,063.
Equalization payments are cash payments made in some federal systems of government from the federal government to subnational governments with the objective of offsetting differences in available revenue or in the cost of providing services.
Erfurt is the capital and largest city in the state of Thuringia, central Germany.
The euro (sign: €; code: EUR) is the official currency of the European Union.
The Federal Constitutional Court (Bundesverfassungsgericht; abbreviated: BVerfG) is the supreme constitutional court for the Federal Republic of Germany, established by the constitution or Basic Law of Germany.
A federal republic is a federation of states with a republican form of government.
Federalism in Germany is made of the states of Germany and the federal government.
A federated state (which may also be referred to by various terms such as a state, a province, a canton, a land) is a territorial and constitutional community forming part of a federation.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The flags of the German states usually come in two variants: one variant (the simple striped flag) is for the use by everybody (civil flag); the other variant, showing the state arms is for government use only (state flag).
The flight and expulsion of Germans from Poland was the largest of a series of flights and expulsions of Germans in Europe during and after World War II.
The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.
Members of the Frankfurt conference Frankfurt Documents were a series of documents which were an important step on the way to the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany.
For almost five centuries, the German city of Frankfurt was a city-state within two major Germanic entities.
The Free and Hanseatic City of Lübeck was a city-state from 1226 to 1937, in what is now the German states of Schleswig-Holstein and Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
The Free Democratic Party (Freie Demokratische Partei, FDP) is a liberal and classical liberal political party in Germany.
Free state is a term that has been occasionally used in the official titles of some states.
The Free State of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (Freistaat Mecklenburg-Schwerin) was a state in the Weimar Republic that was established in 1918 following the abdication of the Grand Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin following the German Revolution.
The Free State of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Freistaat Mecklenburg-Strelitz) was a state of the Weimar Republic established in 1918 following the German Revolution which had overthrown the Grand Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
The Free State of Oldenburg (Freistaat Oldenburg) was a federated state of the Weimar Republic.
The Free State of Schaumburg-Lippe (Freistaat Schaumburg-Lippe) was created following the abdication of Prince Adolf II of Schaumburg-Lippe on 15 November 1918.
The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.
The Friedrich Ebert Foundation (German: Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung; Abbreviation: FES) is a German political foundation associated with the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD), yet independent of it.
The German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was an association of 39 German-speaking states in Central Europe, created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to coordinate the economies of separate German-speaking countries and to replace the former Holy Roman Empire, which had been dissolved in 1806.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Deutsches Reich was the official name for the German nation state from 1871 to 1945 in the German language.
The German reunification (Deutsche Wiedervereinigung) was the process in 1990 in which the German Democratic Republic (GDR, colloquially East Germany; German: Deutsche Demokratische Republik/DDR) became part of the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, colloquially West Germany; German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland/BRD) to form the reunited nation of Germany, and when Berlin reunited into a single city, as provided by its then Grundgesetz (constitution) Article 23.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
Germersheim is a district in the south-east of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany.
Gleichschaltung, or in English co-ordination, was in Nazi terminology the process of Nazification by which Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party successively established a system of totalitarian control and coordination over all aspects of German society, "from the economy and trade associations to the media, culture and education".
In modern Germany with its parliamentary system of government on federal and on state level, grand coalition (Große Koalition) describes a governing coalition of the two biggest parties in one parliament.
The Greater Hamburg Act (Groß-Hamburg-Gesetz), in full the Law Regarding Greater Hamburg and Other Territorial Readjustments (Gesetz über Groß-Hamburg und andere Gebietsbereinigungen), was passed by the government of Nazi Germany on 26 January 1937, and mandated the exchange of territories between Hamburg and the Free State of Prussia.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Hamburg (locally), Hamborg, officially the Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg, Friee un Hansestadt Hamborg),Constitution of Hamburg), is the second-largest city of Germany as well as one of the country's 16 constituent states, with a population of roughly 1.8 million people. The city lies at the core of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region which spreads across four German federal states and is home to more than five million people. The official name reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, a city-state and one of the 16 states of Germany. Before the 1871 Unification of Germany, it was a fully sovereign state. Prior to the constitutional changes in 1919 it formed a civic republic headed constitutionally by a class of hereditary grand burghers or Hanseaten. The city has repeatedly been beset by disasters such as the Great Fire of Hamburg, exceptional coastal flooding and military conflicts including World War II bombing raids. Historians remark that the city has managed to recover and emerge wealthier after each catastrophe. Situated on the river Elbe, Hamburg is home to Europe's second-largest port and a broad corporate base. In media, the major regional broadcasting firm NDR, the printing and publishing firm italic and the newspapers italic and italic are based in the city. Hamburg remains an important financial center, the seat of Germany's oldest stock exchange and the world's oldest merchant bank, Berenberg Bank. Media, commercial, logistical, and industrial firms with significant locations in the city include multinationals Airbus, italic, italic, italic, and Unilever. The city is a forum for and has specialists in world economics and international law with such consular and diplomatic missions as the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, the EU-LAC Foundation, and the UNESCO Institute for Lifelong Learning. In recent years, the city has played host to multipartite international political conferences and summits such as Europe and China and the G20. Former German Chancellor italic, who governed Germany for eight years, and Angela Merkel, German chancellor since 2005, come from Hamburg. The city is a major international and domestic tourist destination. It ranked 18th in the world for livability in 2016. The Speicherstadt and Kontorhausviertel were declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO in 2015. Hamburg is a major European science, research, and education hub, with several universities and institutions. Among its most notable cultural venues are the italic and italic concert halls. It gave birth to movements like Hamburger Schule and paved the way for bands including The Beatles. Hamburg is also known for several theatres and a variety of musical shows. St. Pauli's italic is among the best-known European entertainment districts.
The Hamburg Parliament (Hamburgische Bürgerschaft; literally the Hamburg citizenry) is the unicameral legislature of the German state of Hamburg according to the constitution of Hamburg.
Hanover or Hannover (Hannover), on the River Leine, is the capital and largest city of the German state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover).
Hanover Region (Region Hannover) is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany.
Hans Eberhard Apel (25 February 1932 – 6 September 2011) was a German politician and a member of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD).
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
Hesse or Hessia (Hessen, Hessian dialect: Hesse), officially the State of Hesse (German: Land Hessen) is a federal state (''Land'') of the Federal Republic of Germany, with just over six million inhabitants.
Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).
The Holy Roman Emperor (historically Romanorum Imperator, "Emperor of the Romans") was the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire (800-1806 AD, from Charlemagne to Francis II).
The Holy Roman Empire (Sacrum Romanum Imperium; Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic but mostly German complex of territories in central Europe that developed during the Early Middle Ages and continued until its dissolution in 1806.
The House of Commons is the lower house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Hugo Preuß (Preuss) (28 October 1860 – 9 October 1925) was a German lawyer and liberal politician.
An industrial park (also known as industrial estate, trading estate) is an area zoned and planned for the purpose of industrial development.
ISO 3166-2:DE is the entry for Germany in ISO 3166-2, part of the ISO 3166 standard published by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), which defines codes for the names of the principal subdivisions (e.g., provinces or states) of all countries coded in ISO 3166-1.
Kiel is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of 249,023 (2016).
The Kingdom of Hanover (Königreich Hannover) was established in October 1814 by the Congress of Vienna, with the restoration of George III to his Hanoverian territories after the Napoleonic era.
The Kingdom of Prussia (Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom that constituted the state of Prussia between 1701 and 1918.
Kleinstaaterei ("small-state-ery") is a German word used, often pejoratively, to denote the territorial fragmentation in Germany and neighboring regions during the Holy Roman Empire (especially after the end of the Thirty Years' War) and during the German Confederation in the first half of the 19th century.
Koblenz was one of the - at last - three Regierungsbezirke of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, located in the north-east of the state.
Konrad Hermann Joseph Adenauer (5 January 1876 – 19 April 1967) was a German statesman who served as the first Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1949 to 1963.
German police officer in Hamburg Landespolizei (State police) is the term used to refer to all police of any one of the states of Germany.
A Landtag (State Diet) is a representative assembly (parliament) in German-speaking countries with legislative authority and competence over a federated state (Land).
The Landtag of Baden-Württemberg is the state diet of the German federal state of Baden-Württemberg.
The Landtag of Bavaria (State Diet of Bavaria) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Bavaria in Germany.
The Landtag of Brandenburg (Brandenburg State Parliament) is the unicameral legislature of the state of Brandenburg in Germany.
The Landtag of Hesse (Hessischer Landtag) is the Parliament of the State of Hesse in the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Lower Saxon Landtag (Niedersächsischer Landtag) or the Parliament of Lower Saxony is the state diet of the German state of Lower Saxony.
The Landtag of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-West Pomerania) is the state diet of the German federal state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania).
The Landtag of North Rhine-Westphalia is the state parliament (Landtag) of the German federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia that convenes in the state capital of Düsseldorf, in the eastern part of the district of Hafen.
The Rhineland-Palatinate Landtag is the state diet of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate.
The Landtag of Saarland is the state diet of the German federal state of Saarland.
The Saxony-Anhalt Landtag is the state diet of the German federal state of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Schleswig-Holstein Landtag is the state parliament of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein.
The Landtag of the Free State of Saxony, also referred to as the Saxon Landtag, the Parliament of Saxony or the Saxon Parliament, is the legislative body of the German State of Saxony.
The Landtag of Thuringia is the parliament of the German federal state of Thuringia.
Lüchow-Dannenberg is a district in Lower Saxony, Germany, which is usually referred to as Hanoverian Wendland (Hannoversches Wendland) or Wendland.
A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to make laws for a political entity such as a country or city.
Lippe is a Kreis (district) in the east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
The table below indicates the types and, where known, numbers of administrative divisions used by countries and their major dependent territories.
This is a complete list of the 2,060 towns and cities in Germany (as of January 1, 2018).
Germany is divided into 401 administrative districts; these consist of 294 rural districts (German: Kreise and Landkreise), and 107 urban districts (German: Kreisfreie Städte or, in Baden-Württemberg only, Stadtkreise – cities that constitute districts in their own right).
This article is about the gross regional product (GRP) of German states in main fiscal years.
This list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire includes any territory ruled by an authority that had been granted imperial immediacy, as well as many other feudal entities such as lordship, sous-fiefs and allodial fiefs.
Upon the conclusion of World War I, Germany suffered significant territorial losses from the Treaty of Versailles.
The following is a list of the territorial entities where German is an official language.
A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.
The London and Paris Conferences were two related conferences in London and Paris in September–October 1954 to determine the status of West Germany.
Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Neddersassen) is a German state (Land) situated in northwestern Germany.
Magdeburg (Low Saxon: Meideborg) is the capital city and the second largest city of the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany.
Satellite view of Mainz (south of the Rhine) and Wiesbaden Mainz (Mogontiacum, Mayence) is the capital and largest city of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany.
A majority is the greater part, or more than half, of the total.
Maria Luise Anna "Malu" Dreyer (born 6 February 1961) is a German politician (SPD).
Manuela Schwesig (born 23 May 1974) is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party serving as the fifth Minister‐President of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern since 4 July 2017.
Markus Söder (born 5 January 1967 in Nuremberg) is a German politician and party member of the Christian Social Union (CSU).
Mecklenburg (locally, Low German: Mękel(n)borg) is a historical region in northern Germany comprising the western and larger part of the federal-state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern (often Mecklenburg-West Pomerania in English and commonly shortened to "Meck-Pomm" or even "McPom" or "M-V" in German) is a federal state in northern Germany.
Meinhard Miegel (born 23 April 1939 in Vienna) is a German political scientist.
Michael Kretschmer (born 7 May 1975) is a German CDU politician.
Michael Müller (born 9 December 1964) is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany serving as the Governing Mayor of Berlin since 11 December 2014.
A minister-president or minister president is the head of government in a number of European countries or subnational governments with a parliamentary or semi-presidential system of government where he or she presides over the council of ministers.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
A municipality is usually a single urban or administrative division having corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by national and state laws to which it is subordinate.
The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
The new federal states of Germany (die neuen Bundesländer) are the five re-established states in the former German Democratic Republic that acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany with its 10 states upon German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The North German Confederation (Norddeutscher Bund) was the German federal state which existed from July 1867 to December 1870.
North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen,, commonly shortened to NRW) is the most populous state of Germany, with a population of approximately 18 million, and the fourth largest by area.
The Oder–Neisse line (granica na Odrze i Nysie Łużyckiej, Oder-Neiße-Grenze) is the international border between Germany and Poland.
The old states of Germany (die alten Bundesländer) are the 10 states in West Germany.
The Palatinate (die Pfalz, Pfälzer dialect: Palz), historically also Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz), is a region in southwestern Germany.
The Parlamentarischer Rat (German for "Parliamentary Council") was the West German constituent assembly in Bonn that drafted and adopted the constitution of West Germany, the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany, promulgated on 23 May 1949.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).
Peter Tschentscher (born 20 January 1966 in Bremen) is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party (SPD).
Potsdam is the capital and largest city of the German federal state of Brandenburg.
The County of Waldeck (later the Principality of Waldeck and Principality of Waldeck and Pyrmont) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire and its successors from the late 12th century until 1929.
The Province of Schleswig-Holstein (Provinz Schleswig-Holstein) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1868 to 1946.
Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.
A quorum is the minimum number of members of a deliberative assembly (a body that uses parliamentary procedure, such as a legislature) necessary to conduct the business of that group.
A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is invited to vote on a particular proposal.
A German Regierungsbezirk (often abbreviated to Reg.-Bez.; administrative district) is an administrative district of one of the nation's federal states.
Montabaur was one of the five Regierungsbezirke of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany into which the newly founded state was divided until 1968.
Reiner Haseloff (born 19 February 1954 in Bülzig, Kreis Wittenberg, Bezirk Halle) is a German politician who serves as the Minister President of the federal state of Saxony-Anhalt.
The Republic of Baden (Republik Baden) was a German state that existed during the time of the Weimar Republic, formed after the abolition of the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1918.
Rhenish Hesse or Rhine-Hesse (Rheinhessen) is a region and a former government district (Regierungsbezirk) in the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, made up of those territories west of the Upper Rhine river that from 1816 were part of the Grand Duchy of Hesse and of the People's State of Hesse until 1945.
The Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region (Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar), often referred to as Rhein-Neckar-Triangle is a polycentric metropolitan region located in south western Germany, between the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main region to the North and the Stuttgart Region to the South-East.
The Rhineland (Rheinland, Rhénanie) is the name used for a loosely defined area of Western Germany along the Rhine, chiefly its middle section.
Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of the 16 states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
The Saar Protectorate (Saarprotektorat; Protectorat de Sarre) was a short-lived protectorate (1947–1956) partitioned from Germany after its defeat in World War II; it was administered by the French Fourth Republic.
A referendum on the Saar statute was held in the Saar Protectorate on 23 October 1955.
The Saar Treaty, or Treaty of Luxembourg (German: Vertrag von Luxemburg, French: accords de Luxembourg) is an agreement between West Germany and France concerning the return of the Saar Protectorate to West Germany.
Saarbrücken (Sarrebruck, Rhine Franconian: Saarbrigge) is the capital and largest city of the state of Saarland, Germany.
The Regionalverband Saarbrücken is a Kommunalverband besonderer Art, an integration of a district (Kreis) and a district-free town.
Saarland (das Saarland,; la Sarre) is one of the sixteen states (Bundesländer) of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Saxe-Coburg (Sachsen-Coburg) was a duchy held by the Ernestine branch of the Wettin dynasty in today's Bavaria, Germany.
The Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen; Swobodny stat Sakska) is a landlocked federal state of Germany, bordering the federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony Anhalt, Thuringia, and Bavaria, as well as the countries of Poland (Lower Silesian and Lubusz Voivodeships) and the Czech Republic (Karlovy Vary, Liberec, and Ústí nad Labem Regions).
Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt,, official: Land Sachsen-Anhalt) is a landlocked federal state of Germany surrounded by the federal states of Lower Saxony, Brandenburg, Saxony and Thuringia.
Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.
Schwerin (or; Mecklenburgian: Swerin; Polish: Swarzyn or Zwierzyn; Latin: Suerina) is the capital and second-largest city of the northeastern German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or chamber of a bicameral legislature or parliament.
South Baden (Südbaden), formed in December 1945 from the southern half of the former Republic of Baden, was a subdivision of the French occupation zone of post-World War II Germany.
A state government is the government of a country subdivision in a federal form of government, which shares political power with the federal or national government.
Stephan Weil (born 15 December 1958) is a German politician and the leader of the Social Democratic Party in Lower Saxony.
Stuttgart (Swabian: italics,; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of the German state of Baden-Württemberg.
Suzerainty (and) is a back-formation from the late 18th-century word suzerain, meaning upper-sovereign, derived from the French sus (meaning above) + -erain (from souverain, meaning sovereign).
The Left (Die Linke), also commonly referred to as the Left Party (die Linkspartei), is a democratic socialist political party in Germany.
The Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen) is a federal state in central Germany.
Tobias Hans (born 1 February 1978) is a German CDU politician.
Town privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
Trier was one of the three Regierungsbezirke of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, located in the west of the state.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
In law, an unincorporated area is a region of land that is not governed by a local municipal corporation; similarly an unincorporated community is a settlement that is not governed by its own local municipal corporation, but rather is administered as part of larger administrative divisions, such as a township, parish, borough, county, city, canton, state, province or country.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Volker Bouffier (born 18 December 1951 in Giessen) is a German politician of the Christian Democratic Union (CDU).
Württemberg-Baden was a state of the Federal Republic of Germany.
Württemberg-Hohenzollern (Wurtemberg-Hohenzollern) was a West German state created in 1945 as part of the French post-World War II occupation zone.
The Constitution of the German Reich (Die Verfassung des Deutschen Reichs), usually known as the Weimar Constitution (Weimarer Verfassung) was the constitution that governed Germany during the Weimar Republic era (1919–1933).
The Weimar Republic (Weimarer Republik) is an unofficial, historical designation for the German state during the years 1919 to 1933.
West Berlin (Berlin (West) or colloquially West-Berlin) was a political enclave which comprised the western part of Berlin during the years of the Cold War.
West Germany is the common English name for the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG; Bundesrepublik Deutschland, BRD) in the period between its creation on 23 May 1949 and German reunification on 3 October 1990.
The Western European Union (WEU) was the international organisation and military alliance that succeeded the Western Union (WU) after the 1954 amendment of the 1948 Treaty of Brussels.
Western Pomerania, also called Cispomerania or Hither Pomerania (Vorpommern), is the western extremity of the historic region of the duchy, later Province of Pomerania, nowadays divided between the German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern and Poland.
Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Wiesbaden is a city in central western Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse.
Willy Brandt (born Herbert Ernst Karl Frahm; 18 December 1913 – 8 October 1992) was a German statesman who was leader of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) from 1964 to 1987 and served as Chancellor of the Federal Republic of Germany (West Germany) from 1969 to 1974.
Winfried Kretschmann (born 17 May 1948) is a German politician of the Alliance '90/Greens.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Worms is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, situated on the Upper Rhine about south-southwest of Frankfurt-am-Main.
Administrative Divisions of Germany, Administrative divisions of Germany, Administrative divisions of germany, Area State, Bundesland (Germany), Federal lands of Germany, Federal state (Germany), Federal states of Germany, Flachenlander, Flaechenlaender, Flächenländer, German Länder, German federal state, German federal states, German free state, German state, German states, Laender of Germany, Land (Deutschland), Land (Germany), Lander (Germany), Lander of Germany, Lands of Germany, List of German states, List of administrative divisions of Germany, Länder of Germany, Stadtstaaten, State (Germany), State Parliaments of Germany, State of Germany, States in Germany, States of germany, Subdivisions of Germany.